1550-1558 Edward VI's Death Lady Jane Grey and Queen Mary is in 16th Century Events.
1551 Creation of Knights of the Garter
1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak
John Stow's Annales of England 1551. 15 Apr 1551. The 15. of April, the infections sweating sicknesse began at Shrewsbury, —— which ended not in the North part of England untill the ende of September. "In this space what number died, it cannot be well accompted, but certaine it is that in London in fewe daies 960. gave up the ghost: if began in London the 9. of July, and the 12. of July it was most vehement, which was so terrible, that people being in best health, were sodainly taken, and dead in foure and twenty houres, and twelve, or lesse, for lacke of skill in guiding them in their sweat. And it is to be noted, that this mortalitie fell chiefely or rather on men, and those also of the best age, as betweene thirty and forty yeares, fewe women, nor children, nor olde men died thereof. Sleeping in the beginning was present death, for tf they were suffered to sleepe but half a quarter of an houre, they never spake after, nor had any knowledge, but when they wakened fell into panges of death. This was a terrible time in London, for many one lost sodainly his friends, by the sweat, and their money by the proclamation. Seaven honest householders did sup together, and before eight of the clocke in the next morning, for them were dead: they that were taken with full stomacks escaped hardly . This sickenesse followed English men as well within the realme, as in strange countries: wherefore this nation was much afeard of it, and for the time began to repent and remember God but as the disease relented, the devotion deceased. The first weeke died in London 800 persons.
1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak
Diary of Henry Machyn July 1551. 07 Jul 1551. The vij day of July begane a nuw swet in London, and ... ded my lord Crumwell (31) in Leseter-shyre, and was bered [with a stand] ard, a baner of armes, and cote, elmett, sword, targett, and sc [ochyons, and] harold; and the sam tyme ded my lord Powes (48), and the x day [at W]ollwyche, sir John Lutterell (32), knyght, a nobull captayne.1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak
Diary of Henry Machyn July 1551. 08 Jul 1551. The viij day of July was a plage, and a proclamasyon that [a testern shou]ld be but ixd, and a grot iijd; and anodur proclamasyon cam [out the] xviij day of August, that testerns cryd at vjd a pese; a grot [at ijd]; ijd but jd; and a jd ob.; and a alpeny a fardyng.1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak
Diary of Edward VI 1551. 10 Jul 1551. At this time cam the sweat into London, wich was more vehement then the old sweat. For if one toke cold he died within 3 houres, and if he skaped it held him but 9 houres, or 10 at the most. Also if he slept the first 6 houres, as he should be very desirous to doe, then he raved, and should die raving.1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak
Diary of Edward VI 1551. 11 Jul 1551. It grue so much, for in London the 10 day ther died 70 in the liberties, and this day 120, and also one of my gentlemen, another of my gromes, fell sike and died, that I removed to Ampton court with very few with me. [The epidemic called the sweating sickness, which remains a mystery today, had visited England before but this was the last major outbreak to occur, and thereafter vanished.]1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak
On 14 Jul 1551 Henry Brandon 2nd Duke Suffolk 1535-1551 (15) died of sweating sickness in the Bishop of Lincoln's Palace Buckden. Henry's brother Charles Brandon 3rd Duke Suffolk 1537-1551 (14) succeeded 3rd Duke Suffolk 2C 1514 although he too died an hour later. On 14 Jul 1551 Charles Brandon 3rd Duke Suffolk 1537-1551 (14) died of sweating sickness.
Diary of Henry Machyn July 1551. 16 Jul 1551. The xvj day of July ded of the swet the ij yonge dukes of Suffoke [Note. Henry Brandon 2nd Duke Suffolk 1535-1551 (15) and Charles Brandon 3rd Duke Suffolk 1537-1551 (14)] of the swet, boyth in one bed in Chambryge-shyre; and [buried] at (blank in MS.); and ther ded from the viij day of July unto the xix ded of the swett in London of all dyssesus, viijc. iijxx. and xij. and no more in alle, and so the chanseller is serteffyd.
Edward VI's 14th Birthday
Diary of Henry Machyn October 1551. 11 Oct 1551. The xj day of October wher creatyd [at Hampton] curtte my lord marqwes Dorsett duke of Suffolk (34); the yerle of Warwyke duke of Northumburland (47); [the earl] of Wyllshere (68) created the marqwes of Wyncha[ster; sir] Wylliam Harbard (50) made lord of Cardyff, and after the yerle of Penbroke; and knyghtes mad the sam time, sir William Syssyll (31), secretery, knyght, and M. Hare Nevylle knyght, [sir William] Sydney knyght, and M. Cheke, the kynges scollmaster.Edward VI's 14th Birthday
John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (47), leader of the Council, was created 1st Duke Northumberland 1C 1551. Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland 1509-1555 (42) by marriage Duchess Northumberland. His son Henry Dudley 1517-1568 (34) was knighted.
Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (34) was created 1st Duke Suffolk 3C 1551 for having married King Edward VI's (13) first cousin Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk 1517-1559 (34). Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk 1517-1559 (34) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.
Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (51), the King's (13) uncle attended.
Henry Dudley 1517-1568 (34) was knighted at Hampton Court Palace.
Arrest of the Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn October 1551. 15 Oct 1551. The xv day of October was had to the Towre the duke of Somersett (51) and and the lord Gray (42).Arrest of the Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn October 1551. 16 Oct 1551. The xvj day of October was had to the Towre the duches of Somersett (54) and Sir Raff a Vane and Sir John Thyn (36), [as also] Sir Thomas Holcroft (46), Sir Michael Stanhope (44), Mr. Hammond, Mr. John Seimour (24), Mr. Walley, Mr. Nudigate, Mr. Banister, Mr. Brayne, Mr. Crane and his wife, Sir Myles Parterege, and Sir Thomas Arundell (49) and Lady (36).Arrest of the Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
On 16 Oct 1551 the King's (14) uncle Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (51) was arrested for having conspired to commit murder at the banquet. He was acquitted of treason, but convicted of felony for raising a contingent of armed men without a licence. He was executed three months later.
Diary of Henry Machyn October 1551. 21 Oct 1551. The xxj day of October was cared [to the Tower] my lord Pagett (45) by the gard—the v yer K. [E. vjt.]
Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 01 Dec 1551. Item the furst day of day of December was browte the deuke of Somersett (51) owte of the towre by watter at v. a clocke in the mornynge, and j. or ij. drownyd by the waye in the Tems betweene the tower and Westmester; and there he (was) araynyd before the cowncell, and so pletyd for hym selfe that he was qwytt for the treson, and corny tted unto the tower of London agayne.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Edward VI 1551. 01 Dec 1551. The duke of Somerset (51) cam to his triall at Westmyster halle. [The record mentions three indictments: 1) that he had designed to have seized the King’s person, and to have governed all affairs; 2) that he, with one hundred others, intended to have imprisoned the earl of Warwick, afterwards duke of Northumberland; and 3) that he had designed to have raised an insurrection in the city of London.]Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
He answered he did not entend to raise London, [...] His assembling of men was but for his owne defence. He did not determin to kill the duke of Northumberland (47), the marquis (39), etc., but spake of it and determined after the contrary; and yet seamid to confess he went about there death. The lordis went togither. The duke of Northumberland (47) wold not agree that any searching of his death shuld bee treason. So the lordis acquited him of high treason, and condemned him of treason feloniouse, and so he was adjuged to be hangid. He gave thankis to the lordis for there open trial, and cried mercy of the duke of Northumberland (47), the marquis of Northampton (39), and th’erle of Penbroke (50) for his ill meaning against them, and made suet for his life, wife and children, servauntes and dettes, and so departed without the ax of the Toure. The peple, knowing not the matter, shouted hauf a douzen times, so loud that frome the halle dore it was hard at Chairing crosse plainly, and rumours went that he was quitte of all.
Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 02 Dec 1551. Item the nexte day was the lorde Gray with dyvers other that ware in the tower was browte unto Westmester unto the starre chamber, and sent home agayne.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 08 Dec 1551. Item the viij. day of that monyth was a gret muster at Totehylle of men of armes befor the kynge (14), of dyvers lordes.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 22 Dec 1551. Item the xxij. day of the same monyth [Note. Other sources say 22 Jan 1552] was be[heddyd] at the Towre hyll before viij. a clocke Edwarde deuke of Somersett (51) [erle of Hertjforde and unkyll unto the kynges (14) grace]. And also there was a commandment thorrow London that alle howsolders with their servantes shulde kepe their howses unto it was ....Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 22 Jan 1552. Fryday, the 22 of January, 1551-, Edward Seimer (52), Duke of Somersett, was beheaded at the Tower Hill, afore ix of the clocke in the forenone, which tooke his death very patiently, but there was such a feare and disturbance amonge the people sodainely before he suffred, that some tombled downe the ditch, and some ranne toward the houses thereby and fell, that it was marveile to see and hear; but howe the cause was, God knoweth.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1552. 22 Jan 1552. The xxij of January, soon after eight of the clock in the morning, the duke of Somerset (52) was beheaded on Tower hill. There was as] grett compeny as have bene syne .. the kynges gard behynge there with ther ha[lbards, and a] M1 [Note. 1000]. mo with halbards of the prevelege of the Towre, [Ratcliffe,] Lymhowsse, Whytchapell, Sant Kateryn, and Strettford [Bow], as Hogston, Sordyche; and ther the ij shreyfs behyng th[ere present] seyng the execusyon of my lord, and ys hed to be [smitten] of, and after shortely ys body was putt in to a coffin, [and carried] in to the Towre, and ther bered in the chyrche, of [the north] syd of the qwyre of sant Peters, the wyche I beseeche [God] have mercy on ys sowlle, amen! And ther was [a sudden] rumbelyng a lytyll a-for he ded, as yt had byn [guns] shuttyng [Note. shooting] and grett horsys commyng, that a M1 [Note. 1000]. fell [to the] grond for fere, for thay that wher at the on syd [thought] no nodur butt that one was kyllyng odur, that [they fell] down to the grond on apon anodur with ther halb[ards], they thought no nodur butt that thay shuld .... sum fell in to [the] dyche of the Towre and odur plasys, ... and a C. [Note. 100] in to the Towre-dyche, and sum ran a way for [fear.]Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
John Stow's Annales of England 1552. 22 Jan 1552. The 22.0f January. Edward duke of Somerset (52) was beheaded on the tower hill. The same morning early the consables of every warde in London (according to a precept directed from the counsell to the Mayor) streightly charged every householde of the same citie not to depart any of them out of their houses before ten of the clocke of that Day, meaning thereby to restraine the great number of people, that otherwise were like to have bene at the said execution: notwithstanding by seven aclock the tower hill was covered with a great multitude, repairing from all parts of the citie, as well as out of the suburbs, and before 8 of the clocke the duke was brought to the scaffold inclosed with the kings gard, the sherifs officers, the warders of the Tower, & other with halbards: the Duke being ready to have been executed, suddenly the people were driven into a great feare, few or none knowing the cause: wherfore I thinke it good to write what I saw concerning that matter.
