Armour

Armour is in Church Monument Details.

Aillettes

Aillettes are an early form of shoulder protection being flat pieces of, typically, boiled leather.

Around 1325. Monument to an unknown member of the de Vere Family in St Michael & All Angels Church Great Tew notable for the armour having Aillettes. Right Leg over Left. Early Medieval Period.

Bascinet

Bevor

Bevor. Plate armour designed to protect the lower face and neck. Derived from the French 'baver' meaning to dribble.

Fluted Period. Armour characterised by the Sallet with a Bevor (these aren't usually included in effgies) and a breastplate in two pieces. Male effigies of this period are characterised by having no facial hair, and short haircuts not dis-similar to a "Bob" haircut.
The photos are of a harness based on the effigy at Church of St Michael and All Angels Thornhill commissioned by Mark Dowling from armourer Fred Ryall. Photos by permission of Mark Dowling.

Sallet. The Sallet was a development of the Bascinet worn without an Camail in which the back of the helmet extended out into a flange to protect the neck, and the sides of the helmet were drawn forward below the level of the eyes to protect the cheeks. The Sallet was usually worn with a Bevor.

Camail

Camail. Sometimes 'aventail'. A camail is chain-mail that hangs from a bascinet.

Around 1340 the Camail and Jupon Period starts; around the time of the commencement of the Hundred Years War. Knights wear a bascinet with camail and a jupon. The Camail and Jupon Period is also characterised by the heavy belts slung low on the hips from which the sword was slung. Effigies of this period are characterised by having facial hair, and their hands clasped in prayer on the chest. Male effigies of this period have their head resting on Great Helms usually surmounted by their Crest.

After 10 Jul 1359. Monument to William Greystoke 2nd Baron Greystoke 1321-1359 in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Camail and Jupon Period. On his head he wears the bascinet with a camail. The jupon under which his coat of chain mail may be seen. His sword belt is low on his jupon, horizontal.

In 1436 John Greystoke 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1436 (47) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church Greystoke. His son Ralph Greystoke 5th Baron Greystoke 1414-1487 (22) succeeded 5th Baron Greystoke. Monument in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Fluted Period. His Pauldrons are unusual in their style. His arms are fully encased in plate with a couter (or coude) protecting the elbow joint. Fine detail of the straps that held the armour in place may be seen on the underarms. A gorget, has replaced the camail. His head is, very unusually, bare as is his face, his hair cut in the style so typical of portraits of Henry V. Gardner1 states It is a remarkable fact that before 1440 the bare-headed warrior is almost unknown, while after 1455 the helmeted knight is almost equally rare. This may suggest the effigy was made somewhat After John's death or, possibly, that the effigy has been incorrectly assigned. His head rests on the decorated tournament helm. He wears the Lancastrian Esses Collar. John had supported the usurpation of Richard II by Henry IV in the 1390s; staunch Lancastrians. John had married, in 1407, Elizabeth Ferrers, daughter of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Two sword belts: diagonal (bawdric) and horizontal. The jupon, beneath the waist has been replaced by a fauld; horizontal strips of metal that wrap around.

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Bascinet. A open-faced military helmet with a pointed apex that covers the head and protects the neck. Typically worn with a camail. Bascinets developed with the addition of an orle. Later bascinets incorporating a visor.

Gorget. Armoured throat protection that replaced the camail in the late 14th Century. From the French 'gorge' meaning throat.

Sallet. The Sallet was a development of the Bascinet worn without an Camail in which the back of the helmet extended out into a flange to protect the neck, and the sides of the helmet were drawn forward below the level of the eyes to protect the cheeks. The Sallet was usually worn with a Bevor.

Couter

Couter. Sometimes 'cowter', sometimes 'cop' is armour that covers the elbow.

