Burned at the stake

1431 Execution of Joan of Arc

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1555 Protestant Executions

1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne

1555 Execution of Bishops

1556 Execution of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer

Burned at the stake is in Executions.

On 10 Dec 304 Saint Eulalia of Mérida 292-304 (12) burned at the stake at Augusta Emerita for refusing to adopt Roman Gods. She challenged the authorities to martyr her. The judge's attempts at flattery and bribery failed. She was stripped by the soldiers, tortured with hooks and torches, and burnt at the stake. When she died a dove flew out of her mouth. Snow covered her nakedness.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1410. And that yere ther was an heretyke, that was callyd John of Badby, that be-levyd nought in the Sacrament of the Auter, and he was brought unt[o] Smethefylde for to be brent, and bownde unto a stake; and Syr Harry Percy of Walys (23)1 conselyd hym to holde the very ryght beleve of Hooly Chyrche, and he shulde faylle nothyr lacke noo goode. Al so the Chaunceler of Oxynford, on Mayster Corteney, informyd hym in the faythe of Holy Chyrche, and the Pryour of Syn Bartholomewys brought the hooly sacrament with xij torchys and brought hyt before hym. And hyt was askyd howe that he be-levyde. Ande he answeryd and sayde that he wyste welle that hit was hooly brede, and nought Goodys oune blessyde body. And thenne was the tonne putt ovyr hym ande fyre put unto hym; and whenne he felde fyre he cryde marcy. And a-non the prynce commaundyd to take a wey the fyre, and hit was don soo anon. And then the prynce (23) askyd hym yf that he wolde for-sake hys heresy and be-leve on the faythe of alle Hooly Chyrche, and he wolde gyffe hym hys lyffe and goode i-nowe whyle he levyd; but he wolde nought, but contynuyde forthe in hys heresye. And thenne the prynce commaundyd hym up to be brende at onys, and soo he was. And John Gylott, vynter, he made ij wevers to be take, the whyche folowyd the same waye of heresy.

And the same tyme was the hurlynge in Estechepe by the lorde Thomas and the lorde John, the kyngys sone, &c.

Note 3. Percy. A clerical error. "Harry Prince of Wales" is the reading in other Chronicles.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 05 Jan 1415. Ande that same yere, on the Twelfe the nyght, were a-restyd certayne personys, called Lollers, atte the sygne of the Ax, whithe owte Byschoppe ys gate, the whyche Lollers hadde caste to have made a mommynge at Eltham, and undyr coloure of the mommynge to have dystryte the kyng (28) and Hooly Chyrche. And they hadde ordaynyde to have hadde the fylde be-syde Syn Gylys. But, thonkyd be God Almyghty, owre kyng (28) hadde warnyng thereof, and he come unto London and toke the felde be syde Syn Jonys in Clerkynwelle; and as they come the kyng (28) toke them, and many othyr. And there was a knyght take that was namy[d] Syr Roger of Acton, and he was drawe and hanggyd be syde Syn Gyly, for the kynge let to be made iiij payre of galowys, the whiche that were i-callyd the Lollers galowys. Al so a preste that hyght Syr John Bevyrlay, and a squyer that hyght John Browne of Oldecastellys, they were hanggyd; and many moo were hanggyd and brent, to the nomber of xxxviij personys and moo.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1416. Ande that same yere was brent in Smethefild John Claydon, schynner, and Rychard Turmyn, baker, for heresye that they were convycte a-pon.

Execution of Joan of Arc

On 30 May 1431 Joan of Arc (19) was burned at the stake witnessed by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (56) at the Old Market Place Rouen.

Chronicle of Gregory 1438. 14 May 1438. And the same yere on Estyr day there was on John Gardyner take at Synt Mary at the Axe in London, for he was an herytyke; for whenne shulde have benne houselyd he wypyd hys mouthe whithe a foule clothe and layde the oste there yn ; and so he was takyn by the person of the chyrche, and the xiiij day of May he was i-breht in Smethefylde.

Chronicle of Gregory 1440. 1440. And that same yere there was a preste i-callyd Syr Rycharde Wyche and hys servand brent atte the Tourehylle, for the whyche there was moche trobil a-monge the pepylle, in soo moche that alle the wardys in London were assygnyd to wake there day and nyght that the pepylle myght nought have hyr ylle purpose as at that tyme.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude ys eve was the wycche (26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde, and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore sayde traytours, deyde in the Toure for sorowe.

1. Necromancy.

On 27 Oct 1441 Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26) was burned at the stake.

