Obelisk

Obelisk is in Architectural Detail.

After 21 Feb 1581. Church of St Peter and St Paul Exton. Monument to Robert Keilway 1497-1581. Elizabethan Period. This memorial is attributed by Pevsner to Nicholas Johnson and by others to Nicholas Stone 1587-1647. Made of various marbles, a large standing wall monument of 1580, richly decorated and with a recumbant and kneeling figures of the whole family, in an aedicule, capped by obelisk, arms, etc.

The inscription reads "Here lies Robert Keylway a distinguished esquire among civilians (whilst he lived), renowned for talent, learning and virtue, who loved retirement, lived as a Christian and died in the Lord on the 21st of February 1581 in the year of our Salvation, 1580, and the 84th year of his age. He left Anne (27) his sole heiress and only dearly loved daughter married to John Harrington of Exton, Knt (41), whom he had always affectionately loved as a son and friend, by which Anne (27) the said John (41) had during the life of the aforesaid Robert (84) two children, a son, Kelwey, who died Dec. 2nd, 1570, 21 weeks old, and lies buried here with his grandfather, and also a daughter Lucy (1) still surviving, and may God grant her a long life. To pay, therefore, a just tribute to so dear and affectionate a parent and to leave to posterity an evidence of their deep gratitude, the said John (41) and Anne (27) have raised this. Monument and dedicated to their father, Keylwey, and their son Keylwey (to their lasting memory if it so please God) and design it, if God will, as a sepulchre for themselves also".

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of John Harington 1st Baron Harington 1540-1613. Around 1606 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. 1612. Studio of Isaac Oliver Painter 1565-1617. Miniature Portrait of (probably) Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. Oliver painted the woman's pearl earrings using Nicholas Hilliard's jewelling technique, which involved laying a raised blob of white lead paint with some shadowing to one side. This form was then crowned with a rounded touch of real silver that was burnished with, to quote Hilliard,

On 29 Aug 1582 Thomas St Paul -1582 died. He was buried at St Lawrence's Church Snarford. Monument to Thomas St Paul -1582 and Faith Grantham. Fine freestanding tomb chest with canopy. The sides of the tomb chest have acanthus Pilasters, the panels between contain wreathed shields. The full length recumbent albaster effigies show the man in full plate armour holding sword and prayerbook, head on helm, feet on a cushion with flowers. His wife is in a long dress with cloak and close fitting hat, holding a bible. The inscription runs round the top edge of the chest. The canopy is supported on six pillars, those at the angles being circular and bulbous, the others in the form of obelisks decorated with fishscale Paterae, with elaborate Ionic Capitals with roses in the necking. The entablature has an egg and dart frieze. Above the heads of the columns are five female and one male weepers. At the centre of the canopy is a raised altar bearing shields and surmounted by the kneeling figure of the heir clad in armour. In front kneels a larger figure of a girl. the monument is all painted and gilded.

On 24 Jan 1592 James Harrington 1511-1592 (81) died. He was buried in the Church of St Peter and St Paul Exton. Monument to James Harrington 1511-1592 (81) and Lucy Sidney 1520-1591 (72). A large standing Elizabethan Period monument with 2 kneeling figures at a prie-dieu in a double aedicule. Wrought in various marbles and enriched with low-relief carving, strapwork etc. surmounted by obelisk, and arms. Stylistically similar to the monument to Robert Keilway. Possibly sculpted by Nicholas Johnson Sculptor -1624 or Nicholas Stone 1587-1647 (5).

On 07 May 1592 Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592 (68) died. He was was buried in St Michael's Church Glentworth. Monument to Sir Chistopher and his wife Anne Girlington. Elizabethan Recumbent. Elephant and Castle Crest. Pink, white and blue-grey marble. Two recumbent effigies, Sir Christopher above and a little behind his wife, he in red robes, black cap and thick ruff; she in black robes, large ruff and hood. Four kneeling white marble daughters below. Ornate tomb recess above with flanking pink marble columns with white and gold Corinthian Capitals. Undersurface of Recess decorated with white and gold bay leaves. Plaque inscribed above with raised plaque above with Sir Christopher's son at prayer flanked by coats of arms and obelisks.

In 1582 Seventtenth Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592.

