1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1683 Frost Fair

1694 Death of Queen Mary II

1711 Smallpox Epidemic

1796 Development of Smallpox Vaccine

Smallpox is in Diseases.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1562. Jan 1562. The (blank) day of (blank) master Recherd Alyngtun (27), the sune of ser Gylles Alyngtun (62) knyght of Cambryge-shyre, the wyche he ded of the smalle pokes.

In Jan 1562 Richard Alington 1535-1562 (27) died of smallpox in Long Melford.

In 1603 Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (11) and Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 (12) were married. They were fourth cousins. They were separated after the wedding given their young age. Essex went on a European tour from 1607 to 1609. When he returned she avoided him having fallen for Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (16) whilst her husband was away. He was ill with smallpox. She sought an annulment with her father Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (37) and uncle Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614 (62) acting for her. She maintained the marriage had not been consummated and was examined by ten matrons and two midwives who found her hymen intact. It was widely rumoured at the time that Sir Thomas Monson's (38) daughter was a substitute, which is possible because she had requested to be veiled during the examination "for modesty's sake". He maintained he was capable with other women, but was unable to consummate his marriage blaming her.

Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632. Around 1628 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645. In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. 1624. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614.

On 09 Feb 1605 Filippo Emanuele Prince of Piedmont 1586–1605 (18) died of smallpox at Valladolid. Victor Amadeus I Duke of Savoy 1587-1637 (17) succeeded Duke Savoy.

1603. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Filippo Emanuele Prince of Piedmont 1586–1605.

On 06 Dec 1618 Elizabeth Radclyffe Viscountess Haddington -1618 died of smallpox.

In 1620 Jane Okeover 1574-1620 (46) died of smallpox. The year also reported as 1622 when her former husband remarried and 1628.

On 25 Sep 1621 Mary Sidney Countess Pembroke 1561-1621 (59) died of smallpox at Herbert Townhouse Aldersgate Street. Her funeral was held at Old St Paul's Cathedral. She was buried at Salisbury Cathedral.

Around 1590 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Sidney Countess Pembroke 1561-1621.

On 03 Jun 1643 Anne Sophia Herbert Countess Carnarvon -1643 died of smallpox.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Anne Sophia Herbert Countess Carnarvon -1643.

On 24 Jun 1649 Henry Hastings 1630-1649 (19) died of smallpox.

On 29 Nov 1649 John Leventhorpe 3rd Baronet 1629-1649 (20) died of smallpox unmarried at Chancery Lane. Thomas Leventhorpe 4th Baronet 1635-1679 (13) succeeded 4th Baronet Leventhorpe of Shingey Hall in Hertfordshire.

John Evelyn's Diary 16 November 1650. 16 Nov 1650. I went to Monsieur Visse's, the French King's Secretary, to a concert of French music and voices, consisting of twenty-four, two theorbos, and but one bass viol, being a rehearsal of what was to be sung at vespers at St. Cecilia's, on her feast, she being patroness of Musicians. News arrived of the death of the Princess of Orange (24) of the smallpox. [Note. This is a transcription error - should read Prince.].

John Evelyn's Diary 11 June 1652. 11 Jun 1652. About four in the afternoon, being at bowls on the green, we discovered a vessel which proved to be that in which my wife (17) was, and which got into the harbor about eight that evening, to my no small joy. They had been three days at sea, and escaped the Dutch fleet, through which they passed, taken for fishers, which was great good fortune, there being seventeen bales of furniture and other rich plunder, which I bless God came all safe to land, together with my wife (17), and my Lady Browne (42), her mother, who accompanied her. My wife (17) being discomposed by having been so long at sea, we set not forth toward home till the 14th, when, hearing the smallpox was very rife in and about London, and Lady Browne (42) having a desire to drink Tunbridge waters, I carried them thither, and stayed in a very sweet place, private and refreshing, and took the waters myself till the 23d, when I went to prepare for their reception, leaving them for the present in their little cottage by the Wells.

The weather being hot, and having sent my man on before, I rode negligently under favor of the shade, till, within three miles of Bromley, at a place called the Procession Oak, two cutthroats started out, and striking with long staves at the horse, and taking hold of the reins, threw me down, took my sword, and hauled me into a deep thicket, some quarter of a mile from the highway, where they might securely rob me, as they soon did. What they got of money, was not considerable, but they took two rings, the one an emerald with diamonds, the other an onyx, and a pair of buckles set with rubies and diamonds, which were of value, and after all bound my hands behind me, and my feet, having before pulled off my boots; they then set me up against an oak, with most bloody threats to cut my throat if I offered to cry out, or make any noise; for they should be within hearing, I not being the person they looked for. I told them that if they had not basely surprised me they should not have had so easy a prize, and that it would teach me never to ride near a hedge, since, had I been in the midway, they dared not have adventured on me; at which they cocked their pistols, and told me they had long guns, too, and were fourteen companions. I begged for my onyx, and told them it being engraved with my arms would betray them; but nothing prevailed. My horse's bridle they slipped, and searched the saddle, which they pulled off, but let the horse graze, and then turning again bridled him and tied him to a tree, yet so as he might graze, and thus left me bound. My horse was perhaps not taken, because he was marked and cropped on both ears, and well known on that road. Left in this manner, grievously was I tormented with flies, ants, and the sun, nor was my anxiety little how I should get loose in that solitary place, where I could neither hear nor see any creature but my poor horse and a few sheep straggling in the copse.

After near two hours attempting, I got my hands to turn palm to palm, having been tied back to back, and then it was long before I could slip the cord over my wrists to my thumb, which at last I did, and then soon unbound my feet, and saddling my horse and roaming a while about, I at last perceived dust to rise, and soon after heard the rattling of a cart, toward which I made, and, by the help of two countrymen, I got back into the highway. I rode to Colonel Blount's (48), a great justiciary of the times, who sent out hue and cry immediately. The next morning, sore as my wrists and arms were, I went to London, and got 500 tickets printed and dispersed by an officer of Goldsmiths' Hall, and within two days had tidings of all I had lost, except my sword, which had a silver hilt, and some trifles. The rogues had pawned one of my rings for a trifle to a goldsmith's servant, before the tickets came to the shop, by which means they escaped; the other ring was bought by a victualer, who brought it to a goldsmith, but he having seen the ticket seized the man. I afterward discharged him on his protestation of innocence. Thus did God deliver me from these villains, and not only so, but restored what they took, as twice before he had graciously done, both at sea and land, I mean when I had been robbed by pirates, and was in danger of a considerable loss at Amsterdam; for which, and many, many signal preservations, I am extremely obliged to give thanks to God my Savior.

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In Feb 1655 George Brydges 6th Baron Chandos 1620-1655 (34) died of smallpox. William Brydges 7th Baron Chandos 1621-1676 (34) succeeded 7th Baron Chandos of Sudeley.

On 07 Dec 1657 Johanna Saxe Gotha 1645-1657 (12) died of smallpox at Gotha.

On 31 Dec 1657 Johann Ernest Saxe Gotha 1641-1657 (16) died of smallpox at Gotha.

In 1659 Henry Lee 3rd Baronet Lee 1638-1659 (21) died of smallpox. Francis Lee 4th Baronet Lee 1639-1667 (19) succeeded 4th Baronet Lee of Quarrendon in Buckinghamshire.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 January 1660. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's (19) speech, which he is to make the next apposition,—[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]—and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to—let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King (59), or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's (58) lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the smallpox. Thence back to Westminster Hall, where I heard how Sir H. Vane (46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby, as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 January 1660. 11 Jan 1660. Wednesday. Being at Will's with Captain Barker, who hath paid me £300 this morning at my office, in comes my father (58), and with him I walked, and leave him at W. Joyce's, and went myself to Mr. Crew's (62), but came too late to dine, and therefore after a game at shittle-cocks with Mr. Walgrave and Mr. Edward (12), I returned to my father (58), and taking him from W. Joyce's, who was not abroad himself, we inquired of a porter, and by his direction went to an alehouse, where after a cup or two we parted. I went towards London, and in my way went in to see Crowly, who was now grown a very great loon and very tame. Thence to Mr. Steven's with a pair of silver snuffers, and bought a pair of shears to cut silver, and so homeward again. From home I went to see Mrs. Jem, who was in bed, and now granted to have the smallpox. Back again, and went to the Coffee-house, but tarried not, and so home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 January 1660. 13 Jan 1660. Friday. Coming in the morning to my office, I met with Mr. Fage and took him to the Swan. He told me how high Haselrigge (59), and Morly (43), the last night began at my Lord Mayor's (27) to exclaim against the City of London, saying that they had forfeited their charter. And how the Chamberlain of the City did take them down, letting them know how much they were formerly beholding to the City, &c. He also told me that Monk's (51) letter that came to them by the sword-bearer was a cunning piece, and that which they did not much trust to; but they were resolved to make no more applications to the Parliament, nor to pay any money, unless the secluded members be brought in, or a free Parliament chosen. Thence to my office, where nothing to do. So to Will's with Mr. Pinkney, who invited me to their feast at his Hall the next Monday. Thence I went home and took my wife and dined at Mr. Wades, and after that we went and visited Catan. From thence home again, and my wife was very unwilling to let me go forth, but with some discontent would go out if I did, and I going forth towards Whitehall, I saw she followed me, and so I staid and took her round through Whitehall, and so carried her home angry. Thence I went to Mrs. Jem, and found her up and merry, and that it did not prove the smallpox, but only the swine-pox; so I played a game or two at cards with her. And so to Mr. Vines, where he and I and Mr. Hudson played half-a-dozen things, there being there Dick's wife and her sister. After that I went home and found my wife gone abroad to Mr. Hunt's, and came in a little after me.—So to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1660. 17 Feb 1660. Friday. In the morning Tom that was my Lord's footboy came to see me and had 10s. of me of the money which I have to keep of his. So that now I have but 35s. more of his. Then came Mr. Hills the instrument maker, and I consulted with him about the altering my lute and my viall. After that I went into my study and did up my accounts, and found that I am about; £40 beforehand in the world, and that is all. So to my office and from thence brought Mr. Hawly home with me to dinner, and after dinner wrote a letter to Mr Downing (35) about his business and gave it Hawly, and so went to Mr. Gunning's (46) to his weekly fast, and after sermon, meeting there with Monsieur L'Impertinent, we went and walked in the park till it was dark. I played on my pipe at the Echo, and then drank a cup of ale at Jacob's. So to Westminster Hall, and he with me, where I heard that some of the members of the House were gone to meet with some of the secluded members and General Monk (51) in the City. Hence we went to White Hall, thinking to hear more news, where I met with Mr. Hunt, who told me how Monk (51) had sent for all his goods that he had here into the City; and yet again he told me, that some of the members of the House had this day laid in firing into their lodgings at White Hall for a good while, so that we are at a great stand to think what will become of things, whether Monk (51) will stand to the Parliament or no. Hence Mons L'Impertinent and I to Harper's, and there drank a cup or two to the King (29), and to his fair sister Frances good health, of whom we had much discourse of her not being much the worse for the smallpox, which she had this last summer.

