Beheaded

1075 Revolt of the Earls

1312 Execution of Piers Gaveston

1322 Despencer War Executions

1322 Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

1330 Execution of Edmund of Woodstock

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1388 Merciless Parliament

1397 Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

1399 Execution of Richard II's Favourites

1399 Epiphany Rising

1403 Battle of Shrewsbury

1405 Northern Rising

1415 Southampton Plot

1425 Purge of the Albany Stewarts

1440 Douglas Black Dinner

1450 Murder of William de la Pole

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Battle of Towton

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1464 Battle of Hexham

1469 Execution of Warwick's Supporters

1469 Battle of Edgecote Moor

1469 Execution of the Woodvilles

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1483 Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1485 Execution of Roger Clifford

1495 Perkin Warbreck Plot

1497 Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1535 Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1540 Arrest, Attainder and Execution of Thomas Cromwell

1541 Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1552 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1597 Battle of Carrickfergus

1600 East India Company Chartered

1533 Buggery Act

1641 Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

1644 Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

1643 Trial and Execution of the Hothams

1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

1649 Execution of Charles I

1649 Execution of Three Lords

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1680 Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Argyll's Rising

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1715 Battle of Preston

Beheaded is in Executions.

On 22 Jun 209 (or 251 or 304) St Alban -209 was beheaded.

On 20 May 794 Æthelberht II King East Anglia -794 was beheaded on the orders of Offa King Mercia -796.

Revolt of the Earls

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle William The Conqueror. 1076. This year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, on the mass-day of St. Petronilla; (99) and his body was carried to Croyland, where he lies buried. King William (48) now went over sea, and led his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the Bretons defended it, until the king (23) came from France; whereupon William (48) departed thence, having lost there both men and horses, and many of his treasures.
99. This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv. Yet if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it must be Petronilla.

On 31 May 1076 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon -1076 was beheaded at St Gile's Hill Winchester. His daughter Maud Northumbria 3rd Countess Huntingdon and Northampton Queen Consort Scotland 1074-1131 (2) succeeded 3rd Earl Huntingdon 1C 1065.

On 18 Jan 1256 Maria Reginar Duchess Bavaria 1226-1256 (30) was beheaded having been accused of adultery by her husband Louis "Strict" Wittelsbach II Duke Upper Bavaria 1229-1294 (26) although there was no proof.

On 12 Aug 1270 Alan Zouche 1203-1270 (67) was beheaded at Winchester.

In 1276 Pope Gregory X 1230-1276 (46) was beheaded.

Execution of Piers Gaveston

On 19 Jun 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (28) was taken to Blacklow Hill Leek Wooton where he was beheaded. Blacklow Hill Leek Wooton being outside of the Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315's lands. Gaveston's body was left where it lay eventually being recovered by Dominican friars who took it to Oxford.

Despencer War Executions

On 22 Mar 1322 Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (44) was beheaded at Pontefract Castle.

Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham 1260-1339 (62) at Canterbury.
Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean. He was buried at Whitefriars.

On 17 Nov 1326 Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 (41) was beheaded with a blunt sword requiring twenty-two strokes at Hereford. His son Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 (20) succeeded 10th Earl Arundel Sussex.

Execution of Edmund of Woodstock

On 19 Mar 1330 the King's uncle Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 (28) was beheaded at Winchester Castle. His son Edmund Plantagenet 2nd Earl Kent 1326-1331 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Kent 5C 1321. The executioner was a convicted latrine cleaner who was also facing the death penalty; no-one else would undertake the task. Edmund had been convicted of plotting against the court believing his brother Edward II was still alive. It later emerged the plot had been created by Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (42) to entrap Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 (28). King Edward III England (17) was unable to show leniency risking complicity in the plot.

Peasant's Revolt

On 14 Jun 1381 the rebels gained access to the Tower Hill capturing Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), the future Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (14), Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (1) and Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65).
Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral.

On 14 Jun 1381 Robert Hales 1325-1381 (56) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Peasant's Revolt

On 15 Jun 1381 John Cavendish 1346-1381 (35) was captured at Church of St Mary Cavendish during the Peasant's Revolt. He was beheaded in the Market Place in Bury St Edmunds.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of Richard II King England 1367-1400 (21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.
Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.
Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle. He fled to Louvain where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.
On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian Chief Justice -1388 was hanged naked and his throat cut.
On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre Lord Mayor of London -1388 was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars.
On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley (46).
On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp 1319-1388 (69) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral.
Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (26) was attainted.