In 1436 John Greystoke 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1436 (47) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church Greystoke. His son Ralph Greystoke 5th Baron Greystoke 1414-1487 (22) succeeded 5th Baron Greystoke. Monument in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Fluted Period. His Pauldrons are unusual in their style. His arms are fully encased in plate with a couter (or coude) protecting the elbow joint. Fine detail of the straps that held the armour in place may be seen on the underarms. A gorget, has replaced the camail. His head is, very unusually, bare as is his face, his hair cut in the style so typical of portraits of Henry V. Gardner1 states It is a remarkable fact that before 1440 the bare-headed warrior is almost unknown, while after 1455 the helmeted knight is almost equally rare. This may suggest the effigy was made somewhat After John's death or, possibly, that the effigy has been incorrectly assigned. His head rests on the decorated tournament helm. He wears the Lancastrian Esses Collar. John had supported the usurpation of Richard II by Henry IV in the 1390s; staunch Lancastrians. John had married, in 1407, Elizabeth Ferrers, daughter of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Two sword belts: diagonal (bawdric) and horizontal. The jupon, beneath the waist has been replaced by a fauld; horizontal strips of metal that wrap around.

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Around 1456 John Curzon 1380-1456 (76) died. Monument in All Saints Church Kedleston to John Curzon 1380-1456 (76) and Joan Bagot 1400- (56). Fluted Period. Eagle Crest. Lancastrian Esses Collar. Couters. Pauldrons. Sabatons.

Faulds

Faulds. Articulated over-lapping horizontal lames of metal that hand from a knights breast-plate to protect the thighs sometimes with chain-mail tassets beneath to afford further protection.

Around 1465. All Saints Church Harewood. Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 (56) and Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter 1397-1462 (68). Fluted Period. Suns and Roses Collar. His bare head, with finely detailed hair, no facial hair, rests on an unusual helm which appears to be a Maiden's Face, with an orle. Below the waist faulds and tassets under which mail may be seen. Both rest on a chest tomb with finely detailed weepers on each side. She, on his right, with a Widow's Barbe drawn up to her chin at the finely carved end of her dress two dogs, one pulling at the folds. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Dress Folds at Feet.

Tassets. A tasset is plate armour worn to protect the thigh attached either to the breastplate or faulds. In the 17th Century faulds had been replaced by large tassets.

Gorget

Gorget. Armoured throat protection that replaced the camail in the late 14th Century. From the French 'gorge' meaning throat.

After 22 Mar 1354. Monument to Edmund Cornwall 1280-1354 at St Mary's Church Burford. Early Plate Bascinet and Gorget Period. Feet resting on a Lion. Curious laminated gorget.

On 11 Apr 1418 John Harrington 4th Baron Harington 1384-1418 (34) died. He was buried in the Lady Chapel of St Dubricius Church Porlock. His brother William Harrington 5th Baron Harington 1390-1457 (28) succeeded 5th Baron Harington. 18 Oct 1471 Elizabeth Courtenay Baroness Bonville and Harington -1471 died. She was buried at St Dubricius Church Porlock.
Monument to John Harrington 4th Baron Harington 1384-1418 (34) and Elizabeth Courtenay Baroness Bonville and Harington -1471. Finely carved alabaster. Monument of the Early Plate Bascinet and Gorget Period. Note the decorated orle and the plate gorget (throat protection), Hip Belt and the Horses Head Crest. She wearing a Crespine Headress. Chunky Lions Mane. Angels Supporting Pillow.

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In 1436 John Greystoke 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1436 (47) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church Greystoke. His son Ralph Greystoke 5th Baron Greystoke 1414-1487 (22) succeeded 5th Baron Greystoke. Monument in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Fluted Period. His Pauldrons are unusual in their style. His arms are fully encased in plate with a couter (or coude) protecting the elbow joint. Fine detail of the straps that held the armour in place may be seen on the underarms. A gorget, has replaced the camail. His head is, very unusually, bare as is his face, his hair cut in the style so typical of portraits of Henry V. Gardner1 states It is a remarkable fact that before 1440 the bare-headed warrior is almost unknown, while after 1455 the helmeted knight is almost equally rare. This may suggest the effigy was made somewhat After John's death or, possibly, that the effigy has been incorrectly assigned. His head rests on the decorated tournament helm. He wears the Lancastrian Esses Collar. John had supported the usurpation of Richard II by Henry IV in the 1390s; staunch Lancastrians. John had married, in 1407, Elizabeth Ferrers, daughter of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Two sword belts: diagonal (bawdric) and horizontal. The jupon, beneath the waist has been replaced by a fauld; horizontal strips of metal that wrap around.