So home and to bed. This day we are invited to my uncle Fenner's wedding feast, but went not, this being the 27th year.

Before 1684. Circle of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Peter Gunning Bishop 1614-1684. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 May 1660. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the King's (29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (42), while I and the rest went to see the Queen (50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the Princess Dowager's (28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:—"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".

Here I met with Mr. Woodcock of Cambridge, Mr. Hardy and another, and Mr. Woodcock beginning we had two or three fine songs, he and I, and W. Howe to the Echo, which was very pleasant, and the more because in a heaven of pleasure and in a strange country, that I never was taken up more with a sense of pleasure in my life. After that we parted and back to the Hague and took a tour or two about the Forehault3, where the ladies in the evening do as our ladies do in Hide Park. But for my life I could not find one handsome, but their coaches very rich and themselves so too. From thence, taking leave of the Doctor, we took wagon to Scheveling, where we had a fray with the Boatswain of the Richmond, who would not freely carry us on board, but at last he was willing to it, but then it was so late we durst not go. So we returned between 10 and 11 at night in the dark with a wagon with one horse to the Hague, where being come we went to bed as well as we could be accommodated, and so to sleep.

Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, Charles II (29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.

Note 2. Mary, Princess Royal (28), eldest daughter of Charles I (59), and widow of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (33). She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.

Note 3. The Voorhout is the principal street of the Hague, and it is lined with handsome trees.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. Around 1658 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 May 1660. 22 May 1660. Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days' observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore. News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the Duke of Gloucester (19)1 in grey and red. My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port. So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it. They seem to be both very fine gentlemen. After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry2, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other. Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King's (29) health, and so likewise to the Duke's health. I took down Monsieur d'Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his. All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes. After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them. After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another. When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day's work. By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome. The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye. Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter's cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the King's (29) servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all. This afternoon Mr Downing (35) (who was knighted yesterday by the King') was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants3. By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing (35). My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night. This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord's order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

Note 1. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (19), the youngest child of Charles L, born July 6th, 16—, who, with his sister Elizabeth, was allowed a meeting with his father on the night before the King's (29) execution. Burnet says: "He was active, and loved business; was apt to have particular friendships, and had an insinuating temper which was generally very acceptable. The King loved him much better than the Duke of York". He died of smallpox at Whitehall, September 13th, 1660, and was buried in Henry VII's Chapel.

Note 2. William Coventry (32), to whom Pepys became so warmly attached afterwards, was the fourth son of Thomas, first Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper. He was born in 1628, and entered at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1642; after the Restoration he became private secretary to the Duke of York, his commission as Secretary to the Lord High Admiral not being conferred until 1664; elected M.P. for Great Yarmouth in 1661. In 1662 he was appointed an extra Commissioner of the Navy, an office he held until 1667; in 1665, knighted and sworn a Privy Councillor, and, in 1667, constituted a Commissioner of the Treasury; but, having been forbid the court on account of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham, he retired into the country, nor could he subsequently be prevailed upon to accept of any official employment. Burnet calls Sir William Coventry the best speaker in the House of Commons, and "a man of the finest and best temper that belonged to the court", and Pepys never omits an opportunity of paying a tribute to his public and private worth. He died, 1686, of gout in the stomach.

Note 3. "About midnight arrived there Mr Downing (35), who did the affairs of England to the Lords the Estates, in quality of Resident under Oliver Cromwell, and afterward under the pretended Parliament, which having changed the form of the government, after having cast forth the last Protector, had continued him in his imploiment, under the quality of Extraordinary Envoy. He began to have respect for the King's (29) person, when he knew that all England declared for a free parliament, and departed from Holland without order, as soon as he understood that there was nothing that could longer oppose the re- establishment of monarchal government, with a design to crave letters of recommendation to General Monk (51). This lord considered him, as well because of the birth of his wife, which is illustrious, as because Downing had expressed some respect for him in a time when that eminent person could not yet discover his intentions. He had his letters when he arrived at midnight at the house of the Spanish Embassador, as we have said. He presented them forthwith to the King (29), who arose from table a while after, read the letters, receiv'd the submissions of Downing, and granted him the pardon and grace which he asked for him to whom he could deny nothing. Some daies after the King (29) knighted him, and would it should be believed, that the strong aversions which this minister of the Protector had made appear against him on all occasions, and with all sorts of persons indifferently, even a few daies before the publick and general declaration of all England, proceeded not from any evil intention, but only from a deep dissimulation, wherewith he was constrained to cover his true sentiments, for fear to prejudice the affairs of his Majesty".—Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio, pp. 72-73.

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

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On 10 Aug 1660 Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (11) died of smallpox at Paris. He was buried in on 04 Sep 1660 in the Richmond Vault, Westminster Abbey. Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (21) succeeded 6th Duke Lennox, 3rd Duke Richmond 2C 1641. Mary Stewart Countess Arran 1651-1668 (9) succeeded 5th Baron Clifton.

Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 September 1660. 05 Sep 1660. To the office. From thence by coach upon the desire of the principal officers to a Master of Chancery to give Mr. Stowell his oath, whereby he do answer that he did hear Phineas Pett say very high words against the King a great while ago. Coming back our coach broke, and so Stowell and I to Mr. Rawlinson's, and after a glass of wine parted, and I to the office, home to dinner, where (having put away my boy in the morning) his father brought him again, but I did so clear up my boy's roguery to his father, that he could not speak against my putting him away, and so I did give him 10s. for the boy's clothes that I made him, and so parted and tore his indenture. All the afternoon with the principal officers at Sir W. Batten's (59) about Pett's business (where I first saw Col. Slingsby (49), who has now his appointment for Comptroller), but did bring it to no issue. This day I saw our Dedimus to be sworn in the peace by, which will be shortly. In the evening my wife being a little impatient I went along with her to buy her a necklace of pearl, which will cost £4 10s., which I am willing to comply with her in for her encouragement, and because I have lately got money, having now above £200 in cash beforehand in the world. Home, and having in our way bought a rabbit and two little lobsters, my wife and I did sup late, and so to bed. Great news now-a-day of the Duke d'Anjou's (19)1 desire to marry the Princesse Henrietta (16).

Hugh Peters (62)2 is said to be taken, and the Duke of Gloucester (20) is ill, and it is said it will prove the small-pox.

Note 1. Philip, Duke of Anjou (19), afterwards Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. (born 1640, died 1701), married the Princess Henrietta (16), youngest daughter of Charles I., who was born June 16th, 1644, at Exeter. She was known as "La belle Henriette". In May, 1670, she came to Dover on a political mission from Louis XIV. to her brother Charles II., but the visit was undertaken much against the wish of her husband. Her death occurred on her return to France, and was attributed to poison. It was the occasion of one of the finest of Bossuet's "Oraisons Funebres".

Note 2. Hugh Peters (62), born at Fowey, Cornwall, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1622. He was tried as one of the regicides, and executed. A broadside, entitled "The Welsh Hubub, or the Unkennelling and earthing of Hugh Peters that crafty Fox", was printed October 3rd, 1660.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

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On 13 Sep 1660 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 he was buried at south side of the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 September 1660. 13 Sep 1660. Old East comes to me in the morning with letters, and I did give him a bottle of Northdown ale, which made the poor man almost drunk. In the afternoon my wife went to the burial of a child of my cozen Scott's, and it is observable that within this month my Aunt Wight was brought to bed of two girls, my cozen Stradwick of a girl and a boy, and my cozen Scott of a boy, and all died. In the afternoon to Westminster, where Mr. Dalton was ready with his money to pay me for my house, but our writings not being drawn it could not be done to-day. I met with Mr. Hawly, who was removing his things from Mr. Bowyer's, where he has lodged a great while, and I took him and W. Bowyer to the Swan and drank, and Mr. Hawly did give me a little black rattoon1, painted and gilt. Home by water. This day the Duke of Gloucester (20) died of the small-pox, by the great negligence of the doctors.

Note 1. Probably an Indian rattan cane.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 September 1660. 16 Sep 1660. Sunday. To Dr. Hardy's church, and sat with Mr. Rawlinson and heard a good sermon upon the occasion of the Duke's death. His text was, "And is there any evil in the city and the Lord hath not done it?" Home to dinner, having some sport with Win. [Hewer], who never had been at Common Prayer before. After dinner I alone to Westminster, where I spent my time walking up and down in Westminster Abbey till sermon time with Ben. Palmer and Fetters the watchmaker, who told me that my Lord of Oxford is also dead of the small-pox; in whom his family dies, after 600 years having that honour in their family and name. From thence to the Park, where I saw how far they had proceeded in the Pell-mell1, and in making a river through the Park, which I had never seen before since it was begun.