After 19 Oct 1592. St Mary's Church Easebourne Midhurst. Monument to Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592, Jane Radclyffe -1552 and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague 1538-1608. The monument was originally in Midhurst but was subsequently moved. As there was less room, it was re-arranged, with Lord Montague kneeling behind and above the two recumbent effigies of his wives, instead of having a wife on either side, with obelisks at the corners.

In 1559 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant.

On 03 Jun 1602 Elizabeth Seymour 1552-1602 (50) died. Monument in All Saints Church Norton. Painted alabaster. Monument with recumbent praying effigy in coffered arch flanked by black marble Corinthian Columns and outer obelisks and topped by armorial panels. The monument also to Dudley Knightley 1583-1602 (19). Elizabethan Period.

On 28 Oct 1613 George St Paul Baronet St Paul 1562-1613 (51) died. He was buried at St Lawrence's Church Snarford. Monument to George St Paul Baronet St Paul 1562-1613 (51) and Frances Wray Countess Warwick -1634. Elizabethan Recumbent. A base supporting the reclining figures of the deceased with composite Pillars supporting an entablature and armorial termination. In the base is a central semi-circular niche containing a carving of the deceased's daughter, flanked by niches containing mourning putti. Above on the lower step is a figure of Frances in full mourning dress with formal Ruff and hat, reclining on a cushion holding a prayer book. On the upper step he reclines in plate armour with a sword. The figures are contained in a semi-circular headed Recess with roses in the archivolt and on the back wall is an inscribed rectangular panel with scrolls and memento mori. The Pillars to either side support a frieze and entablature from which rise flaming urns and at the angles, and at the centre is a raised achievement of arms flanked by scrolled shields and obelisks. Possibly sculpted by Cornelius Cure Sculptor -1607.

John Evelyn's Diary 19 November 1644. 19 Nov 1644. I visited St. Peter's, that most stupendous and incomparable Basilica, far surpassing any now extant in the world, and perhaps, Solomon's Temple excepted, any that was ever built. The largeness of the piazza before the portico is worth observing, because it affords a noble prospect of the church, not crowded up, as for the most part is the case in other places where great churches are erected. In this is a fountain, out of which gushes a river rather than a stream which, ascending a good height, breaks upon a round emboss of marble into millions of pearls that fall into the subjacent basins with great noise; I esteem this one of the goodliest fountains I ever saw.

Next is the obelisk transported out of Egypt, and dedicated by Octavius Augustus to Julius Cæsar, whose ashes it formerly bore on the summit; but, being since overturned by the barbarians, was re-erected with vast cost and a most stupendous invention by Domenico Fontana, architect to Sextus V. The obelisk consists of one entire square stone without hieroglyphics, in height seventy-two feet, but comprehending the base and all it is 108 feet high, and rests on four lions of gilded copper, so as you may see through the base of the obelisk and plinth of the pedestal.

Upon two faces of the obelisk is engraven.

DIVO CAES. DIVI.

IVLII F. AVGVSTO.

TI. CAES. DIVI AVG.

F. AVGVS. SACRVM.

It now bears on the top a cross in which it is said that Sextus V. inclosed some of the holy wood; and under it is to be read by good eyes:

SANCTISSIMAE CRVCI.

SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX.

CONSECRAVIT.

E. PRIORE SEDE AVVLSVM.

ET CAESS. AVG. AC TIB.

I. L. ABLATUM M.D.LXXXVI.

On the four faces of the base below:

1. CHRISTVS VINCIT. CHRISTVS REGNAT. CHRISTVS IMPERAT. CHRISTVS AB OMNI MALO PLEBEM SVAM DEFENDAT.

2. SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX. OBELISCVM VATICANVM DIIS GENTIVM IMPIO CVLTV DICATVM AD APOSTOLORVM LIMINA OPEROSO LABORE TRANSTVLIT AN. M.D.LXXXVI. PONT. II

3. ECCE CRVX DOMINI FVGITE PARTES ADVERSAE VINCIT LEO DE TRIBV IVDA.

4. SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX. CRVCI INVICTAE OBELISCVM VATICANVM AB IMPIA SVPERSTITIONE EXPIATVM IVSTIVS ET FELICITVS CONSECRAVIT AN. M.D.L.XXXVI. PONT. II

A little lower:

DOMINICVS FONTANA EX PAGO MILIAGRI NOVOCOMENSIS TRANSTVLIT ET EREXIT.