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The armour of the Early Plate Bascinet and Gorget Period was developed after experience in battle had shown the throat vulnerable. A gorget was added, attached to the bascinet, to protect the throat.

Jupon

Jupon aka surcoat. A heavily padded jacket affording additional protection to the shoulders, upper arms, torso and upper legs. The bottom of the jupon was often decorated, sometimes roundels, sometimes scallops. The jupon was sometimes decoated with Knight's Arms becoming, literally, a Coat of Arms

Around 1340 the Camail and Jupon Period starts; around the time of the commencement of the Hundred Years War. Knights wear a bascinet with camail and a jupon. The Camail and Jupon Period is also characterised by the heavy belts slung low on the hips from which the sword was slung. Effigies of this period are characterised by having facial hair, and their hands clasped in prayer on the chest. Male effigies of this period have their head resting on Great Helms usually surmounted by their Crest.

After 10 Jul 1359. Monument to William Greystoke 2nd Baron Greystoke 1321-1359 in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Camail and Jupon Period. On his head he wears the bascinet with a camail. The jupon under which his coat of chain mail may be seen. His sword belt is low on his jupon, horizontal.

On 26 Jul 1375 Richard Pembridge 1320-1375 (55) died. Hereford Cathedral. Alabaster altar-tomb and effigy, altar-tomb with moulded base and capping, sides and ends panelled with alternate quatrefoils enclosing shields of his arms and trefoil-headed panels; effigy in bascinet, Camail and Jupon Period. His jupon with same arms as his shield. Hip Belt, Leg Garter, right leg modern, head on helm crested with a Feathered Crest, feet on hound.

In 1436 John Greystoke 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1436 (47) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church Greystoke. His son Ralph Greystoke 5th Baron Greystoke 1414-1487 (22) succeeded 5th Baron Greystoke. Monument in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Fluted Period. His Pauldrons are unusual in their style. His arms are fully encased in plate with a couter (or coude) protecting the elbow joint. Fine detail of the straps that held the armour in place may be seen on the underarms. A gorget, has replaced the camail. His head is, very unusually, bare as is his face, his hair cut in the style so typical of portraits of Henry V. Gardner1 states It is a remarkable fact that before 1440 the bare-headed warrior is almost unknown, while after 1455 the helmeted knight is almost equally rare. This may suggest the effigy was made somewhat After John's death or, possibly, that the effigy has been incorrectly assigned. His head rests on the decorated tournament helm. He wears the Lancastrian Esses Collar. John had supported the usurpation of Richard II by Henry IV in the 1390s; staunch Lancastrians. John had married, in 1407, Elizabeth Ferrers, daughter of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Two sword belts: diagonal (bawdric) and horizontal. The jupon, beneath the waist has been replaced by a fauld; horizontal strips of metal that wrap around.

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Lames

Lames. Solid metal armour used as a component of an articulated larger section. Lames are sometimes riveted together, sometimes attached with leather.

Around 1470. Church of St John the Baptist Dronfield. Monument to Richard Barley. Alabaster. Fluted Period. Large Tassets overlaying lames. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Faulds. Articulated over-lapping horizontal lames of metal that hand from a knights breast-plate to protect the thighs sometimes with chain-mail tassets beneath to afford further protection.

Spaulder. Plate armour covering the shoulder. Typically a single plate of steel or iron covering the shoulder with lames joined by straps of leather or rivets extending over the upper arm.

Misericorde

Misericorde. A pointed dagger literally 'act of mercy' used to kill an injured opponent.