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Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

On 21 Sep 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) was tried at Westminster.
He was beheaded at Tower Hill immediately thereafter. His son Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (15) succeeded 10th Earl Surrey 1C 1088, 12th Earl Arundel Sussex.

Execution of Richard II's Favourites

On 29 Jul 1399 William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49), Henry Green 1347-1399 (52) and John Bussy Speaker of the House of Commons -1399 were beheaded at Bristol Castle Bristol.

Epiphany Rising

On 07 Jan 1400 at Cirencester Ralph Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1360-1400 (40) was beheaded by the townspeople following an unsuccessful attempt to seize the town. Baron Lumley 1C 1384 forfeit.
Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (26) was beheaded. His brother Edmund Holland 4th Earl Kent 1384-1408 (16) succeeded 4th Earl Kent 6C 1360, 5th Baron Holland.
John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 (50) was captured, tried and beheaded.
Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was captured.

On 13 Jan 1400 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 (26) was beheaded at Bristol.

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was tried, and condemned to death, by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18) at Tower of London for his role in the Epiphany Rising having been captured in Cirencester.
On 05 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was beheaded at Tyburn. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund.

Battle of Shrewsbury

On 21 Jul 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36), with his son the future Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16), defeated the rebel army of Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39) at the Battle of Shrewsbury at the site now known as Battlefield Shrewsbury. Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16) took an arrow to the side of his face leaving him severely scarred. John Stanley 1350-1414 (53) was wounded in the throat. Thomas Strickland 1367-1455 (36) fought and was awarded £38 and two of the rebel Henry's horses. Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (21) fought for the King. Walter Blount 1348-1403 (55), the King's Standard Bearer, was killed by Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424 (31).
Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (59) and Edmund Cockayne 1356-1403 (47) were killed.
Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (25) was killed. His son Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 succeeded 6th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 7th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.
Hugh Shirley 1351-1403 (52) was killed; he was one of four knights dressed as Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).
Of the rebels, Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39), Madog Kynaston 1360-1403 (43) and John Clifton -1403 were killed. Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (60) was beheaded after the battle. Richard Vernon 1355-1403 (48) was hanged.
John Rossall -1403 was killed. His sister Eleanor Rossall 1377-1432 (26) inherited a half-share in the Rossall Shrewsbury estates.

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Northern Rising

On 08 Jun 1405 before a great crowd at York ...
Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) was beheaded. Possibly the only execution of an Archbishop that occurred in England.
Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19) was beheaded. His brother John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Norfolk 3C 1312, 3rd Earl Nottingham 2C 1383, 8th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 9th Baron Segrave 2C 1295.

On 20 Jul 1405 John Fauconberg -1405 was beheaded in Durham.

Southampton Plot

On 02 Aug 1415 Thomas Grey 1384-1415 (30) was beheaded at North Gate Southampton for his role in the Southampton Plot.

On 05 Aug 1415 Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (42) and Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (30) were beheaded at the North Gate aka Bargate for their roles in the Southampton Plot.
Richard 3rd Duke York (3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham 1388-1455 (27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

1425 Purge of the Albany Stewarts

On 24 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63),Walter Stewart 1394-1425 (31),Alexander Stewart -1425 and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 (80) were beheaded at Heading Hill Stirling Castle

In 1437 Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1360-1437 (77) was beheaded at Edinburgh Castle.

Douglas Black Dinner

On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton -1454 arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle. During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine 1424-1440 (16) and David Douglas 1430-1440 (10) was beheaded in front of the young James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (10).

In 1447 Gruffudd Vychan 1395-1447 (52) was beheaded at Powis Castle.

Murder of William de la Pole

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower. On 01 May 1450 His son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk 1C, 5th Earl Suffolk 3C 1385. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

On 04 Jul 1450 the rebels were beheaded at the Standard Cheapside.
James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele 1395-1450 (55) was beheaded. His son William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (22) succeeded 2nd Baron Saye and Sele.
His son in law William Cromer 1416-1450 (34) was beheaded.
On 07 Jun 1450 Humphrey Stafford 1400-1450 (50) was killed at Sevenoaks. William Tresham -1450 was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (31) joined the rebellion.

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 25 Jun 1460 Osbert Mountfort -1460 and two of his associates were beheaded on the sands at the foot of the Rysbank Tower by Yorkist sailors.

