1685-1699 Glorious Revolution

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1668 Bawdy House Riots

1668 Great Barbados Fire

1685 Argyll's Rising

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1685 Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

1685 Battle of Sedgemoor

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

1690 Glorious Revolution

1688 Test Act

1688 Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

1688 Battle of Reading

1688 Abdication of James II

1685-1699 Glorious Revolution

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1689 Act of Poll

1689 Battle of Killiecrankie

1689 Siege of Londonderry

1690 Siege of Limerick

1690 Parliament 2W3

1688 Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1690 Storming of Cork

1691 Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

1691 Battle of Aughrim

1692 Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York

1692 William III Creation of New Lords

1692 Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue

1692 Battle of Steenkerque

1693 Battle of Marsaglia

1694 Turkish Fleet Disaster

1694 Death of Queen Mary II

1695 Glencoe Massacre

1695 Nine Year's War

1695 Funeral of Queen Mary II

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1696 Oath of Association

1698 General Election

1698 Whitehall Palace Fire

1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace

1685-1699 Glorious Revolution is in 17th Century Events.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 February 1689. 21 Feb 1689. Dr. Burnet (45) preached at St. James's on the obligation to walk worthy of God's particular and signal deliverance of the nation and church.1685-1699 Glorious Revolution
I saw the new Queen (26) and King (38), with great acclamation and general good reception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed that both, especially the Princess (26), would have shown some (seeming) reluctance at least, of assuming her father's (55) crown, and made some apology, testifying by her regret that he should by his mismanagement necessitate the nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would have shown very handsomely to the world, and according to the character given of her piety; consonant also to her husband's (38) first declaration, that there was no intention of deposing the King (55), but of succoring the nation; but nothing of all this appeared; she came into Whitehall laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported. She rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was reported, before her women were up, went about from room to room to see the convenience of Whitehall; lay in the same bed and apartment where the late Queen (30) lay, and within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as the Queen (30), her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon and talked to everybody, so that no change seemed to have taken place at Court since her last going away, save that infinite crowds of people thronged to see her, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by many. She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to heart: while the Prince (38), her husband, has a thoughtful countenance, is wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons alike gravely, and to be very intent on affairs: Holland, Ireland, and France calling for his care.
Divers Bishops and Noblemen are not at all satisfied with this so sudden assumption of the Crown, without any previous sending, and offering some conditions to the absent King; or on his not returning, or not assenting to those conditions, to have proclaimed him Regent; but the major part of both Houses prevailed to make them King and Queen immediately, and a crown was tempting. This was opposed and spoken against with such vehemence by Lord Clarendon (her own uncle), that it put him by all preferment, which must doubtless have been as great as could have been given him. My Lord of Rochester (46), his brother, overshot himself, by the same carriage and stiffness, which their friends thought they might have well spared when they saw how it was like to be overruled, and that it had been sufficient to have declared their dissent with less passion, acquiescing in due time.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (72) and some of the rest, on scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as appeared out of Lambeth. This occasioned the wonder of many who observed with what zeal they contributed to the Prince's (38) expedition, and all the while also rejecting any proposals of sending again to the absent King (55); that they should now raise scruples, and such as created much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old courtiers, and especially the Papists.
Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done by a convention only, and the as yet unabrogated laws; this drew them to make themselves on the 22d a Parliament, the new King (38) passing the act with the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but necessity prevailed, the government requiring a speedy settlement.
Innumerable were the crowds, who solicited for, and expected offices; most of the old ones were turned out. Two or three white staves were disposed of some days before, as Lord Steward, to the Earl of Devonshire (49); Treasurer of the household, to Lord Newport (92); Lord Chamberlain to the King (58), to my Lord of Dorset (46); but there were as yet none in offices of the civil government save the Marquis of Halifax (55) as Privy Seal. A council of thirty was chosen, Lord Derby (34) president, but neither Chancellor nor Judges were yet declared, the new Great Seal not yet finished.

Read More ...

Argyll's Rising

In 1685 Argyll's Rising was a plot to overthrow James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) led by Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (55).
Of the rebels 177 were transported to Jamaica and 100 to New Jersey.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 May 1685. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (26) and Princesse of Denmark (20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect: " That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction". At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.
So soone as ye Commons were return'd and had put themselves into a grand Committee, they immediately put the question, and unanimously voted the Revenue to his Ma* for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against many Elections, and would have had those members who (he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had clear'd the matter of their being legally return'd; but no one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the new members whose Elections and Returns were universally censur'd, many of them being persons of no condition or interest in the Nation, or places for which they serv'd, especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, &c. said to have ben recommended by the Court and from the effect of the new charters changing ye electors. It was reported that Lord Bath (56) carried down with him [into Cornwall] no fewer than 15 charters, so that some call'd him the Prince Elector; whence Seymour told the House in his speech that if this was digested, they might introduce what religion and lawes they pleas'd, and that tho' he never gave heed to ye feares and jealousies of the people before, he now was really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed list of Members of 505 there did not appeare to be above 135 who had ben in former Parliaments, especialy that lately held at Oxford. In ye Lords House Lord Newport (65) made an exception against two or three young Peeres, who wanted some moneths, and some only four or five daies of being of age.
The Popish Lords who had ben sometime before releas'd from their confinement about the Plot, were now discharg'd of their impeachment, of wch I gave Lord Arundel of Wardour (52) joy.
Oates (35), who had but two dayes before ben pilloried at severall places and whipt at ye carts taile from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day plac'd on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragg'd from prison to Tyburn, and whipt againe all ye way, which some thought to be very severe and extraordinary; but if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents, as I feare he was, his punishment was but what he deserv'd. I chanc'd to pass just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution!

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 22 June 1685. 22 Jun 1685. We had now plentiful raine after 2 yeares excessive drowth and severe winters.
Argyle (56) taken in Scotland and executed, and his party dispers'd.Argyll's Rising.

On 30 Jun 1685 Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (56) was beheaded on the Maiden (an early gullotine) in Edinburgh for his part in Argyll's Rising. His son Archibald Campbell 1st Duke Argyll 1658-1703 (26) succeeded 10th Earl Argyll. Elizabeth Tollemache Duchess Argyll 1659-1735 (25) by marriage Countess Argyll.

On 30 Oct 1685 John Ayloffe 1645-1685 (40) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Temple Bar for his part in the Argyll's Rising.

Death and Burial of Charles II

On 02 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) suffered a sudden apoplectic fit.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

John Evelyn's Diary 04 February 1685. 04 Feb 1685. Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (68), the Bishops of London (53), Durham (52), and Ely (47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (56) and Feversham (44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (44), and especialy Portsmouth (35), and that Nelly (35) might not starve.Death and Burial of Charles II

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 04 February 1685. 04 Feb 1685. Thus died King Charles II (54) of a vigorous and robust constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. He was a Prince of many virtues, and many greate imperfections; debonaire, easy of accesse, not bloudy nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice greate, proper of person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skilfull in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew of many empyrical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathe matics; he lov'd planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living, which pass'd to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had innumerable; this made some buffoons and vitious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favour they abus'd. He tooke delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffer'd the bitches to puppy and give suck, which render'd it very offensive, and indeede made the whole Court nasty and stinking. He would doubtlesse have ben an excellent Prince, had he ben less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, 'and allways in want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to ye detriment of many Indigent persons who had signaly serv'd both him and his father. He frequently and easily chang'd favorites, to his greate prejudice. As to other publiq transactions and unhappy miscarriages, .'tis not here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious opportunities to have made himselfe, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented innumerable mischeifs, had not his too easy nature resign'd him to be manag'd by crafty men, and some abandon'd and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplin'd as he had ben by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures took him off from all application becoming so greate a King. The history of his reigne will certainely be the most wonderfull for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages: the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous restauration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, without ingratitude, but deplore his losse, which for many respects as well as duty I do with all my soul.Death and Burial of Charles II