Thence to White Hall garden, where I saw the King in purple mourning for his brother2!

So home, and in my way met with Dinah, who spoke to me and told me she had a desire to speak too about some business when I came to Westminster again. Which she spoke in such a manner that I was afraid she might tell me something that I would not hear of our last meeting at my house at Westminster. Home late, being very dark. A gentleman in the Poultry had a great and dirty fall over a waterpipe that lay along the channel.

Note 1. This is the Mall in St. James's Park, which was made by Charles II., the former Mall (Pall Mall) having been built upon during the Commonwealth. Charles II also formed the canal by throwing the several small ponds into one.

Note 2. "The Queen-mother of France", says Ward, in his Diary, p. 177, "died at Agrippina, 1642, and her son Louis, 1643, for whom King Charles mourned in Oxford in purple, which is Prince's mourning".

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 September 1660. 23 Sep 1660. In the midst of all this joy and jubilee, the Duke of Gloucester (20) died of the smallpox, in the prime of youth, and a prince of extraordinary hopes.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 October 1660. 23 Oct 1660. We rose early in the morning to get things ready for My Lord, and Mr. Sheply going to put up his pistols (which were charged with bullets) into the holsters, one of them flew off, and it pleased God that, the mouth of the gun being downwards, it did us no hurt, but I think I never was in more danger in my life, which put me into a great fright. About eight o'clock my Lord went; and going through the garden my Lord met with Mr. William Montagu (42), who told him of an estate of land lately come into the King's (30) hands, that he had a mind my Lord should beg. To which end my Lord writ a letter presently to my Lord Chancellor (51) to do it for him, which (after leave taken of my Lord at White Hall bridge) I did carry to Warwick House to him; and had a fair promise of him, that he would do it this day for my Lord. In my way thither I met the Lord Chancellor (51) and all the judges riding on horseback and going to Westminster Hall, it being the first day of the term, which was the first time I ever saw any such solemnity. Having done there I returned to Whitehall, where meeting with my brother Ashwell and his cozen Sam. Ashwell and Mr. Mallard, I took them to the Leg in King Street and gave them a dish of meat for dinner and paid for it. From thence going to Whitehall I met with Catan Stirpin in mourning, who told me that her mistress was lately dead of the small pox, and that herself was now married to Monsieur Petit, as also what her mistress had left her, which was very well. She also took me to her lodging at an Ironmonger's in King Street, which was but very poor, and I found by a letter that she shewed me of her husband's to the King, that he is a right Frenchman, and full of their own projects, he having a design to reform the universities, and to institute schools for the learning of all languages, to speak them naturally and not by rule, which I know will come to nothing. From thence to my Lord's, where I went forth by coach to Mrs. Parker's with my Lady, and so to her house again. From thence I took my Lord's picture, and carried it to Mr. de Cretz to be copied. So to White Hall, where I met Mr. Spong, and went home with him and played, and sang, and eat with him and his mother. After supper we looked over many books, and instruments of his, especially his wooden jack in his chimney, which goes with the smoke, which indeed is very pretty. I found him to be as ingenious and good-natured a man as ever I met with in my life, and cannot admire him enough, he being so plain and illiterate a man as he is. From thence by coach home and to bed, which was welcome to me after a night's absence.

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John Evelyn's Diary 21 December 1660. 21 Dec 1660. This day died the Princess of Orange (29), of the smallpox, which entirely altered the face and gallantry of the whole Court.

On 24 Dec 1660 Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (29) died of smallpox.

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 January 1661. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.

Where we walked up and down, and at last found Sir G. Carteret (51), whom I had not seen a great while, and did discourse with him about our assisting the Commissioners in paying off the Fleet, which we think to decline. Here the Treasurer did tell me that he did suspect Thos. Hater to be an informer of them in this work, which we do take to be a diminution of us, which do trouble me, and I do intend to find out the truth.

Hence to my Lady, who told me how Mr. Hetley is dead of the smallpox going to Portsmouth with my Lord. My Lady went forth to dinner to her father's, and so I went to the Leg in King Street and had a rabbit for myself and my Will, and after dinner I sent him home and myself went to the Theatre, where I saw "The Lost Lady", which do not please me much. Here I was troubled to be seen by four of our office clerks, which sat in the half-crown box and I in the 1s. 6d.

From thence by link, and bought two mouse traps of Thomas Pepys, the Turner, and so went and drank a cup of ale with him, and so home and wrote by post to Portsmouth to my Lord and so to bed.

On 04 Feb 1661 Charles Villiers 2nd Earl Anglesey -1661 died of smallpox without legitimate issue. Earl Anglesey 1C 1623 extinct.

On 05 May 1661 Charles Stewart 1660-1661 died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 August 1661. 12 Aug 1661. At the office this morning. At home in the afternoon, and had notice that my Lord Hinchingbroke is fallen ill, which I fear is with the fruit that I did give them on Saturday last at my house: so in the evening I went thither and there found him very ill, and in great fear of the smallpox. I supped with my Lady, and did consult about him, but we find it best to let him lie where he do; and so I went home with my heart full of trouble for my Lord Hinchingbroke's sickness, and more for my Lord Sandwich's (36) himself, whom we are now confirmed is sick ashore at Alicante, who, if he should miscarry, God knows in what condition would his family be. I dined to-day with my Lord Crew, who is now at Sir H. Wright's (24), while his new house is making fit for him, and he is much troubled also at these things.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 August 1661. 13 Aug 1661. To the Privy Seal in the morning, then to the Wardrobe to dinner, where I met my wife, and found my young Lord very ill. So my Lady intends to send her other three sons, Sidney, Oliver, and John, to my house, for fear of the small-pox.

After dinner I went to my father's, where I found him within, and went up to him, and there found him settling his papers against his removal, and I took some old papers of difference between me and my wife and took them away.

After that Pall being there I spoke to my father about my intention not to keep her longer for such and such reasons, which troubled him and me also, and had like to have come to some high words between my mother and me, who is become a very simple woman.

By and by comes in Mrs. Cordery to take her leave of my father, thinking he was to go presently into the country, and will have us to come and see her before he do go. Then my father and I went forth to Mr. Rawlinson's, where afterwards comes my uncle Thomas and his two sons, and then my uncle Wight by appointment of us all, and there we read the will and told them how things are, and what our thoughts are of kindness to my uncle Thomas if he do carry himself peaceable, but otherwise if he persist to keep his caveat up against us. So he promised to withdraw it, and seemed to be very well contented with things as they are. After a while drinking, we paid all and parted, and so I home, and there found my Lady's three sons come, of which I am glad that I am in condition to do her and my Lord any service in this kind, but my mind is yet very much troubled about my Lord of Sandwich's health, which I am afeard of.

On 17 Dec 1661 Charles Coote 1st Earl Mountrath 1610-1661 (51) died of smallpox. He was buried in Christ Church Cathedral Dublin.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1663. 31 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and among other things Sir W. Warren came about some contract, and there did at the open table, Sir W. Batten (62) not being there; openly defy him, and insisted how Sir W. Batten (62) did endeavour to oppose him in everything that he offered. Sir W. Pen (42) took him up for it, like a counterfeit rogue, though I know he was as much pleased to hear him talk so as any man there. But upon his speaking no more was said but to the business.

At noon we broke up and I to the 'Change awhile, and so home again to dinner, my head aching mightily with being overcharged with business. We had to dinner, my wife and I, a fine turkey and a mince pie, and dined in state, poor wretch, she and I, and have thus kept our Christmas together all alone almost, having not once been out, but to-morrow my vowes are all out as to plays and wine, but I hope I shall not be long before I come to new ones, so much good, and God's blessing, I find to have attended them.

Thence to the office and did several businesses and answered several people, but my head aching and it being my great night of accounts, I went forth, took coach, and to my brother's, but he was not within, and so I back again and sat an hour or two at the Coffee House, hearing some simple discourse about Quakers being charmed by a string about their wrists, and so home, and after a little while at my office, I home and supped, and so had a good fire in my chamber and there sat till 4 o'clock in the morning making up my accounts and writing this last Journall of the year.

And first I bless God I do, after a large expense, even this month, by reason of Christmas, and some payments to my father, and other things extraordinary, find that I am worth in money, besides all my household stuff, or any thing of Brampton, above £800, whereof in my Lord Sandwich's (38) hand, £700, and the rest in my hand. So that there is not above £5 of all my estate in money at this minute out of my hands and my Lord's. For which the good God be pleased to give me a thankful heart and a mind careful to preserve this and increase it. I do live at my lodgings in the Navy Office, my family being, besides my wife and I, Jane Gentleman, Besse, our excellent, good-natured cookmayde, and Susan, a little girle, having neither man nor boy, nor like to have again a good while, living now in most perfect content and quiett, and very frugally also; my health pretty good, but only that I have been much troubled with a costiveness which I am labouring to get away, and have hopes of doing it.

At the office I am well, though envied to the devil by Sir William Batten (62), who hates me to death, but cannot hurt me. The rest either love me, or at least do not show otherwise, though I know Sir W. Pen (42) to be a false knave touching me, though he seems fair. My father and mother well in the country; and at this time the young ladies of Hinchingbroke with them, their house having the small-pox in it. The Queene (54) after a long and sore sicknesse is become well again; and the King (33) minds his mistresse a little too much, if it pleased God! but I hope all things will go well, and in the Navy particularly, wherein I shall do my duty whatever comes of it.