On 29 Jul 1460 Thomas Browne Lord Treasurer Lord Chancellor 1402-1460 (58) was beheaded at Tyburn.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. His son Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.
Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.
Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

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Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2). Somewhat curious that his other son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) didn't contribute although the political situation may have made it difficult to do so.
Memorial to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) in the Market Place Hereford. Somewhat icongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26), Henry Roos -1504 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33).
Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville.
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

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Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61).
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod Lord Morley 1410-1461 (50), John Bigod 1433-1461 (28), Robert Cromwell 1390-1461 (71), Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461 (49), Ralph Eure 1412-1461 (49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (51), John Beaumont 1428-1461 (33), Thomas Dethick 1400-1461 (61), Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton 1436-1461 (25) and William Welles 1410-1461 (51) who were killed.
Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 7th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 15th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.
Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.

Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41). Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon 2C Courtenay. Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440-1484 (21) by marriage Countess Devon 2C Courtenay.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45), Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86), Andrew Trollope -1461 and his son David Trollope -1461 were killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

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On 01 May 1461 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) was beheaded at Newcastle upon Tyne having been captured at, or after, the Battle of Towton. His brother John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39) succeeded 6th Earl Ormonde 1C 1328.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell 1408-1462 (54), John Montgomery -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 (60) were beheaded at Tower Hill.

In 1463 John Douglas 1433-1463 (30) was beheaded.

Battle of Hexham

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham.
Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (36).
Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle. His brother Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (25) succeeded 4th Duke Somerset 2C 1448. He Edmund is frequently referred as the 4th Duke. His father's (58) Dukedom was, however, a new creation.
Philip Wentworth 1424-1464 (40) was executed at Middleham.

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On 26 May 1464 William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (49) was beheaded at Sandhills Newcastle upon Tyne having been captured at the Battle of Hexham. He was buried at Greyfriar's Church Newcastle upon Tyne. His son Robert Tailboys 8th Baron Kyme 1450-1495 (14) de jure 8th Baron Kyme. Elizabeth Heron Baroness Kyme 1453-1495 (11) by marriage Baroness Kyme.

On 15 Jul 1464 Ralph Grey 1432-1464 (32) was beheaded at Doncaster.

In 1468 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 and Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Kildare 1421-1478 (47) attended Parliament in Drogheda to answer charges of treason. Both were found guilty and attain. Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 sought sanctuary in Drogheda Priory where he was captured by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40). On 14 Feb 1468 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 was summarily beheaded. He was buried initially in St Peter's Church Drogheda then Christ Church Cathedral Dublin. Some accounts claim John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) also murdered two of his young sons. Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Kildare 1421-1478 (47) escaped and was subsequently pardoned and attainder reversed when Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) found Ireland was ungovernable without him. In 1470 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Kildare 1421-1478 (49) was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland under George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) which position he held until the Duke's death in 1478.

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Execution of Warwick's Supporters

On 17 Jan 1469 Warwick's supporters were executed in Salisbury Marketplace in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26):
Thomas Hungerford -1469 was beheaded. His father Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 (38) had been executed five years previously after the Battle of Hexham.
Henry Courtenay -1469 was beheaded.

Battle of Edgecote Moor

On 26 Jul 1469 the Yorkist army suffered a defeat against a Lancastrian army led by Robin of Redesdale at the Battle of Edgecote Moor. The Yorkist army was commanded by John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (34) and William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (46).
Thomas Vaughan 1400-1469 (69), John Wogan -1469, Henry Neville 1437-1469 (32), John Conyers 1433-1469 (36) and Oliver Dudley 1437-1469 (32) were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Earl Devon 1439-1469 (30), John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (58) and William Parr KG 1434-1483 (35) fought. Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) and John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) were captured.
Richard Herbert 1423-1469 (46) was beheaded.

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Execution of the Woodvilles

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40).
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers 1C 1466. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 by marriage Countess Rivers.
John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) was beheaded.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

On 12 Mar 1470 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (42) and Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 (42) were beheaded at Queen's Cross Stamford. Note. Some sources say on battlefield immediately prior to the battle.

On 19 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was beheaded at Doncaster. He was buried at Whitefriars Doncaster. His sister Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1475 succeeded 9th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (37) by marriage Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He, Hastings, a favourite of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27), younger brother of Edward's (27) great friend William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (39).

Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (43) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. On 14 Apr 1471 His son Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl Worcester 1470-1485 succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester 4C 1449, 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

In 1471 Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (61) was beheaded at Chepstow aka Striguil.

On 22 Sep 1471 Thomas "Bastard of Fauconberg" Neville 1429-1471 (42) was beheaded at Middleham Castle. His head was displayed at London Bridge.

In 1475 Robert Radclyffe -1475 was beheaded.