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 04 February 1685. 04 Feb 1685. I went to London, hearing his Ma* (54) had ben the Monday before (02 Feb 1685) surpriz'd in his bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as physitian) had not ben accidentally present to let him blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Ma* had certainly died that moment, which might have ben of direful consequence, there being nobody else present with the King (54) save this Doctor and one more, as I am assur'd. It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Dr, to let him bloud in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other physitians, which regularly should have ben don, and for want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me *. This rescu'd his Ma* for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complain'd, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupp'd, let bloud in both jugulars, had both vomit and purges, which so rellev'd him that on Thursday hopes of recovery were signified in the publiq Gazette, but that day, about noone, the physitians thought him feaverish. This they seem'd glad of, as being more easily allay'd and methodically dealt with than his former fits; so as they prescrib'd the famous Jesuits powder: but it made him worse, and some very able Doctors who were present did not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp operations us'd by them about his head, so that probably the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made him very weake. Thus he pass'd Thursday night with greate difficulty, when complaining of a paine in his side, they drew 12 ounces more of bloud from him; this was by 6 in the morning on Friday, and it gave him reliefe, but it did not continue, for being now in much paine, and strugling for breath, he lay dozing, and after some conflicts, the physitians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at halfe an houre after eleven in the morning, being the sixth of February 1685, in the 36th yeare of his reigne, and 54th of his age.Death and Burial of Charles II

Read More ...

On 05 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of John Huddlestone 1608-1698 (76).

On 06 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace attended by Charles Scarburgh Physician 1615-1694 (69). His brother James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 February 1685. 14 Feb 1685. The King (54) was this, night very obscurely buried in a vault under Hen. 7th's Chapell at Westminster, without any manner of pomp, and soone forgotten after all this vanity, and the face of the whole Court was exceedingly chang'd into a more solemn and moral behaviour; the new King (51) affecting neither prophanenesse nor buffoonery. All the greate Officers broke their staves over the grave, according to form.Death and Burial of Charles II

On 14 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) was buried without any manner of pomp at Westminster Abbey.

Coronation James II and Mary

John Evelyn's Diary 23 April 1685. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (51) and Queene (26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the King (54) begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.

On 23 Apr 1685 James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland by William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68). Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) crowned Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland.
Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) preached the sermon.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (29) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at Westminster Abbey.
Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (21) was appointed Lord High Constable.

In 1756 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788. Portrait of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 in his Garter Robes.

Monmouth Rebellion

Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

In Jun 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) landed at James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) with Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1655-1701 (29).

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

Battle of Sedgemoor

In 1685 Sharington Talbot 1656-1685 (29) was killed during an altercation with Captain Love following the Battle of Sedgemoor over whose troops fought better.

On 06 Jul 1685 John Berkeley 4th Viscount Fitzhardinge 1650-1712 (35) fought at Westonzoyland Bridgwater during the Battle of Sedgemoor.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 July 1685. 08 Jul 1685. Came news of Monmouth's (36) utter defeate, and the next day of his being taken by Sr Wm Portman (41) and Lord Lumley (35) with the militia of their counties. It seemes the horse, commanded by Lord Grey (29), being newly rais'd and undisciplin'd, were not to be brought in so short a time to endure the fire, which expos'd the foote to the King's (55), so as when Monmouth had led the foote in greate silence and order, thinking to surprize Lieut Gen Lord Feversham (44) newly encamp'd, and given him a smart charge, interchanging both greate and small shot, the horse, breaking their owne ranks, Monmouth (36) gave it over, and fled with Grey (29), leaving their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 2000. The whole number reported to be above 8,000, the King's (55) but 2,700. The slaine were most of them Mendip-miners, who did greate execution with their tooles, and sold their lives very dearely, whilst their leaders flying were pursu'd and taken the next morning, not far from one another. Monmouth (36) had gone 16 miles on foote, changing; his habite for a poore coate, and was found by Lord Lumley (35) in a dry ditch cover'd with fern-brakes, but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might have pass'd for some countryman, his beard being grown so long and so grey as hardly to be known, had not his George [Note. This is possible a reference to the Small St George Pendant] discover'd him, which was found in his pocket. 'Tis said he trembl'd exceedingly all over, not able to speake. Grey (29) was taken not far from him. Most of his party were anabaptists and poore cloth workers of yu country, no gentlemen of account being come in to him. The arch-boutefeu Ferguson, Matthews, *&c. were not yet found. The £5,000 to be given to whoever should bring Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the militia by agreement between Sr Wm Portman (41) and Lord Lumley (35). The battail ended, some words, first In jest, then in passion, pass'd between Sharington Talbot (29) (a worthy gent. son to Sr John Talbot (55), and who had behav'd himselfe very handsomely) and one Capt. Love, both commanders of the militia, as to whose souldiers fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another. Sharington (29) was wounded to death on the spot, to the greate regret of those who knew him. He was Sir John's only son.

Read More ...

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

John Evelyn's Diary 15 July 1685. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell (45), and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King (55), his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke (36), darling of his father (55) and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King (55) being of another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King (55) his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July [Note. Most sources quote 15 Jul 1685]. His mother (55), whose name was Barlow [Note. Lucy Walter is often spoken of incorrectly as Mrs. Walters or Waters, and during her career she seems to have adopted the alias of Mrs. Barlo or Barlow (the name of a family with which the Walters of Pembrokeshire had intermarried). From Dictionary of National Biography.], daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King (55) had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King (55) his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney (89), who was familiar with his mother (55)) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens (90) to sign a certificate of the King's (55) marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney (62), then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney (89), who kept her for some time, till the King (55) hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King (55) she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King (55) owned the child. In the King's (55) absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquillity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

Read More ...

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) acted a Chaplain.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

On 16 Jan 1668 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (39) fought a duel at Barn Elms with Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45) with whose wife Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702 (25) he was conducting a relationship. Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45) was fatally wounded dying two months later. Following the duel George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (39) commenced living with Shrewsbury's wife Anne Maria (25). His wife Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720 (29) returned to live with her parents.
Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692 (46) and Jenkins acted as seconds to George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (39). Jenkins was killed.
John Talbot 1630-1714 (37) and Bernard Howard 1641-1717 (27) acted as seconds to Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45). Note. Bernard Howard a guess based on name and age.
On 16 Mar 1668 Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45) died from wounds received duelling. He was buried at Albrighton. His son Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (7) succeeded 12th Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 12th Earl Waterford.

Read More ...