It is reported to have taken a year in erecting, to have cost 37,975 crowns, the labor of 907 men, and 75 horses: this being the first of the four Egyptian obelisks set up at Rome, and one of the forty-two brought to the city out of Egypt, set up in several places, but thrown down by the Goths, Barbarians, and earthquakes. Some coaches stood before the steps of the ascent, whereof one, belonging to Cardinal Medici, had all the metal work of massy silver, viz, the bow behind and other places. The coaches at Rome, as well as covered wagons also much in use, are generally the richest and largest I ever saw. Before the facciata of the church is an ample pavement. The church was first begun by St. Anacletus, when rather a chapel, on a foundation, as they give out, of Constantine the Great, who, in honor of the Apostles, carried twelve baskets full of sand to the work. After him, Julius II took it in hand, to which all his successors have contributed more or less.

The front is supposed to be the largest and best-studied piece of architecture in the world; to this we went up by four steps of marble. The first entrance is supported by huge pilasters; the volto within is the richest possible, and overlaid with gold. Between the five large anti-ports are columns of enormous height and compass, with as many gates of brass, the work and sculpture of Pollaivola, the Florentine, full of cast figures and histories in a deep relievo. Over this runs a terrace of like amplitude and ornament, where the Pope, at solemn times, bestows his Benediction on the vulgar. On each side of this portico are two campaniles, or towers, whereof there was but one perfected, of admirable art. On the top of all, runs a balustrade which edges it quite round, and upon this at equal distances are Christ and the twelve Disciples of gigantic size and stature, yet below showing no greater than the life. Entering the church, admirable is the breadth of the volto, or roof, which is all carved with foliage and roses overlaid with gold in nature of a deep basso-relievo, à l'antique. The nave, or body, is in form of a cross, whereof the foot-part is the longest; and, at the internodium of the transept, rises the cupola, which being all of stone and of prodigious height is more in compass than that of the Pantheon (which was the largest among the old Romans, and is yet entire) or any other known. The inside, or concave, is covered with most exquisite Mosaic, representing the Celestial Hierarchy, by Giuseppe d'Arpino, full of stars of gold; the convex, or outside, exposed to the air, is covered with lead, with great ribs of metal double gilt (as are also the ten other lesser cupolas, for no fewer adorn this glorious structure), which gives a great and admirable splendor in all parts of the city. On the summit of this is fixed a brazen globe gilt, capable of receiving thirty-five persons. This I entered, and engraved my name among other travelers. Lastly, is the Cross, the access to which is between the leaden covering and the stone convex, or arch-work; a most truly astonishing piece of art! On the battlements of the church, also all overlaid with lead and marble, you would imagine yourself in a town, so many are the cupolas, pinnacles, towers, juttings, and not a few houses inhabited by men who dwell there, and have enough to do to look after the vast reparations which continually employ them.

Having seen this, we descended into the body of the church, full of collateral chapels and large oratories, most of them exceeding the size of ordinary churches; but the principal are four incrusted with most precious marbles and stones of various colors, adorned with an infinity of statues, pictures, stately altars, and innumerable relics. The altar-piece of St. Michael being of Mosaic, I could not pass without particular note, as one of the best of that kind. The chapel of Gregory XIII., where he is buried, is most splendid. Under the cupola, and in the center of the church, stands the high altar, consecrated first by Clement VIII., adorned by Paul V., and lately covered by Pope Urban VIII.; with that stupendous canopy of Corinthian brass, which heretofore was brought from the Pantheon; it consists of four wreathed columns, partly channelled and encircled with vines, on which hang little puti birds and bees (the arms of the Barberini), sustaining a baldacchino of the same metal. The four columns weigh an hundred and ten thousand pounds, all over richly gilt; this, with the pedestals, crown, and statues about it, form a thing of that art, vastness, and magnificence, as is beyond all that man's industry has produced of the kind; it is the work of Bernini, a Florentine sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, who, a little before my coming to the city, gave a public opera (for so they call shows of that kind), wherein he painted the scenes, cut the statues, invented the engines, composed the music, writ the comedy, and built the theater. Opposite to either of these pillars, under those niches which, with their columns, support the weighty cupola, are placed four exquisite statues of Parian marble, to which are four altars; that of St. Veronica, made by Fra. Mochi, has over it the reliquary, where they showed us the miraculous Sudarium indued with the picture of our Savior's face, with this inscription: "Salvatoris imaginem Veronicæ Sudario exceptam ut loci majestas decentèr custodiret, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. Marmoreum signum et Altare addidit, Conditorium extruxit et ornavit"..