The great talke is the designs of the King of France (25), whether against the Pope or King of Spayne nobody knows; but a great and a most promising Prince he is, and all the Princes of Europe have their eye upon him.

My wife's brother come to great unhappiness by the ill-disposition, my wife says, of his wife, and her poverty, which she now professes, after all her husband's pretence of a great fortune, but I see none of them, at least they come not to trouble me. At present I am concerned for my cozen Angier, of Cambridge, lately broke in his trade, and this day am sending his son John, a very rogue, to sea. My brother Tom (29) I know not what to think of, for I cannot hear whether he minds his business or not; and my brother John (22) at Cambridge, with as little hopes of doing good there, for when he was here he did give me great cause of dissatisfaction with his manner of life. Pall with my father, and God knows what she do there, or what will become of her, for I have not anything yet to spare her, and she grows now old, and must be disposed of one way or other.

The Duchesse of York (26), at this time, sicke of the meazles, but is growing well again. The Turke very far entered into Germany, and all that part of the world at a losse what to expect from his proceedings. Myself, blessed be God! in a good way, and design and resolution of sticking to my business to get a little money with doing the best service I can to the King (33) also; which God continue! So ends the old year.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 October 1664. 31 Oct 1664. Very busy all the morning, at noon Creed to me and dined with me, and then he and I to White Hall, there to a Committee of Tangier, where it is worth remembering when Mr. Coventry (36) proposed the retrenching some of the charge of the horse, the first word asked by the Duke of Albemarle (55) was, "Let us see who commands them", there being three troops. One of them he calls to mind was by Sir Toby Bridges. "Oh!" says he, "there is a very good man. If you must reform1 two of them, be sure let him command the troop that is left".

Thence home, and there came presently to me Mr. Young and Whistler, who find that I have quite overcome them in their business of flags, and now they come to intreat my favour, but I will be even with them.

So late to my office and there till past one in the morning making up my month's accounts, and find that my expense this month in clothes has kept me from laying up anything; but I am no worse, but a little better than I was, which is £1205, a great sum, the Lord be praised for it!

So home to bed, with my mind full of content therein, and vexed for my being so angry in bad words to my wife to-night, she not giving me a good account of her layings out to my mind to-night.

This day I hear young Mr. Stanly (25), a brave young [gentleman], that went out with young Jermin (28), with Prince Rupert (44), is already dead of the small-pox, at Portsmouth. All preparations against the Dutch; and the Duke of Yorke (31) fitting himself with all speed, to go to the fleete which is hastening for him; being now resolved to go in the Charles.

Note 1. Reform, i.e. disband. See "Memoirs of Sir John Reresby", September 2nd, 1651. "A great many younger brothers and reformed officers of the King's army depended upon him for their meat and drink". So reformado, a discharged or disbanded officer.—M. B.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

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On 17 Mar 1665 Mary Gardiner 1633-1665 (32) died of smallpox. On 01 Apr 1665 she was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1665. 17 Mar 1665. Up and to my office, and then with Sir W. Batten (64) to St. James's, where many come to take leave, as was expected, of the Duke (31), but he do not go till Monday.

This night my Lady Wood (32) died of the small-pox, and is much lamented among the great persons for a good-natured woman and a good wife, but for all that it was ever believed she was as others are. The Duke (31) did give us some commands, and so broke up, not taking leave of him. But the best piece of newes is, that instead of a great many troublesome Lords, the whole business is to be left with the Duke of Albemarle (56) to act as Admirall in his stead; which is a thing that do cheer my heart. For the other would have vexed us with attendance, and never done the business.

Thence to the Committee of Tangier, where the Duke (31) a little, and then left us and we staid. A very great Committee, the Lords Albemarle (56), Sandwich (39), Barkely (63), Fitzharding (35), Peterborough (43), Ashley (43), Sir Thos. Ingram (50), Sir G. Carteret (55) and others. The whole business was the stating of Povy's (51) accounts, of whom to say no more, never could man say worse himself nor have worse said of him than was by the company to his face; I mean, as to his folly and very reflecting words to his honesty. Broke up without anything but trouble and shame, only I got my businesses done to the signing of two bills for the Contractors and Captain Taylor, and so come away well pleased, and home, taking up my wife at the 'Change, to dinner.

After dinner out again bringing my wife to her father's again at Charing Cross, and I to the Committee again, where a new meeting of trouble about Povy (51), who still makes his business worse and worse, and broke up with the most open shame again to him, and high words to him of disgrace that they would not trust him with any more money till he had given an account of this. So broke up. Then he took occasion to desire me to step aside, and he and I by water to London together. In the way, of his owne accord, he proposed to me that he would surrender his place of Treasurer' to me to have half the profit. The thing is new to me; but the more I think the more I like it, and do put him upon getting it done by the Duke. Whether it takes or no I care not, but I think at present it may have some convenience in it.

Home, and there find my wife come home and gone to bed, of a cold got yesterday by water. At the office Bellamy come to me again, and I am in hopes something may be got by his business. So late home to supper and bed.

Around 1672 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 July 1665. 04 Jul 1665. Up, and sat at the office all the morning.

At noon to the 'Change and thence to the Dolphin, where a good dinner at the cost of one Mr. Osbaston, who lost a wager to Sir W. Batten (64), Sir W. Rider, and Sir R. Ford (51), a good while since and now it is spent. The wager was that ten of our ships should not have a fight with ten of the enemy's before Michaelmas. Here was other very good company, and merry, and at last in come Mr. Buckeworth, a very fine gentleman, and proves to be a Huntingdonshireshire man.

Thence to my office and there all the afternoon till night, and so home to settle some accounts of Tangier and other papers. I hear this day the Duke (31) and Prince Rupert (45) are both come back from sea, and neither of them go back again. The latter I much wonder at, but it seems the towne reports so, and I am very glad of it.

This morning I did a good piece of work with Sir W. Warren, ending the business of the lotterys, wherein honestly I think I shall get above £100. Bankert, it seems, is come home with the little fleete he hath been abroad with, without doing any thing, so that there is nobody of an enemy at sea. We are in great hopes of meeting with the Dutch East India fleete, which is mighty rich, or with De Ruyter (58), who is so also. Sir Richard Ford (51) told me this day, at table, a fine account, how the Dutch were like to have been mastered by the present Prince of Orange1 (14) his father (39) to be besieged in Amsterdam, having drawn an army of foot into the towne, and horse near to the towne by night, within three miles of the towne, and they never knew of it; but by chance the Hamburgh post in the night fell among the horse, and heard their design, and knowing the way, it being very dark and rainy, better than they, went from them, and did give notice to the towne before the others could reach the towne, and so were saved. It seems this De Witt and another family, the Beckarts, were among the chief of the familys that were enemys to the Prince, and were afterwards suppressed by the Prince, and continued so till he was, as they say, poysoned; and then they turned all again, as it was, against the young Prince (14), and have so carried it to this day, it being about 12 and 14 years, and De Witt in the head of them.

Note 1. The period alluded to is 1650, when the States-General disbanded part of the forces which the Prince of Orange (39) (William) wished to retain. The prince attempted, but unsuccessfully, to possess himself of Amsterdam. In the same year he died, at the early age of twenty-four; some say of the small-pox; others, with Sir Richard Ford (51), say of poison. B.

1667. Ferdinand Bol 1616-1680. Portrait of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter 1607-1676. Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 August 1665. 16 Aug 1665. Up, and after doing some necessary business about my accounts at home, to the office, and there with Mr. Hater wrote letters, and I did deliver to him my last will, one part of it to deliver to my wife when I am dead.

Thence to the Exchange, where I have not been a great while. But, Lord! how sad a sight it is to see the streets empty of people, and very few upon the 'Change. Jealous of every door that one sees shut up, lest it should be the plague; and about us two shops in three, if not more, generally shut up. From the 'Change to Sir G. Smith's (50) with Mr. Fenn, to whom I am nowadays very complaisant, he being under payment of my bills to me, and some other sums at my desire, which he readily do. Mighty merry with Captain Cocke (48) and Fenn at Sir G. Smith's (50), and a brave dinner, but I think Cocke is the greatest epicure that is, eats and drinks with the greatest pleasure and liberty that ever man did.

Very contrary newes to-day upon the 'Change, some that our fleete hath taken some of the Dutch East India ships, others that we did attaque it at Bergen and were repulsed, others that our fleete is in great danger after this attaque by meeting with the great body now gone out of Holland, almost 100 sayle of men of warr. Every body is at a great losse and nobody can tell.

Thence among the goldsmiths to get some money, and so home, settling some new money matters, and to my great joy have got home £500 more of the money due to me, and got some more money to help Andrews first advanced.

This day I had the ill news from Dagenhams, that my poor lord of Hinchingbroke his indisposition is turned to the small-pox. Poor gentleman! that he should be come from France so soon to fall sick, and of that disease too, when he should be gone to see a fine lady (14), his mistresse. I am most heartily sorry for it. So late setting papers to rights, and so home to bed.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Elizabeth Malet Countess Rochester 1651-1681.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 November 1667. 10 Nov 1667. Lord's Day. Mighty cold, and with my wife to church, where a lazy sermon. Here was my Lady Batten in her mourning at church, but I took no notice of her.

At noon comes Michell and his wife to dine with us, and pretty merry. I glad to see her still.

After dinner Sir W. Pen (46) and I to White Hall, to speak with Sir W. Coventry (39); and there, beyond all we looked for, do hear that the Duke of York (34) hath got, and is full of, the small-pox; and so we to his lodgings; and there find most of the family going to St. James's, and the gallery doors locked up, that nobody might pass to nor fro and a sad house, I am sure. I am sad to consider the effects of his death, if he should miscarry; but Dr. Frazier (57) tells me that he is in as good condition as a man can be in his case. The eruption appeared last night; it seems he was let blood on Friday.