On 19 Dec 1475 Louis Luxemburg I Count Saint Pol 1418-1475 (57) was beheaded at Paris. His son Peter Luxemburg II Count Saint Pol and Soissons 1440-1482 (35) succeeded II Count Saint Pol. Margaret Savoy Countess Saint Pol 1439-1483 (36) by marriage Countess Saint Pol.

On 04 Aug 1477 Jacques Armagnac Duke Nemours 1433-1477 (44) was beheaded.

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (41). His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings 2C 1430.
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

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Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

On 25 Jun 1483 supporters of the Woodviles were executed at Pontefract Castle ...
Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded. His brother Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) succeeded 3rd Earl Rivers 1C 1466.
Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26) and Thomas Vaughan (73) were beheaded.

Buckingham's Rebellion

On 02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (29) was beheaded in Salisbury Marketplace for his part in the rebellion. His son Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (5) succeeded 8th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 9th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.

On 04 Dec 1483 George Browne 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Execution of Roger Clifford

On 02 May 1485 Roger Clifford 1437-1485 (48) was beheaded at Tower Hill for supporting Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28).

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 12 Mar 1491 Robert Chamberlayne 1438-1491 (53) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Perkin Warbreck Plot

On 16 Feb 1495 William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (60) and Simon Montfort -1495 were beheaded at Tower Hill for their part in the Perkin Warbeck Plot.

On 24 Nov 1496 John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter 1452-1496 (44) was beheaded at Calais for trying to bribe his jailers.

Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

On 28 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley Heighley 1463-1497 (34) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Blackfriars Church Holborn. His head was placed on a spike at London Bridge. His lands and titles were forfeit.

On 21 Aug 1497 Lorenzo Tornabuoni 1465-1497 (32) was beheaded for scheming with France against Florence.

In 1488 Domenico Ghirlandaio Painter 1448-1494. Portrait of Giovanna degli Albizzi 1468-1488 commissioned around the time of her death by her husband Lorenzo Tornabuoni 1465-1497. The figure is wearing precious clothes including a gamurra vest. On the right, behind her, are a hanging coral necklace (perhaps a rosary), a partly closed prayer book, and a Latin inscription, taken from an epigram by the 1st century AD poet Martial. She also holds a handkerchief. The figure of Giovanna is idealized in appearance and proportion which was the tradition of the time.<BR>Many aspects of this portrait hold symbolic significance in emphasizing her wealth, status, and piety. Giovanna's fine clothing indicates her status and the wealth of her family.<BR>The Tornabuoni emblem is present on her clothes, as well as two "Ls" on her shoulder, referring to her husband, Lorenzo.<BR>In addition to the clothes, the presence of pearls and brooches also emphasizes the family's wealth.<BR>The pendant featured in the portrait shows a small diamond set in gold above a large ruby with three pearls hanging beneath it. This was a signature ornament found in depictions of Giovanna and came from Lodovica's dowry.<BR>The coral beads seen in the background are likely a rosary, signifying Giovanna's religious piety.<BR>The book seen behind Giovanna, possibly a prayer book, also refers to her piety and educated status.<BR>A significant aspect of the background in this portrait is the cartellino behind Giovanna. The inscription is a modified excerpt of a poem by the author Martial: "ARS VTINAM MORES ANIMVM QVU EFFINGERE POSSES PVCHRIOR IN TERRIS NVLLA TABELLA FORET MCCCCLXXXVIII". This translates to "Art, would that you could represent character and mind! There would be no more beautiful painting on earth 1488".

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley 1462-1510 (48) and Richard Empson 1450-1510 (60) were beheaded at Tower Hill for constructive treason for having carried out King Henry VII's (53) rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

On 30 Apr 1513 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (42) was beheaded at Tower Hill after having been imprisoned for seven years.

Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

On 22 Jun 1535 John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (65) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

On 06 Jul 1535 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (57) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33), Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (54), Francis Weston 1511-1536 (25), William Brereton -1536 and Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 (24) were beheaded at Tower Hill. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545.Around 1562 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of (probably) Catherine Carey 1524-1569.

Bigod's Rebellion

Around May 1537 John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (72) was beheaded at Lincoln.

On 30 Jun 1537 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst 1467-1537 (70) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Exeter Conspiracy

On 08 Dec 1538 Edward Neville 1471-1538 (67) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 03 Mar 1539 Nicholas Carew of Beddington in Surrey KG 1496-1539 (43) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 09 Dec 1539 Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (47) and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (43) were beheaded at Tower Hill. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (43), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (36) and their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (12) were attainted. His son was subsequently created 1st Earl Devon 5C 1553 in 1553. Marquess Exeter 1C 1525, Earl Devon 3C 1485 and Earl Devon 4C 1511 subject to attainder.