Thee people of a certaine hamlet, which were warned to be there by 7. of the clocke to give their attendance on the liuetenant, now came through the posterne, & perceiving the D. (52) to be alreadie on the scaffold, the foremost began to run, crying to their followes to fellow fall after, which suddennes of there men being weaponed with bils and halbards thus running, caused the people which first saw them, to thinke some power had come to have rescued the duke from execution, and therefore to crie away, away, whereupon the people ran some one way some another, many fell into the tower ditch, and they which tarried thought some pardon had been brought, some saide it thundered, some that a great rumbling was in the earth under them, some that the ground moved, but there was no such matter, more than the trampling of their feete, which made some noise.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Edward VI 1552. 22 Jan 1552. The duke of Somerset (52) had his head cat of apon Towre hill betwene eight and nine a cloke in the morning.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 27 Jan 1552. The 27 of January Sir Raphe Vane, knight, was arraigned at Westminster, and condempned for felony, and had judgment to be hanged.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1552. 27 Jan 1552. The xxvijth day of January was reynyd at Westmynster Hall ser Raff a Vane knyght of tresun, and qwyt of hytt, and cast of felony to be hangyd,—the v yer K. E. vjth.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 28 Jan 1552. The 28 of January Sir Thomas Arundell (50), knight, was arraigned at Westminster, and condempned for fellonie, and had judgment to be hanged.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1552. 28 Jan 1552. The xxviij day of January was reynyd sir Thomas Arundell (50) knyght, and so the qwest cold nott fynd ym tyll the morow after, and so he whent to the Towre agayn, and then the qwest wher shutt up tyll the morow with-owt mett or drynke, or candylle or fyre, and on the morow he cam a-gayne, and the qwest qwytt ym of tresun, and cast hym of felony to be hangyd,—the v king Edward vjth.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 05 Feb 1552. The 5 of February, Sir Myles Patriche, knight, was arraigned at Westminster and condempned for fellonie, and had judgment to be hanged.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1552. 05 Feb 1552. The v day of Feybruarii was reynyd sir Mylles Parterege knyght of tresun, and qwytt of yt, and cast of felony to be hangyd, the vjth yer of king Edward vjth.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 09 Feb 1552. The 9 of February Sir Michaell Stanope (45), knight, was arraigned at Westminster and condempned for felonie, and had judgment to be hanged.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
John Stow's Annales of England 1552. 26 Feb 1552. The 26. of February, Sir Ralph a Vane and Sir Miles Partridge were hanged on the tower hill, Sir Michael Stanhope (45) with Sir Thomas Arundel (50) were beheaded there: all which foure persons tooke on their death that thep never offended against the kings maiestie, nor against any of his counfell.Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters
On 26 Feb 1552 Miles Partridge Courtier -1552 and Ralph Fane -1552 were hanged. Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) and Michael Stanhope 1507-1552 (45) were beheaded at Tower Hill for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (48).
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1552. 26 Feb 1552. The xxvjth day of Feybruarii, the wyche was [the morrow aft]er saynt Mathuwe day, was heddyd on the Tower [hill sir] Myghell Stanhope (45) knyght, and ser Thomas Arundell (50); [and in]-contenent was hangyd the seylff sam tyme sir Raff [a Vane] knyght, and ser Mylles Parterege knyght, of the galowse besyd the .... and after ther bodys wher putt in to dyvers nuw coffens [to be be-] red and heds in to the Towre in cases and ther bered .. cent.
1552 Creation of Knights of the Garter
1553 Grey and Dudley Triple Wedding
On 25 May 1553 a triple wedding was celebrated at Durham Place Strand, the London townhouse of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49), father of Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 (18) and Katherine Dudley Countess Huntingdon 1538-1620 (15) ...
Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 (18) and Lady Jane Grey (17) were married. They were third cousins once removed. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1538-1601 (15) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (12) were married. They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
My Device for the Succession
On 15 Jun 1553 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (32) signed My Device for the Succession.
Edward Rogers Comptroller 1498-1568 (55) was present.
Death of Edward VI
06 Jul 1553. KING EDWARD (15) died at Greenwich, on the 6th July 1553, "towards night."a The event was kept perfectly secret during the next day;b but measures were taken to occupy and fortify the Tower of London.c On "the 8. of July the lord maior of London was sent for to the court then at Greenwich, to bring with him sixe aldermen, as many merchants of the staple, and as many merchant adventurers, unto whom by the Councell was secretly declared the death of king Edward, and also how hee did ordaine for the succession of the Crowne by his letters pattents, to the which they were sworne, and charged to keep it secret."d
a. Letter of the council to sir Philip Hoby (48), ambassador with the emperor, printed in Strype's Memorials, 1721, ii. 430. It was not written until the 8th of the month, and is silent regarding the successor to the throne. Mary (37), in her letter to the lords of the council, dated from Kenynghall on the 9th of July (printed in Foxe's Actes and Monuments), also states that she had learned from some advertisement that the king her brother had died on Thursday (the 6th) at night last past.
b. Northumberland's (49) intention was to keep the death of the king (15) a secret, until he should have obtained possession of the person of the lady Mary (37), who had been summoned to visit her brother, and was at no further distance from London than the royal manor of Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But there were not wanting about the court those who from attachment to Mary, or from self-interest, ventured to incur the hazard of conveying to her this momentous intelligence ; whereupon she immediately took alarm, and rode off towards the eastern coast, from which she might have escaped to the continent, had such a step become necessary. Many writers assert that it was the earl of Arundel (41) who made a private communication to her. I have not found any contemporary authority for this statement ; but sir Nicholas Throckmorton (38), in his poetical autobiography (MS. Cole, vol xl. p. 272, verses 111, 112, 113, 114), claims the credit of having been the officious person. He had been a favourite servant of king Edward ; and on his royal master's death,
" Mourning, from Greenwich I didd strayt departe
To London, to an house which bore our name.
My bretheren guessed by my heavie hearte
The King was dead, and I confess'd the same:
The hushing of his death I didd unfolde,
Their meaninge to proclaime queene Jane I tolde.
And, though I lik'd not the religion
Which all her life queene Marye hadd profest,
Yett in my mind that wicked motion
Right heires for to displace I did detest.
Causeless to proffer any injurie,
I meant it not, but sought for remedie.
Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,
How that her brother hee was dead and gone;
In post her goldsmith then from London went,
By whome the message was dispatcht anon.
Shee asked, ' If wee knewe it certainlie ? '
Whoe said, ' Sir Nicholas knew it verilie.'
The author bred the errand's greate mistrust:
Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.
Shee saide, ' If Robert had beene there shee durst
Have gag'd her life, and hazarded the happ.'
Her letters made, shee knewe not what to doe:
Shee sent them oute, butt nott subscrib'd thereto."
By "Robert" the lady Mary meant sir Robert Throckmorton, one of the four brothers.
c. See the Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 35. for 07 July 1553.
d. It appears most probable that this was the first intimation which the citizens had received of the existence of the letters patent : and that it was on this occasion that, being " sworn to them," they affixed their signatures, although the document had been previously executed on the 21st of June. No fewer than thirty-two signatures follow that of the lord mayor, but the parties were perhaps not all citizens, and from the arrangement of their names in the existing transcript (mentioned in the following note b ) it would be difficult to distinguish which were the aldermen, which the merchants of the staple, and which the merchant adventurers.
Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 06 Jul 1553. The vj day of July, as they say, dessessyd the nobull Kyng Edward the vj (15). and the vij yere of ys rayne, and sune and here to the nobull kyng Henry the viij; and he was poyssoned, as evere body says, wher now, thanke be unto God, ther be mony of the false trayturs browt to ther end, and j trust in God that mor shall folow as thay may be spyd owt.Death of Edward VI
Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen
Funeral of Mary Tudor
Arrival of Queen Mary I in London
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the Queen (37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my lade Elssabeth (19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.Arrival of Queen Mary I in London
On 03 Aug 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal entrance into London.
Strype's Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:
There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (80) was put to death by King Henry the (62); Edward Courtenay (26), son of the Marquis of Exeter (57) who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen's mother and had written in defense of King Henry's proceedings.
Funeral of King Edward VI
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 08 Aug 1553. The viij day of August was bered the nobull kyng Edward the vj (15), and vij yere of ys rayne; and at ys bere[ing was] the grettest mone mad for hym of ys deth [as ever] was hard or sene, boyth of all sorts of pepull, wepyng and lamentyng; and furst of alle whent a grett company of chylderyn in ther surples, and clarkes syngyng, and then ys father('s) bedmen, and then ij harolds, and then a standard with a dragon, and then a grett nombur of ys servants in blake, and then anodur standard with a whyt greyhond, and then after a grett nombur of ys of[ficers,] and after them comys mo harolds, and then a standard with the hed offesars of ys howse; and then harolds, Norey bare the elmett and the crest on horsbake, and then ys grett baner of armes in-brobery, and with dyvers odur baners, and then cam rydyng maister Clarensshuws with ys target, with ys garter, and ys sword, gorgyusly and ryche, and after Garter with ys cotte armur in brodery, and then mor [harolds] of armes; and then cam the charett with grett horsses trapyd with velvet to the grond, and hevere horse havyng [a man] on ys bake in blake, and ever on beyryng a banar-roll [of] dyvers kynges armes, and with schochyon(s) on ther horses, and then the charett kovered with cloth of gold, and on the [charett] lay on a pycture lyeng recheussly with a crown of gold, and a grett coler, and ys septur in ys hand, lyheng in ys robes [and the garter about his leg, and a coat in embroidery of gold; about the corps were borne four banners, a banner of the order, another of the red rose, another of queen Jane (Seymour), another of the queen's mother. After him went a goodly horse, covered with cloth of gold unto the ground, and the master of the horse, with a man of arms in armour, which] was offered, boyth the man and the horsse. [There was set up a go]odly hersse in Westmynster abbay with banar [-rolls] and pensells, and honge with velvet a-bowt.Funeral of King Edward VI
Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters
On 25 Jul 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49), John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26), Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (21), Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 (18), Andrew Dudley 1507-1559 (46), Henry Dudley 1531-1557 (22) and Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 (26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1560 (39) were imprisoned at the Tower of London for supporting Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554 (17).