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.In 1659 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.After 1659. After John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720.Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.Before 1718. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 January 1668. 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle (39) the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (39), Holmes, and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (45), Sir John Talbot (37), and one Bernard Howard (27), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (25)1, who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (39). And so her husband (45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham (39): though this is a time that the King (37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (59) to confine the Duke (39), or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall trusted to the King (37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's (45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard's' (39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (20) hath been married this week to my Lord Burlington's (55) daughter (23); so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have (58). But I am mighty glad that the thing is done.
So home, and there alone with my wife and Deb.
To dinner, and after dinner comes Betty Turner (15), and I carried them to the New Exchange, and thence I to White Hall and did a little business at the Treasury, and so called them there, and so home and to cards and supper, and her mother come and sat at cards with us till past 12 at night, and then broke up and to bed, after entering my journall, which made it one before I went to bed.
Note 1. Anna Maria (25), daughter of Robert Brudenel, second Earl of Cardigan (60). Walpole says she held the Duke of Buckingham's (39) horse, in the habit of a page, while he was fighting the duel with her husband. She married, secondly, George Rodney Bridges, son of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, Somerset (51), Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles IL, and died April 20th, 1702. A portrait of the Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, by Lely.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 February 1668. 05 Feb 1668. Up, and I to Captain Cocke's (51), where he and I did discourse of our business that we are to go about to the Commissioners of Accounts about our prizes, and having resolved to conceal nothing but to confess the truth, the truth being likely to do us most good, we parted, and I to White Hall, where missing of the Commissioners of the Treasury, I to the Commissioners of Accounts, where I was forced to stay two hours before I was called in, and when come in did take an oath to declare the truth to what they should ask me, which is a great power; I doubt more than the Act do, or as some say can, give them, to force a man to swear against himself; and so they fell to enquire about the business of prize-goods, wherein I did answer them as well as I could, answer them in everything the just truth, keeping myself to that. I do perceive at last, that, that they did lay most like a fault to me was, that I did buy goods upon my Lord Sandwich's (42) declaring that it was with the King's allowance, and my believing it, without seeing the King's allowance, which is a thing I will own, and doubt not to justify myself in. That that vexed me most was, their having some watermen by, to witness my saying that they were rogues that they had betrayed my goods, which was upon some discontent with one of the watermen that I employed at Greenwich, who I did think did discover the goods sent from Rochester to the Custom-House officer; but this can do me no great harm. They were inquisitive into the minutest particulars, and the evening great information; but I think that they can do me no hurt, at the worst, more than to make me refund, if it must be known, what profit I did make of my agreement with Captain Cocke (51); and yet, though this be all, I do find so poor a spirit within me, that it makes me almost out of my wits, and puts me to so much pain, that I cannot think of anything, nor do anything but vex and fret, and imagine myself undone, so that I am ashamed of myself to myself, and do fear what would become of me if any real affliction should come upon me. After they had done with me, they called in Captain Cocke (51), with whom they were shorter; and I do fear he may answer foolishly, for he did speak to me foolishly before he went in; but I hope to preserve myself, and let him shift for himself as well as he can. So I away, walked to my flageolet maker in the Strand, and there staid for Captain Cocke (51), who took me up and carried me home, and there coming home and finding dinner done, and Mr. Cooke, who come for my Lady Sandwich's (43) plate, which I must part with, and so endanger the losing of my money, which I lent upon my thoughts of securing myself by that plate. But it is no great sum—but £60: and if it must be lost, better that, than a greater sum. I away back again, to find a dinner anywhere else, and so I, first, to the Ship Tavern, thereby to get a sight of the pretty mistress of the house, with whom I am not yet acquainted at all, and I do always find her scolding, and do believe she is an ill-natured devil, that I have no great desire to speak to her. Here I drank, and away by coach to the Strand, there to find out Mr. Moore, and did find him at the Bell Inn, and there acquainted him with what passed between me and the Commissioners to-day about the prize goods, in order to the considering what to do about my Lord Sandwich (42), and did conclude to own the thing to them as done by the King's allowance, and since confirmed.
Thence to other discourse, among others, he mightily commends my Lord Hinchingbroke's (20) match and Lady (23), though he buys her £10,000 dear, by the jointure and settlement his father (42) makes her; and says that the Duke of York (34) and Duchess of York (30) did come to see them in bed together, on their wedding-night, and how my Lord had fifty pieces of gold taken out of his pocket that night, after he was in bed. He tells me that an Act of Comprehension is likely to pass this Parliament, for admitting of all persuasions in religion to the public observation of their particular worship, but in certain places, and the persons therein concerned to be listed of this, or that Church; which, it is thought, will do them more hurt than good, and make them not own, their persuasion. He tells me that there is a pardon passed to the Duke of Buckingham (40), my Lord of Shrewsbury (45), and the rest, for the late duell and murder1 which he thinks a worse fault than any ill use my late Chancellor (58) ever put the Great Seal to, and will be so thought by the Parliament, for them to be pardoned without bringing them to any trial: and that my Lord Privy-Seal (62) therefore would not have it pass his hand, but made it go by immediate warrant; or at least they knew that he would not pass it, and so did direct it to go by immediate warrant, that it might not come to him. He tells me what a character my Lord Sandwich (42) hath sent over of Mr. Godolphin (33), as the worthiest man, and such a friend to him as he may be trusted in any thing relating to him in the world; as one whom, he says, he hath infallible assurances that he will remaine his friend which is very high, but indeed they say the gentleman is a fine man.
Thence, after eating a lobster for my dinner, having eat nothing to-day, we broke up, here coming to us Mr. Townsend of the Wardrobe, who complains of the Commissioners of the Treasury as very severe against my Lord Sandwich (42), but not so much as they complain of him for a fool and a knave, and so I let him alone, and home, carrying Mr. Moore as far as Fenchurch Street, and I home, and there being vexed in my mind about my prize businesses I to my chamber, where my wife and I had much talk of W. Hewer (26), she telling me that he is mightily concerned for my not being pleased with him, and is herself mightily concerned, but I have much reason to blame him for his little assistance he gives me in my business, not being able to copy out a letter with sense or true spelling that makes me mad, and indeed he is in that regard of as little use to me as the boy, which troubles me, and I would have him know it,—and she will let him know it.
By and by to supper, and so to bed, and slept but ill all night, my mind running like a fool on my prize business, which according to my reason ought not to trouble me at all.
Note 1. The royal pardon was thus announced in the "Gazette" of February 24th, 1668: "This day his Majesty was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent services heretofore done to his Majesty by most of the persons who were engaged in the late duel, or rencounter, wherein William Jenkins was killed, he Both graciously pardon the said offence: nevertheless, He is resolved from henceforth that on no pretence whatsoever any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any duel or rencounter, but that the course of law shall wholly take place in all such cases". The warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (40), is dated January 27th, 1668; and on the following day was issued, "Warrant for a grant to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury (45), of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George, Duke of Buckingham (40), Sir John Talbot, Sir Robert Holmes, or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &c". (Calendar of State Papers, 1667-68, pp. 192,193).

Read More ...

Gazette 238. 25 Feb 1668. Whitehall, Feb. 25. This day His Majesty (37) was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent Services heretofore done to His Majesty by most of those persons who were engaged in the late Duel or Rencounter wherein William Jenkins was killed, He doth Graciously pardon the said Offence: Nevertheless, he is resolved from henceforth, that upon no pretence whatsoever, any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any Duel or Rencounter but that the course of Law shall wholly take place in all such Cases; and His Majesty was pleased to command that this His solemn Declaration should be entred in the Council Book, and that publick notice of it be likewise hereby givern that no persons may for the future pretend ignorance thereof.Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 27 Jan 1668. 27 Jan 1688? Petition of John Bennett, high bailiff of Westminster, to the King, for similar recommendation to Bernard Howard (47), Sir John Talbot (57), and Sir Robt. Holmes (66), who were engaged in the encounter in which Wm. Jenkins was slain, but his Majesty is inclined to pardon them before conviction. [Ibid. No. 94.]Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 27 Jan 1668. 27 Jan 1688. Petition of John Bennett, high bailiff of the city and liberties of Westminster, to the King. By the accidental killing of Wm. Jenkins, in a late duel between the Duke of Buckingham (59) and Earl of Shrewsbury (65), the Duke forfeits all his goods, chattels, and personal estate to the King, a considerable part of which, being in Westminster, would come to the petitioner; but as he loses it by his Majesty’s pardon to the Duke, he begs to be recommended to his Grace for some compensation. [Ibid. No. 93.]Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 27 Jan 1668. 27 Jan 1688. Whitehall. Warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (59), of all treason, misprision of treason, felony, &c., especially concerning the killing of Wm. Jenkins, and assaults on Francis Earl of Shrewsbury (65), - or Sir John Talbot (57), whether or not they have died or shall die of the same; with non-obstante of the statutes requiring security for good behaviour. [Ibid. No. 90.]Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 28 Jan 1668. 28 Jan 1688. Whitehall. Warrant for a grant to Francis Earl of Shrewsbury (65) of pardon for killing Wm. Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George Duke of Buckingham (59), Sir John Talbot (57), Sir Robt. Holmes (66), or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 28, f. 12.]Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. The second Earl became a Roman Catholic, and spent most of his long life of 102 years at Deene. His daughter, Lady Anne Brudenell, was one of the most lovely of the beauties associated with the Court of Charles II She married the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the story is well known of how she, dressed as a page, held the Duke of Buckingham's horse whilst he fought with and slew her husband.