Thence, not finding Sir W. Coventry (39), and going back again home, we met him coming with the Lord Keeper (61), and so returned and spoke with him in White Hall Garden, two or three turns, advising with him what we should do about Carcasse's bringing his letter into the Committee of Parliament, and he told us that the counsel he hath too late learned is, to spring nothing in the House, nor offer anything, but just what is drawn out of a man: that this is the best way of dealing with a Parliament, and that he hath paid dear, and knows not how much more he may pay, for not knowing it sooner, when he did unnecessarily produce the Duke of Albemarle's (58) letter about Chatham, which if demanded would have come out with all the advantages in the world to Sir W. Coventry (39), but, as he brought it out himself, hath drawn much evil upon him. After some talk of this kind, we back home, and there I to my chamber busy all the evening, and then to supper and to bed, my head running all night upon our businesses in Parliament and what examinations we are likely to go under before they have done with us, which troubles me more than it should a wise man and a man the best able to defend himself, I believe, of our own whole office, or any other, I am apt to think.

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674. Around 1670 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674. Chirk Castle.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 November 1667. 12 Nov 1667. Up, and to the Office, where sat all the morning; and there hear the Duke of York (34) do yet do very well with his smallpox: pray God he may continue to do so! This morning also, to my astonishment, I hear that yesterday my Chancellor (58), to another of his Articles, that of betraying the King's councils to his enemies, is voted to have matter against him for an impeachment of High Treason, and that this day the impeachment is to be carried up to the House of Lords which is very high, and I am troubled at it; for God knows what will follow, since they that do this must do more to secure themselves against any that will revenge this, if it ever come in their power! At noon home to dinner, and then to my office, and there saw every thing finished, so as my papers are all in order again and my office twice as pleasant as ever it was, having a noble window in my closet and another in my office, to my great content, and so did business late, and then home to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 November 1667. 13 Nov 1667. Up, and down to the Old Swan, and so to Westminster; where I find the House sitting, and in a mighty heat about Commissioner Pett (57), that they would have him impeached, though the Committee have yet brought in but part of their Report: and this heat of the House is much heightened by Sir Thomas Clifford (37) telling them, that he was the man that did, out of his own purse, employ people at the out-ports to prevent the King of Scots (37) to escape after the battle of Worcester. The House was in a great heat all this day about it; and at last it was carried, however, that it should be referred back to the Committee to make further enquiry. I here spoke with Roger Pepys (50), who sent for me, and it was to tell me that the Committee is mighty full of the business of buying and selling of tickets, and to caution me against such an enquiry (wherein I am very safe), and that they have already found out Sir Richard Ford's (53) son to have had a hand in it, which they take to be the same as if the father had done it, and I do believe the father may be as likely to be concerned in it as his son. But I perceive by him they are resolved to find out the bottom of the business if it be possible.

By and by I met with Mr. Wren (38), who tells me that the Duke of York (34) is in as good condition as is possible for a man, in his condition of the smallpox. He, I perceive, is mightily concerned in the business of my Chancellor (58), the impeachment against whom is gone up to the House of Lords; and great differences there are in the Lords' House about it, and the Lords are very high one against another.

Thence home to dinner, and as soon as dinner done I and my wife and Willet to the Duke of York's (34), house, and there saw the Tempest again, which is very pleasant, and full of so good variety that I cannot be more pleased almost in a comedy, only the seamen's part a little too tedious.

Thence home, and there to my chamber, and do begin anew to bind myself to keep my old vows, and among the rest not to see a play till Christmas but once in every other week, and have laid aside £10, which is to be lost to the poor, if I do. This I hope in God will bind me, for I do find myself mightily wronged in my reputation, and indeed in my purse and business, by my late following of my pleasure for so long time as I have done.

So to supper and then to bed. This day Mr. Chichly (53) told me, with a seeming trouble, that the House have stopped his son Jack (Sir John) (27) his going to France, that he may be a witness against my Lord Sandwich (42): which do trouble me, though he can, I think, say little.

Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1630-1673. Around 1664 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Rear-Admiral John Chicheley 1640-1691.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 December 1667. 06 Dec 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (68) to the Duke of York (34), the first time that I have seen him, or we waited on him, since his sickness; and, blessed be God! he is not at all the worse for the smallpox, but is only a little weak yet. We did much business with him, and so parted. My Lord Anglesey (53) told me how my Lord Northampton (45) brought in a Bill into the House of Lords yesterday, under the name of a Bill for the Honour and Privilege of the House, and Mercy to my Lord Clarendon (58): which, he told me, he opposed, saying that he was a man accused of treason by the House of Commons; and mercy was not proper for him, having not been tried yet, and so no mercy needful for him. However, the Duke of Buckingham (39) and others did desire that the Bill might be read; and it, was for banishing my Lord Clarendon (58) from all his Majesty's dominions, and that it should be treason to have him found in any of them: the thing is only a thing of vanity, and to insult over him, which is mighty poor I think, and so do every body else, and ended in nothing, I think.

By and by home with Sir J. Minnes (68), who tells me that my Lord Clarendon (58) did go away in a Custom-house boat, and is now at Calais: and, I confess, nothing seems to hang more heavy than his leaving of this unfortunate paper behind him, that hath angered both Houses, and hath, I think, reconciled them in that which otherwise would have broke them in pieces; so that I do hence, and from Sir W. Coventry's (39) late example and doctrine to me, learn that on these sorts of occasions there is nothing like silence; it being seldom any wrong to a man to say nothing, but, for the most part, it is to say anything. This day, in coming home, Sir J. Minnes (68) told me a pretty story of Sir Lewes Dives (68), whom I saw this morning speaking with him, that having escaped once out of prison through a house of office, and another time in woman's apparel, and leaping over a broad canal, a soldier swore, says he, this is a strange jade.... He told me also a story of my Lord Cottington (88), who, wanting a son, intended to make his nephew his heir, a country boy; but did alter his mind upon the boy's being persuaded by another young heir, in roguery, to crow like a cock at my Lord's table, much company being there, and the boy having a great trick at doing that perfectly. My Lord bade them take away that fool from the table, and so gave over the thoughts of making him his heir, from this piece of folly.

So home, and there to dinner, and after dinner abroad with my wife and girle, set them down at Unthanke's, and I to White Hall to the Council chamber, where I was summoned about the business of paying of the seamen, where I heard my Lord Anglesey (53) put to it by Sir W. Coventry (39) before the King (37) for altering the course set by the Council; which he like a wise man did answer in few words, that he had already sent to alter it according to the Council's method, and so stopped it, whereas many words would have set the Commissioners of the Treasury on fire, who, I perceive, were prepared for it. Here I heard Mr. Gawden speak to the King (37) and Council upon some business of his before them, but did it so well, in so good words and to the purpose, that I could never have expected from a man of no greater learning. So went away, and in the Lobby met Mr. Sawyer (34), my old chamber fellow, and stayed and had an hour's discourse of old things with him, and I perceive he do very well in the world, and is married he tells me and hath a child.

Then home and to the office, where Captain Cocke (50) come to me; and, among other discourse, tells me that he is told that an impeachment against Sir W. Coventry (39) will be brought in very soon. He tells me, that even those that are against my Chancellor (58) and the Court, in the House, do not trust nor agree one with another. He tells me that my Chancellor (58) went away about ten at night, on Saturday last; and took boat at Westminster, and thence by a vessel to Callis, where he believes he now is: and that the Duke of York (34) and Mr. Wren knew of it, and that himself did know of it on Sunday morning: that on Sunday his coach, and people about it, went to Twittenham, and the world thought that he had been there: that nothing but this unhappy paper hath undone him and that he doubts that this paper hath lost him everywhere that his withdrawing do reconcile things so far as, he thinks the heat of their fury will be over, and that all will be made well between the two [royal] brothers: that Holland do endeavour to persuade the King of France (29) to break peace with us: that the Dutch will, without doubt, have sixty sail of ships out the next year; so knows not what will become of us, but hopes the Parliament will find money for us to have a fleete. He gone, I home, and there my wife made an end to me of Sir R. Cotton's (96) discourse of warr, which is indeed a very fine book.

So to supper and to bed. Captain Cocke (50) did this night tell me also, among other discourses, that he did believe that there are jealousies in some of the House at this day against the Commissioners of the Treasury, that by their good husbandry they will bring the King (37) to be out of debt and to save money, and so will not be in need of the Parliament, and then do what he please, which is a very good piece of news that there is such a thing to be hoped, which they would be afeard of.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. In 1676 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Anglesey 1614-1686. Around 1644. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of James Compton 3rd Earl of Northampton 1622-1681. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. In 1629 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Robert Bruce Cotton 1st Baronet Cotton 1571-1631.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 December 1667. 17 Dec 1667. Up, and to the office, where very busy all the morning, and then in the afternoon I with Sir W. Pen (46) and Sir T. Harvy (42) to White Hall to attend the Duke of York (34), who is now as well as ever, and there we did our usual business with him, and so away home with Sir W. Pen (46), and there to the office, where pretty late doing business, my wife having been abroad all day with Mrs. Turner (44) buying of one thing or other. This day I do hear at White Hall that the Duke of Monmouth (18) is sick, and in danger of the smallpox.

So home to supper and to bed.

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

On 06 Jan 1668 Henry Caesar 1630–1668 (37) died of smallpox.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 February 1668. 09 Feb 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and at my chamber all the morning and the office doing business, and also reading a little of "L'escholle des filles", which is a mighty lewd book, but yet not amiss for a sober man once to read over to inform himself in the villainy of the world.

At noon home to dinner, where by appointment Mr. Pelting come and with him three friends, Wallington, that sings the good base, and one Rogers, and a gentleman, a young man, his name Tempest, who sings very well indeed, and understands anything in the world at first sight.