Around 1555. Attributed Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564 of the English School. Portrait of Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556.

Arrest, Attainder and Execution of Thomas Cromwell

On 28 Jul 1540 Thomas Cromwell (55) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Earl Essex 6C 1540, Baron Cromwell 2C 1375 forfeit. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 1503-1540 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.

Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

On 10 Dec 1541. At Tyburn ....
Francis Dereham (28) was hanged.
Thomas Culpepper 1514-1541 (27) was beheaded. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate.

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Queen Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 (37) were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms.

On 19 Jan 1547 Henry Howard 1516-1547 (31) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham. He had foolishly added the arms of Edward the Confessor to his own arms. He was charged with treasonably quartering the royal arms. His father survived sentence since the King died the day before it was due to take place.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 20 Mar 1549 Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley 1508-1549 (41) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

On 22 Jan 1552 Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (52) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London. Duke Somerset 4C 1547 forfeit.

On 26 Feb 1552 Miles Partridge Courtier -1552 and Ralph Fane -1552 were hanged. Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) and Michael Stanhope 1507-1552 (45) were beheaded at Tower Hill for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (48).
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His son John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26) succeeded 2nd Earl Warwick 2C 1547, 2nd Viscount Lisle 5C 1543. Anne Seymour Viscountess Lisle 1538-1588 (15) by marriage Viscountess Lisle.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Mary I (37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554.Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

On 23 Feb 1554 Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill.
Dean Hugh Weston 1505-1558 (49) acted as Confessor.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

On 11 Apr 1554 Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554 (33) was beheaded at Tower Hill.
Dean Hugh Weston 1505-1558 (49) acted as Confessor.

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 28 Apr 1554. The xxviij day of Aprell was heddyd on Towre hyll, betwyn ix and x of the cloke a-for none, my lord Thomas Gray, the duke of Suffoke-Dassett (37) brodur, and bered at Allalow's Barkyng, and the hed (unfinished)

On 28 May 1557 Thomas Stafford 1533-1557 (24) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 22 Aug 1572 Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland 1528-1572 (44) was beheaded at The Pavement in York. His brother Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (40) succeeded 8th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 10th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 18th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick 2C 1577, 11th Baron Poynings 1C 1337.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 28 May 1577. [The xxviij day of May Thomas Stafford (44) was beheaded on Tower hill, by nine of the clock, master Wode being his] gostly father; and after ther wher iij more [drawn from the To] wre, and thrugh London unto Tyburne, and ther [they were] hangyd and quartered; and the morow after was master [Stafford] quartered, and hangyd on a care, and so to Nuwgatt to [boil.]

On 11 Nov 1583 Gerald Fitzgerald 14th Earl Desmond 1533-1583 (30) was beheaded.

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 08 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall at Fotheringay Castle.
George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1533-1615 (54) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.
There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587.Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587.In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587.In 1582 Unknown Painter. Portrait of George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590.In 1567 attrbuted to Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Richard Knightley 1533-1615.Around 1603 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624. The Latin inscription 'In vinculis invictus' ("in chains unconquered")In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624.

Battle of Carrickfergus

In Nov 1597 John Chichester -1597 was beheaded by Randal "Arranach" Macdonnell 1st Earl Antrim -1636 at Carrickfergus, County Antrim.

East India Company Chartered

On 25 Feb 1601 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London during the Essex Rebellion.

In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601.Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601.Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601.

On 18 Mar 1601 Charles Danvers 1568-1601 (33) and Christopher Blount 1565-1601 (36) was beheaded for their part in the Essex Rebellion.

On 21 May 1613 John Maxwell 9th Lord Maxwell 1583-1613 (30) was beheaded at Edinburgh for the murder of the Laird of Johnstone.

On 29 Oct 1618 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (64) was beheaded at Old Palace Yard. He was buried in St Margaret's Church.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.In 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.In 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.

1533 Buggery Act

On 14 May 1631 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven 1593-1631 (38) was beheaded at Tower Hill for the unnatural crime of sodomy in accordance with the 1533 Buggery Act, committed with his page Laurence (or Florence) FitzPatrick, who confessed to the crime and was executed; and assisting Giles Browning (alias Broadway), who was also executed, in the rape of his wife Anne, Countess of Castlehaven (51), in which Lord Castlehaven was found to have participated by restraining her. His son James Tuchet 3rd Earl Castlehaven 1617-1686 (14) succeeded 3rd Earl Castlehaven, 3rd Baron Audley of Orier. He didn't succeed to his father's English titles as a result of his father's attainder.

