Hanged, drawn and quartered

1307 Battle of Loch Ryan and the Execution of the Bruce Brothers

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1388 Merciless Parliament

1408 Battle of Bramham Moor

1437 Assassination of King James I of Scotland

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1535 Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1583 Somerville Plot

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1641 Irish Rebellion

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1678 Popish Plot

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Argyll's Rising

1715 Battle of Preston

Hanged, drawn and quartered is in Executions.

On 03 Oct 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales 1238-1283 (45) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Shrewsbury. The first prominent person known to have suffered being hanged, drawn and quartered. Dafydd (45) was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury attached to a horse's tail, then hanged alive, revived, then disembowelled and his entrails burned before him for "his sacrilege in committing his crimes in the week of Christ's passion", and then his body cut into four-quarters "for plotting the king's death". Geoffrey of Shrewsbury was paid 20 shillings for carrying out the act.

Battle of Loch Ryan and the Execution of the Bruce Brothers

On 09 Feb 1307 the Battle of Loch Ryan was a victory of local forces, led by Dungal MacDowall, supporter of King Edward I, over a force consisting of 1000 men and eighteen galleys led by Thomas Bruce 1284-1307 (23) and Alexander Bruce 1285-1307 (22), brothers of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (32), supported by Malcolm McQuillan, Lord of Kintyre, and Sir Reginald Crawford. Only two galleys escaped. Malcolm McQuillan was captured an summarily executed.

Thomas Bruce 1284-1307 (23), Alexander Bruce 1285-1307 (22) and Reginald Crawford were hanged (possibly hanged, drawn and quartered) at Carlisle.

On 28 Feb 1347 John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 was hanged, drawn and quartered by direct orders of King Edward I to whom he had previously sworn fealty.

Peasant's Revolt

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball 1338-1381 was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans in the presence of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14).

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle. He fled to Louvain where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian Chief Justice -1388 was hanged naked and his throat cut.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre Lord Mayor of London -1388 was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars.

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley (46).

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp 1319-1388 (69) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral.

Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (26) was attainted.

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Battle of Bramham Moor

On 19 Feb 1408 Thomas Rokeby's force of Yorkshire levies defeated the Percy army during the Battle of Bramham Moor bringing to an end the Percy rebellion.

Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (66) was killed. His body was afterwards hanged, drawn and quartered, his head being sent to London bridge and his quarters to diverse places. Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (15) succeeded 5th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 13th Baron Percy of Topcliffe.

Thomas Bardolf 5th Baron Bardolf 1369-1408 (38) was killed. Baron Bardolf of Wormegay in Norfolk abeyant between his two daughters Anne Bardolf Baroness Cobham Sternborough 1389-1453 (18) and Joan Bardolf 6th Baroness Bardolf 1390-1447 (17).

Assassination of King James I of Scotland

On 26 Mar 1437 Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 3rd Earl Caithness 1360-1437 (77) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Edinburgh Castle for having conspired to assassinate King James I of Scotland 1394-1437 (42). He had unbarred the doors to the royal apartments, permitting assassins to enter the King's lodging. Earl Atholl 5C 1398 and Earl Caithness 2C 1375 forfeit by attainder.

Chronicle of Gregory 1438. 04 Jun 1438. Ande the same yere the iiij day of June certayne men of Kentte were a-reste at Maydestone for rysynge, and v. of hem were drawe, hanggyde, and quarteryde, and be-heddyde, and hyr heddys were sette on Londyn Brygge; and sum of hyr heddys at Cauntyrbury and in othyr certayne townys in Kente a boute in the schyre, for to cause men to be ware. And that yere was grete dyrthe of corne, for a buschclle of whete was worthe ij s vj d. And that yere was grete pestylaunce, and namely in the northe contraye.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