Right against this is that of Longinus, of a Colossean magnitude, also by Bernini, and over him the conservatory of the iron lance inserted in a most precious crystal, with this epigraph: "Longini Lanceam quam Innocentius VIII. à Bajazete Turcarum Tyranno accepit, Urbanus VIII. statuâ appositâ, et Sacello substructo, in exornatum Conditorium transtulit"..

The third chapel has over the altar the statue of our countrywoman, St. Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great; the work of Boggi, an excellent sculptor; and here is preserved a great piece of the pretended wood of the holy cross, which she is said to have first detected miraculously in the Holy Land. It was placed here by the late Pope with this inscription: "Partem Crucis quam Helena Imperatrix è Calvario in Urbem adduxit, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. è Sissorianâ Basilicâ desumptam, additis arâ et statuâ, hìc in Vaticano collocavit"..

The fourth hath over the altar, and opposite to that of St. Veronica, the statue of St. Andrew, the work of Fiamingo, admirable above all the other; above is preserved the head of that Apostle, richly enchased. It is said that this excellent sculptor died mad to see his statue placed in a disadvantageous light by Bernini, the chief architect, who found himself outdone by this artist. The inscription over it is this:

St. Andreæ caput quod Pius II ex Achaiâ in Vaticanum asportandum curavit, Urbanus VIII. novis hic ornamentis decoratum sacrisque statuæ ac Sacelli honoribus coli voluit.

The relics showed and kept in this church are without number, as are also the precious vessels of gold, silver, and gems, with the vests and services to be seen in the Sacristy, which they showed us. Under the high altar is an ample grot inlaid with pietra-commessa, wherein half of the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul are preserved; before hang divers great lamps of the richest plate, burning continually. About this and contiguous to the altar, runs a balustrade, in form of a theater, of black marble. Toward the left, as you go out of the church by the portico, a little beneath the high altar, is an old brass statue of St. Peter sitting, under the soles of whose feet many devout persons rub their heads, and touch their chaplets. This was formerly cast from a statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. In another place, stands a column grated about with iron, whereon they report that our Blessed Savior was often wont to lean as he preached in the Temple. In the work of the reliquary under the cupola there are eight wreathed columns brought from the Temple of Solomon. In another chapel, they showed us the chair of St. Peter, or, as they name it, the Apostolical Throne. But among all the chapels the one most glorious has for an altar-piece a Madonna bearing a dead Christ on her knees, in white marble, the work of Michael Angelo. At the upper end of the Cathedral, are several stately monuments, especially that of Urban VIII. Round the cupola, and in many other places in the church, are confession seats, for all languages, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, English, Irish, Welsh, Sclavonian, Dutch, etc., as it is written on their friezes in golden capitals, and there are still at confessions some of all nations. Toward the lower end of the church, and on the side of a vast pillar sustaining a weighty roof, is the depositum and statue of the Countess Matilda, a rare piece, with basso-relievos about it of white marble, the work of Bernini. Here are also those of Sextus IV. and Paulus III., etc. Among the exquisite pieces in this sumptuous fabric is that of the ship with St. Peter held up from sinking by our Savior; the emblems about it are the Mosaic of the famous Giotto, who restored and made it perfect after it had been defaced by the Barbarians. Nor is the pavement under the cupola to be passed over without observation, which with the rest of the body and walls of the whole church, are all inlaid with the richest of pietra-commessa, in the most splendid colors of polished marbles, agates, serpentine, porphyry, calcedon, etc., wholly incrusted to the very roof. Coming out by the portico at which we entered, we were shown the Porta Santa, never opened but at the year of jubilee. This glorious foundation hath belonging to it thirty canons, thirty-six beneficiates, twenty-eight clerks beneficed, with innumerable chaplains, etc., a Cardinal being always archpriest; the present Cardinal was Francisco Barberini, who also styled himself Protector of the English, to whom he was indeed very courteous.