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 17 Aug 1553. The xvij day of August was mad a grett skaffold in Westmynster hall agaynst the morow, for the duke of Northumberland (49) commyng to be raynyd, with odur, as the marqwes of Northamton (41) and the yerle of Warwyke (26).Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 18 Aug 1553. The xviij day of August was reynyd at Westmynster hall the marqwes of Northamton (41), and the duke (49), and th'erle of Warwyke (26), and so they wher condemnyd to be had to the place that thay cam fro, and from thens to be drane thrugh London onto Tyburne, and ther to be hangyd, and then to be cott downe, and ther bowells to be brentt, and ther heds to be sett on London bryge and odur [places.]Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters
On 18 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49) and John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26) were tried at Westminster Hall.
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 19 Aug 1553. [The xix day were arraigned at Westminster hall sir Andrew Dudley (46), sir John Gates (49), sir Harry] Gattes, ser Thomas Palmer, and cast [to be hanged and] quartered.Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters
The sam day was a gret feyre [fire] at Chelsay [beyond] Westmynster, and ther was dyvers howsses brent, [and] dyvers barnes with corne brent, to the nombur ...
On 19 Aug 1553 Andrew Dudley 1507-1559 (46) was tried at Westminster Hall.
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 21 Aug 1553. The xxj of August was, by viij of the cloke in the mornyng, on the Towre hylle a-boythe x M1. men and women for to have [seen] the execussyon of the duke of Northumberland (49), for the skaffold was mad rede, and sand and straw was browth, and all the men [that] longest to the Towre, as Hogston, Shordyche, Bow, Ratclyff, Lymhouse, Sant Kateryns, and the waters of the Towre, and the gard, and shyreyffs offesers, and evere man stand in order with ther holbardes, and lanes made, and the hangman was ther, and sodenly they wher commondyd to [depart].Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters
And the sam tym after was send for my lord mer and the aldermen and cheyffest of the craftes in London, and dyvers of the consell, and ther was sed mas a-for the Duke [and the rest] of the presonars.
On 22 Aug 1553 Thomas Palmer -1553 and John Gates 1504-1553 (49) were hanged, drawn and quartered.
Coronation of Mary I
Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 29 Sep 1553. The xxix day of September the Qwuen('s) (37) grace mad knyghts of the Bathe xv; the furst was the yerle of Devonshyre (26), the yonge yerle of Surray (17), the iijde lord of Borgane, and lord Barkley, the lord Monjoye (20), lord Sowche (27), ser Wylliam Pallet, my lord Cardyff (52), the lord Wyndsore('s) (54) sune (21), sir Ryche('s) sune, sir Clynton, ser Pagett, ser Robart Rochaster, ser Hare Jernyngham (41), ser Edward Dormer.Coronation of Mary I
Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the Qwuyen('s) (37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of Darbe (44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my lade Elisabeth (20) and my lade Anne of Cleyff (38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.Coronation of Mary I
Bishop George Day 1501-1556 (52) preached.
John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (73) bore the queen's train. Edward Dymoke 1508-1566 (45) attended as the Queen's Champion. James Blount 6th Baron Mountjoy 1533-1582 (20) and Henry Parker 12th Baron Marshal 11th Baron Morley 1533-1577 (20) were created Knight of the Bath. Thomas Hastings 1515- (38) and John Leigh 1502-1564 (51) were knighted. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (80) and Henry Neville 5th Earl Westmoreland 1525-1563 (28) attended.
Anne of Cleves (38) took part in the procession.
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 03 Feb 1544. The iij day of Feybruary cam in to Sowthwarke ser Thomas Wyatt (23) and odur captaynes at after-none with ys army; and the morow after thay mayd trenchys in dyvers parts and dyvers placys, with ordenanse.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 03 Feb 1544. The iij day of Feybruarii was a proclamacyon that who so ever do take ser Thomas Wyatt (23), exsept Harper, Ysseley (44), and Rudston (29), shuld have C. lb. land to ym and ys heirs for ever.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 06 Feb 1544. The sam day cam rydyng to the Towre the duke of Soffoke (27) and ys brodur by the yerle of Huntyngton (30) with iij C. horse.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 06 Feb 1544. The sam day was ij hangyd apon a jebett in Powles churche yerd; the on a spy of Wyatt (23), the thodur was under-shreyff of Leseter, for carryng letturs of the duke of Suffoke (27) and odur thinges.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 06 Feb 1544. The vj day of Feybruary was Shroyff-tuwysday in the mornyng master Wyatt (23) and ys compeny retorned bake towhard Kyngton apon Temes, and ther the bridge was pluckyd up, and he causyd on of ys men to swym over for to feytche a bott, and so whent at nyght toward Kensyngtun, and so forward.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 07 Feb 1544. [The vij day of February, in the forenoon, Wyatt (23), with his army and ordnance, were at Hyde Park Corner. There the Queen's host met with, with a great number of men at arms on horseback, beside foot. By one of the clock the Quen['s men and Wyatt's had a skirmish;] ther wher mony slayn; butt master Wyatt toke the way don by Sant James with a grett company and so to Charyngcrosse, and so forth, crying 'God save quen Mare!' tyll he cam to Ludgatt and [knocked there; thinking to have entered; but the gate being kept fast against him, he retired,] and bake agayne unto Tempull Bare, and folouyd hym mony man, and ther he yelded unto master Norray the harold of armes in ys cote of armes, and ther he lycted be-hynd a gentleman unto the cowrte; but by the way mony of them wher slayne by the way or thay cam to Charyng-crosse, what with mores pykes and bylls; and mony of Wyatt('s) men, as they whent, wher the quens fryndes and Englys-men under a fallss pretens that he whent a-bowtt to .... way as thay whent, and cam for to make men beleyff that the quen('s) grace had gyffvyn them pardon; and dyvers of ys men toke the quen('s) men by the hand as thay whent toward Ludgatt. Thys was done on As-Wedynsday the furst yere of quen Mare of England; and the sam nyght to the Towre ser Thomas Wyatt (23), master Cobham (47), and master Vane, and ij Knewetes and odur captaynes.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 08 Feb 1544. The viij day of Feybruarij was commondyd by the quene (27) and the bysshope of London (44) that Powlles and evere parryche that thay shuld syng Te Deum Laudamus, and ryngyng for the good vyctory that the quen('s) (27) grace had aganst Wyatt (23) and the rebellyous of Kent, the wyche wher over-come, thankes be unto God, with lytyll blud-shed, and the reseduw taken and had to presun, and after wher dyvers of them putt to deth in dyvers places in Londun and Kent, and prossessyon evere wher that day for joy.Wyatt's Rebellion
On 22 Jan 1554 the conspirators met at Allington Castle.
Henry Isley 1500-1554 (54) attended.
Around 26 Jan 1554 Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising against the marriage of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) and Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (26) led by Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554 (33) with the intention to replace them with Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (27) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20). George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (57) sided with the rebels. John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos 1492-1557 (61) suppressed the rebellion.
Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) was interrogated.
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 26 Jan 1554. The xxvj day of January began wachyng at evere gatt in arness, for tydyngs cam the sam tym to the quen and her consell that ser Thomas Wyatt (33), ser George Harper, ser Hare Ysseley (54), master Cobam, and master Rudston (39), and master Knevetts (37), and dyvers odur gentyllmen and commons, wher up, and tha say because the prynche of Spayne (26) commyng in to have owre quen (37), for they kepe Rochaster castell and the bryge and odur plases.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 27 Jan 1554. [The xxvij day of January the city sent into Kent a great number of men in white coats. The captains to command them, and the rest of their forces, were the duke of Norfolk (17), earl of Ormond (22), sir George Howard, [Possibly Hayward] and divers others. But many of the guards, and of the white-coats, deserted] them, and captaynes cam hom a-gayn. Wyatt (33) had gotten some of the late king's ordenanse; and so, after their removyng, cam towards Dartford with ys army towards London.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 28 Jan 1554. The xxviij day of January the Quen('s) (37) grace dyd send to master Wyatt (33) [and his company the] master of the horsse (33) and master Cornwales, to know their intentt; and thay send word that they wold have the Quen and the Towre in kepyng, and odur thynges.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 29 Jan 1554. The xxix day of January master Wyatt (33), master Harper, master Rudston (39), master Knevett (37), and the commons, commyng [marched to] Blake-heth, and so forward toward London with [a great] army commyng.Wyatt's Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 01 Feb 1554. The furst day of Feybruary cam nuw tydyngs that all craftes shuld fynd the dobull [number of men]; non butt hossholders unto the bryge and the gattes, and the drae-bryge, and ther lay grett gones; and the bryge was broken done after; and that evere man to make whyt cotes for evere howsse.
The sam day at after-non was a proclamasyon in Chepesyde, Ledyn-hall, and at sant Magnus corner, with harold of armes and on of the quen['s] trumpeters blohyng, and my lord mare, and my lord admerall (44) Haward, and the ij shreyffs, that ser Thomas Wyatt (33) was proclamyd traytur and rebellyous, and all ys fellowes, agaynst the Quen('s) mageste and her consell, and that he wold have the Quen in costody, and the Towre of London in kepyng; and thay convayd unto evere gatt gonnes and the bryge; and so evere gatt with men in harnes nyght and days. And a-bowt iij of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (37) grace cam rydyng from Westmynster unto yeld-hall with mony lordes, knyghts and lades, and bysshopes and haroldes of armes, and trompeturs blohynge and all the gard in harnes. [Then she declared, in an oration to the mayor and the city, and to her council, her mind concerning her marriage, that she never intended to marry out of her realm but by her council's consent and advice; and that she would never marry but all her true] sogettes [subjects] shall be content, [or else she would live] as her grace has don hederto. [But that her gr]ace wyll call a parlement [as] shortely as [may be, and] as thay shall fynd, and that [the earl of] Penbroke (53) shall be cheyffe capten and generall agaynst ser Thomas Wyatt (33) and ys felous in the [field,] that my lord admerall (44) for to be sosyatt with the [lord mayor] to kepe the cete from all commars therto. [After this] the Quen('s) grace came from yeld-hall and rod to the iij cranes in the vyntre, and toke her barge [to] Westmynster to her own place the sam day.
Battle of Hartley
On 28 Jan 1554 the Battle of Hartley was fought at Hartley Sevenoaks between a rebel force of Wyatt's Rebellion led by Henry Isley 1500-1554 (54) and a loyal royalist force led by Henry Neville 6th Baron Bergavenny 1530-1587 (24) and Robert Southwell 1506-1559 (48). The rebels were defeated. Rebel Anthony Knyvet 1517-1554 (37) fought and was captured.
Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction
Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The monday, being the xij th of Februarie, about ten of the clocke, ther went out of the Tower to the scaffolde on Tower hill, the lorde Guilforde Dudley (19), sone to the late duke of Northumberland (50), husbande to the lady Jane Grey (18), daughter to the duke of Suffolke (37), who at his going out tooke by the hande sir Anthony Browne (25), maister John Throgmorton (30), and many other gentyllmen, praying them to praie for him; and without the bullwarke Offeleya the sheryve receyved him and brought him to the scaffolde, where, after a small declaration, having no gostlye fatherb with him, he kneeled downe and said his praiers; then holding upp his eyes and handes to God many tymesc; and at last, after he had desyred the people to pray for him, he laide himselfe along, and his hedd upon the block, which was at one stroke of the axe taken from him.Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction
Note, the lorde marques (42)d stode upon the Devyl's towre, and sawe the executyon. His carcas throwne into a carre, and his hed in a cloth, he was brought into the chappell within the Tower, wher the ladye Jane (18), whose lodging was in Partrige's house, dyd see his ded carcase taken out of the cart, aswell as she dyd see him before on lyve going to his deathe, a sight to hir no lessee then deathf.
Note a. Sir Thomas Offley; see note in Machyn's Diary, p. 353.
Note b. He had probably refused the attendance of a Roman Catholic priest, and was not allowed one of his own choice.
Note c. Misread by Stowe with teares.
Note e. no lesse in MS., not worse as given by Stowe and Holinshed.
Note f. " Great pitie was it for the casting awaye of that fayre Ladye, whome nature had not onely so bewtified, but God also had endewed with singuler gyftes and graces, so that she ignorantly receaved that which other wittingly devised and offred unto her.
"And in like manner that comely, vertuous, and goodly gentleman the lorde Gylford Duddeley most innocently was executed, whom God had endowed with suche vertues, that even those that never before the tyme of his execution saw hym, dyd with lamentable teares bewayle his death." Grafton's Abridgment, 1563.
Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. By this tyme was ther a scaffolde made upon the grene over agaynst the White tower, for the saide lady Jane (18) to die apon. Who with hir husband (19) was appoynted to have ben put to deathe the fryday before, but was staied tyll then, for what cause is not knowen, unlesse yt were because hir father was not then come into the Tower. The saide lady, being nothing at all abashed, neither with feare of her owne deathe, which then approached, neither with the sight of the ded carcase of hir husbande, when he was brought in to the chappell, came fourthe, the levetenaunt leding hir, in the same gown wherin she was arrayned, hir countenance nothing abashed, neither her eyes enything moysted with teares, although her ij. gentylwomen, mistress Elizabeth Tylney and mistress Eleyn, wonderfully wept, with a boke in hir hande, wheron she praied all the way till she cam to the saide scaffolde, wheron when she was mounted, &c.Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction
So far, our Diarist's narrative of this judicial tragedy has been adopted, somewhat abridged, by Stowe and Holinshed. The latter chronicler then proceeds thus (copying Grafton), "Whereon when she was mounted, this noble young ladie, as she was indued with singular gifts both of learning and knowledge, so was she as patient and mild as any lambe at hir execution, and a little before hir death uttered these words," (then giving her address to the people assembled). Whether our Diarist's conclusion," when she was mounted, &c."was intended to lead on to some other paper, written by himself or another, it is impossible to decide; but it seems not very improbable that he was also the writer of the account of the lady Jane's execution, which begins with the same words, and which was originally published in a small black-letter pamphleta entitled,
The Ende of the lady Jane Dudley, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, upon the scaffolde, at the houre of her death.
First, when she mounted upon the scaffolde, she sayd to the people standing thereabout: "Good people, I am come hether to die, and by a lawe I am condemned to the same. The facte, in dede, against the quenes highnesse was unlawfull, and the consenting thereunto by meb but touching the procurement and desyre therof by me or on my halfe, I doo wash my handes thereof in innocencie, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day," and therewith she wrong [Note. wrung] her handes, in which she had hir booke. Then she sayd, "I pray you all, good Christian people, to beare me witnesse that I dye a true Christian woman, and that I looke to be saved by none other meane, but only by the mercy of God in the merites of the blood of his only sonne Jesus Christ: and I confesse, when I dyd know the word of God I neglected the same, loved my selfe and the world, and therefore this plague or punyshment is happely and worthely happened unto me for my sins; and yet 1 thank God of his goodnesse that he hath thus geven me a tyme and respet to repent. And now, good people, while I am alyve, I pray you to assyst me with your prayers."a2 And then, knelyng downe, she turned to Fecknamb2, saying, "Shall I say this psalme?" And he said, "Yea." Then she said the psalme of Miserere mei Deus in English, in most devout maner, to the end. Then she stode up, and gave her maiden mistris Tilneyc her gloves and handkercher, and her book to maister Brugesd, the lyvetenantes brother; forthwith she untyed her gown.
The hangman went to her to help her of therewith; then she desyred him to let her alone, turning towardes her two gentlewomen, who helped her off therwith, and also with her frose paasta3 and neckercher, geving to her a fayre handkercher to knytte about her eyes.
Then the hangman kneeled downe, and asked her forgevenesse, whome she forgave most willingly. Then he willed her to stand upon the strawe: which doing, she sawe the block. Then she sayd,
"I pray you dispatch me quickly." Then she kneeled down, saying, "Wil you take it of before I lay me downe? " and the hangman answered her, "No, madame." She tyed the kercher about her eys; then feeling for the blocke, saide, " What shall I do? Where is it? " One of the standers-by guyding her therunto, she layde her heade down upon the block, and stretched forth her body and said: " Lorde, into thy hands I commende my spirite ! " And so she ended.
Note a. This is here copied from a reprint edited by the Rev. John Brand in the 13th volume of the Archaeologia. I have not been able to find a copy of the original. It was incorporated into the narratives of Grafton and Foxe, with some variations, which will be noticed in the ensuing notes.
Note b. Holinshed has amplified this into the following more explicit statement: "My offence agaynst the queenes highnesse was onely in consent to the device of other, which nowe is deemed treason; but it was never my seeking, but by counsell of those who shoulde seeme to have further understanding of things than I, which knewe little of the lawe, and much lesae of the tytles to the crowne."
Note a2. Another report of " lady Jane Dudley's speech on the scaffold," somewhat more verbose but not so impressive, is printed in Nicolas's Remains, &c. p. 52.
Note b2. This circumstance, that Feckenham (the new dean of St. Paul's) was attendant upon her, is suppressed by Grafton, but preserved by Foxe.
Note c. Altered by Grafton, &c. to " her mayden (called mystresse Eleyn) " that is, her other female attendant.
Note d. Grafton altered this " to mayster Bruges, then lieutenant of the Tower;" and Foxe says, " maister Bruges " only. The book is supposed to have been the same manual of English prayers which is now preserved in the British Museum as the MS. Harl. 2342; and which contains the three following notes, the two former it will be perceived addressed to the duke of Suffolk, and the last to sir John Brydges:
Your lovyng and obedyent son wischethe unto your grace long lyfe in this world, with as muche joye and comforte as ever I wyshte to my selfe, and in the world to come joy everlasting. Your most humble son tel his death. G. DUDDELEY.
The Lorde comforte your grace, and that in his worde, whearin all creatures onlye are to be comforted. And thoughe it hathe pleased God to take away ij. of your children, yet thincke not, I most humblye beseach your grace, that you have loste them, but truste that we, by leasinge this mortall life, have wunne an immortal life. And I for my parte, as I have honoured your grace in this life, wyll praye for you in another life. Youre gracys humble doughter, JANE DUDDELEY.
Forasmutche as you have desired so simple a woman to wrighte in so worthye a booke, good mayster lieuftenaunte, therefore I shall as a frende desyre you, and as a Christian require you, to call uppon God to encline your harte to his lawes, to quicken you in his waye, and not to take the worde of trewethe utterlye oute of youre mouthe. Lyve styll to dye, that by deathe you may purchase eternall life, and remembre howe the ende of Mathusael, whoe, as we reade in the scriptures, was the longeste liver that was of a manne, died at the laste: for, as the precher sayethe, there is a tyme to be borne, and a tyme to dye; and the daye of deathe is better than the daye of cure birthe. Youres, as the Lorde knowethe, as a frende, JANE DUDDELEY."
These passages (facsimiles of the first and last of which are engraved in " Autographs of Remarkable Persons," 4to. 1829, pi. 19) were evidently written very shortly before the execution of the noble pair, as is shown by an expression in the lady Jane's address to her father; and there is every probability in sir Harris Nicolas's conjecture that this book was employed as the messenger to convey these assurances of duty and affection, when personal intercourse was denied. The duke of Suffolk was brought back to the Tower only two days before his daughter's decapitation, and it is possible that she was spared the additional pain of knowing how imminent his fate also was. From the passage addressed to the lieutenant, it would further appear that the book, " so worthye a booke," already belonged to him; if, therefore, it is the same which the lady Jane carried with her to the scaffold, she would place it in the hands of " maister Brydges" (whether the lieutenant or his brother) as returning it to its owner. In some accounts of the lady Jane's last moments it will be found stated that she gave a book to sir John Gage; this error, into which Mr. Howard in his Memoir has fallen, arises merely from a confusion of the constable with the lieutenant of the Tower, sir John Gage having been erroneously named as the lieutenant in the description of the manual in the Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. This interesting relic is a small square vellum book, now in modern binding.
Note a3. Sir Harris Nicolas (p. xci.) states that, after having taken considerable pains to ascertain the meaning of the article here named, he was inclined to coincide with a literary friend who suggested "Fronts-piece." Foxe, however, has it spelt "frowes past," which is probably "frow's paste," or matronly head-dress: the paste being a head attire worn by brides, as explained in the glossarial index to Machyn's Diary, p. 463. The term was thought probably too familiar, if not inapplicable, by Grafton, who altered it in his chronicle to "her other attyres."
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 12 Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The 12 of Februarie Guilforde Dudley (19) was beheaded at the Tower hill. And Ladie Jane (18) his wife was immediatlie after his death beheaded within the Tower upon the greene.Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction
On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Mary I (37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.
Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554. 19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip.Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her FactionThus God performed a miracle. At present there is no other occupation than the cutting off of heads and inflicting exemplary punishments Jane of Suffolk (18), who made herself Queen, and her husband (19), have been executed; Courtenay (27) is in the Tower; and this very day we expect the Lady Elizabeth (20) to arrive here, who they say has lived loosely like her mother and is now with child.
Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 12 Feb 1544. The xij day of February was mad at evere gate in Lundun a newe payre of galaus and set up, ij payre in Chepesyde, ij payr in Fletstrett, one in Smythfyld, one payre in Holborne, on at Ledyn-hall, one at sant Magnus London [-bridge], on at Peper allay gatt, one at sant Gorgeus, on in Barunsay [Bermondsay] strett, on on Towr hylle, one payre at Charyngcrosse, on payre besyd Hyd parke corner.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 14 Feb 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The 14 of February divers of the rebells were putt to death, that is to saye, Bothe, one of the Queenes footemen, one Vicars, a Yeoman of the Garde, great John Norton, and one Kinge, were hanged at Charinge Crosse. And three of the rebells, one called Pollarde, were hanged at the parke pale by Hide Parke; three allso in Fleet street, one at Ludgate, one at Bishopsgate, one at Newgate, one at Aldgate, three at the Crosse in Cheape, three at Soper Lane ende in Chepe, and three in Smithfield, which persons hanged still all that daye and night tyll the next morninge, and then cutt downe.a And the bodies of them that were hanged at the gates were quartered at Newgate, and the heades and bodies hanged over the gates where they suffred.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
a. The Grey Friares Chronicle (p. 88) adds "the whych ware of London that fled from the Dnke of Norfoke."
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The xiiij day of Feybruary wher hangyd at evere gatt and plasse : in Chepe-syd vj; Algatt j, quartered; at Leydynhall iij; at Bysshope-gatt on, and quartered; Morgatt one; Crepullgatt one; Aldersgatt on, quartered; Nuwgat on, quartered; Ludgatt on; Belyngat iij hangyd; Sant Magnus iij hangyd; Towre hyll ij. hangyd; Holborne iij hangyd; Flettstret iij hangyd; at Peper alley gat iij; Barunsaystret iij; Sant Gorgus iij; Charyng crosse iiij, on Boyth the fottman, and Vekars of the gard, and ij moo; at Hydparke corner iij, on Polard a waterbeyrar; theys iij hanges in chynes; and but vij quartered, and ther bodys and heds set a-pon the gattes of London.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche, iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall, one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill, ii at Tyburne, and at 4 places in Sowthwerke 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston and other places.
Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 16 Feb 1554. The xvj day of Feybruary was mad a grett skaffold in Westmynster hall for the duke of Suffoke (37).Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 17 Feb 1554. The xvij day of Feybruary was the duke of Suffoke (37) rayned at Westmynster halle, and cast for he tresun, and cast to suffer deth.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 17 Feb 1554. 17 Feb 1554. The 17 of February the Duke of Suffolke (37) was arreigned at Westminster and there condemned of Treason.
The same day a proclamation was made in London for strangers, not being denizens and merchants knowne, using the trade of merchandize, should departe and avoyde the realme within xxiiii dayes after this proclamation, upon payne to forfeyt all their goods movable, and allso upon payne of imprisonment.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 Feb 1554. 18 Feb 1554. The 18 of February Bright,b one of the capteyns of the Londoners that fledd to Wyatt (33), and xxii persons more of the Kentish men, were delivered to the sheriffe of Kent, to be executed in divers places in Kent appoynted by the Queens Councell.
b. In most chronicles spelt Brett, but in the Diary of a Resident in London Bart.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (18) and her husband (19), the Duke of Suffolk's (37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (27) has been sent back to the Tower, where are also the Duke of Suffolk (37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey -1554 and John Grey 1524-1564 (30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.
Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.
Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554. 19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
My Lord: Since I last wrote to your Highness French plots have been discovered to show that Courtenay and the Lady Elizabeth, by means of intermediaries called Peter Carew, Wyatt (33), Crofts (36) and my Lord Thomas (Grey), conspired to throw the Queen of England into the Tower and put her to death, in order to seize the crown for themselves. The King of France had promised help in troops and money, and had already distributed some 10,000 to 12,000 crowns to private individuals. In the meantime 200 or 300 gentlemen, all of them heretics, were meeting together: the Duke of Suffolk (37) and his two brothers [Note. Thomas Grey -1554 and John Grey 1524-1564 (30)], Cobham (57) and his three sons [Note. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (26), George Brooke 1533-1570 (21), Thomas Brooke 1533-1578 (21)], Pelham, Pickering, Carew and many more, and agreed to put their plans into execution in the spring. However, as God means to protect this good lady, the conspirators were forced to take up arms sooner than they had intended because Courtenay did not keep the secret and letters from the French ambassador, seized and enclosed herewith, were deciphered and revealed part of the plot. Moreover, Courtenay had a servant of his in France, and six weeks ago he and one Valbic (Welby?) were intriguing for the conspirators. To start with, Peter Carew made a violent effort to rouse the people on account of your Highness's marriage with the Queen, but as the people refused to rise, he had to fly to France, where trustworthy accounts tell he had a nocturnal conversation with the King—a sign of their malignity. His adherents were taken prisoners at Coventry (Compierre) where a similar attempt was made; and on the first day of Lent the rebels were defeated as your Highness will see by the copies of letters I wrote from time to time to the Emperor.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 22 Feb 1554. 22 Feb 1554. The 22 of February certeyne of the rebells which lay in Newgate, both the Counters, the Kings Benche, the Marshallsie, and Westminster, to the number of iiii C. and more, were ledd to Westminster to the Cowrte, coupled together with collers and halters abowte their neckes, and there in the Tylt-yeard kneeled afore the Queen (38) lookinge owt at the gallerie by the gate, and cried for meroye, who most gratiouslye gave to them their pardon.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 22 Feb 1554. The sam day alle the Kent men whent to the cowrt with halters a-bowt ther nekes, and bone with cordes, ij and ij to-gether, through London to Westmynster, and be-twyn the ij tyltes the powr presonars knelyd downe in the myre, and ther the Quen('s) (38) grace lokyd owt over the gatt and gayff them all pardon, and thay cryd owt 'God save quen Mare!' and so to Westmynster hall, and ther thay cast ther alters a-bowt the hall, and capes, and in the stretes, and cryd owt 'God save quen Mare!' as thay whent.
.... of the qwen('s) garde att .... the man that was kyld was sir John Pr....Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 23 Feb 1554. 23 Feb 1554. Frydaye the 23 of February Lorde Gray, Duke of Suffolke (37), was beheaded at the Towerhill.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
On 01 Mar 1554 Anthony Knyvet 1517-1554 (37) was executed.
Diary of Henry Machyn March 1554. 15 Mar 1554. The xv day of Marche was raynyd at Westmynster ser Thomas Wyatt (33) knyght, the captayn cheyffe [of] Kent, and cast to be hedyd and after quartered and sett up.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Mar 1554. 15 Mar 1554. The xv of Marche Wyatt (33), capteyn of the rebells, was arregned at Westminster and there condemned of highe treason.
And the same daye the Earle of Devonshire (27) was committed agayne to the Tower.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 Mar 1554. 18 Mar 1554. The xviii of Marche, beinge Palme Sunday, the Ladie Elizabeth (20) was had to the Tower from Westminster by water privelie, after the Queene (38) had gone a procession, which was about x of the clock in the forenoone.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
The same Palme Sunday the old service after the use of Sarum in Latyn was begone agayne and kept in Paules and other parishes, within the Cittie of London, with allso bearinge of Palmes, and creepinge to the Crosse on Good Fridaye, with the Sepulcher lights and the Resurrection on Easter daye.
Allso the Scriptures written on Rood-lofts and about the churches in London, with the armes of England, was washed out againste the feast of Easter in moste parte of all the parishe churches of the diocesse of London. And Dr. Feknama was made Deane of Paules, and Dr. May putt owt, and the sacrament of the aulter hanged or sett on the aulter in everie parishe churche.
a. John Feckenham.
Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 11 Apr 1554. The xj day of Aprell was heddyd ser Thomas [Wyatt of Kentt,] (33) the cheyffe captayn of the rebellyous of [Kent, be-] twyn ix and x of the cloke a-for none, on Towre hyll, .... after and by xj of the cloke was he quartered on the skaffold, and hys bowelles and ys members burnt be-syd the skaffold; .... and so ther was a care and a baskett, and the iiij quarters and hed was putt in-to a baskett to nuwgat to be parboyled.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 11 Apr 1554. 11 Apr 1554. The xi of Aprill Sir Tho. Wyatt (33), cheefe capteyne of the late Wyatt pntt to death, rebellion in Kent, was beheaded at Towrehill, at ix of the clock in the foorenoone, and his bodie after quartered on the scaffolde. His head was sett on the gallowes at the parke pale beyond St. James,a where Pollard and two other were hanged in chaynes. And his 4 quarters were hanged on gibbetts in chaynes at 4 severall places without the Liberties of the Cittie.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
a. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 89) adds: "and the hed with the qwarter was stolne awaye."
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 27 Apr 1554. 27 Apr 1554. Frydaye the 27 of Aprill Lord Thomas Grey, brother to the Duke of Suffolke, was beheaded at the Tower hill.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 29 Apr 1554. 29 Apr 1554. The 29 of Aprill Sir James Croft (36), knight, was arrayned in the Guildhall of treason, and there by a jurie of the citizens of London condemned and had judgment of death.Wyatt's Rebellion Executions
1554 Consecration of new Bishops
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 01 Apr 1554. 01 Apr 1554. The first day of Aprill was consecrated at St. Marye Overies churche in Southwerke vi new Bishopps after the olde sorte, the Lord Chauncellor (54) and Bishop of Winchester (71) singinge the masse, the Bishop of London (54) and the Bishop of Durham (80) assistinge him.1554 Consecration of new Bishops
Diary of Henry Machyn March 1554. 01 Apr 1554. [The first day of April my lord chancellor (54) did consecrate six new bishops at St. Mary Overy's, before the high altar; and a goodly mass was said. And when all] was done thay yede unto my lord ch[ancellor's,] for ther was as grett a dener as youe ha[ve seen.] Thes be the bysshopes names that wher consecrated, [doctor] Whyt (44), warden of Wynchastur, the bysshope of Ly[ncoln]; doctur Borne, bysshope of Bathe; doctur Morgan, bishop of sant Davys; doctur Brokes (41), bysshope of Gloss [ter]; doctur Cottes, bysshope of Westtchastur; bysshope of sant Asse changyd to be bysshope of Arfford; master [Griffith] (47) parsun of sant Magnus bysshope of Rochastur.1554 Consecration of new Bishops
On 01 Apr 1554 the Lord Chancellor Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London 1500-1569 (54), assisted by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (71), Nicholas Ridley Bishop Martyr 1500-1555 (54) and Cuthbert Tunstall Bishop of Durham 1474-1559 (80), consecrated seven bishops at Southwark Cathedral:
Bishop George Cotes -1556 was consecrated Bishop of Chester.