Chronicle of Gregory 1443. 1443 [possibly 1442]. And that same yere was a woman of Westemyster brentt at Toure-hylle for kyllynge of hyr hosbond.

In 1528 Patrick Hamilton -1528 was burned at the stake.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (60) and the Lieutenant (56) brought forthe the Queene (35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her, whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same, and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after thei had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the Duke of Northfolke (63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge: Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene, els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (60) and the Ladie Boleyn (56), her aunte. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. 1541 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry Brandon 2nd Duke Suffolk 1535-1551.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 25 May 1537 Margaret Stafford 1511-1537 (26) was burned at the stake at Smithfield.

On 17 Jul 1537 Janet Douglas 1498-1537 (39) was burned at the stake at Edinburgh Castle for conspiring against the king's (25) life. Her son, John 7th Lord Glamis Lyon 1521-1559 (16), was supposedly a witness to the burning.

Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1551. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche was hangyd, in Smyth-feld, on John Mosbe and ys syster, for the death of a gentyll man of Feyversham, one M. Arden the custemer, and ys owne wyff was decaul.... and she was burnyd at Canturbery and her sarvand hangyd ther, and ij at Feyversham and on at Hospryng, and nodur in the he way to Canturbery, for the death of M. Arden of Feyversham. [and at Flusshyng was bernyd Blake Tome for the sam deth of M. Arden. [Note. This last line was added to the entry some time after it was written.]

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1552. 26 Apr 1552. The xvj day of Aprell rod thrugh London in a c[ar], a woman with a bannor pentyd with (a) yong damsell and a woman, with a carde in the woman('s) hand cardyng her mayd nakyd pentyd, the wyche she left butt lytyll skyn of her, and a-bowt her masters neke a card hangyng downe; for thys ponyssment her masters had for her; and she was cared unto her owne dore in a care, and the (re) was a proclamasyon by on of the bedylles of her shamful ded-dohyng, [of] the wyche the damsell ys lyke to dee.

The sam day the Kynges (14) grase removyd from Westmynster unto Grenwyche at viij a-cloke in the mornyng.

The sam day was sessyons at Nugatt for theyfes, and a cott-purs spessyally was for one James [Ellys] the grett pykpurs and cuttpurs that ever [was ar-]raynyd, for ther was never a presun and the Towr but he had byne in them, —the vj king Edward vjth.

The sam day was bornyd at the Towre-hylle at after[noon] vij mon and viij maymed and lyke to dee, and alle was by takyng [ill] heyde and by beytyng of gunpowder in a morter, and by stryk[ing] of fyre, that a sparke of fyre fell in-tho the powder, and so alle f[ired] ...

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553.

1555 Protestant Executions

On 20 Jan 1555 the statutes for burning heretics, originally enacted to repress Lollardism, De heretico comburendo was re-enacted to allow the burning of Protestants.

In early Feb 1555 the first of the Protestant executions took place:

On 04 Feb 1555 John Rogers 1505-1555 (50) was burned at the stake at Smithfield.

On 08 Feb 1555 Laurence Saunders Martyr 1519-1555 (36) was burned at the stake at Coventry.

On 09 Feb 1555 John Hooper Bishop Martyr 1495-1555 (60) was burned at the stake at Gloucester.

On 09 Feb 1555 Rowland Taylor Martyr 1510-1555 was burned at the stake at Aldham Common. His wife and child were, reportedly, present.

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Diary of Henry Machyn January 1556. 22 Jan 1555. The xxij day of January whent in-to Smythfeld to berne betwyn vij and viij in the mornyng v men and ij women; on of the men was a gentyllman of the ender tempull, ys nam master Gren; and they wer all bornyd by ix at iij postes; and ther wher a commonment thrughe London over nyght that no yong folke shuld come ther, for ther the grettest [number] was as has byne sene at shyche a tyme.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 29 Jan 1555. The xxix day of January wher raynyd at sant Mare Overes for herese Hoper (60) and Rogers (50), and cast to be brentt, and from thens cared to Nugatt.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 30 Jan 1555. The xxx day of January was raynyd in the sam plasse Bradford (45), Tayller, and Sandur, and cast to be brentt in dyvers places.

1555 Protestant Executions

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1555. 04 Feb 1555. The sam day was Rogers (50) cared be-twyn x and xj of the cloke in-to Smyth-feld, and bornyd, for aronyus [erroneous] apinions, with a grett compene of the gard.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1555. 16 Mar 1555. The xvj day of Marche was a veyver [weaver] bornyd in Smyth-feld, dwellyng in Sordyche, for herese, by viij of the cloke in the mornyng, ys nam was (Tomkins).