After 17 Jan 1425. Monument in Church of St Oswald Methley to Robert Waterton Constable 1360-1425 and Cecily Fleming.
York School of Carving. Crocketed arch. He in Early Plate Bascinet Period armour. Large Orle highly decorated with head resting on great helm with feathered crest. Beard with spiral twists. Collar Esses and Crowns Alternating. Misericorde. Hip Belt with decorated buckle. She wearing a squared crespine headress and small Esses_collar. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields. Chunky Lions Mane.

After 11 Sep 1504. All Saints Church Turvey. Monument to John Mordaunt 1455-1504 and Edith Latimer 1450-1504.
Fluted Period. Angels Supporting Pillow. Dress Folds at Feet. Misericorde. Tassets. Crespine Headress. Lancastrian Esses Collar with Big Esses. Screaming Man crest, possibly Saracen's Head Crest. Harpur and Moorecock of Burton on Trent. Dogs chewing at her dress. Some uncertainty about the attribution. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Swirling Tail. Chunky Lions Mane.

Orle

Pauldron

In 1436 John Greystoke 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1436 (47) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church Greystoke. His son Ralph Greystoke 5th Baron Greystoke 1414-1487 (22) succeeded 5th Baron Greystoke. Monument in St Andrew's Church Greystoke. Fluted Period. His Pauldrons are unusual in their style. His arms are fully encased in plate with a couter (or coude) protecting the elbow joint. Fine detail of the straps that held the armour in place may be seen on the underarms. A gorget, has replaced the camail. His head is, very unusually, bare as is his face, his hair cut in the style so typical of portraits of Henry V. Gardner1 states It is a remarkable fact that before 1440 the bare-headed warrior is almost unknown, while after 1455 the helmeted knight is almost equally rare. This may suggest the effigy was made somewhat After John's death or, possibly, that the effigy has been incorrectly assigned. His head rests on the decorated tournament helm. He wears the Lancastrian Esses Collar. John had supported the usurpation of Richard II by Henry IV in the 1390s; staunch Lancastrians. John had married, in 1407, Elizabeth Ferrers, daughter of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Two sword belts: diagonal (bawdric) and horizontal. The jupon, beneath the waist has been replaced by a fauld; horizontal strips of metal that wrap around.

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Around 1456 John Curzon 1380-1456 (76) died. Monument in All Saints Church Kedleston to John Curzon 1380-1456 (76) and Joan Bagot 1400- (56). Fluted Period. Eagle Crest. Lancastrian Esses Collar. Couters. Pauldrons. Sabatons.

Pauldrons. Pauldrons are armour at the shoulders.

Sabaton

Around 1456 John Curzon 1380-1456 (76) died. Monument in All Saints Church Kedleston to John Curzon 1380-1456 (76) and Joan Bagot 1400- (56). Fluted Period. Eagle Crest. Lancastrian Esses Collar. Couters. Pauldrons. Sabatons.

On 02 Mar 1484 Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 (56) died at Norbury. He was buried at Church of St Barlok Norbury.
On 20 Oct 1490 Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490 (53) died. She was buried at Church of St Barlok Norbury.
Monument to Ralph and Elizabeth. Finely made in Chellaston alabaster of the Fluted Period. His effigy notable for being the only remaining with the Yorkist Boar Pendant (boar of Richard III) on his Suns and Roses Collar. Bobbed hair with finely detailed ringlets. No facial hair. The chest finely made with weepers on the three extant sides. On one side five single men (a knight, a monk, two merchants and one unknown), and one couple. On the other side women, four single, two duos. Ralph and Elizabeth had twelve children, six male, six female so probable the weepers represent their children, possibly with spouses, possibly with offspring since in the two females duos there is a noticeable difference in height. Suns and Roses Collar. Fine Sabatons, the armoured feet, with spurs. Note the Bedesman under the right foot. Unlikely the sculptor had ever seen a lion. Feet resting on a Lion. The Fitzherbert Clenched Fist Crest. A finely carved Horned Headdress. A finely carved collar with Mary and baby Jesus pendant. A Bedesman looking somewhat bored. Excellent weepers on all sides, probably their issue, possibly with grandchildren, on the longer sides since they had six boys and six girls. Possibly Harpur and Moorecock of Burton on Trent. Swirling Tail. Chunky Lions Mane. Chest with Weepers holding Shields.