Bishop Gilbert Bourne -1569 was consecrated Bishop of Bath and Wells.
Bishop James Brooks 1512-1558 (41) was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester.
Bishop Robert Griffin 1507-1558 (47) was consecrated Bishop of Rochester.
Bishop Henry Morgan -1559 was consecrated Bishop of St David's.
Bishop John White 1510-1560 (44) was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln.
Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton -1557 was consecrated Bishop of Hereford.
Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 21 Jul 1554. 21 Jul 1554. The xxith of Julie proclamation was made in London that all noblemen, gentlemen, ladies, ancJ other should repayre to the Cittie of Winchester, there to doe their attendance at her graces marriage accordinge as they are appoynted. And that night were bonefyers made in everie parishe within the Cittie of London, with all the bells ringinge in everye parishe churche for the ioyfull tydinges of the Princes landinge in safetie.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 23 Jul 1554. 23 Jul 1554. The 23 of Julie the Prince of Spayne (27) came to Winchesterd about vi of the clock at night, accompanied with noblemen as well of England as of his owne countriea, with trumpetts blowinge and bells ringinge, and came to the Cathedrall churche, where he alighted. And there the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chauncellor (71), with 4 bishops more, with the priests, singinge-men, and children, receaved him with procession in riche copes and with iii crosses up into the quiere, where was a riche traves richlye hanged for him; and there he kneeled downe before the sacrament; and then the Lord Chauncellor began Te Deum, the organs playinge and the quier singinge the rest. This done he was brought out with torche light to his lodginge throughe the cloyster to the Deanes howsse, all the Queens garde standinge in their riche cotes all the waye. He was apparelled in a riche cote richlie imbroydered with goulde, and an hatt much like the same with a feather in it. The same night afler he had supped, which was about x of the clock, certeyne of the Councell brought him to the Queen (38) by a secrett waye, where she receaved him right lovinglye and kissed him, and after halfe an howre they tooke their leave, eche kissinge the other, and so departed that night to his lodginge.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain
d. Philip lingered a few days at Southampton, where he disembarked, as if in order to ascertain the humour of the nation, as one of his ambassadors, the Count of Egmont (31), had been recently violently assaulted by the populace, who mistook him for his master.
a. He came well attended with a bodyguard and troops.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 24 Jul 1554. 24 Jul 1554. The 24 of Julie, aboute 3 of the clock in the afternoone, he came from his lodginge on foote, the Lord Steward, the Earle of Darbie (45), the Earle of Pembrooke (53), and divers other lordes and gentlemen, both Englishe and Spanishe, goeinge afore him to the Courte, where everie bodye might see him (27), and so was brought up into the hall where the Queene (38) was standinge upon a skaffold richelye hanged, she meetinge him halfe waye, receivinge him, and kissinge him in the presence of all the peopleb. And then she tooke him (27) by the hand, she goeinge on his right hand out of the hall in her great chamber of presence. And there in the presence of all the lordes and ladies they stoode a quarter of an hower under the clothe of estate talkiuge together; and then after a while he toke his leave of her Grace and came forthe into the open cowrte, where all the pentioners stood in araye and the garde all alonge on both sides the waye in theyr riche cotes to the Court gates; and from thence the lords brought him to the Cathedrall churche to evensonge, and after to his loginge agayne.
The same night, about 12 of the clock, the Emperor (54) sent a message to the Queen (38), declaringe to her that his sonne which should marrie with her was not then a Prince onelye but a Kinge; and that he was Kinge of Naples and Jerusalem before the marriage, and so did send his writings of the same under his great seale.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain
b. Mary took no pains to conceal her impatience, being enabled in her conscience to plead her anxiety for a legitimate Roman Catholic succession, as the only means of securing the faith in England.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 25 Jul 1554. 25 JUl 1554. The 25 of Julie, beinge Weddensdaye and St. James dayea, about xi of the clocke the Kinge (27) and Queene (38) came from their lodgings towardes the churche all the way on foote, verie richelye apparelled in gownes of cloth of golde sett with riche stones, he with his gentle-men and garde and she with hers, eche of them havinge a sworde borne before them, the Earle of Darbye (45) bearinge the sworde before her Maiestie, and the Earle of Pembroke (53) before the Kinge; and when they were come into the churche he went into one traveys and the Queen to another richlye hunge, where they were shriven. This done they came forth of their traveys to the place appoynted for the marriage, where the Lord Chauncellor (71), beinge before with 5 other bishops assistinge him, used all thinges, both in the banes-byddinge and otherwise, as hath bene in all marriages of olde tyme, and spake it both in Latin and in Englishe, her Grace on the right syde standinge and the King on the left syde. Her marriage ringe was a rownd hoope of gould without anye stone, which was her desire, for she sayde she would be married as maydens were in the olde tyme, and so she was.
After the marriage knott thus knitt the King and Queen came hand in hand under a riche canopie, beinge borne over them with 6 knightes and 2 swordes before them, all the lordes both Englishe and strangers richelye apparelled goeinge afore them, the trumpetts then blowinge tyll they came into the quier, where all the priestes and singinge men all in riche copes began to singe a psalme used in marriages, the King and Queen kneelinge awhile before the aulter, eche of them havinge a taper afore them; then after her Majestic went into her traveys on the right syde, and the King into another on the left syde; after the gospell they came owt and kneeled before the alter openlye all the masse tyme, and the care-cloth was holden ouer them; and he kissed the bishopp at the Agnus and then her Majestie. The masse done the Kinge of Herroldes openlye in the churche, and in presence of the King, the Queen, the lordes and ladies, and all the people, solemnlye proclay'med their Maiesties Kinge and Queene, with their title and style, in manner as followeth:
Philippe and Marie, by the grace of God Kinge and Queene of The Kinge and Englande, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Irelande, Defenders of the Faythe, Princes of Spayne and Sicilie, Archdukes of Austriche, Dukes of Mylane, Burgundye, and Brabant, Countes of Aspurge,b Flaunders, and Tyrrole. Which proclamation ended, the trumpetts blue and other noyses playde. And then the Kinge and Queene came furthe hand in hand, with their lordes, ladies, and gentlemen way tinge on them, and 2 swordes borne afore them in manner aforesayde; and so went on foote to the courte, and there dined openlye in the hall, both together at one table.
a. The feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain
b. Haspurgi, Hapsburg.
On 25 Jul 1554 Prince Philip of Spain (27) and Queen Mary (38) were married by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (71) at Winchester Cathedral. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.
John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (74) bore the queen's train.
1554 Creation of Garter Knights
Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 23 Apr 1554. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, her grace (38) whent unto the chapell and whent a prossessyon with all the kynghtes of the garter that was ther pressent [to St.] James in the Feld; ther wher creatyd the sam day knights of the garter, the prynsse of Spayne (26) one, and the yerle of Sussex (47).1554 Creation of Garter Knights
Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 05 Aug 1554. 05 Aug 1554. Sundaye 5 August the King (27) was stalled in Windsore of the noble order of the Garter, and there kept St. George's feast in his royall estate himselfe; where was kept a great feast. And the Earle of Sussex (47) was made knight of the Garter at that tyme allso.1554 Creation of Garter Knights
1555 Protestant Executions
On 20 Jan 1555 the statutes for burning heretics, originally enacted to repress Lollardism, De heretico comburendo was re-enacted to allow the burning of Protestants.
In early Feb 1555 the first of the Protestant executions took place:
Diary of Henry Machyn February 1555. 04 Feb 1555. The sam day was Rogers (50) cared be-twyn x and xj of the cloke in-to Smyth-feld, and bornyd, for aronyus [erroneous] apinions, with a grett compene of the gard.1555 Protestant Executions
Foxe's Book of Martyrs Volume 9 264 John Rogers. 04 Feb 1555. Now when the time came, that he, being delivered to the sheriffs, should be brought out of Newgate to Smithfield, the place of his execution, first came to him Master Woodroofe, one of the aforesaid sheriffs, and calling Master Rogers (50) unto him, asked him if he would revoke his abominable doctrine, and his evil opinion of the sacrament of the altar. Master Rogers (50) answered and said, "That which I have preached I will seal with my blood." "Then," quoth Master Woodroofe, "thou art a heretic." "That shall be known," quoth Rogers, "at the day of judgment." "Well," quoth Master Woodroofe, "I will never pray for thee." "But I will pray for you," quoth Master Rogers: and so was brought the same day, which was Monday the fourth of February, by the sheriffs towards Smithfield, saying the psalm Miserere by the way, all the people wonderfully rejoicing at his constancy, with great praises and thanks to God for the same. And there, in the presence of Master Rochester, comptroller of the queen's household, Sir Richard Southwell (52), both the sheriffs, and a wonderful number of people, the fire was put unto him; and when it had taken hold both upon his legs and shoulders, he, as one feeling no smart, washed his hands in the flame, as though it had been in cold water. And, after lifting up his hands unto heaven, not removing the same until such time as the devouring fire had consumed them - most mildly this happy martyr yielded up his spirit into the hands of his heavenly Father. A little before his burning at the stake, his pardon was brought, if he would have recanted, but he utterly refused. He was the first protomartyr of all the blessed company that suffered in Queen Mary's time, that gave the first adventure upon the fire. His wife and children, being eleven in number, and ten able to go, and one sucking on her breast, met him by the way as he went towards Smithfield. This sorrowful sight of his own flesh and blood could nothing move him; but that he constantly and cheerfully took his death, with wonderful patience, in the defence and quarrel of Christ's gospel.1555 Protestant Executions
Foxe's Book of Martyrs Volume 9 265 Laurence Saunders. 08 Feb 1555. The next day, which was the eighth of February, he was led to the place of execntion in the park without the city, going in an old gown and a shirt, barefooted, and ofttimes fell flat on the ground, and prayed. When he was come nigh to the place, the officer appointed to see the execution done, said to Master Saunders, that he was one of them which marred the queen's realm with false doctrine and heresy, "wherefore thou hast deserved death," quoth he; "but yet, if thou wilt revoke thine heresies, the queen hath pardoned thee: if not, yonder fire is prepared for thee." To whom Master Saunders answered, "It is not I, nor my fellow preachers of God's truth, that have hurt the queen's realm, but it is yourself, and such as you are,which have always resisted God's holy word; it is you which have and do mar the queen's realm. I do hold no heresies; but the doctrine of God, the blessed gospel of Christ, that hold I; that believe I; that have I taught; and that will I never revoke." With that, this tormentor cried, "Away with him." And away from him went Master Saunders with a merry courage towards the fire. He fell to the ground, and prayed: he rose up again, and took the stake to which he should be chained in his arms, and kissed it, saying, "Welcome the cross of Christ! welcome everlasting life!" and being fastened to the stake, and fire put to him, full sweetly he slept in the Lord.1555 Protestant Executions
Foxe's Book of Martyrs Volume 9 266 John Hooper. 09 Feb 1555. So it was determined, at length, he should still remain in Robert Ingram's house; and the sheriffs, and the sergeants, and other officers did appoint to watch with him that night themselves. His desire was, that he might go to bed that night betimes, saying, that he had many things to remember: and so he did at five of the clock, and slept one sleep soundly, and bestowed the rest of the night in prayer. After he got up in the morning, he desired that no man should be suffered to come into the chamber, that he might he solitary till the hour of execution.