On 18 Nov 1441, Saturday, Roger Bolingbroke Astrologer -1441 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 1445. Ande in that same yere was a Parlyment holdyn at Westemyster, and same yere there was on Wylliam Nete, yeman of the Quenys charyetes, drawyn and hanggyd in Horse Downe for sleyng of a damselle callyd Johne Gooche.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 31 Jan 1447. Ande in that same yere there was an armyrer and hys owne man fought whythe yn the lystys in Smethefylde the laste day of Januer, ande there the mayster was slayne and dyspoylyde owte of hys harnys, and lay stylle in the fylde alle that day and that nyght next folowynge. And thenne afty[r]ward, by the kyngys (25) commaundement, he was d[r]awyn, hanggyde, and be-heddyde, and hys hedde sette on London Brygge, and the body hynggyng a-bove erthe be-syde the towre.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 14 Jul 1447. And on Fryday the xiiij day of Juylle nexte folowynge by jugement at Westemyster, there by fore v [5] personys were dampnyd to be drawe, hanggyd and hyr bowellys i-brente by fore hem, and thenne hyr heddys to ben smetyn of, ande thenne to be quarteryde, and every parte to be sende unto dyvers placys by assygnement of the jugys. Whyche personys werethes: Arteys (20) the bastarde of the sayde Duke of Glouceter (56), Syr Rogger Chambyrlayne knyght, Mylton squyer, Thomas Harberde squyer, Nedam yeman, whyche were the sayde xiiij day of Juylle i-drawe fro Syn Gorgys thoroughe owte Sowthewerke and on Londyn Brygge, ande so forthe thorowe the cytte of London to the Tyborne, and there alle they were hanggyde, and the ropys smetyn a-sondyr, they beynge alle lyvynge, and thenne, ar any more of any markys of excecusyon were done, the Duke of Sowthefolke (50) brought them alle yn generalle pardon and grace from our lorde and soverayne Kynge Harry the vj (25)te.

Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Before 22 Jun 1535 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544 presided over the trial of John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 and Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 both of whom refused to take the Oath Of Supremacy. The judges including Anne Boleyn's father William Boleyn 1451-1505 and brother Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 brought Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich 1497-1567 as a witness who testified that Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 had denied that the King was the legitimate head of the Church. However, Richard Southwell 1503-1564 to the contrary.

The jury took, somewhat unsurprisingly, only fifteen minutes to conclude Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (57) was guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; the King (43) commuted this to beheading.

In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540. Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Richard Southwell 1503-1564. Around 1575 based on a work of 1536.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Richard Southwell 1503-1564. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster Sir Frances Weston (25), knight, Henrie Norrisy (54) esquier, Brerton, and Markes (24), being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamber, and their condemned of high treason against the Kinge (44) for using fornication with Queene Anne (35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent [burned] before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. 15 May 1536. After this, immediatliei the Lord of Rocheforde (33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume, and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VIII The XXVII Year. IN the beginnyng of this yere the duke of Norffolke and the Bishop of Ely went to Caleys, and thether came the Admyral of Framnce. And the xix. day of June was thre Monkes of the Charterhouse hanged, drawen, and quartred at Tyborne and their quarters set up about Lodon for deniyng the kyng to be supreme head of the Churche. Their names were Exmewe, Myddlemore, and Nudigate, These men when they wer arreigned at Westminster, behaued the'm selfes very stifly & stubbornly, for hearyng their incitement red how trayterously they had spoken against the kynges Maiestie his croune and dignitie, they neither blushed nor bashed at it, but very folishly & hipocriticaily knowleged their treason whiche maliciously they auouched, hauyng no lernyng for their defece, but rather beyng asked dyuers questions, they vsed a malicious silence, .thinkyng as by their examinacions afterward in the Tower of London it did appeare, for so they sayd, y they thought those men which was y lorde Crumwel & other that there satte vpon them in Judgement to be heretiques and not of the Churche of God, and therfore not worthy to be either aunswered or spoken vnto. And therfore as they deserued, they receiued as you haue heard before.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 07 May 1537 Thomas Moigne 1510-1537 (27) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Lincoln.

Pilgrimage of Grace

On 02 Jun 1537 Abbot Adam Sedbar 1502-1537 (35) and Prior William Wood -1537 were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge.