1668 Bawdy House Riots

Around 22 Mar 1668, Easter Day, the 1668 Bawdy House Riots were riots over several days caused by Dissenters who resented the King's proclamation against conventicles aka private lay worship while turning a blind eye to the equally illegal brothels. Thousands of young men besieged and demolished brothels throughout the East End, assaulting the prostitutes and looting the properties.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1668. 24 Mar 1668. Up pretty betimes, and so there comes to me Mr. Shish (63), to desire my appearing for him to succeed Mr. Christopher Pett (47), lately dead, in his place of Master-Shipwright of Deptford and Woolwich, which I do resolve to promote what I can. So by and by to White Hall, and there to the Duke of York's (34) chamber, where I understand it is already resolved by the King (37) and Duke of York (34) that Shish (63) shall have the place. From the Duke's chamber Sir W. Coventry (40) and I to walk in the Matted Gallery; and there, among other things, he tells me of the wicked design that now is at last contriving against him, to get a petition presented from people that the money they have paid to W. Coventry (40) for their places may be repaid them back; and that this is set on by Temple and Hollis (25) of the Parliament, and, among other mean people in it, by Captain Tatnell: and he prays me that I will use some effectual way to sift Tatnell what he do, and who puts him on in this business, which I do undertake, and will do with all my skill for his service, being troubled that he is still under this difficulty.
Thence up and down Westminster by Mrs. Burroughes her mother's shop, thinking to have seen her, but could not, and therefore back to White Hall, where great talk of the tumult at the other end of the town, about Moore-fields, among the 'prentices, taking the liberty of these holydays to pull down bawdy-houses1. And, Lord! to see the apprehensions which this did give to all people at Court, that presently order was given for all the soldiers, horse and foot, to be in armes! and forthwith alarmes were beat by drum and Trumpet through Westminster, and all to their colours, and to horse, as if the French were coming into the town! So Creed, whom I met here, and I to Lincolne's Inn-fields, thinking to have gone into the fields to have seen the 'prentices; but here we found these fields full of soldiers all in a body, and my Lord Craven (59) commanding of them, and riding up and down to give orders, like a madman. And some young men we saw brought by soldiers to the Guard at White Hall, and overheard others that stood by say, that it was only for pulling down the bawdy-houses; and none of the bystanders finding fault with them, but rather of the soldiers for hindering them. And we heard a justice of the Peace this morning say to the King (37), that he had been endeavouring to suppress this tumult, but could not; and that, imprisoning some [of them] in the new prison at Clerkenwell, the rest did come and break open the prison and release them; and that they do give out that they are for pulling down the bawdy-houses, which is one of the greatest grievances of the nation. To which the King (37) made a very poor, cold, insipid answer: "Why, why do they go to them, then?" and that was all, and had no mind to go on with the discourse. Mr. Creed and I to dinner to my Lord Crew (70), where little discourse, there being none but us at the table, and my Lord and my Lady Jemimah, and so after dinner away, Creed and I to White Hall, expecting a Committee of Tangier, but come too late. So I to attend the Council, and by and by were called in with Lord Brouncker (48) and Sir W. Pen (46) to advise how to pay away a little money to most advantage to the men of the yards, to make them dispatch the ships going out, and there did make a little speech, which was well liked, and after all it was found most satisfactory to the men, and best for the King's dispatch, that what money we had should be paid weekly to the men for their week's work until a greater sum could be got to pay them their arrears and then discharge them. But, Lord! to see what shifts and what cares and thoughts there was employed in this matter how to do the King's work and please the men and stop clamours would make a man think the King (37) should not eat a bit of good meat till he has got money to pay the men, but I do not see the least print of care or thoughts in him about it at all. Having done here, I out and there met Sir Fr. Hollis (25), who do still tell me that, above all things in the world, he wishes he had my tongue in his mouth, meaning since my speech in Parliament. He took Lord Brouncker (48) and me down to the guards, he and his company being upon the guards to-day; and there he did, in a handsome room to that purpose, make us drink, and did call for his bagpipes, which, with pipes of ebony, tipt with silver, he did play beyond anything of that kind that ever I heard in my life; and with great pains he must have obtained it, but with pains that the instrument do not deserve at all; for, at the best, it is mighty barbarous musick.
So home and there to my chamber, to prick out my song, "It is Decreed", intending to have it ready to give Mr. Harris (34) on Thursday, when we meet, for him to sing, believing that he will do it more right than a woman that sings better, unless it were Knepp, which I cannot have opportunity to teach it to. This evening I come home from White Hall with Sir W. Pen (46), who fell in talk about his going to sea this year, and the difficulties that arise to him by it, by giving offence to the Prince, and occasioning envy to him, and many other things that make it a bad matter, at this time of want of money and necessaries, and bad and uneven counsels at home,—for him to go abroad: and did tell me how much with the King (37) and Duke of York (34) he had endeavoured to be excused, desiring the Prince might be satisfied in it, who hath a mind to go; but he tells me they will not excuse him, and I believe it, and truly do judge it a piece of bad fortune to W. Pen (46).
Note 1. It was customary for the apprentices of the metropolis to avail themselves of their holidays, especially on Shrove Tuesday, to search after women of ill fame, and to confine them during the season of Lent. See a "Satyre against Separatists", 1642. "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday, one a' the silenc'st bricklayers; 'Tis in your charge to pull down bawdy-houses". Middleton's Inner Temple Masque, 1619, Works, ed. Bullen, vii., 209.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 March 1668. 25 Mar 1668. Up, and walked to White Hall, there to wait on the Duke of York (34), which I did: and in his chamber there, first by hearing the Duke of York (34) call me by my name, my Lord Burlington (55) did come to me, and with great respect take notice of me and my relation to my Lord Sandwich (42), and express great kindness to me; and so to talk of my Lord Sandwich's (42) concernments.
By and by the Duke of York (34) is ready; and I did wait for an opportunity of speaking my mind to him about Sir J. Minnes (69), his being unable to do the King (37) any service, which I think do become me to do in all respects, and have Sir W. Coventry's (40) concurrence therein, which I therefore will seek a speedy opportunity to do, come what will come of it. The Duke of York (34) and all with him this morning were full of the talk of the 'prentices, who are not yet [put] down, though the guards and militia of the town have been in armes all this night, and the night before; and the 'prentices have made fools of them, sometimes by running from them and flinging stones at them. Some blood hath been spilt, but a great many houses pulled down; and, among others, the Duke of York (34) was mighty merry at that of Damaris Page's, the great bawd of the seamen; and the Duke of York (34) complained merrily that he hath lost two tenants, by their houses being pulled down, who paid him for their wine licenses £15 a year. But here it was said how these idle fellows have had the confidence to say that they did ill in contenting themselves in pulling down the little bawdyhouses, and did not go and pull down the great bawdy-house at White Hall. And some of them have the last night had a word among them, and it was "Reformation and Reducement". This do make the courtiers ill at ease to see this spirit among people, though they think this matter will not come to much: but it speaks people's minds; and then they do say that there are men of understanding among them, that have been of Cromwell's army: but how true that is, I know not.
Thence walked a little to Westminster, but met with nobody to spend any time with, and so by coach homeward, and in Seething Lane met young Mrs. Daniel, and I stopt, and she had been at my house, but found nobody within, and tells me that she drew me for her Valentine this year, so I took her into the coach, and was going to the other end of the town, thinking to have taken her abroad, but remembering that I was to go out with my wife this afternoon,... and so to a milliner at the corner shop going into Bishopsgate and Leadenhall Street, and there did give her eight pair of gloves, and so dismissed her, and so I home and to dinner, and then with my wife to the King's playhouse to see "The_Storme", which we did, but without much pleasure, it being but a mean play compared with "The Tempest", at the Duke of York's (34) house, though Knepp did act her part of grief very well.
Thence with my wife and Deb. by coach to Islington, to the old house, and there eat and drank till it was almost night, and then home, being in fear of meeting the 'prentices, who are many of them yet, they say, abroad in the fields, but we got well home, and so I to my chamber a while, and then to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1668. 06 Apr 1668. Betimes I to Alderman Backewell (50), and with him to my Lord Ashly's (46), where did a little business about Tangier, and to talk about the business of certificates, wherein, contrary to what could be believed, the King (37) and Duke of York (34) themselves, in my absence, did call for some of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and give them directions about the business [of the certificates], which I, despairing to do any thing on a Sunday, and not thinking that they would think of it themselves, did rest satisfied, and stayed at home all yesterday, leaving it to do something in this day; but I find that the King (37) and Duke of York (34) had been so pressing in it, that my Lord Ashly (46) was more forward with the doing of it this day, than I could have been. And so I to White Hall with Alderman Backewell (50) in his coach, with Mr. Blany; my Lord's Secretary: and there did draw up a rough draught of what order I would have, and did carry it in, and had it read twice and approved of, before my Lord Ashly (46) and three more of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and then went up to the Council-chamber, where the Duke of York (34), and Prince Rupert (48), and the rest of the Committee of the Navy were sitting: and I did get some of them to read it there: and they would have had it passed presently, but Sir John Nicholas desired they would first have it approved by a full Council: and, therefore, a Council Extraordinary was readily summoned against the afternoon, and the Duke of York (34) run presently to the King (37), as if now they were really set to mind their business, which God grant! So I thence to Westminster, and walked in the Hall and up and down, the House being called over to-day, and little news, but some talk as if the agreement between France and Spain were like to be, which would be bad for us, and at noon with Sir Herbert Price (63) to Mr. George Montagu's (45) to dinner, being invited by him in the hall, and there mightily made of, even to great trouble to me to be so commended before my face, with that flattery and importunity, that I was quite troubled with it. Yet he is a fine gentleman, truly, and his lady a fine woman; and, among many sons that I saw there, there was a little daughter that is mighty pretty, of which he is infinite fond: and, after dinner, did make her play on the gittar and sing, which she did mighty prettily, and seems to have a mighty musical soul, keeping time with most excellent spirit. Here I met with Mr. Brownlow, my old schoolfellow, who come thither, I suppose, as a suitor to one of the young ladies that were there, and a sober man he seems to be. But here Mr. Montagu (45) did tell me how Mr. Vaughan (64), in that very room, did say that I was a great man, and had great understanding, and I know not what, which, I confess, I was a little proud of, if I may believe him. Here I do hear, as a great secret, that the King (37), and Duke of York (34) and Duchesse, and my Baroness Castlemayne (27), are now all agreed in a strict league, and all things like to go very current, and that it is not impossible to have my Lord Clarendon (59), in time, here again. But I do hear that my Baroness Castlemayne (27) is horribly vexed at the late libell1, the petition of the poor whores about the town, whose houses were pulled down the other day. I have got one of them, but it is not very witty, but devilish severe against her and the King (37) and I wonder how it durst be printed and spread abroad, which shews that the times are loose, and come to a great disregard of the King (37), or Court, or Government.
Thence I to White Hall to attend the Council, and when the Council rose we find my order mightily enlarged by the Sollicitor Generall (46), who was called thither, making it more safe for him and the Council, but their order is the same in the command of it that I drew, and will I think defend us well. So thence, meeting Creed, he and I to the new Cocke (51)-pitt by the King's gate, and there saw the manner of it, and the mixed rabble of people that come thither; and saw two battles of cocks, wherein is no great sport, but only to consider how these creatures, without any provocation, do fight and kill one another, and aim only at one another's heads, and by their good will not leave till one of them be killed; and thence to the Park in a Hackney coach, so would not go into the tour, but round about the Park, and to the House, and there at the door eat and drank; whither come my Lady Kerneagy (29), of whom Creed tells me more particulars; how her Lord, finding her and the Duke of York (34) at the King's first coming in too kind, did get it out of her that he did dishonour him, and so bid her continue... [Note. Missing text ... to let him, and himself went to the foulest whore he could find, that he might get the pox; and did, and did give his wife it on purpose, that she (and he persuaded and threatened her that she should) might give it the Duke of York; which she did, and he did give it to the Duchesse; and since, all her children are thus sickly and infirm ], which is the most pernicious and full piece of revenge that ever I heard of; and he at this day owns it with great glory, and looks upon the Duke of York (34) and the world with great content in the ampleness of his revenge.
Thence (where the place was now by the last night's rain very pleasant, and no dust) to White Hall, and set Creed down, and I home and to my chamber, and there about my musique notions again, wherein I take delight and find great satisfaction in them, and so, after a little supper, to bed. This day, in the afternoon, stepping with the Duke of York (34) into St. James's Park, it rained: and I was forced to lend the Duke of York (34) my cloak, which he wore through the Park.
Note 1. "The Poor Whores' Petition to the most splendid, illustrious, serene and eminent Lady of Pleasure the Countess of Castlemayne (27), &c., signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, this present 25th day of March, 1668". This sham petition occasioned a pretended answer, entitled, "The Gracious Answer of the Most Illustrious Lady of Pleasure, the Countess of Castlem.... to the Poor Whores' Petition". It is signed, "Given at our Closset, in King Street, Westminster, die Veneris, April 24, 1668. Castlem...". Compare Evelyn, April 2nd, 1668.