After dinner we into our dining-room, and there to singing all the afternoon. (By the way, I must remember that Pegg Pen (17) was brought to bed yesterday of a girl; and, among other things, if I have not already set it down, that hardly ever was remembered such a season for the smallpox as these last two months have been, people being seen all up and down the streets, newly come out after the smallpox.) But though they sang fine things, yet I must confess that I did take no pleasure in it, or very little, because I understood not the words, and with the rests that the words are set, there is no sense nor understanding in them though they be English, which makes me weary of singing in that manner, it being but a worse sort of instrumental musick. We sang until almost night, and drank mighty good store of wine, and then they parted, and I to my chamber, where I did read through "L'escholle des filles", a lewd book, but what do no wrong once to read for information sake.... [Note. Missing text: (but it did hazer my prick para stand all the while, and una vez to decharger);] And after I had done it I burned it, that it might not be among my books to my shame, and so at night to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 March 1668. 26 Mar 1668. Up betimes to the office, where by and by my Lord Brouncker (48) and I met and made an end of our business betimes. So I away with him to Mrs. Williams's, and there dined, and thence I alone to the Duke of York's (34) house, to see the new play, called "The Man is the Master", where the house was, it being not above one o'clock, very full. But my wife and Deb. being there before, with Mrs. Pierce and Corbet and Betty Turner (15), whom my wife carried with her, they made me room; and there I sat, it costing me 8s. upon them in oranges, at 6d. a-piece.

By and by the King (37) come; and we sat just under him, so that I durst not turn my back all the play. The play is a translation out of French, and the plot Spanish, but not anything extraordinary at all in it, though translated by Sir W. Davenant (62), and so I found the King (37) and his company did think meanly of it, though there was here and there something pretty: but the most of the mirth was sorry, poor stuffe, of eating of sack-posset and slabbering themselves, and mirth fit for clownes; the prologue but poor, and the epilogue little in it but the extraordinariness of it, it being sung by Harris (34) and another in the form of a ballet.

Thence, by agreement, we all of us to the Blue Balls, hard by, whither Mr. Pierce also goes with us, who met us at the play, and anon comes Manuel, and his wife, and Knepp, and Harris (34), who brings with him Mr. Banister (38), the great master of musique; and after much difficulty in getting of musique, we to dancing, and then to a supper of some French dishes, which yet did not please me, and then to dance and sing; and mighty merry we were till about eleven or twelve at night, with mighty great content in all my company, and I did, as I love to do, enjoy myself in my pleasure as being the height of what we take pains for and can hope for in this world, and therefore to be enjoyed while we are young and capable of these joys. My wife extraordinary fine to-day, in her flower tabby suit, bought a year and more ago, before my mother's death put her into mourning, and so not worn till this day: and every body in love with it; and indeed she is very fine and handsome in it. I having paid the reckoning, which come to almost £4., we parted: my company and William Batelier, who was also with us, home in a coach, round by the Wall, where we met so many stops by the Watches, that it cost us much time and some trouble, and more money, to every Watch, to them to drink; this being encreased by the trouble the 'prentices did lately give the City, so that the Militia and Watches are very strict at this time; and we had like to have met with a stop for all night at the Constable's watch, at Mooregate, by a pragmatical Constable; but we come well home at about two in the morning, and so to bed. This noon, from Mrs. Williams's, my Lord Brouncker (48) sent to Somersett House to hear how the Duchess of Richmond (20) do; and word was brought him that she is pretty well, but mighty full of the smallpox, by which all do conclude she will be wholly spoiled, which is the greatest instance of the uncertainty of beauty that could be in this age; but then she hath had the benefit of it to be first married, and to have kept it so long, under the greatest temptations in the world from a King, and yet without the least imputation. This afternoon, at the play, Sir Fr. Hollis (25) spoke to me as a secret, and matter of confidence in me, and friendship to Sir W. Pen (46), who is now out of town, that it were well he were made acquainted that he finds in the House of Commons, which met this day, several motions made for the calling strictly again upon the Miscarriages, and particularly in the business of the Prises, and the not prosecuting of the first victory, only to give an affront to Sir W. Pen (46), whose going to sea this year do give them matter of great dislike. So though I do not much trouble myself for him, yet I am sorry that he should have this fall so unhappily without any fault, but rather merit of his own that made him fitter for this command than any body else, and the more for that this business of his may haply occasion their more eager pursuit against the whole body of the office.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 March 1668. 30 Mar 1668. Up betimes, and so to the office, there to do business till about to o'clock, and then out with my wife and Deb. and W. Hewer (26) by coach to Common-garden Coffee-house, where by appointment I was to meet Harris (34); which I did, and also Mr. Cooper, the great painter, and Mr. Hales (68): and thence presently to Mr. Cooper's house, to see some of his work, which is all in little, but so excellent as, though I must confess I do think the colouring of the flesh to be a little forced, yet the painting is so extraordinary, as I do never expect to see the like again. Here I did see Mrs. Stewart's (20) picture as when a young maid, and now just done before her having the smallpox: and it would make a man weep to see what she was then, and what she is like to be, by people's discourse, now. Here I saw my Lord Generall's picture, and my Lord Arlington (50) and Ashly's, and several others; but among the rest one Swinfen, that was Secretary to my Lord Manchester (66), Lord Chamberlain, with Cooling, done so admirably as I never saw any thing: but the misery was, this fellow died in debt, and never paid Cooper (59) for his picture; but, it being seized on by his creditors, among his other goods, after his death, Cooper (59) himself says that he did buy it, and give £25 out of his purse for it, for what he was to have had but £30. Being infinitely satisfied with this sight, and resolving that my wife shall be drawn by him when she comes out of the country, I away with Harris (34) and Hales to the Coffee-house, sending my people away, and there resolve for Hales to begin Harris's (34) head for me, which I will be at the cost of.

After a little talk, I away to White Hall and Westminster, where I find the Parliament still bogling about the raising of this money: and every body's mouth full now; and Mr. Wren (39) himself tells me that the Duke of York (34) declares to go to sea himself this year; and I perceive it is only on this occasion of distaste of the Parliament against W. Pen's (46) going, and to prevent the D. Gawden's: but I think it is mighty hot counsel for the Duke of York (34) at this time to go out of the way; but, Lord! what a pass are all our matters come to! At noon by appointment to Cursitor's Alley, in Chancery Lane, to meet Captain Cocke (51) and some other creditors of the Navy, and their Counsel, Pemberton (43), North, Offly, and Charles Porter (36); and there dined, and talked of the business of the assignments on the Exchequer of the £1,250,000 on behalf of our creditors; and there I do perceive that the Counsel had heard of my performance in the Parliamenthouse lately, and did value me and what I said accordingly. At dinner we had a great deal of good discourse about Parliament: their number being uncertain, and always at the will of the King (37) to encrease, as he saw reason to erect a new borough. But all concluded that the bane of the Parliament hath been the leaving off the old custom of the places allowing wages to those that served them in Parliament, by which they chose men that understood their business and would attend it, and they could expect an account from, which now they cannot; and so the Parliament is become a company of men unable to give account for the interest of the place they serve for.

Thence, the meeting of the Counsel with the King's Counsel this afternoon being put off by reason of the death of Serjeant Maynard's lady, I to White Hall, where the Parliament was to wait on the King (37); and they did: and it was to be told that he did think fit to tell them that they might expect to be adjourned at Whitsuntide, and that they might make haste to raise their money; but this, I fear, will displease them, who did expect to sit as long as they pleased, and whether this be done by the King (37) upon some new counsel I know not, for the King (37) must be beholding to them till they do settle this business of money. Great talk to-day as if Beaufort was come into the Channel with about 20 ships, and it makes people apprehensive, but yet the Parliament do not stir a bit faster in the business of money. Here I met with Creed, expecting a Committee of Tangier, but the Committee met not, so he and I up and down, having nothing to do, and particularly to the New Cockpit by the King's Gate in Holborne, but seeing a great deal of rabble we did refuse to go in, but took coach and to Hide Park, and there till all the tour was empty, and so he and I to the Lodge in the Park, and there eat and drank till it was night, and then carried him to White Hall, having had abundance of excellent talk with him in reproach of the times and managements we live under, and so I home, and there to talk and to supper with my wife, and so to bed.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 August 1668. 18 Aug 1668. Up, and to my office about my great business betimes, and so to the office, where all the morning.

At noon dined, and then to the office all the afternoon also, and in the evening to Sir W. Coventry's (40), but he not within, I took coach alone to the Park, to try to meet him there, but did not; but there were few coaches, but among the few there were in two coaches our two great beauties, my Baroness Castlemayne (27) and Richmond (21); the first time I saw the latter since she had the smallpox. I had much pleasure to see them, but I thought they were strange one to another.

Thence going out I met a coach going, which I thought had Knepp in it, so I went back, but it was not she. So back to White Hall and there took water, and so home, and busy late about my great letter to the Duke of York (34), and so to supper and to bed....

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 August 1668. 30 Aug 1668. Lord's Day. Walked to St. James's and Pell Mell, and read over, with Sir W. Coventry (40), my long letter to the Duke of York (34), and which the Duke of York (34) hath, from mine, wrote to the Board, wherein he is mightily pleased, and I perceive do put great value upon me, and did talk very openly on all matters of State, and how some people have got the bit into their mouths, meaning the Duke of Buckingham (40) and his party, and would likely run away with all. But what pleased me mightily was to hear the good character he did give of my Lord Falmouth (38) for his generosity, good-nature, desire of public good, and low thoughts of his own wisdom; his employing his interest in the King (38) to do good offices to all people, without any other fault than the freedom he, do learn in France of thinking himself obliged to serve his King in his pleasures: and was W. Coventry's (40) particular friend: and W. Coventry (40) do tell me very odde circumstances about the fatality of his death, which are very strange.