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John Evelyn's Diary 18 January 1645. 18 Jan 1645. I went to see the Pope's Palace, the Vatican, where he for the most part keeps his Court. It was first built by Pope Symmachus, and since augmented to a vast pile of building by his successors. That part of it added by Sextus V. is most magnificent. This leads us into divers terraces arched sub dio, painted by Raphael with the histories of the Bible, so esteemed, that artists come from all parts of Europe to make their studies from these designs. The foliage and grotesque about some of the compartments are admirable. In another room are represented at large, maps and plots of most countries in the world, in vast tables, with brief descriptions. The stairs which ascend out of St. Peter's portico into the first hall, are rarely contrived for ease; these lead into the hall of Gregory XIII., the walls whereof, half way to the roof, are incrusted with most precious marbles of various colors and works. So is also the pavement inlaid work; but what exceeds description is, the volta, or roof itself, which is so exquisitely painted, that it is almost impossible for the skillfullest eyes to discern whether it be the work of the pencil upon a flat, or of a tool cut deep in stone. The Rota dentata, in this admirable perspective, on the left hand as one goes out, the Setella, etc., are things of art incomparable. Certainly this is one of the most superb and royal apartments in the world, much too beautiful for a guard of gigantic Switzers, who do nothing but drink and play at cards in it. Going up these stairs is a painting of St. Peter, walking on the sea toward our Savior.

Out of this I went into another hall, just before the chapel, called the Sàla del Conclave, full of admirable paintings; among others is the Assassination of Coligni, the great [Protestant] French Admiral, murdered by the Duke of Guise, in the Parisian massacre at the nuptials of Henry IV, with Queen Margaret; under it is written, "Coligni et sociorum cædes:" on the other side, "Rex Coligi necem probat"..

There is another very large picture, under which is inscribed:

Alexander Papa III., Frederici Primi Imperatoris iram et impetum fugiens, abdidit se Venetijs; cognitum et à senatu perhonorificè susceptum, Othone Imperatoris filio navali prælio victo captoq; Fredericus, pace facta, supplex adorat; fidem et obedientiam pollicitus. Ita Pontifici sua dignitas Venet. Reip. beneficio restituta MCLXXVIII.

This inscription I the rather took notice of, because Urban VIII. had caused it to be blotted out during the difference between him and that State; but it was now restored and refreshed by his successor, to the great honor of the Venetians. The Battle of Lepanto is another fair piece here.

Now we came into the Pope's chapel, so much celebrated for the Last Judgment painted by M. Angelo Buonarotti. It is a painting in fresco, upon a dead wall at the upper end of the chapel, just over the high altar, of a vast design and miraculous fancy, considering the multitude of naked figures and variety of posture. The roof also is full of rare work. Hence, we went into the sacristia where were showed all the most precious vestments, copes, and furniture of the chapel. One priestly cope, with the whole suite, had been sent from one of our English Henrys, and is shown for a great rarity. There were divers of the Pope's pantoufles that are kissed on his foot, having rich jewels embroidered on the instep, covered with crimson velvet; also his tiara, or triple crown, divers miters, crosiers, etc., all bestudded with precious stones, gold, and pearl, to a very great value; a very large cross, carved (as they affirm) out of the holy wood itself; numerous utensils of crystal, gold, agate, amber, and other costly materials for the altar.

We then went into those chambers painted with the Histories of the burning of Rome, quenched by the procession of a Crucifix; the victory of Constantine over Maxentius; St. Peter's delivery out of Prison; all by Julio Romano, and are therefore called the Painters' Academy, because you always find some young men or other designing from them: a civility which is not refused in Italy, where any rare pieces of the old and best masters are extant, and which is the occasion of breeding up many excellent men in that profession.

The Sala Clementina's Suffito is painted by Cherubin Alberti, with an ample landscape of Paul Bril's.

We were then conducted into a new gallery, whose sides were painted with views of the most famous places, towns, and territories in Italy, rarely done, and upon the roof the chief Acts of the Roman Church since St. Peter's pretended See there. It is doubtless one of the most magnificent galleries in Europe.—Out of this we came into the Consistory, a noble room, the volta painted in grotesque, as I remember. At the upper end, is an elevated throne and a baldachin, or canopy of state, for his Holiness, over it.

From thence, through a very long gallery (longer, I think, than the French Kings at the Louvre), but only of bare walls, we were brought into the Vatican Library. This passage was now full of poor people, to each of whom, in his passage to St. Peter's, the Pope gave a mezzo grosse. I believe they were in number near 1,500 or 2,000 persons.