Read More ...

Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

On 13 May 1688 the Archbishop of Canterbury and seven bishops were imprisoned for seditious libel: William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (71), Henry Compton Bishop 1632-1713 (56), Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (50), Thomas White Bishop 1628-1698 (60), Thomas Ken Bishop 1637-1711 (50), John Lake Bishop 1624-1689 (64), Jonathan Trelawny Bishop 3rd Baronet 1650-1721 (38) and William Lloyd Bishop 1637-1710 (51). Their crime was to not read the Declaration of Indulgence as required by James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (54).

Around 1675 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Henry Compton Bishop 1632-1713.Around 1720 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Jonathan Trelawny Bishop 3rd Baronet 1650-1721.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 June 1688. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), with the Bishops of Ely (50), Chichester (64), St. Asaph (60), Bristol (38), Peterborough (60), and Bath and Wells (50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf.Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1688. 10 Jun 1688. A YOUNG PRINCE born, which will cause disputes.
About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance discharged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it having been universally given out that her Majesty (58) did not look till the next month.Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 13 June 1688. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (71) and the Bishops of Ely (50), St. Asaph (60), and Bath and Wells (50).Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 15 June 1688. 15 Jun 1688. Being the first day of term, the Bishops were brought to Westminster on habeas corpus, when the indictment was read, and they were called on to plead; their counsel objected that the warrant was illegal; but, after long debate, it was overruled, and they pleaded. The Court then offered to take bail for their appearance; but this they refused, and at last were dismissed on their own recognizances to appear that day fortnight; the Archbishop in £200, the Bishops in £100 each.Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 29 June 1688. 29 Jun 1688. They appeared; the trial lasted from nine in the morning to past six in the evening, when the jury retired to consider of their verdict, and the Court adjourned to nine the next morning. The jury were locked up till that time, eleven of them being for an acquittal; but one (Arnold, a brewer) would not consent. At length he agreed with the others. The Chief Justice, Wright (54), behaved with great moderation and civility to the Bishops. Alibone (52), a Papist, was strongly against them; but Holloway and Powell (56) being of opinion in their favor, they were acquitted. When this was heard, there was great rejoicing; and there was a lane of people from the King's (58) Bench to the water side, on their knees, as the Bishops passed and repassed, to beg their blessing. Bonfires were made that night, and bells rung, which was taken very ill at Court, and an appearance of nearly sixty Earls and Lords, etc., on the bench, did not a little comfort them; but indeed they were all along full of comfort and cheerful.
Note, they denied to pay the Lieutenant of the Tower (Hales (43), who used them very surlily), any fees, alleging that none were due.
The night was solemnized with bonfires, and other fireworks, etc.