Thence to White Hall to chapel, and heard the anthem, and did dine with the Duke of Albemarle (59) in a dirty manner as ever. All the afternoon, I sauntered up and down the house and Park. And there was a Committee for Tangier met, wherein Lord Middleton would, I think, have found fault with me for want of coles; but I slighted it, and he made nothing of it, but was thought to be drunk; and I see that he hath a mind to find fault with me and Creed, neither of us having yet applied ourselves to him about anything: but do talk of his profits and perquisites taken from him, and garrison reduced, and that it must be increased, and such things, as; I fear, he will be just such another as my Lord Tiviott and the rest, to ruin that place. So I to the Park, and there walk an hour or two; and in the King's garden, and saw the Queen (29) and ladies walk; and I did steal some apples off the trees; and here did see my Lady Richmond (21), who is of a noble person as ever I saw, but her face worse than it was considerably by the smallpox: her sister is also very handsome. Coming into the Park, and the door kept strictly, I had opportunity of handing in the little, pretty, squinting girl of the Duke of York's house, but did not make acquaintance with her; but let her go, and a little girl that was with her, to walk by themselves.

So to White Hall in the evening, to the Queen's (29) side, and there met the Duke of York (34); and he did tell me and W. Coventry (40), who was with me, how that Lord Anglesey (54) did take notice of our reading his long and sharp letter to the Board; but that it was the better, at least he said so. The Duke of York (34), I perceive, is earnest in it, and will have good effects of it; telling W. Coventry (40) that it was a letter that might have come from the Commissioners of Accounts, but it was better it should come first from him. I met Lord Brouncker (48), who, I perceive, and the rest, do smell that it comes from me, but dare not find fault with it; and I am glad of it, it being my glory and defence that I did occasion and write it.

So by water home, and did spend the evening with W. Hewer (26), telling him how we are all like to be turned out, Lord Brouncker (48) telling me this evening that the Duke of Buckingham (40) did, within few hours, say that he had enough to turn us all out which I am not sorry for at all, for I know the world will judge me to go for company; and my eyes are such as I am not able to do the business of my Office as I used, and would desire to do, while I am in it. So with full content, declaring all our content in being released of my employment, my wife and I to bed, and W. Hewer (26) home, and so all to bed.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 March 1669. 12 Mar 1669. Up, and abroad, with my own coach, to Auditor Beale's house, and thence with W. Hewer (27) to his Office, and there with great content spent all the morning looking over the Navy accounts of several years, and the several patents of the Treasurers, which was more than I did hope to have found there. About noon I ended there, to my great content, and giving the clerks there 20s. for their trouble, and having sent for W. Howe to me to discourse with him about the Patent Office records, wherein I remembered his brother to be concerned, I took him in my coach with W. Hewer (27) and myself towards Westminster; and there he carried me to Nott's, the famous bookbinder, that bound for my Chancellor's (60) library; and here I did take occasion for curiosity to bespeak a book to be bound, only that I might have one of his binding.

Thence back to Graye's Inne: and, at the next door, at a cook's-shop of Howe's acquaintance, we bespoke dinner, it being now two o'clock; and in the meantime he carried us into Graye's Inne, to his chamber, where I never was before; and it is very pretty, and little, and neat, as he was always. And so, after a little stay, and looking over a book or two there, we carried a piece of my Lord Coke with us, and to our dinner, where, after dinner, he read at my desire a chapter in my Lord Coke about perjury, wherein I did learn a good deal touching oaths, and so away to the Patent Office; in Chancery Lane, where his brother Jacke, being newly broke by running in debt, and growing an idle rogue, he is forced to hide himself; and W. Howe do look after the Office, and here I did set a clerk to look out some things for me in their books, while W. Hewer (27) and I to the Crowne Offices where we met with several good things that I most wanted, and did take short notes of the dockets, and so back to the Patent Office, and did the like there, and by candle-light ended. And so home, where, thinking to meet my wife with content, after my pains all this day, I find her in her closet, alone, in the dark, in a hot fit of railing against me, upon some news she has this day heard of Deb.'s living very fine, and with black spots, and speaking ill words of her mistress, which with good reason might vex her; and the baggage is to blame, but, God knows, I know nothing of her, nor what she do, nor what becomes of her, though God knows that my devil that is within me do wish that I could. Yet God I hope will prevent me therein, for I dare not trust myself with it if I should know it; but, what with my high words, and slighting it, and then serious, I did at last bring her to very good and kind terms, poor heart! and I was heartily glad of it, for I do see there is no man can be happier than myself, if I will, with her. But in her fit she did tell me what vexed me all the night, that this had put her upon putting off her handsome maid and hiring another that was full of the small pox, which did mightily vex me, though I said nothing, and do still. So down to supper, and she to read to me, and then with all possible kindness to bed.

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. 1593. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 March 1669. 18 Mar 1669. Up, and to see Sir W. Coventry (41), and walked with him a good while in the Stone Walk: and brave discourse about my Chancellor (60), and his ill managements and mistakes, and several things of the Navy, and thence to the office, where we sat all the morning, and so home to dinner, where my wife mighty finely dressed, by a maid that she hath taken, and is to come to her when Jane goes; and the same she the other day told me of, to be so handsome. I therefore longed to see her, but did not till after dinner, that my wife and I going by coach, she went with us to Holborne, where we set her down. She is a mighty proper maid, and pretty comely, but so so; but hath a most pleasing tone of voice, and speaks handsomely, but hath most great hands, and I believe ugly; but very well dressed, and good clothes, and the maid I believe will please me well enough.

Thence to visit Ned Pickering (51) and his lady (36), and Creed and his wife, but the former abroad, and the latter out of town, gone to my Lady Pickering's (43) in Northamptonshire, upon occasion of the late death of their brother, Oliver Pickering, a youth, that is dead of the smallpox. So my wife and I to Dancre's (44) to see the pictures; and thence to Hyde Park, the first time we were there this year, or ever in our own coach, where with mighty pride rode up and down, and many coaches there; and I thought our horses and coach as pretty as any there, and observed so to be by others. Here staid till night, and so home, and to the office, where busy late, and so home to supper and to bed, with great content, but much business in my head of the office, which troubles me.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1669. 20 Apr 1669. Up; and to the Office, and my wife abroad with Mary Batelier, with our own coach, but borrowed Sir J Minnes's coachman, that so our own might stay at home, to attend at dinner; our family being mightily disordered by our little boy's falling sick the last night; and we fear it will prove the small-pox.

At noon comes my guest, Mr. Hugh May (47), and with him Sir Henry Capell (31), my old Lord Capel's (61) son, and Mr. Parker; and I had a pretty dinner for them; and both before and after dinner had excellent discourse; and shewed them my closet and my Office, and the method of it to their great content; and more extraordinary, manly discourse and opportunity of shewing myself, and learning from others, I have not, in ordinary discourse, had in my life, they being all persons of worth, but especially Sir H. Capell (31), whose being a Parliament-man, and hearing my discourse in the Parliament-house, hath, as May (47) tells me, given him along desire to know and discourse with me. In the afternoon we walked to the Old Artillery-Ground near the Spitalfields, where I never was before, but now, by Captain Deane's (35) invitation, did go to see his new gun tryed, this being the place where the Officers of the Ordnance do try all their great guns; and when we come, did find that the trial had been made; and they going away with extraordinary report of the proof of his gun, which, from the shortness and bigness, they do call Punchinello. But I desired Colonel Legg to stay and give us a sight of her performance, which he did, and there, in short, against a gun more than as long and as heavy again, and charged with as much powder again, she carried the same bullet as strong to the mark, and nearer and above the mark at a point blank than theirs, and is more easily managed, and recoyles no more than that, which is a thing so extraordinary as to be admired for the happiness of his invention, and to the great regret of the old Gunners and Officers of the Ordnance that were there, only Colonel Legg did do her much right in his report of her. And so, having seen this great and first experiment, we all parted, I seeing my guests into a Hackney coach, and myself, with Captain Deane (35), taking a Hackney coach, did go out towards Bow, and went as far as Stratford, and all the way talking of this invention, and he offering me a third of the profit of the invention; which, for aught I know, or do at present think, may prove matter considerable to us: for either the King (38) will give him a reward for it, if he keeps it to himself, or he will give us a patent to make our profit of it: and no doubt but it will be of profit to merchantmen and others, to have guns of the same force at half the charge. This was our talk: and then to talk of other things, of the Navy in general: and, among other things, he did tell me that he do hear how the Duke of Buckingham (41) hath a spite at me, which I knew before, but value it not: and he tells me that Sir T. Allen (57) is not my friend; but for all this I am not much troubled, for I know myself so usefull that, as I believe, they will not part with me; so I thank God my condition is such that I can; retire, and be able to live with comfort, though not with abundance. Thus we spent the evening with extraordinary good discourse, to my great content, and so home to the Office, and there did some business, and then home, where my wife do come home, and I vexed at her staying out so late, but she tells me that she hath been at home with M. Batelier a good while, so I made nothing of it, but to supper and to bed.

Around 1655 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696. Around 1647 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649. Before 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Colonel William Legge -1670 (copy after original). Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

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On 25 May 1671 Henry Wood 1st Baronet 1597-1671 (74) died without male issue. On 31 May 1671 he was buried at Ufford. His daughter Mary Wood Duchess Southampton 1663- (8) was his heir. In view of the great wealth was to inherit she was betrothed to Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (8), an illegitmate son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (30). On her father's death she went to live with Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (30). They, Mary Wood Duchess Southampton 1663- (8) and Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (8) married 1679 but she died a year later from smallpox.

On 30 Jul 1671 Louis Guise Duke Guise 1650-1671 (20) died of smallpox.