In 1538 Abbot Robert Hobbes -1538 was hanged, drawn and quartered outside Woburn Abbey for not supporting the Oath of Supremacy . Two of his monks, Laurence Blonham, alias Peck, and Richard Woburn, alias Barnes, were also executed as well as the vicar of Puddington.

In 1540 Vicar Griffith Clerke -1540, vicar of Wandsworth, with his chaplain, servant, and Friar Waire, were all hanged and quartered at St. Thomas Watering, most probably for denying the King's supremacy; though Stow, who mentions the fact, professes himself ignorant of the cause of their execution.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The xiiij day of Feybruary wher hangyd at evere gatt and plasse : in Chepe-syd vj; Algatt j, quartered; at Leydynhall iij; at Bysshope-gatt on, and quartered; Morgatt one; Crepullgatt one; Aldersgatt on, quartered; Nuwgat on, quartered; Ludgatt on; Belyngat iij hangyd; Sant Magnus iij hangyd; Towre hyll ij. hangyd; Holborne iij hangyd; Flettstret iij hangyd; at Peper alley gat iij; Barunsaystret iij; Sant Gorgus iij; Charyng crosse iiij, on Boyth the fottman, and Vekars of the gard, and ij moo; at Hydparke corner iij, on Polard a waterbeyrar; theys iij hanges in chynes; and but vij quartered, and ther bodys and heds set a-pon the gattes of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 14 Feb 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The 14 of February divers of the rebells were putt to death, that is to saye, Bothe, one of the Queenes footemen, one Vicars, a Yeoman of the Garde, great John Norton, and one Kinge, were hanged at Charinge Crosse. And three of the rebells, one called Pollarde, were hanged at the parke pale by Hide Parke; three allso in Fleet street, one at Ludgate, one at Bishopsgate, one at Newgate, one at Aldgate, three at the Crosse in Cheape, three at Soper Lane ende in Chepe, and three in Smithfield, which persons hanged still all that daye and night tyll the next morninge, and then cutt downe.a And the bodies of them that were hanged at the gates were quartered at Newgate, and the heades and bodies hanged over the gates where they suffred.

a. The Grey Friares Chronicle (p. 88) adds "the whych ware of London that fled from the Dnke of Norfoke."

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 1st Year 1547-1548. The first daie of Julie Thomas Moundaie, person of Sainct Leonardes in Foster Lane, and Thurstame Hikeman, clearke, and late monke of the Charter Howse in London, were arraigned at the Guild Hall for treason, which was for the conveying of one John Foxe, parson of Sainct Marie Mawdlaine, in the warde Queenehith, which was late a monke of the Charterhouse in London, and fleed out of this realme the third daie of Aprill last, and sythence is professed a monke in Loven; which said Foxe had kept the left arme of one John Houghton, late prior of the Charterhowse in London which suffred death for treason, denying the Kinges supremacy, in anno 25 Henrici VIII.; and the said Moundaie and Hikeraan shold have conveyged the said arme with other baggage that they called reliques over sea to the said Fox as they had promised, for which treason the said Moundaie and Hikeman were this daie first endited, and after condemned of high treason, and had judgment to be hanged, drawen, and quartered like treason.

Prayer Book Rebellion

John Stow's Annales of England 1550. 27 Jan 1550. the 27 of January, Humfrey Arundell (37) esquire, Thomas Holmes, Winslowe and Bery, captaines of the rebels in Devonshire, were hanged and quartered at Tyboure.

John Stow's Annales of England 1550. 10 Feb 1550. The 10 of February one Bel a Suffolke man, was hanged and quartered at Tyborne, for moving a new rebellion in Suffolk and Essex.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1551. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche wa(s) raynyd at the yeld-halle a C [100] mareners for robyng on the see, and the captayne, behyng a Skott, was cared to Nugate the sam day, and serten cast.