On 29 Jun 1688 the seven bishops were tried at the King's Bench. Robert Sawyer Attorney General 1633-1692 (55) acted for the defence. They were found not guilty. Their acquittal resulted in wild celebrations throughout London

John Evelyn's Diary 07 October 1688. 07 Oct 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on 2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. After which, near 1,000 devout persons partook of the Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit, who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had disparaged the Scripture and railed at our translation, which some present contradicting, they pulled him out of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city.
Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's (37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his Majesty (54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's (54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.
The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his Majesty (58) was published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.
NOTE. The Letter was written by John Evelyn ...
My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety, prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her discipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have with some in place who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among well-meaning people of such compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to apprehend. The plan of this and of all that which is to follow of seeming favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have, with other things contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should give his Majesty (58) advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I do not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation of this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, that your Grace is also enjoined to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of Orange is expressly to be named the Invader: of this I presume not to say anything; but for as much as in all the Declarations, etc., which have hitherto been published in pretended favor of the Church of England, there is not once the least mention of the Reformed or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church of England as by Law Established, which Church the Papists tell us is the Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England—that only is established by Law; the Church of England in the Reformed sense so established, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of THAT would by these words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions whatsoever; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the words Reformed and Protestant were added to that of the Church of England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to invade or come against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, though I am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted with all this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as that does αλλοτριοεπισκοπειν; yet I am confident you will not reprove the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with your blessing. Lond., 10 Oct 1688.

Read More ...

1668 Great Barbados Fire

On 18 Apr 1668 a great fire in Bridgetown Barbados destroyed eight hundred building in the town.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 June 1668. 17 Jun 1668. Wednesday. Rose, and paying the reckoning, 12s. 6d.; servants and poor, 2s. 6d.; musick, the worst we have had, coming to our chamber-door, but calling us by wrong names, we lay; so set out with one coach in company, and through Maydenhead, which I never saw before, to Colebrooke by noon; the way mighty good; and there dined, and fitted ourselves a little to go through London, anon. Somewhat out of humour all day, reflecting on my wife's neglect of things, and impertinent humour got by this liberty of being from me, which she is never to be trusted with; for she is a fool.
Thence pleasant way to London, before night, and find all very well, to great content; and there to talk with my wife, and saw Sir W. Pen (47), who is well again. I hear of the ill news by the great fire at Barbados.
By and by home, and there with my people to supper, all in pretty good humour, though I find my wife hath something in her gizzard, that only waits an opportunity of being provoked to bring up; but I will not, for my content-sake, give it. So I to bed, glad to find all so well here, and slept well. [The rough notes end here.]

Test Act

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington 1648-1716 (40) was dismissed by James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (54) for refusing to sign the Test Act.

Glorious Revolution

In 1688 Michael Wharton MP 1648-1725 (40) and Lord Danby (55) secured Kingston upon Hull for the Prince of Orange (37) during the Glorious Revolution.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

In Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (18) and Robert Ferguson Minister 1637-1714 (51) accompanied William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 November 1688. 04 Nov 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince (38) being landed somewhere about Portsmouth, or the Isle of Wight, whereas it was thought it would have been northward. The Court in great hurry. Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 05 November 1688. 05 Nov 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the Prince (38) having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. This put the King (55) and Court into great consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their further progress, for they were got into Exeter, and the season and ways very improper for his Majesty's (58) forces to march so great a distance.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some few of the other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his Majesty (55) that they had never invited any of the Prince's (38) party, or were in the least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his Majesty (55) would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King (58); so they departed.
A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to see or read the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which was set forth at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one before from the States.
These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray God to protect and direct the King (55) for the best and truest interest of his people!—I saw his Majesty (55) touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating.Glorious Revolution

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 14 November 1688. 14 Nov 1688. The Prince (38) increases everyday in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury (26) carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, the Prince's (38) headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord Berkeley (60), at St. John's. The Queen (30) prepares to go to Portsmouth for safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect.Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 18 November 1688. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The King (55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (36) appears for the Prince (38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his Majesty (55) to call a Parliament. The King (55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever.Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1688. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.Glorious Revolution

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 13 December 1688. 13 Dec 1688. The King (55) flies to sea, puts in at Faversham for ballast; is rudely treated by the people; comes back to Whitehall.
The Prince of Orange (38) is advanced to Windsor, is invited by the King (55) to St. James's, the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (38) goes privately to Rochester; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present).Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 17 December 1688. 17 Dec 1688. That night was a Council; his Majesty (38) refuses to assent to all the proposals; goes away again to Rochester.Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 18 December 1688. 18 Dec 1688. I saw the King (55) take barge to Gravesend at twelve o'clock—a sad sight! The Prince (38) comes to St. James's, and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough (67), and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland (47) flies; Sir Edward Hale (43), Walker, and others, taken and secured.
All the world go to see the Prince (38) at St. James's, where there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased.Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 24 December 1688. 24 Dec 1688. The King (55) passes into France, whither the Queen (30) and child were gone a few days before.Glorious Revolution

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) in recognition of his (40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Frances Jones Countess Scarborough 1667-1722 (23) by marriage Countess Scarborough.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire 1646-1710 (48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

Before 1708 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707.In 1697 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707.Around 1660 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707.Around 1655. Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds 1629-1704 (65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) was created 1st Earl Romney 1C 1694 by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury and 1st Marquess Alton by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) was created 1st Earl Orford 1C 1697 by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46) in recognition of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

Around 1715 Thomas Gibson Painter 1680-1751. Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727.Around 1682 Thomas Murray Painter 1663-1735. Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 and Captain John Benbow, and Admiral Ralph Delavall .

Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington 1648-1716 (40) carried the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven to The Hague.

In Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (18) and Robert Ferguson Minister 1637-1714 (51) accompanied William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) in recognition of his (40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Frances Jones Countess Scarborough 1667-1722 (23) by marriage Countess Scarborough.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds 1629-1704 (65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire 1646-1710 (48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) was created 1st Earl Romney 1C 1694 by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury and 1st Marquess Alton by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) was created 1st Earl Orford 1C 1697 by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46) in recognition of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

In Oct 1714 John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol 1665-1751 (49) was created 1st Earl Bristol 2C 1714 for having supported the Glorious Revolution.

1738 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman Painter 1694-1744. Portrait of John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol 1665-1751.

Coronation William III and Mary II

On 09 Apr 1689 a number of new peers were created at the Coronation William III and Mary II ...
Charles Paulet 1st Duke Bolton 1630-1699 (59) was created 1st Duke Bolton.
Charles Mordaunt 3rd Earl Peterborough 1st Earl Monmouth 1658-1735 (31) was created 1st Earl Monmouth. Carey Fraser Countess Peterborough Countess Monmouth 1660-1709 (29) by marriage Countess Monmouth.
Thomas Belasyse 1st Earl Fauconberg 1627-1700 (62) was created 1st Earl Fauconberg 1C 1689. Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg 1637-1713 (52) by marriage Countess Fauconberg.
William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland 1649-1709 (39) was created 1st Earl of Portland 2C 1689.

Read More ...

Around 1685 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Charles Mordaunt 3rd Earl Peterborough 1st Earl Monmouth 1658-1735.Around 1700 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Carey Fraser Countess Peterborough Countess Monmouth 1660-1709. One of the Hampton Court Beauties.1651. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Belasyse 1st Earl Fauconberg 1627-1700. Inscribed M D Hout.Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg 1637-1713.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 April 1689. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of Westminster, with the great feast in Westminster Hall, at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet (45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall. When the King (38) and Queen (26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King (58) and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.
Much of the splendor of the proceeding was abated by the absence of divers who should have contributed to it, there being but five Bishops, four Judges (no more being yet sworn), and several noblemen and great ladies wanting; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day the House of Commons went and kissed their new Majesties' hands in the Banqueting House.