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Sabatons. Sabatons are articulated armour of the feet typically worn by mounted knights.

Sallet

Sallet. The Sallet was a development of the Bascinet worn without an Camail in which the back of the helmet extended out into a flange to protect the neck, and the sides of the helmet were drawn forward below the level of the eyes to protect the cheeks. The Sallet was usually worn with a Bevor.

Fluted Period. Armour characterised by the Sallet with a Bevor (these aren't usually included in effgies) and a breastplate in two pieces. Male effigies of this period are characterised by having no facial hair, and short haircuts not dis-similar to a "Bob" haircut.
The photos are of a harness based on the effigy at Church of St Michael and All Angels Thornhill commissioned by Mark Dowling from armourer Fred Ryall. Photos by permission of Mark Dowling.

Spaulder

Spaulder. Plate armour covering the shoulder. Typically a single plate of steel or iron covering the shoulder with lames joined by straps of leather or rivets extending over the upper arm.

Standard

Standard. Chain-mail that covers the neck.

Tassets

Tassets. A tasset is plate armour worn to protect the thigh attached either to the breastplate or faulds. In the 17th Century faulds had been replaced by large tassets.

After 30 Mar 1461. Monument in Church of St Oswald Methley to Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 and Joan or Cecily Waterton. He with bobbed hair typical of the period resting on great helm, livery collar of linked chain, standard (the chain mail around the neck), wearing a coat of arms (or (gold) a lion sable (black)), leg garter at the knee, fluted period with tassets that protect the thighs, his feet on a lion. She wearing a horned headdress, her head resting on a cushion supported by angels, small linked collar. Both with hands clasped in prayer with lots of rings. Little dog chewing at her dress. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Angels Supporting Pillow.

Around 1465. All Saints Church Harewood. Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 (56) and Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter 1397-1462 (68). Fluted Period. Suns and Roses Collar. His bare head, with finely detailed hair, no facial hair, rests on an unusual helm which appears to be a Maiden's Face, with an orle. Below the waist faulds and tassets under which mail may be seen. Both rest on a chest tomb with finely detailed weepers on each side. She, on his right, with a Widow's Barbe drawn up to her chin at the finely carved end of her dress two dogs, one pulling at the folds. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Dress Folds at Feet.

Battle of Edgecote Moor

After 24 Jul 1469. St Mary's Church Kington. Thomas Vaughan killed 24 Jul 1469 at the Battle of Edgecote Moor and wife Elena "Terrible" Gethen so called because she murdered her cousin who had murdered her brother. Alabaster. Early Plate Bascinet Period. Tassets. Believed to have been moved from the Chancel since it is decorated on all sides. Possible Harpur and Moorecock of Burton on Trent - see the folds at the base of her dress and the possible little dog between them. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Around 1470. Church of St John the Baptist Dronfield. Monument to Richard Barley. Alabaster. Fluted Period. Large Tassets overlaying lames. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

After 11 Sep 1504. All Saints Church Turvey. Monument to John Mordaunt 1455-1504 and Edith Latimer 1450-1504.
Fluted Period. Angels Supporting Pillow. Dress Folds at Feet. Misericorde. Tassets. Crespine Headress. Lancastrian Esses Collar with Big Esses. Screaming Man crest, possibly Saracen's Head Crest. Harpur and Moorecock of Burton on Trent. Dogs chewing at her dress. Some uncertainty about the attribution. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Swirling Tail. Chunky Lions Mane.

On 18 Nov 1616 or 19 Nov 1616 Thomas Chicheley of Wimpole 1578-1616 (38) died. He was buried in St Andrew's Church Wimpole. Jacobean Period. Two-stage altar tomb in alabaster and black marble with miniature effigies in the lower stage, inscription panels and shield of Chicheley impaled, supporting a recumbent effigy in armour. Tassets.

Faulds. Articulated over-lapping horizontal lames of metal that hand from a knights breast-plate to protect the thighs sometimes with chain-mail tassets beneath to afford further protection.