The sam day was cared in-to Norfoke on Wyth, a grett ryche man, and he was condemnyth to be drane and hangyd, for the besenes that was done in Norffoke, at ys owne dore.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 22 Aug 1553 Thomas Palmer -1553 and John Gates 1504-1553 (49) were hanged, drawn and quartered.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 13 Jan 1554. The xiij day of January ther was a man drane from the Towre thrugh London a-pone a sled unto Tyborne, and ther hangyd, dran, and quartered, for conterffeytyng the quen('s) senett [signet].

The sam day was had to the Flett doctur Crom, persun of Aldermare, for [preaching on Christmas-day without licenced]

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

After 22 Feb 1554 Henry Isley 1500-1554 was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was sent to Maidstone.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 11 Apr 1554. 11 Apr 1554. The xi of Aprill Sir Tho. Wyatt (33), cheefe capteyne of the late Wyatt pntt to death, rebellion in Kent, was beheaded at Towrehill, at ix of the clock in the foorenoone, and his bodie after quartered on the scaffolde. His head was sett on the gallowes at the parke pale beyond St. James,a where Pollard and two other were hanged in chaynes. And his 4 quarters were hanged on gibbetts in chaynes at 4 severall places without the Liberties of the Cittie.

a. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 89) adds: "and the hed with the qwarter was stolne awaye."

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 11 Apr 1554. The xj day of Aprell was heddyd ser Thomas [Wyatt of Kentt,] (33) the cheyffe captayn of the rebellyous of [Kent, be-] twyn ix and x of the cloke a-for none, on Towre hyll, .... after and by xj of the cloke was he quartered on the skaffold, and hys bowelles and ys members burnt be-syd the skaffold; .... and so ther was a care and a baskett, and the iiij quarters and hed was putt in-to a baskett to nuwgat to be parboyled.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 18 May 1554. The xviij day of May was drane a-pone a sled a proper man namyd Wylliam Thomas from the Towre unto Tyborne; the .. he was clarke to the consell; and he was hangyd, and after ys hed stryken of, and then quartered; and the morow after ys hed was sett on London bryge, and iij quarters set over Crepullgate.

On 18 May 1554 William Thomas Scholar -1554 was hanged, beheaded, and quartered.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 May 1554. 18 May 1554. Fridaye the xviiith of May William Thomas was drawne from the Tower of London to Tiburne, and there hanged, headed, and quartered, and after his head sett on London Bridge, and his quarters sett in 4 severall places, one myle out of the Cittie of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1556. 04 Mar 1556. [The iiij of March a young man named Fetherstone, who gave himself out to be King Edward the Sixth (18), and whose sayings and pretences had occasioned many men and women to be punished, was hanged, drawn, and quartered;] and ys hed was sett up the v day upon London bryge, and ys quarters was bered.

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1556. 19 May 1556. The xix day of May was dran [drawn] from the Towre unto Tyborne captain Wylliam Stantun, and ther hangyd and quartered, and ys hed sett on London bryge the morow after.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1556. 06 Jun 1556. The ix day of June was drane from the Towre unto Tyborne iij gentyllmen for a consperace, master Rosey, master Bedylle, and master Dethyke, and ther hangyd and quartered, and ther quarters bered, master Rosey('s) hed on London bryge, and Bedylle('s) hed over Ludgatt, and master Dethyke('s) over Althergatt.

1583 Somerville Plot

On 20 Dec 1583 Edward Arden 1533-1583 (50) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield for having plotted against Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50) with his son-in-law John Somerville 1560-1583 (23) who had implicated him during torture. He was tried by Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592 (59).

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1582 Seventtenth Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592.

Gunpowder Plot

On 30 Jan 1606 Everard Digby 1578-1606 (28) and Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38) were hanged, drawn and quartered at Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard

On 31 Jan 1606 at Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35) and Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35) were hanged, drawn and quartered.

On 07 Apr 1606 Humphrey Lyttelton 1562-1606 (44) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Red Hill Worcester for his involvement in the Gunpowder Plot.

1641 Irish Rebellion

In 1645 Connor Maguire 2nd Baron of Enniskillen 1616-1645 (29) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.