About eight o'clock came Sir John Bridges, Lord Chandos (62), with a great band of men, Sir Anthony Kingston (47), Sir Edmund Bridges (33), and other commissioners appointed to see execution done. At nine o'clock Master Hooper (60) was willed to prepare himself to be in a readiness, for the time was at hand. Immediately he was brought down from his chamber by the sheriffs, who were accompanied with bills, glaves, and weapons. When he saw the multitude of weapons, he spake to the sheriffs on this wise "Master Sheriffs," said he, "I am no traitor, neither needed you to have made such a business to bring me to the place where I must suffer; for if ye had willed me, I would have gone alone to the stake, and have troubled none of you all. Afterward, looking upon the multitude of people that were assembled, being by estimation to the number of seven thousand, (for it was market day, and many also came to see his behaviour towards death,) he spake unto those that were about him, saying, "Alas, why be these people assembled and come together? Peradventure they think to hear something of me now, as they have in times past; but, alas! speech is prohibited me. Notwithstanding, the cause of my death is well known unto them. When I was appointed here to be their pastor, I preached unto them true and sincere doctrine; and that, out of the word of God: because I will not now account the same to be heresy and untruth, this kind of death is prepared for me."
So he went forward, led between the two sheriffs (as it were a lamb to the place of slaughter) in a gown of his host's, his hat upon his head, and a staff in his hand to stay himself withal: for the pain of the sciatica, which he had taken in prison, caused him somewhat to halt. All the way being straitly charged not to speak, he could not be perceived once to open his mouth, but beholding the people all the way, which mourned bitterly for him, he would sometimes lift up his eyes towards heaven, and look very cheerfully upon such as he knew: and he was never known, during the time of his being amongst them, to look with so cheerful and rnddy a countenance as he did at that present. When he came to the place appointed where he should die, smilingly he beheld the stake and preparation made for him, which was near unto the great elm tree, over against the college of priests, where he was wont to preach. The place round about the houses and the boughs of the tree were replenished with people; and in the chamber over the college-gate stood the priests of the college.
Then kneeled he down (forasmuch as he could not be suffered to speak unto the people) to prayer, and beckoned six or seven times unto one whom he knew well, to hear the said prayer, to make report thereof in time to come, (pouring tears upon his shoulders and in his bosom,) who gave attentive ears unto the same; the which prayer he made upon the whole creed, wherein he continued the space of half an hour. Now, after he was somewhat entered into his prayer, a box was brought and laid before him upon a stool, with his pardon (or at least-wise it was feigned to be his pardon) from the queen, if he would turn. At the sight whereof he cried, "If you love my soul, away with it! if you love my soul, away with it!" The box being taken away, the Lord Chandos said, "Seeing there is no remedy, despatch him quickly." Master Hooper said, "Good my Lord, I trust your Lordship will give me leave to make an end of my prayers."
Within a space after, a few dry faggots were brought, and a new fire kindled with faggots, (for there were no more reeds,) and that burned at the nether parts, but had small power above, because of the wind, saving that it did burn his hair, and scorch his skin a little. In the time of which fire, even as at the first flame, he prayed, saying mildly and not very loud, (but as one without pains,) "O Jesus, the Son of David, have mercy upon me, and receive my soul!" After the second was spent. he did wipe both his eyes with his hands, and beholding the people, he said with an indifferent loud voice, "For God's love, good people, let me have more fire!"
And all this while his nether parts did burn; for the faggots were so few, that the flame did not burn strongly at his upper parts.
The third fire was kindled within a while after, which was more extreme than the other two: and then the bladders of gunpowder brake, which did him small good, they were so placed, and the wind had such power. In the which fire he prayed with somewhat a loud voice. "Lord Jesus, have mercy upon me; Lord Jesus, have mercy upon me: Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!" And these were the last words he was heard to utter. But when he was black in the mouth, and his tongue swollen, that he could not speak, yet his lips went till they were shrunk to the gums: and he knocked his breasts with his hands, until one of his arms fell off, and then knocked still with the other, what time the fat, water, and blood, dropped out at his fingers' ends, until by renewing of the fire his strength was gone, and his hand did cleave fast, in knocking, to the iron upon his breast. So immediately, bowing forwards, he yielded up his spirit.
Thus was he three quarters of an hour or more in the fire. Even as a lamb, patiently he abode the extremity thereof, neither moving forwards, backwards, nor to any side: but, having his nether parts burned, and his bowels fallen out, he died as quietly as a child in his bed. And he now reigneth as a blessed martyr, in the joys of heaven prepared for the faithful in Christ, before the foundations of the world: for whose constancy all Christians are bound to praise God.
1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1555. 30 May 1555. The xxx day of May was burnt in Smythfeld master Cardmaker sum-tyme veker of sant Bryd and master Varren (29) clothworker dwellyng aganst sant Johns in Walbroke, an hupholster, and ys wyff behyng in [Newgate].1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne
1555 Banning of Protestant Books
Diary of Henry Machyn June 1555. 14 Jun 1555. The xiiij day (of) Juin was a proclamassyon [that all] bokes shuld be broyth [brought] in of Luter (71), Tendalles (61), .... and Coverdals (67) and bysshope Cremer (65), and all shyche as .... shuys and all hereses bokes, and he that dyd nott [bring them] in with-in the xv days after shuld go to presun with-owt prysse, of what degre they be of.
1555 Attack on French Merchant Fleet
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 15 Aug 1555. The xv day of August was a grett ffett on the see [fight on the sea] be-twyn the Frencmen and the Flemmyng, and ther wher dyvers of boyth partes slene, and boyth men and shypes and dyvers taken, and the goodes.
On 04 Sep 1555 Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London 1500-1569 (55) consecrated an Archbishop and two Bishops at Old St Paul's Cathedral:
Archbishop Hugh Curwen 1500-1568 (55) was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin.
Bishop James Turbeville -1570 was consecrated Bishop of Exeter.
Bishop William Glynne 1504-1558 (51) was consecrated Bishop of Bangor.
1555 Great Flood
Diary of Henry Machyn September 1555. 29 Sep 1555. The xxix day of September was the grettest rayn and fludes that ever was sene in England, that all low contreys was drounyd, and in dyver plasses boyth men and catell drounyd, and all the marssys, and sellers boyth of wyne and bere and alle and odur marchandysse, in London and odur plassys, drounyd; and the rayne begane after Bathellmuw-tyd telle sant Edwardes tyde, after not x days fayre....ij goodly whytt branchys and xij longe torchys .... stayffes torchys grett, and a c. mornars in blake, [xij poor] men and xij women, and all xxiiij in rosett gownes [and the] vomen raylles apon ther heds, and iiij gylt candyllstykes, with iiij grett tapurs and xx prestes and xx clarkes.
1555 Execution of Bishops
Diary of Henry Machyn October 1555. 16 Oct 1555. [The same day were burnt at Oxford for heresy doctor Latimer (68), late bishop of Worcester, and doctor Ridley (55),] late bysshope of London; [they were some] tyme grett prychers as ever was; and at ther bornyng dyd pryche doctur Smyth, sum-tyme the master of Vetyngtun colege (blank).1555 Execution of Bishops
England Re-established as Catholic
On 12 Nov 1555 Queen Mary (39) re-established England as a Catholic country.
1556 Great Comet
Execution of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
Diary of Henry Machyn March 1556. 21 Mar 1555. The xxj day of Marche was bornyd at Oxford doctur Cranmer (65), late archebysshope of Canturbere.Execution of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
Dudley Plot against Mary I
In early 1556 Henry Dudley 1517-1568 (39) attempted to replace Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (39) on the throne with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (22) to then marry her to Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (29).
Salisbury Execution of Protestant Martyrs
On 24 Mar 1556 Protestant Martyrs Willam Coberley, John Maundrel and John Spicer were burned at the stake in Salisbury Marketplace.
1557 Creation of Garter Knights
Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 23 Apr 1557. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant Gorge('s) day [the King's (29)] grace whent a pressessyon in ys robes of the garter; lord Talbott (29) bare the sword a-for the Kyng, and master (blank) bare the rod; and doctur (blank) bare the boke of the record; and the bysshope of Wynchaster (47) ware ys myter, and song masse that day; and x knyghtes of the Garter be-syd the Kyng; and secretere Peter ware a robe of cremesun velvett with the Garter; and after the Kyng and odur lordes and knyghtes of the garter whent to evyngsong; and ther was the duke of Muskovea was in chapell at evyngsong, and after he whent and toke ys barge and whent to London, and after wher iij knyghtes of the garter chossen, furst my lord F(itz)uater (32), my lord Gray of Wylton (48), and ser Robart Rochaster (63); thes iij wher mad of the order.1557 Creation of Garter Knights
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 23 May 1557. The sam after-non was chossen iij knyghtes of the garter, my lord Fuwwater depute of Yrland (32), my lord Gray (48) depute of Gynes, and ser Robart Rochaster (63) comtroller of the quen('s) howsse the iij. And after cam the duwcke of Muskovea cam thrugh the halle, and the gard stod in a-ray in ther ryche cottes with halbardes, and so up to the quen('s) chambur, and dyvers althermen and marchandes; and after cam downe a-gayne to the chapell to evyngsong, and contenent cam the Kyng (30) and the knyghtes of the garter to evyngsong; and when that evyngsong was down cam the Kyng and the knyghtes up to the chambur of presens; and after cam the duke of Muskovea, and toke ys barge to London, and that tyme my lord Strange bare the sword to evyngsong.1557 Creation of Garter Knights
339th Robert Rochester 1494-1557.