This library is the most nobly built, furnished, and beautified of any in the world; ample, stately, light, and cheerful, looking into a most pleasant garden. The walls and roof are painted, not with antiques and grotesques, like our Bodleian at Oxford, but emblems, figures, diagrams, and the like learned inventions, found out by the wit and industry of famous men, of which there are now whole volumes extant. There were likewise the effigies of the most illustrious men of letters and fathers of the church, with divers noble statues, in white marble, at the entrance, viz, Hippolytus and Aristides. The General Councils are painted on the side walls. As to the ranging of the books, they are all shut up in presses of wainscot, and not exposed on shelves to the open air, nor are the most precious mixed among the more ordinary, which are showed to the curious only; such are those two Virgils written on parchment, of more than a thousand years old; the like, a Terence; the "Acts of the Apostles" in golden capital letters; Petrarch's "Epigrams", written with his own hand; also a Hebrew parchment, made up in the ancient manner, from whence they were first called "Volumina", with the Cornua; but what we English do much inquire after, the book which our Henry VIII. writ against Luther.25.

The largest room is 100 paces long; at the end is the gallery of printed books; then the gallery of the Duke of Urban's library, in which are MSS. of remarkable miniature, and divers Chinese, Mexican, Samaritan, Abyssinian, and other oriental books.

In another wing of the edifice, 200 paces long, were all the books taken from Heidelberg, of which the learned Gruter, and other great scholars, had been keepers. These walls and volte are painted with representations of the machines invented by Domenico Fontana for erection of the obelisks; and the true design of Mahomet's sepulchre at Mecca.

Out of this we went to see the Conclave, where, during a vacancy, the Cardinals are shut up till they are agreed upon a new election; the whole manner whereof was described to us.

Hence we went into the Pope's Armory, under the library. Over the door is this inscription: URBANUS VIII. LITTERIS ARMA, ARMA LITTERIS.

I hardly believe any prince in Europe is able to show a more completely furnished library of Mars, for the quality and quantity, which is 40,000 complete for horse and foot, and neatly kept. Out of this we passed again by the long gallery, and at the lower end of it down a very large pair of stairs, round, without any steps as usually, but descending with an evenness so ample and easy, that a horse-litter, or coach, may with ease be drawn up; the sides of the vacuity are set with columns: those at Amboise, on the Loire, in France, are something of this invention, but nothing so spruce. By these, we descended into the Vatican gardens, called Belvedere, where entering first into a kind of court, we were showed those incomparable statues (so famed by Pliny and others) of Laocoon with his three sons embraced by a huge serpent, all of one entire Parian stone, very white and perfect, somewhat bigger than the life, the work of those three celebrated sculptors, Agesandrus, Polydorus, and Artemidorus, Rhodians; it was found among the ruins of Titus's baths, and placed here. Pliny says this statue is to be esteemed before all pictures and statues in the world; and I am of his opinion, for I never beheld anything of art approach it. Here are also those two famous images of Nilus with the children playing about him, and that of Tiber; Romulus and Remus with the Wolf; the dying Cleopatra; the Venus and Cupid, rare pieces; the Mercury; Cybel; Hercules; Apollo; Antinous: most of which are, for defense against the weather, shut up in niches with wainscot doors. We were likewise showed the relics of the Hadrian Moles, viz, the Pine, a vast piece of metal which stood on the summit of that mausoleum; also a peacock of copper, supposed to have been part of Scipio's monument.

In the garden without this (which contains a vast circuit of ground) are many stately fountains, especially two casting water into antique lavers, brought from Titus's baths; some fair grots and water-works, that noble cascade where the ship dances, with divers other pleasant inventions, walks, terraces, meanders, fruit trees, and a most goodly prospect over the greatest part of the city. One fountain under the gate I must not omit, consisting of three jettos of water gushing out of the mouths or proboscides of bees (the arms of the late Pope), because of the inscription:

Quid miraris Apem, quae mel de floribus haurit? Si tibi mellitam gutture fundit aquam.