On 30 Mar 1555 Bishop Robert Ferrar -1554 was burned at the stake at the Market Square Carmarthen.

1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne

On 30 May 1555 two Protestants were burned at the stake at Smithfield:

John Cardmaker -1555Burned at the stake

John Warne Upholsterer 1526-1555 (29)Burned at the stake

On 01 Jul 1555 John Braford Reformer 1510-1555 (45) was burned at the stake.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 02 Aug 1555. The ij day of August was a shumaker bornyd at sant Edmundebere in Suffoke for herese.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 23 Aug 1555. The xxiij day of August was bornyd at [Stratford]-of-bowe, in the conte of Mydyllsex, a woman, [wife] of John Waren (29), clothworker, a huphulster [over] agaynst sant Johns in Walbroke; the wyche .... John her hosband was bornyd with on Cardmaker in Smythfeld, for herese boyth; and the sam woman had a sune taken at her bornyng and cared to Nuwgatt [to his] syster, for they will borne [burn] boyth.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1555. 09 Oct 1555. The ix day of October was a servyngman, [the] penter('s) broder that war bornyd at Staynes, was bered in Morefeld be-syd the doge-howsse, be-caus he was not resseff the ryctes of the chyrche, and thys lawe.

1555 Execution of Bishops

On 16 Oct 1555 Hugh Latimer Bishop of Worcester 1487-1555 (68) and Nicholas Ridley Bishop Martyr 1500-1555 (55) were burned at the stake at Oxford. Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (66) was forced to watch.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1555. 18 Dec 1555. The xviij day of Dessember be-twyn [8 and 9] of the cloke in the mornyng, was cared in-to Smythfeld to be bornyd on master (Philpot, archdeacon of Winchester ) gentyllman, for herese.

On 16 Jan 1556 Archdeacon John Philpot 1516-1556 (40) was burned at the stake.

Execution of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer

On 21 Mar 1556 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (66) was burned at the stake at Oxford.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1556. 24 Apr 1556. The xxiiij day of Aprell, in the mornyng be-tyme, was cared to Smyth-ffeld to be bornyd vj men, [and] more was cared in-to the contrey to be bornyd.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1556. 15 May 1556. The xv day of May was cared in a care from Nuwgatt thrug London unto Strettford-a-bow to borne ij men; the on blyne [one blind], the thodur lame; and ij tall men, the (one) was a penter, the thodur a clothworker; the penter ys nam was Huw Loveroke, dwellyng in Seythin lane; the blynd man dwellyng in sant Thomas apostylles.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell was bornyd in Smythfeld v, iij men and ij women, for herese; on was a barber dwellyng in Lym-strett; and on woman was the wyff of the Crane at the Crussyd-frers be-syd the Towre-hylle, kepyng of a in [inn] ther.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 28 May 1557. The sam mornyng was bornyd be-yond sant George's parryche iij men for heresee, a dyssyd [at this side] Nuwhyngtun.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1557. 18 Jun 1557. The xviij day of Junj was ij cared to be bornyd beyonde sant Gorgeus, almost at Nuwhyngtun, for herese and odur matters.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1557. 12 Nov 1557. The xij day of November ther was a post sett up in Smythfeld for iij that shuld have beyn bornyd, butt boyth wod and colles; and my lord abbott of Westminster (42) cam to Newgatt and talked with them, and so they wher stayd for that day of bornyng.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1557. 13 Nov 1557. The xiij day of November was sant Erkenwald eve, the iiij and v yere of king and quen, whent owt of Newgatt unto Smyth-feld to be bornyd iij men; on was [blank] Gybsun, the sun of sergantt Gybsun, sergantt of armes, and of the reywelles [revels], and of the kynges tenstes [tents]; and ij more, the whyche here be ther names—Gybsun, Hali[day,] and Sparow, thes iij men.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1557. 20 Dec 1557. The xx day of Desember was condemnyd for herese ser John Ruffe prest, a Skotte, and a woman, for to be bornyd in Smythfeld for (unfinished)

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1557. 22 Dec 1557. [The xxij day of December were burned in] Smyth feld ij, one ser John Ruffe [the] frere and a Skott, and a woman, for herese.

On 19 Mar 1609 Maud Babington 1571-1609 (38) was murdered. A servant, Honora ny Caffry, was burned at the stake for the petty treason of the murder of a mistress. Another, a man, later confessed to the murder.