Scarborough Castle Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. Apr 1557. The (blank) day of Aprell suffered dethe in [several] plases in the Northe for entrying in-to Sk[arborough] castyll, (for) the wyche at London master Thomas [Stafford] (24) was heddyd on Towre hylle; and at Tyborne John Procter aleas Wylliamsun, Wyllyam Stowe, John Bradford, and more in dyvers plases; [in York]shyre, John Wylborne, Clement Tyllyd, John Cawsewelle, and Robart Hunter, at York, [by the] dethe of hangyng, drahyns, and quarter[ing].Scarborough Castle Rebellion
Item, at Skarborow suffered dethe master Thomas Sp .., John Adames, John Wattsun, skott, John .. a frencheman.
At Hulle, John Browne, Owyn Jones, suffered.
At Beverley, Hary Gardener and John Thomas suffered.
At Whyttby, Thomas Warden and John Deyctam, skott.
Att Malton [Note. Assumed to be Melton since in the East Riding like the other places mentioned rather than Mlaton in the North Riding.], Wyllyam Palmer, John Mortfurth, scott.
Att Flamborow, at Assyley, Thomas Wylkynsun.
At Byrlyngton, John Wallys.
At Awdborowre, Antony Persevall.
At Hornesey, Wylliam Wyllamsun.
At Pawlle in Holdernes, Roger Thomas.
At Hassylle, Roger Raynoldes.
At Alefax, Lawransse Alssope.
At Donkester, in Yorkeshyre, Thomas Jordayn.
At Howden, John Grey, skotte.
At Wakefeld, Robert Hawgatt, skott; and all thes for enteryng in Skarborow castylle.
.... es Stanley, of Le, in Essex.
Thomas Thorley, of Prykkyllwell, in Essex.
Hare Ramsey, of Amwell, in conte of Harford.
On 25 Apr 1557 Thomas Stafford 1533-1557 (24) sailed from Dieppe with two ships and over 30 men. He took Scarborough Castle and declared himself Protector of the Realm.
On 28 Apr 1557 Henry Neville 5th Earl Westmoreland 1525-1563 (32) retook Scarborough Castle and captured the rebels.
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 02 May 1557. The ij day of May dyd pryche at Powlles crosse dyd pryche docthur Chadsay, and mad a godly sermon, and ther he declaryd that serten trayturs that was taken at Skarborow castyll, the wyche they fled over the see a-for ....Scarborough Castle Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 03 May 1557. [The iij day of May came five persons to the Tower, the chief of those that had taken the] castylle of Skarborow in Yorke-shyre, [viz. Stafford (24), Saund]urs, Seywelle, and Prowtter, and a Frenche man.Scarborough Castle Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 25 May 1557. The xxv day of May was raynyd at Westmynster one, a Frenche man, that was taken at Skarborow when that Thomas Stafford (24) was taken with ys adherentes, and cast to dee, and so cared to the Towre agayn.
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 29 May 1557. The xxix day of May was the iiij heds sett upon London bryge, and ther xvj quarters sett up, iij and ij, on evere gatt of London; the sam mornyng was Thomas Stafford('s) (24) body quartered.Scarborough Castle Rebellion
Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 28 May 1577. [The xxviij day of May Thomas Stafford (44) was beheaded on Tower hill, by nine of the clock, master Wode being his] gostly father; and after ther wher iij more [drawn from the To] wre, and thrugh London unto Tyburne, and ther [they were] hangyd and quartered; and the morow after was master [Stafford] quartered, and hangyd on a care, and so to Nuwgatt to [boil.]
Death of Anne of Cleves
Battle of St Quentin
On 10 Aug 1557 or 15 Aug 1557 Jean Bourbon Count Soissons and Enghien 1528-1557 (29) was killed at the Battle of St Quentin. Louis Bourbon Prince Condé 1530-1569 (27) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.
On 10 Aug 1557 Henry Dudley 1531-1557 (26) was killed at the Battle of St Quentin.
Diary of Henry Machyn August 1557. 14 Aug 1557. The xiiij day of August cam tydynges from beyond the see that the Kyng (30) our master had taken mony nobull men of France gohyng to vetell Sant Qwynten, the constabull of Fransse and a vj m. presonares taken, and vj .. cartes and wagens laden with tresur and vetell, at a plasse callyd Sant Qwynten, and ther my lord Hare Dudley (26) was slayn at the wynnyng of ytt.Battle of St Quentin
Diary of Henry Machyn September 1557. 03 Sep 1557. The sam day at nyght cam commondement that evere chyrche in London, and oder contrey and shyre, to syng and make bonfeyrs for the wynnynge of Sant Qwynten; and ther was slayn my lord Hare Dudley (26) the yonger sone of the duke of Northumberland (53) that was he[aded,] with mony mo, at the wynnyng of yt.
Diary of Henry Machyn September 1557. 19 Sep 1557. The xix day of September cam a commondement downe to all parryche(s) in London that they shuld go in prossessyon at Powlles, and Te Deum laudamus songe; all the chyrches in London to synge, and rynge for wynnynge of Perro [Note. Assumed to be a reference to John Perrot 1528-1592 (28) who fought at the Battle of St Quentin] in Franse and odur plasses.
On 19 Nov 1557 John Braye 2nd Baron Braye -1557 died from wounds received at the Battle of St Quentin without issue. He was buried at Chelsea Old Church. Baron Braye abeyant between his six sisters inherited. The abeyance would be terminated in 1839 in favour of Sarah Otway-Cave 3rd Baroness Braye 1768-1862 a descendant of his sister Elizabeth Braye 1501-1573 (56).
Surrender of Calais
On 07 Jan 1558 the English surrendered Calais to the French following a one week siege. It had been in English hands since 1347. At 6am Thomas Wentworth (33), Governor of Calais, surrendered Calais to François de Lorraine-Guise, 2nd Duke of Guise (38), after a seven-day siege. Calais was the last English owned territory in France. The loss was a huge blow for Queen Mary I (41) and it is said that upon hearing the news she stated "When I am dead and opened, you shall find ‘Philip’ and ‘Calais’ lying in my heart" although the source for this is unknown.
Edward Grimston 1508-1559 (50) was captured and imprisoned at the Bastille.
Diary of Henry Machyn January 1558. 10 Jan 1558. [The x day of January heavy news came to En]gland, and to London, thatt the Fre[nch had won] Cales, the wyche was the hevest tydy[ngs to London] and to England that ever was hard of, for lyke a trayter yt was sold and d[elivered unto] them the (blank) day of January; the duke of Guise (38) was cheyff capten, and evere man dyschargyd the town.
Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France
Death of Mary I
On 17 Nov 1558 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (42) died at St James's Palace. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (25) succeeded I King England. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (31) was deputed with informing Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (31).
Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (58) attended the Queen as physician; the third monarch's death he attended.
Funeral of Mary I
Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 13 Dec 1558. [The xiij day of December, the corpse of the late Queen (42) was brought from St. James's, in a cha]rett, with the pyctur of emages [images] lyke [her person], adorned with cremesun velvett and her crowne on her hed, her septer on her hand, and mony goodly rynges on her fyngers; up the he-way [went] formett [foremost] [the] standard with the Faucon and [the Hart]; then cam a grett compene of morners; and after anodur godly standard of the Lyon and the Faucon; and then her houshold servandes, ij and ij together, in blake gownes, [the] haroldes rydyng to and fro to se them go in order; and after cam the iij standard with the Whyt Grahond and the Faucon; and then cam gentyllmen in gownes, morners; and then cam rydyng sqwyrs, bayryng of baners of armes; and then cam my lord marques of Wynchester (75) on hors-bake, bayryng the baner of the armes of England in-brodered with gold; and then cam after Chester the harold (60), baryng the helm and the crest and mantyll; then cam master Norroy (48), bayryng the targett with the garter and the crowne; and then cam master Clarenshus (48) bayreng the sword and after cam Garter (48), bayryng her cot-armur, on hors-bake they all; and baners borne abowt her, with knyghts, lords, and baners a-bowt the corse; with iiij harolds bayryng on horss-bake iiij whyt baners of santes wroth with fyne gold, master Samersett, master Lanckostur, master Wyndsor, and master Yorke; and then cam the corse, with her pyctur lyung over her, and the corse covered with cloth of gold, the crosse sylver, and then cam iij (blank) with the cheyff morners; and then lades rydyn, alle in blake, trapyd to the grond; and the charett that the quen was in rode the pages of honor with baners in ther handes; and a-for the corse her chapell, and after all the monkes, and after the bysshopes in order; and so by Charyng-crosse to Westmynster abay; and at the grett dore of the chyrche evere body dyd a-lykt of ther horse; and then was gentyll-men rede [ready] to take the quen owt of her charett, and so erles and lordes whent afor her grace to the herse ward, with her pyctur borne betwyn men of worshype; and at the cherche dore met her iiij byshopes, and the abbott (43), mytered, in copes, and sensyng the body; and so she lay all nyght under the herse, and her grace was wachyd. [And there were an hundred poor men in good black gowns] bayryng longe torchys, with [hoods on their heads, and arms] on them; and a-bowt her the gard bayryng [staff-torches] in blake cottes; and all the way chandlers [having] torchys, to gyffe them that had ther torchys [burnt out].Funeral of Mary I
Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 14 Dec 1558. The xiiij day of Desember [was] the quen('s) (42) masse; and [all the lords] and lades, knyghtes and gentyll women, dyd offer. [And there was] a man of armes and horse offered; and her cotarmur, and sword, and targett, and baner of armes, and iij [standards]; and all the haroldes abowt her; and ther my lord bysshope of Wynchester (48) mad the sermon; and ther was offered cloth of gold and welvet, holle pesses, and odur thynges. [After the] masse all done, her grace was cared up [to the chapel] the kyng Henry the vij byldyd, with bysshopes [mitred;] and all the offesers whent to the grayffe [grave], and after [they] brake ther stayffes, and cast them in-to the grayffe; in the mayn tyme the pepull pluckt [down] the cloth, evere man a pesse that cold caycth [catch] [it,] rond a-bowt the cherche, and the armes. And after[wards,] my lord bysshope of Yorke (57), after her grace was [buried,] he declaryd an colasyon [collation], and as sone as he had made an end, all the trumpetes bluw a blast, and so the cheyff morners and the lords and knyghtes, and the bysshopes, with [the] abbott (43), whent in-to the abbay to dener, and all the offesers of the quen('s) cott [court].
Second Act of Supremacy
After 17 Nov 1558 the Second Act of Supremacy re-instated Elizabeth, and her heirs, as Supreme Head of the Church of England (after had rescinded the original act of her father of 1553).