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John Evelyn's Diary 15 February 1645. 15 Feb 1645. Mr. Henshaw and I walked by the Tiber, and visited the Stola Tybertina (now St. Bartholomew's), formerly cut in the shape of a ship, and wharfed with marble, in which a lofty obelisk represented the mast. In the church of St. Bartholomew is the body of the Apostle. Here are the ruins of the Temple of Æsculapius, now converted into a stately hospital and a pretty convent. Opposite to it, is the convent and church of St. John Calabita, where I saw nothing remarkable, save an old broken altar. Here was the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. Hence, we went to a cupola, now a church, formerly dedicated to the sun. Opposite to it, Santa Maria Schola Græca, where formerly that tongue was taught; said to be the second church dedicated in Rome to the Blessed Virgin; bearing also the title of a Cardinalate. Behind this stands the great altar of Hercules, much demolished. Near this, being at the foot of Mount Aventine, are the Pope's salt houses. Ascending the hill, we came to St. Sabina, an ancient fabric, formerly sacred to Diana; there, in a chapel, is an admirable picture, the work of Livia Fontana, set about with columns of alabaster, and in the middle of the church is a stone, cast, as they report, by the Devil at St. Dominic, while he was at mass. Hence, we traveled toward a heap of rubbish, called the Marmorata, on the bank of the Tiber, a magazine of stones; and near which formerly stood a triumphal arch, in honor of Horatius vanquishing the Tuscans. The ruins of the bridge yet appear.

We were now got to Mons Testaceus, a heap of potsherds, almost 200 feet high, thought to have been thrown there and amassed by the subjects of the Commonwealth bringing their tribute in earthen vessels, others (more probably) that it was a quarter of the town where potters lived; at the summit Rome affords a noble prospect. Before it is a spacious green, called the Hippodrome, where Olympic games were celebrated, and the people mustered, as in our London Artillery-Ground. Going hence, to the old wall of the city, we much admired the pyramid, or tomb, of Caius Cestius, of white marble, one of the most ancient entire monuments, inserted in the wall, with this inscription:

C. Cestius L. F. Pob. Epulo (an order of priests) Pr. Tr. pl. VII. Vir. Epulonum.

And a little beneath: Opus absolutum ex testamento diebus CCCXXX. arbitratu. Ponti P. F. Cla. Melæ Heredis et Pothi L.

At the left hand, is the Port of St. Paul, once Tergemina, out of which the three Horatii passed to encounter the Curiatii of Albano. Hence, bending homeward by St. Saba, by Antoninus's baths (which we entered), is the marble sepulchre of Vespasian. The thickness of the walls and the stately ruins show the enormous magnitude of these baths. Passing by a corner of the Circus Maximus, we viewed the place where stood the Septizonium, demolished by Sextus V., for fear of its falling. Going by Mons Cœlius, we beheld the devotions of St. Maria in Naviculâ, so named from a ship carved out in white marble standing on a pedestal before it, supposed to be the vow of one escaped from shipwreck. It has a glorious front to the street. Adjoining to this are the Hortii Mathæi, which only of all the places about the city I omitted visiting, though I was told inferior to no garden in Rome for statues, ancient monuments, aviaries, fountains, groves, and especially a noble obelisk, and maintained in beauty at an expense of 6,000 crowns yearly, which, if not expended to keep up its beauty, forfeits the possession of a greater revenue to another family: so curious are they in their villas and places of pleasure, even to excess.

The next day, we went to the once famous Circus Caracalla, in the midst of which there now lay prostrate one of the most stately and ancient obelisks, full of Egyptian hieroglyphics. It was broken into four pieces, when overthrown by the Barbarians, and would have been purchased and transported into England by the magnificent Thomas Earl of Arundel, could it have been well removed to the sea. This is since set together and placed on the stupendous artificial rock made by Innocent X., and serving for a fountain in Piazza Navona, the work of Bernini, the Pope's architect. Near this is the sepulchre of Metellus, of massy stone, pretty entire, now called Capo di Bovo. Hence, to a small oratory, named "Domine, quo vadis"; where the tradition is, that our Blessed Savior met St. Peter as he fled, and turned him back again.

St. Sebastian's was the next, a mean structure (the facciáta excepted), but is venerable, especially for the relics and grots, in which lie the ashes of many holy men. Here is kept the pontifical chair sprinkled with the blood of Pope Stephen, to which great devotion is paid; also a well full of martyrs' bones, and the sepulchre of St. Sebastian, with one of the arrows (used in shooting him). These are preserved by the Fulgentine Monks, who have here their monastery, and who led us down into a grotto which they affirmed went divers furlongs under ground; the sides, or walls which we passed were filled with bones and dead bodies, laid (as it were) on shelves, whereof some were shut up with broad stones and now and then a cross, or a palm, cut in them. At the end of some of these subterranean passages, were square rooms with altars in them, said to have been the receptacles of primitive Christians, in the times of persecution, nor seems it improbable.