On 10 Mar 1653 Phelim Roe O'Neill of Kinard 1604-1653 (49) was hanged, drawn and quartered for treason.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 October 1660. 10 Oct 1660. Office day all the morning. In the afternoon with the upholster seeing him do things to my mind, and to my content he did fit my chamber and my wife's. At night comes Mr. Moore, and staid late with me to tell me how Sir Hards. Waller (56)1 (who only pleads guilty), Scott, Coke, Peters, Harrison2, &c. were this day arraigned at the bar at the Sessions House, there being upon the bench the Lord Mayor, General Monk (51), my Lord of Sandwich, &c.; such a bench of noblemen as had not been ever seen in England! They all seem to be dismayed, and will all be condemned without question.

In Sir Orlando Bridgman's (54) charge, he did wholly rip up the unjustness of the war against the King from the beginning, and so it much reflects upon all the Long Parliament, though the King had pardoned them, yet they must hereby confess that the King do look upon them as traitors. To-morrow they are to plead what they have to say. At night to bed.

Note 1. Sir Hardress Waller (56), Knt., one of Charles I judges. His sentence was commuted to imprisonment for life.

Note 2. General Thomas Harrison 1616-1660 (44), son of a butcher at Newcastle-under-Lyme, appointed by Cromwell to convey Charles I from Windsor to Whitehall, in order to his trial. He signed the warrant for the execution of the King. He was hanged, drawn and quartered on the 13th.

Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674. Around 1670 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674. Chirk Castle.

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 October 1660. 13 Oct 1660. To my Lord's in the morning, where I met with Captain Cuttance, but my Lord not being up I went out to Charing Cross, to see Major-general Harrison (44) hanged, drawn and quartered; which was done there, he looking as cheerful as any man could do in that condition. He was presently cut down, and his head and heart shown to the people, at which there was great shouts of joy. It is said, that he said that he was sure to come shortly at the right hand of Christ to judge them that now had judged him; and that his wife do expect his coming again.

Thus it was my chance to see the King beheaded at White Hall, and to see the first blood shed in revenge for the blood of the King at Charing Cross. From thence to my Lord's, and took Captain Cuttance and Mr. Sheply to the Sun Tavern, and did give them some oysters. After that I went by water home, where I was angry with my wife for her things lying about, and in my passion kicked the little fine basket, which I bought her in Holland, and broke it, which troubled me after I had done it. Within all the afternoon setting up shelves in my study. At night to bed.

On 13 Oct 1660 General Thomas Harrison 1616-1660 (44) was hanged, drawn and quartered for his role in the regicide of King Charles I.

On 15 Oct 1660 John Carew Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 October 1660. 15 Oct 1660. Office all the morning. my wife and I by water; I landed her at Whitefriars, she went to my father's (59) to dinner, it being my father's (59) wedding day, there being a very great dinner, and only the Fenners and Joyces there. This morning Mr. Carew1 was hanged and quartered at Charing Cross; but his quarters, by a great favour, are not to be hanged up.

I was forced to go to my Lord's to get him to meet the officers of the Navy this afternoon, and so could not go along with her, but I missed my Lord, who was this day upon the bench at the Sessions house. So I dined there, and went to White Hall, where I met with Sir W. Batten (59) and Pen (39), who with the Comptroller, Treasurer, and Mr. Coventry (32) (at his chamber) made up a list of such ships as are fit to be kept out for the winter guard, and the rest to be paid off by the Parliament when they can get money, which I doubt will not be a great while.

That done, I took coach, and called my wife at my father's (59), and so homewards, calling at Thos. Pepys the turner's for some things that we wanted. And so home, where I fell to read "The Fruitless Precaution" (a book formerly recommended by Dr. Clerke at sea to me), which I read in bed till I had made an end of it, and do find it the best writ tale that ever I read in my life. After that done to sleep, which I did not very well do, because that my wife having a stopping in her nose she snored much, which I never did hear her do before.

Note 1. John Carew signed the warrant for the execution of Charles I He held the religion of the Fifth Monarchists, and was tried October 12th, 1660. He refused to avail himself of many opportunities of escape, and suffered death with much composure.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

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On 16 Oct 1660 Hugh Peter Regicide 1598-1660 (62) and John Cook Regicide 1608-1660 (52) were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross.