Read More ...

On 11 Apr 1689 William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) were crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (33) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports.
George Compton 4th Earl of Northampton 1664-1727 (24) bore the King's sceptre and cross at Westminster Abbey. Coronation William III and Mary II

Around 1758 Pompeo Batoni Painter 1708-1787. Portrait of George Compton 4th Earl of Northampton 1664-1727.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 April 1689. 12 Apr 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to visit my Lord of Canterbury (58) at Lambeth, who had excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London (57), assisted by the Archbishop of York (74). We had much private and free discourse with his Grace (58) concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.
We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and prejudice it might cause, should the new oath, now on the anvil, be imposed on any, save such as were in new office, without any retrospect to such as either had no office, or had been long in office, who it was likely would have some scruples about taking a new oath, having already sworn fidelity to the government as established by law. This we all knew to be the case of my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (58), and some other persons who were not so fully satisfied with the Convention making it an abdication of King James, to whom they had sworn allegiance.
King James (55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades (82), whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King (55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor Prince (55) is managed by the French.
Scotland declares for King William (38) and Queen Mary (26), with the reasons of their setting aside King James (55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.

Read More ...

On 22 Apr 1689 Elizabeth Butler Countess Derby 1660-1717 (29) was appointed Principal Lady in Waiting to Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) as well as Groom of the Stool and Mistress of the Robes attracting a salary of £1200 per annum (£800 and £400 respectively).

Act of Poll

John Evelyn's Diary 26 April 1689. 26 Apr 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates (39), as to the charge against him of perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to the Archbishop (72) at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph (61) considered the killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi., that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King of Sweden's (94) (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone travels.
There now came certain news that King James (55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.
A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!
Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing,—threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.
A fight by Admiral Herbert (41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor—so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (38) and Queen (26) on their accession to the crown.

Read More ...

Grant to the King and Queen of 10s. in every £100 of Personal Estate.
Wee Your Majestyes most Dutyfull and Loyal Subjects the Commons Assembled in Parlyament haveing entred into a Serious Consideration of the great and extraordinary Expences in which Your Majesties are Engaged for the Reduceing of Ireland and for the Carrying on the Warr against the French King In order towards the Enabling Your Majesties to Prosecute the said Ends with Speede and Vigour doe most humbly present to Your Majestyes a Free Gift of the severall Sums of Money hereafter specified Beseeching Your Majestyes that it may be Enacted And bee it Enacted by the King and Queens most Excellent Majestyes by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and of the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled and by the Authoritie of the same That all and every Person and Persons Bodies Politick and Corporate Guilds or Fraternities within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede haveing any Personall Estate either in Debts oweing to them within this Realme or without which he she or they doe not account as desperate other then such Debts as now are or shall be oweing from Their Majestyes (over and besides such just Debts as he she or they shall bona fide owe) or in ready Moneys shall yield and pay unto Their Majestyes for every Hundred pounds in such Debts and ready Moneys the Summe of Ten shillings (to be paid by the Lender notwithstanding any Agreement to the contrary) to be Assessed Imposed Levyed and Collected in manner herein after mentioned.
II. Public Officers (Exceptions) to pay is. for every 20s. of the Profits of their Offices.
III. Pensions, &c. from Government exceeding £20 per Ann. to pay is in the Pound.
IV. Judges, Serjeants at Law, Barristers, Advocates, and Persons practising Physick, to pay 3s. in the Pound.
V. Rates of Payments by Peers, &c.
VI. Gentleman having Estate of £300 or more, to pay 20s. though an Infant; under that Estate, on Oath, not charged.
VII. Archbishop, £50. Bishop, £20. Deans, £10. Archdeacons, £2. 10s.
etc.

Read More ...

Act of Indulgence

John Evelyn's Diary 26 April 1689. 26 Apr 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates (39), as to the charge against him of perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to the Archbishop (72) at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph (61) considered the killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi., that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King of Sweden's (94) (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone travels.
There now came certain news that King James (55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.
A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!
Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing,—threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.
A fight by Admiral Herbert (41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor—so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (38) and Queen (26) on their accession to the crown.

Read More ...

Siege of Londonderry

John Evelyn's Diary 25 August 1689. 25 Aug 1689. Hitherto it has been a most seasonable summer. Londonderry relieved after a brave and wonderful holding out.

Battle of Killiecrankie

On 27 Jul 1689 James Seton 4th Earl Dunfermline 1643-1694 (46) fought at Killiecrankie during the Battle of Killiecrankie.

Parliament 2W3

On 20 Mar 1690 William Bowes 1657-1707 (33) was elected MP Durham during the Parliament 2W3.

Battle of the Boyne

In 1690 Dr George Walker 1618-1690 (72) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

John Evelyn's Diary 24 June 1690. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker (72), who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

Read More ...

On 01 Jul 1690 Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne. He was buried at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. His son Charles Schomberg 2nd Duke Schomberg 1645-1693 (44) succeeded 2nd Duke Schomberg.

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) and Catholic James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).
The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74).
The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40), Osmund Mordaunt -1690 and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (49).
For the Irish or Catholic army James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 (33) fought. Richard Hamilton -1717 was captured.

On 12 Jul 1690 General Charles Chalmot de Saint Ruhe 1650-1690 (40) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

On or before 15 Aug 1690 Charles Tuke 2nd Baronet 1671-1690 (19) died of wound received at the Battle of the Boyne fighting for James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).

John Evelyn's Diary 15 August 1690. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 19 July 1691. 19 Jul 1691. In the morning Dr. Tenison (54) preached the first sermon, taking his text from Psalm xxvi. 8. "Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the place where thine honor dwelleth". In concluding, he gave that this should be made a parish church so soon as the Parliament sat, and was to be dedicated to the Holy Trinity, in honor of the three undivided persons in the Deity; and he minded them to attend to that faith of the church, now especially that Arianism, Socinianism, and atheism began to spread among us. In the afternoon, Mr. Stringfellow preached on Luke vii. 5. "The centurion who had built a synagogue". He proceeded to the due praise of persons of such public spirit, and thence to such a character of pious benefactors in the person of the generous centurion, as was comprehensive of all the virtues of an accomplished Christian, in a style so full, eloquent, and moving, that I never heard a sermon more apposite to the occasion. He modestly insinuated the obligation they had to that person who should be the author and promoter of such public works for the benefit of mankind, especially to the advantage of religion, such as building and endowing churches, hospitals, libraries, schools, procuring the best editions of useful books, by which he handsomely intimated who it was that had been so exemplary for his benefaction to that place. Indeed, that excellent person, Dr. Tenison, had also erected and furnished a public library [in St. Martin's]; and set up two or three free schools at his own charges. Besides this, he was of an exemplary, holy life, took great pains in constantly preaching, and incessantly employing himself to promote the service of God both in public and private. I never knew a man of a more universal and generous spirit, with so much modesty, prudence, and piety.
The great victory of King William's army in Ireland was looked on as decisive of that war. The French General, St. Ruth (41), who had been so cruel to the poor Protestants in France, was slain, with divers of the best commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having 1,000 killed, but of the enemy 4,000 or 5,000.

Read More ...

Siege of Limerick

In 1690 John Margetson -1690 died at Limerick, County Limerick during the Siege of Limerick.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 August 1690. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

Read More ...

Storming of Cork

On 09 Oct 1690 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (27) was killed at Cork during the Storming of Cork. His son Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton 1683-1757 (6) succeeded 2nd Duke Grafton 1C 1675, 2nd Earl Euston, 2nd Viscount Ipswich, 2nd Baron Sudbury.

Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

John Evelyn's Diary 10 April 1691. 10 Apr 1691. This night, a sudden and terrible fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery at Whitehall to the water side, beginning at the apartment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (41) [Note. Not clear why 'late' since Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (41) died in 1734; possibly relates to her fall from grace following the death of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (60)] (which had been pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who debauched both King Charles II (60) and others, and were his destruction.
The King (40) returned out of Holland just as this accident happened—Proclamation against the Papists, etc.Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

Battle of Aughrim

On 12 Jul 1691 Theobald Dillon 7th Viscount Dillon -1691 was killed at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

On 12 Jul 1691 John Hamilton -1691 was killed in action fighting for the Jacobites at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York

On 24 Jan 1692 Shubael Dummer 1636-1692 (56) was killed at York York County Maine during the Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York.

William III Creation of New Lords

John Evelyn's Diary 28 February 1692. 28 Feb 1692. Lord Marlborough (41) having used words against the King (41), and been discharged from all his great places, his wife (31) was forbidden the Court, and the Princess of Denmark (27) was desired by the Queen (29) to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court to Sion house. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel (53), Sir William Fermor (43), etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The Duke of Norfolk (37) does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.

On 11 Apr 1692 Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696 (54) was created 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (41).

Around 1655 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696.

On 12 Apr 1692 William Fermor 1st Baron Leominster 1648-1711 (43) was created 1st Baron Leominster by William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (41). Catherine Paulett Baroness Leominster by marriage Baroness Leominster.

Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue

John Evelyn's Diary 15 May 1692. 15 May 1692. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now married to Sir Cyril Wyche (60), Secretary of State for Ireland. After all our apprehensions of being invaded, and doubts of our success by sea, it pleased God to give us a great naval victory, to the utter ruin of the French fleet, their admiral and all their best men-of-war, transport-ships, etc.

Turkish Fleet Disaster

On 01 Mar 1694 the Turkish Fleet was lost in a severe storm off Gibralter. Sussex sank with the loss of five hundred men.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 March 1694. 22 Mar 1694. Came the dismal news of the disaster befallen our Turkey fleet by tempest, to the almost utter ruin of that trade, the convoy of three or four men-of-war, and divers merchant ships, with all their men and lading, having perished.

Glencoe Massacre

In 1695 John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697 (69) ordered an inquiry into the Glencoe Massacre.

Around 1728 William Aikman Painter 1682-1731. Portrait of John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697.

Battle of Steenkerque

On 03 Aug 1692 George Hamilton -1692 was killed in action at Steenkerque during the Battle of Steenkerque.

Battle of Marsaglia

On 04 Oct 1693 Charles Schomberg 2nd Duke Schomberg 1645-1693 (48) fought for Spain and Savoy at Marsaglia during the Battle of Marsaglia: Spain and Savoy.

Death of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House.
On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey. Thomas Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury 1636-1715 (58) preached the sermon.
She had reigned for five years. Her husband William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 December 1694. 29 Dec 1694. The smallpox increased exceedingly, and was very mortal. The Queen (32) died of it on the 28th.

Funeral of Queen Mary II

John Evelyn's Diary 05 March 1695. 05 Mar 1695. I went to see the ceremony. Never was so universal a mourning; all the Parliament men had cloaks given them, and four hundred poor women; all the streets hung and the middle of the street boarded and covered with black cloth. There were all the nobility, mayor, aldermen, judges, etc.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 March 1695. 08 Mar 1695. I supped at the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry's (67), who related to me the pious behavior of the Queen (32) in all her sickness, which was admirable. She never inquired of what opinion persons were, who were objects of charity; that, on opening a cabinet, a paper was found wherein she had desired that her body might not be opened, or any extraordinary expense at her funeral, whenever she should die. This paper was not found in time to be observed. There were other excellent things under her own hand, to the very least of her debts, which were very small, and everything in that exact method, as seldom is found in any private person. In sum, she was such an admirable woman, abating for taking the Crown without a more due apology, as does, if possible, outdo the renowned Queen Elizabeth.

Nine Year's War

In Jan 1695 James Killigrew -1695 was killed during the Nine Year's War.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

John Evelyn's Diary 26 February 1696. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais, an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the Duke of Berwick (25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 08 March 1696. 08 Mar 1696. Divers of the conspirators tried and condemned.
Vesuvius breaking out, terrified Naples. Three [Note. Robert Charnock, Edward King, and Thomas Keys] of the unhappy wretches, whereof one was a priest, were executed for intending to assassinate the King (65); they acknowledged their intention, but acquitted King James of inciting them to it, and died very penitent. Divers more in danger, and some very considerable persons.1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III
Great frost and cold.1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

In Apr 1696 John Friend Jacobite -1696 and William Parkyns 1649-1696 (47) were executed for taking part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 April 1696. 10 Apr 1696. The quarters of Sir William Perkins (47) and Sir John Friend, lately executed on the plot, with Perkins's (47) head, were set up at Temple Bar, a dismal sight, which many pitied. I think there never was such at Temple Bar till now, except once in the time of King Charles II, namely, of Sir Thomas Armstrong (63).

John Evelyn's Diary 19 April 1696. 19 Apr 1696. Great offense taken at the three ministers who absolved Sir William Perkins (47) and Friend at Tyburn. One of them (Snatt) was a son of my old schoolmaster. This produced much altercation as to the canonicalness of the action.1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

John Evelyn's Diary 28 April 1696. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James (62), which he presumed to present to King William (45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved Queen's (33) own father.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 May 1696. 13 May 1696. I went to London to meet my son (41), newly come from Ireland, indisposed. Money still continuing exceedingly scarce, so that none was paid or received, but all was on trust, the mint not supplying for common necessities. The Association with an oath required of all lawyers and officers, on pain of Praemunire, whereby men were obliged to renounce King James as no rightful king, and to revenge King William's death, if happening by assassination. This to be taken by all the Counsel by a day limited, so that the Courts of Chancery and King's Bench hardly heard any cause in Easter Term, so many crowded to take the oath. This was censured as a very entangling contrivance of the Parliament in expectation, that many in high office would lay down, and others surrender. Many gentlemen taken up on suspicion of the late plot, were now discharged out of prison.

On 25 Nov 1696 Michael Biddulph 2nd Baronet 1654-1718 (42) voted for the attainder of John Fenwick 3rd Baronet 1645-1697 (51).1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

John Evelyn's Diary 17 January 1697. 17 Jan 1697. The severe frost and weather relented, but again froze with snow. Conspiracies continue against King William. Sir John Fenwick (52) was beheaded.1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

On 28 Jan 1697 John Fenwick 3rd Baronet 1645-1697 (52) was beheaded for his part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

1696 Oath of Association

John Evelyn's Diary 13 May 1696. 13 May 1696. I went to London to meet my son (41), newly come from Ireland, indisposed. Money still continuing exceedingly scarce, so that none was paid or received, but all was on trust, the mint not supplying for common necessities. The Association with an oath required of all lawyers and officers, on pain of Praemunire, whereby men were obliged to renounce King James as no rightful king, and to revenge King William's death, if happening by assassination. This to be taken by all the Counsel by a day limited, so that the Courts of Chancery and King's Bench hardly heard any cause in Easter Term, so many crowded to take the oath. This was censured as a very entangling contrivance of the Parliament in expectation, that many in high office would lay down, and others surrender. Many gentlemen taken up on suspicion of the late plot, were now discharged out of prison.

1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace

John Evelyn's Diary 05 January 1698. 05 Jan 1698. Whitehall burned, nothing but walls and ruins left. See 1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace.

1698 General Election

In 1698 Thomas Coke 1674-1727 (23) was elected MP Derby at the 1698 General Election which seat he held until Dec 1701.

Whitehall Palace Fire

On 04 Jan 1698 Whitehall Palace was burned to the ground. The only remaining building was the Banqueting House.