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 12 May 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His execution was attended by an enormous crowd.
Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver 1607-1677 (33). Engraving of the execution of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) marked as C with James Ussher Primate of Ireland 1581-1656 (60) marked as A.

On 12 May 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 was beheaded at Tower Hill. His execution was attended by an enormous crowd.<BR>Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver 1607-1677. Engraving of the execution of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 marked as C with James Ussher Primate of Ireland 1581-1656 marked as A.

On 19 Jul 1644 John Gordon 1st Baronet Gordon 1610-1644 (34) was beheaded for treason. On 19 Jul 1644 His son John Gordon 2nd Baronet Gordon 1632-1665 (12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Gordon of Haddo for suppressing the Conventers.

Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall.
On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (35) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692 (9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

After 1648. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692.

Trial and Execution of the Hothams

In Dec 1644 Parliament decided to execute the Hothams, father and son, John Hotham 1st Baronet Hotham 1589-1645 (55) and John Hotham 1610-1645 (34).
On 01 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1610-1645 (35) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians at Tower Hill. His father was executed the next day.
On 02 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1st Baronet Hotham 1589-1645 (55) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians; his son having been executed the previous day. His grandson John Hotham 2nd Baronet Hotham 1632-1689 (12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Hotham of Scorborough in Yorkshire.

1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

On 10 Jan 1645 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645 (71) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St John's College.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645.Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645. Wearing a black Chimere over his white Rochet.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Execution of Three Lords

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard three Royalist Lords were beheaded ...
Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 (41) was beheaded. His son Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1632-1683 (17) succeeded 2nd Baron Capell Hadham.
Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 (58) was beheaded. His son Robert Rich 5th Earl Warwick 1619-1675 (30) succeeded 2nd Earl Holland.
James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 (42) was beheaded. His brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 (32) succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton by special remainder.
John Owen 1600-1666 (49) had been sentenced to death but was subsequently pardoned.

Around 1647 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649.In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649.1639. Follower of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649.

In 1650 Henry Hyde Royalist 1605-1650 (45) was beheaded.

On 08 Jun 1658 Henry Slingsby 1st Baronet Scriven 1602-1658 (56) was beheaded on Tower Hill for being a Royalist. His son Thomas Slingsby 2nd Baronet Scriven 1636-1688 (21) succeeded 2nd Baronet Slingsby Scriven.

On 27 May 1661 Archibald Campbell 1st Marquess Argyll 1607-1661 (54) was beheaded for his perceived treason on the restoration of Charles II at Edinburgh. He was buried at Kilmun Church.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" 1613-1662 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill for treason against King Charles II (32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane "The Younger" 1613-1662.Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

On 29 Dec 1680 William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford 1614-1680 (66) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was attainted; Viscount Stafford extinct. His son Henry Stafford-Howard 1st Earl Stafford 1648-1719 (32) de jure 2nd Baron Stafford 5C 1640.

Rye House Plot

On 21 Jul 1683 William Russell 1639-1683 (43) was beheaded by Jack Ketch -1686 at Lincoln's Inn for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. The executioner was so inept that he took four axe blows to separate the head from the body. After the first failed blow his victim looked up and said "You dog, did I give you 10 guineas to use me so inhumanely?".

Before 21 Jul 1683. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.Before 1681 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

On 07 Dec 1683 Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60) was beheaded at Tower Hill during the Rye House Plot.

Argyll's Rising

On 30 Jun 1685 Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (56) was beheaded on the Maiden (an early gullotine) in Edinburgh for his part in Argyll's Rising. His son Archibald Campbell 1st Duke Argyll 1658-1703 (26) succeeded 10th Earl Argyll. Elizabeth Tollemache Duchess Argyll 1659-1735 (25) by marriage Countess Argyll.

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) acted a Chaplain.

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

On 28 Jan 1697 John Fenwick 3rd Baronet 1645-1697 (52) was beheaded for his part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:
George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749. The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.

On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.
James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (74) appealed to George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.
The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

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Around 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766.Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne "The Elder" Engraver 1616-1691. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 November 1666.Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 1727. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727.Before 1723 Johnathan "The Elder" Richardson Painter 1667-1745. Portrait of William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723.