On 17 Oct 1660 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660 (66), Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660 (59), John Jones Regicide 1597-1660 (63) and Thomas Scot Regicide -1660 were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 October 1660. 19 Oct 1660. Office in the morning. This morning my dining-room was finished with green serge hanging and gilt leather, which is very handsome. This morning Hacker and Axtell (38) were hanged and quartered, as the rest are. This night I sat up late to make up my accounts ready against to-morrow for my Lord. I found him to be above £80 in my debt, which is a good sight, and I bless God for it.

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn ...

Daniel Axtell Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall.

Francis Hacker Regicide -1660 was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 October 1660. 20 Oct 1660. This morning one came to me to advise with me where to make me a window into my cellar in lieu of one which Sir W. Batten (59) had stopped up, and going down into my cellar to look I stepped into a great heap of——by which I found that Mr. Turner's house of office is full and comes into my cellar, which do trouble me, but I shall have it helped.

To my Lord's by land, calling at several places about business, where I dined with my Lord and Lady; when he was very merry, and did talk very high how he would have a French cook, and a master of his horse, and his lady and child to wear black patches; which methought was strange, but he is become a perfect courtier; and, among other things, my Baroness Saying that she could get a good merchant for her daughter Jem., he answered, that he would rather see her with a pedlar's pack at her back, so she married a gentleman, than she should marry a citizen.

This afternoon, going through London, and calling at Crowe's the upholster's, in Saint Bartholomew's, I saw the limbs of some of our new traitors set upon Aldersgate, which was a sad sight to see; and a bloody week this and the last have been, there being ten hanged, drawn and quartered. Home, and after writing a letter to my uncle by the post, I went to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 April 1662. 19 Apr 1662. This morning, before we sat, I went to Aldgate; and at the corner shop, a draper's, I stood, and did see Barkestead, Okey, and Corbet, drawn towards the gallows at Tiburne; and there they were hanged and quartered. They all looked very cheerful; but I hear they all die defending what they did to the King (31) to be just; which is very strange.

So to the office and then home to dinner, and Captain David Lambert came to take his leave of me, he being to go back to Tangier there to lie. Then abroad about business, and in the evening did get a bever, an old one, but a very good one, of Sir W. Batten (61), for which I must give him something; but I am very well pleased with it. So after writing by the post to bed.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" 1613-1662 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill for treason against King Charles II (32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 April 1668. 05 Apr 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to my chamber, and there to the writing fair some of my late musique notions, and so to church, where I have not been a good while, and thence home, and dined at home, with W. Hewer (26) with me; and after dinner, he and I a great deal of good talk touching this Office, how it is spoiled by having so many persons in it, and so much work that is not made the work of any one man, but of all, and so is never done; and that the best way to have it well done, were to have the whole trust in one, as myself, to set whom I pleased to work in the several businesses of the Office, and me to be accountable for the whole, and that would do it, as I would find instruments: but this is not to be compassed; but something I am resolved to do about Sir J. Minnes (69) before it be long. Then to my chamber again, to my musique, and so to church; and then home, and thither comes Captain Silas Taylor (43) to me, the Storekeeper of Harwich, where much talk, and most of it against Captain Deane (34), whom I do believe to be a high, proud fellow; but he is an active man, and able in his way, and so I love him. He gone, I to my musique again, and to read a little, and to sing with Mr. Pelling, who come to see me, and so spent the evening, and then to supper and to bed. I hear that eight of the ringleaders in the late tumults of the 'prentices at Easter are condemned to die1.

Note 1. Four were executed on May 9th, namely, Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Massenger, and Richard Beasley. They were drawn, hanged, and quartered at Tyburn, and two of their heads fixed upon London Bridge ("The London Gazette", No. 259). See "The Tryals of such persons as under the notion of London Apprentices were tumultuously assembled in Moore Fields, under colour of pulling down bawdy-houses", 4to., London, 1668. "It is to be observed", says "The London Gazette", "to the just vindication of the City, that none of the persons apprehended upon the said tumult were found to be apprentices, as was given out, but some idle persons, many of them nursed in the late Rebellion, too readily embracing any opportunity of making their own advantages to the disturbance of the peace, and injury of others".