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Undated (around 1650?) monument to Rowland Woodward in the Church of St Leonard Church Apethorpe. Black marble panel with pilasters enriched with rosettes, a crowned skull on the apron and a large cartouche of arms flanked by obelisks each inscribed 'Dum Descendit Largitur'; the arms are of Woodward impaling Grimsdith.

After 01 Jan 1741. Church of St Michael and All Angels Edenham. Monument to Peregrine Bertie 2nd Duke Ancaster and Kesteven 1686-1741. Flat Obelisk before which stands life sized carving of the deceased leaning on an Urn, in Roman dress, a putto holding a medallion of the Duchess Jane Brownlow Duchess Ancaster and Kesteven -1736. Sculpted by Louis Francois Roubiliac 1702-1762.

In 1751 Andrea Soldi Painter 1703-1771. Portrait of Louis Francois Roubiliac 1702-1762. In 1762 Adrien Carpentiers Painter 1713-1778. Portrait of Louis Francois Roubiliac 1702-1762.

After 16 May 1758. Monument in the Church of St Mary Southwick to George Lynn 1707-1758 commissioned by his widow Anne Bellamy 1710-1767 attributed to Louis Francois Roubiliac 1702-1762. Grey and white marble with oval medallion of deceased suspended from broad flat obelisk; drapery below with figure of his wife seated female figure to right, leaning against Urn.

On 21 Sep 1761 John Bentley Ashley 1702-1761 (59) died. Monument to John Bentley Ashley 1702-1761 (59) in Saint Leodegarius Church Ashby St Ledgers. Sculpted by John Bacon 1740-1799 (20). Standing wall monument with two large allegorical figures flanking the inscription. Above them is a Sarcophagus on which is a Roman lamp on front of a black Obelisk. Also to James Ashley -1798. Simple Wall Monument with Urn and Obelisk. Also to Jane Pocock 1710-1784 (51) and by whose will the. Monument was erected.

After 06 Mar 1764. St Andrew's Church Wimpole. Monument to Philip Yorke 1st Earl Hardwicke 1690-1764 and Margaret Cocks Countess Hardwicke -1761.

Framed inscription panel in white marble surmounted by an enriched sarcophagus in brown veined marble against a grey obelisk to which is affixed an achievement of arms in oval frame; around the base are putti with wreaths and emblems of office; on each side, life-size figures, one of Athene; two medallions on the sarcophagus depict the Earl (73) and Countess; signed 'J. STUART (51), INVT P. SCHEEMAKERS, SCULPR (73).'

1763. William Hoare 1707-1792. Portrait of Philip Yorke 1st Earl Hardwicke 1690-1764 wearing the Robes of Lord Keeper of the Great Seal and holding the Great Seal. In 1756 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Philip Yorke 1st Earl Hardwicke 1690-1764. Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Margaret Cocks Countess Hardwicke -1761.

On 17 Sep 1766 Lieutenant-General Bennett Noel 1715-1766 (51) died. He was buried at the Church of St Peter and St Paul Exton. After 07 Apr 1784 Elizabeth Adams 1715-1784 (69) was buried with her husband.

Monument sculpted by Joseph Nollekens 1737-1823 (29). A reclining female figure with a cornucopia, on a sarcophagus backed by an obelisk with medallions and putti.

On 20 Jan 1770 Charles Yorke 1722-1770 (47) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church Wimpole. Grey marble obelisk on break-front pedestal of white marble with inscription tablet flanked by festoons and frieze carved with emblems of the Chancellor's office; at the base of the obelisk two putti unveil a portrait medallion and at the apex is an achievement of arms; signed 'P. SCHEEMAKER (79) FaT'.

In 1756 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Charles Yorke 1722-1770.

On 02 Jun 1800 Jane Dutton 1753-1800 (46) died at Bath. Monument in Church of St Mary the Virgin Tittleshall sculpted by Joseph Nollekens 1737-1823 (62). Flat obelisk background. Pedestal with inscription and supporting the carving which is centred around a broken column with standing figure of woman leaning on it in front of opened book. Angel on cloud above and putto below holding up a flaming heart.