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Popish Plot

On 03 Dec 1678 Edward Colman Courtier 1636-1678 (42) was hanged, drawn and quartered on a charge of treason having been implicated by Titus Oates 1649-1705 (29).

Rye House Plot

On 20 Jun 1684 Thomas Armstrong 1633-1684 (51) was dragged by hurdle to Tower Hill where he was hanged, drawn and quartered for his involvement in the Rye House Plot.

Argyll's Rising

On 30 Oct 1685 John Ayloffe 1645-1685 (40) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Temple Bar for his part in the Argyll's Rising.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749 (37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.

On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.

William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (74) appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Around 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of James Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 1727. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727. Before 1723 Johnathan

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Gunpowder Plot The Verdicts. Note. All eight Conspirators were to be hanged, drawn and quartered. The narrative provides the rationale for why this particlar punishment was applied.

The Conclusion shall be from the admirable Clemency and Moderation of the King, in that howsoever these Traitors have exceeded all others their Predecessors in Mischief, and so Crescente Malitia crescere debuit et Pæna; yet neither will the King exceed the usual Punishment of Law, nor invent any new Torture or Torment for them; but is graciously pleased to afford them as well an ordinary Course of Trial, as an ordinary Punishment, much inferior to their Offence.

And surely worthy of Observation is the Punishment by Law provided and appointed for High-Treason, which we call Crimen læsæ Majestatis. For first, after a Traitor hath had his just Trial, and is convicted and attainted, he shall have his Judgement to be drawn to the place of Execution from his Prison, as being not worthy any more to tread upon the Face of the Earth whereof he was made:

Also for that he hath been retrograde to Nature, therefore is he drawn backward at a Horse-Tail. And whereas God hath made the Head of Man the highest and most supreme Part, as being his chief Grace and Ornament, Pronaque cum spectent Animalia cætera terram, Os homini sublime dedit; he must be drawn with his Head declining downward, and lying so near the Ground as may be, being thought unfit to take benefit of the common Air. For which Cause also he shall be strangled, being hanged up by the Neck between Heaven and Earth, as deemed unworthy of both, or either; as likewise, that the Eyes of Men may behold, and their Hearts contemn him. Then he is to be cut down alive, and to have his Privy Parts cut off and burnt before his Face, as being unworthily begotten, and unfit to leave any Generation after him. His Bowels and inlay'd Parts taken out and burnt, who inwardly had conceived and harboured in his heart such horrible Treason. After, to have his Head cut off, which had imagined the Mischief. And lastly, his Body to be quartered, and the Quarters set up in some high and eminent Place, to the View and Detestation of Men, and to become a Prey for the Fowls of the Air.

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And this is a Reward due to Traitors, whose Hearts be hardened: For that it is Physic of State and Government, to let out corrupt Blood from the Heart. But, Pænitentia vera numquam, sera sed pænitentia sera raro vera: True Repentance is indeed never too late; but late Repentance is seldom found true: Which yet I pray the merciful Lord to grant unto them, that having a Sense of their Offences, they may make a true and sincere ConFession both for their Souls Health, and for the Good and Safety of the King and this State. And for the rest that are not yet apprehended, my Prayer to God is, Ut aut convertantur ne pereant, aut confundantur ne noceant; that either they may be converted, to the End they perish not, or else confounded, that they hurt not.

After this by the Direction of Master Attorney-General, were their several Examinations (subscribed by themselves) shewed particularly unto them, and acknowledged by them to be their own, and true, wherein every one had confessed the Treason. Then did Master Attorney desire, That albeit that which had been already done and confessed at the Bar, might be all-sufficient for the Declaration and Justification of the Course of Justice then held, especially seeing we have Reos confitentes, the Traitors own voluntary ConFessions at the Bar; yet for further Satisfaction to so great a Presence and Audience, and their better Memory of the Carriage of these Treasons, the voluntary and free ConFessions of all the said several Traitors in writing subscribed with their own proper Hands, and acknowledged at the Bar, by themselves to be true, were openly and distinctly read; By which, amongst other things, it appeared that Bates was absolved for what he undertook concerning the Powder-Treason, and being therein warranted by the Jesuits. Also it appeared, that Hammond the Jesuit, after that he knew the Powder-Treason was discovered, and that these Traitors had been in actual Rebellion, confessed them, and gave them Absolution: And this was on Thursday the 7th of November.

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Here also was Mention made by Master Attorney of the ConFessions of Watson and Clarke, Seminary Priests, upon their Apprehension; who affirmed, that there was some Treason intended by the Jesuits, and then in Hand; as might appear.

1 By their continual negotiating at that Time with Spain, which they assured themsleves tended to nothing but a preparation for a foreign Commotion.

2 By their collecting and gathering together such great Sums of Money, as then they had done, therewith to levy an Army when Time should serve.

3 For that sundry of the Jesuits had been tampering with Catholicks, as well to dissuade them from Acceptance of the King at his first coming, saying, That they ought rather to Die, than to admit of any Heretick (as they continually termed his Majesty) to the Crown; and that they might not, under pain of Excommunication, accept of any but a Catholick for their Sovereign; as also to dissuade Catholicks from their Loyalty after the State was settled.

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Lastly, In that they had both bought up store of great Horses throughout the Country, and conveyed Powder and Shot, and Artillery secretly to their Friends; wishing them not stir, but keep themselves quiet until they heard from them.

After the reading of their several Examinations, ConFessions, and voluntary Declaration as well of themselves, as of some of their dead Confederates, they were all by the Verdict of the Jury found guilty of the Treasons contained in their Indictment.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

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Old and New London Volume 6 Chaper XIX The Old Kent Road. St. Thomas à Watering was once the boundary of the City liberties, and in the "olden time," when the lord mayor and sheriffs "in great state" crossed the water to open Southwark Fair and to inspect the City boundaries, the City magistrates continued either to St. George's Church, Newington Bridge, or "to the stones pointing out the City liberties at St. Thomas à Watering." The precise situation was as near as possible that part of the Old Kent Road which is intersected by the Albany Road, and the memory of the place is still kept alive by St. Thomas's Road, close by, and by the tavern-signs in the neighbourhood. "At the commencement of the present century," writes Mr. Blanch, in his history of "Ye Parishe of Cam[b]erwell," "there was a stream here which served as a common sewer, across which a bridge was built; and in going from Camberwell into Newington or Southwark, it was not unusual for people to say they were going over the water. The current from the Peckham hills was at times so strong as to overflow at least two acres of ground."

St. Thomas à Waterings was situated close to the second milestone on the Old Kent Road, and was so called from a brook or spring, dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket. Chaucer's pilgrims, as we have seen in a previous chapter, passed it on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket at Canterbury:—

"And forth we riden a litel more than pas,

Unto the watering of Seint Thomàs,

And then our host began his hors arrest."

Ben Jonson, in The New Inn, makes mention of the spot in the following lines:—

"These are the arts

Or seven liberal deadly sciences,

Of pagery, or rather paganism,

As the tides run! to which if he apply him,

He may perhaps take a degree at Tyburn

A year the earlier; come to read a lecture

Upon Aquinas at St. Thomas à Waterings."

This spot was in the old Tudor days the place of execution for the northern parts of Surrey; and here the Vicar of Wandsworth, his chaplain, and two other persons of his household, were hung, drawn, and quartered in 1539 for denying the supremacy of Henry VIII. in matters of faith.

In 1553 (January 3rd) "was caried from the Marshalleshe unto Saynt Thomas of Wateryng a talman, and went thedur with the rope a-bowt ys neke, and so he hanggd a whylle, and the rope burst, and a whylle after and then they went for a-nodur rope, and so lyke-wyss he burst ytt and fell to the ground, and so he skapyd with his lyffe."

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