On 02 Mar 1675 Justinian Isham 2nd Baronet Isham 1610-1675 (65) died of smallpox at Oxford. He was buried at Church of All Saints Lamport. Thomas Isham 3rd Baronet Isham 1657-1681 (17) succeeded 3rd Baronet Isham of Lamport in Northamptonshire.

In 1676 William Brydges 7th Baron Chandos 1621-1676 (55) died of smallpox with no male issue. James Brydges 8th Baron Chandos 1642-1714 (33) succeeded 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley. Elizabeth Barnard Baroness Chandos 1642-1719 (33) by marriage Baroness Chandos of Sudeley.

On 12 Dec 1677 Charles Stewart 1677-1677 died of smallpox.

In 1678 William Dummer 1657-1678 (21) died of smallpox.

In 1680 Mary Wood Duchess Southampton 1663- (17) died of smallpox. She was buried with her mother (who also died of smallpox) in Westminster Abbey.

On 22 Jun 1680 Elisabeth Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1679-1680 (1) died of smallpox at Gotha.

In 1681 Edward Turbeville 1648-1681 (33) died of smallpox.

Frost Fair

John Evelyn's Diary 23 December 1683. 23 Dec 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames frozen.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 January 1684. 01 Jan 1684. The weather continuing intolerably severe, streetes of booths were set upon the Thames; the aire was so very cold and thick, as of many yeares there had not ben the like. The smallpox was very mortal.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 March 1684. 07 Mar 1684. Dr. Meggot, Deane of Winchester, preached an incomparable sermon, (the King (53) being now gone to Newmarket,) on 12 Heb. 15. shewing and pathetically pressing the care we ought to have least we come short of the grace of God. Afterwards I went to visite Dr. Tenison (47) at Kensington, whither he was retired to refresh after he had ben sick of the smallpox.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 March 1684. 30 Mar 1684. Easter day. The Bp. of Rochester [Dr. Turner] (46) preach'd before, the King (53) after which his Ma*, accompanied with three of his natural sonns, the Dukes of Northumberland (18), Richmond, and St. Alban's (13) (sons of Portsmouth (34), Cleaveland (43), and Nelly (34)), went up to the Altar; ye three boyes entering before the King (53) within the railes, at the right hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. London (52) (who officiated), Durham (51), and Rochester (46), with the Sub-dean Dr. Holder. the King (53) kneeling before the Altar, zaking his offering, the Bishop first receiv'd, and then his Ma* after which he retir'd to a canopied seate on the right hand. Note, there was perfume burnt before the Office began. I had receiv'd ye Sacrament at Whitehall early with the Lords and Household, ye Bp. of London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's, where Dr. Tenison (47) preach'd (recover'd from yc small-pox); then went againe to Whitehall as above. In the afternoone went to St. Martin's againe.

Around 1690 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726. Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 08 Oct 1699 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Around1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Before 14 Nov 1687 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Around 1675 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Henry Compton Bishop 1632-1713. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Bishop Nathaniel Crew 3rd Baron Crew 1633-1721. In 1698 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Bishop Nathaniel Crew 3rd Baron Crew 1633-1721. Around 1675 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (attributed). Portrait of Bishop Nathaniel Crew 3rd Baron Crew 1633-1721.

In 1685 Anne Killigrew 1660-1685 (25) died of smallpox. She was buried at Savoy Chapel Royal.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 March 1685. 07 Mar 1685. My daughter Mary (20) was taken with the smallpox, and there soon was found no hope of her recovery. A very greate affliction to me: but God's holy will be done.

10 Mar 1685. She receiv'd the blessed Sacrament; after which, disposing herselfe to suffer what God should determine to inflict, she bore the remainder of her sicknesse with extraordinary patience and piety, and more than ordinary resignation and blessed frame of mind. She died the 14th, to our unspeakable sorrow and affliction, and not to ours onely, but that of all who knew her, who were many of the best quality, greatest and most virtuous persons. The justnesse of her stature, person, comelinesse of countenance, gracefull nesse of motion, unaffected tho' more than ordinary beautifull, were the least of her ornaments compared with those of her mind. Of early piety, singularly religious, spending a part of every day in private devotion, reading and other vertuous exereises; she had collected and written out many of the most usefull and judicious periods of the books she read in a kind of common-place, as out of Dr. Hammond on the New Testament, and most of the best practical treatises. She had read and digested a considerable deale of history and of places. The French tongue was as familiar to her as English; she understood Italian, and was able to render a laudable account of what she read and observed, to which assisted a most faithful memory and discernment; and she did make very prudent and discreete reflexions upon what she had observed of the conversations among which she had at any time ben, which being continualy of persons of the best quality, she thereby improved. She had an excellent voice, to which she play'd a thorough-bass on the harpsichord, in both which she arived to that perfection, that of the schollars of those two famous masters Signors Pietro and Bartholomeo she was esteem'd the best; for the sweetnesse of her voice and management of it added such an agreeablenesse to her countenance, without any constraint or concerne, that when she sung, it was as charming to the eye as to the eare; this I rather note, because it was a universal remarke, and for which so many noble and judicious persons in musiq desired to heare her, the last being at Lord Arundel's of Wardour (see above). What shall 1 say, or rather not say, of the cheerefullness and agreeablenesse of her humour? condescending to the meanest servant in the family, or others, she still kept up respect, without the least pride. She would often reade to them, examine, instruct, and pray with them if they were sick, so as she was exceedingly beloved of every body. Piety was so prevalent an ingredient in her constitution (as I may say) that even amongst equals and superiors she no sooner became intimately acquainted, but she would endeavour to improve them, by insinuating something of religious, and that tended to bring them to a love of devotion; she had one or two confidents with whom she used to passe whole dayes In fasting, reading and prayers, especialy before the monethly communion and other solemn occasions. She abhorr'd flattery, and tho' she had aboundance of witt, the raillery was so innocent and ingenuous that it was most agreeable; she sometimes would see a play, but since the stage grew licentious, express'd herselfe weary of them, and the time spent at the theater was an unaccountable vanity. She never play'd at cards without extreame importunity and for the company, but this was so very seldome that I cannot number it among any thing she could name a fault. No one could read prose or verse better or with more judgment; and as she read, so she writ, not only most correct orthography, with that maturitie of judgment and exactnesse of the periods, choice of expressions, and familiarity of stile, that some letters of hers have astonish'd me and others to whom she has occasionally written. She had a talent of rehersing any comical part or poeme, as to them she might be decently free with was more pleasing than heard on yb theater; she daunc'd with the greatest grace I had ever seene, and so would her master say, who was Monsr Isaac; but she seldome shew'd that perfection, save in the gracefullnesse of her carriage, which was with an aire of spritely modestie not easily to be described. Nothing affected, but natural and easy as well in her deportment as in her discourse, which was always materiall, not trifling, and to which the extraordinary sweetnesse of her tone, even in familiar speaking, was very charming. Nothing was so pretty as her descending to play with little children, whom she would caresse and humour with greate delight. But she most affected to be with grave and sober men, of whom she might learne something, and improve herselfe. I have ben assisted by her in reading and praying by me; comprehensive of uncommon notions, curious of knowing every thing to some excesse, had I not sometimes repressed it. Nothing was so delightfull to her as to go into my study, where she would willingly have spent whole dayes, for as I sayd she had read aboundance of history, and all the best poets, even Terence, Plautus, Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid; all the best romances and modern poemes; she could compose happily, and put in pretty symbols, as in the Mundus Mulie bris, wherein is an enumeration of the immense variety of the modes and ornaments belonging to the sex; but all these are vaine trifles to the virtues which adorn'd her soule; she was sincerely religious, most dutifull to her parents, whom she lov'd with an affection temper'd with greate esteeme, so as we were easy and free^ and never were so well pleas'd as when she was with us, nor needed we other conversation; she was kind to her sisters, and was still improving them by her constant course of piety. Oh deare, sweete, and desireable child, how shall I part with all this goodness and virtue without the bittemesse of sorrow and reluctancy of a tender parent! Thy affection, duty, and love to me was that of a friend as well as a child. Nor lesse deare to thy mother, whose example and tender care of thee was unparellel'd, nor was thy returne to her lesse conspicuous; Oh ! how she mourns thy loss! how desolate hast thou left us! To the grave shall we both carry thy memory!

God alone (in whose bosom thou art at rest and happy !) give us to resigne thee and all our contentments (for thou indeede wert all in this world) to his blessed pleasure ! Let him be glorified by our submission, and give us grace to blesse him for the graces he planted in thee, thy virtuous life, pious and holy death, which is indeede the onely comfort of our soules, hastening thro' the infinite love and mercy of the Lord Jesus to be shortly with thee, deare child, and with thee and those blessed saints like thee, glorifye the Redeemer of the world to all eternity ! Amen !

It was in the 19th year of her age that this sicknesse happen'd to her. An accident contributed to this disease; she had an apprehension of it in particular, and which struck her but two days before she came home, by an imprudent gentlewoman whom she went with Lady Falkland to visite, who after they had ben a good while in the house, told them she had a servant sick of the smallpox (who indeede died the next day); this my poore child acknowledg'd made an impression on her spirits. There were foure gentlemen of quality offering to treate with me about marriage, and I freely gave her her owne choice, knowing her discretion. She showed great indifference to marrying at all, for truly, says she to her mother (the other day), were I assur'd of your life and my deare father's, never would I part from you; I love you and this home, where we serve God, above all things, nor ever shall I be so happy; I know and consider the vicissitudes of the world, I have some experience of its vanities, and but for decency more than inclination, and that you judge it expedient for me, I would not change my condition, but rather add the fortune you designe me to my sisters, and keepe up the reputation of our family, This was so discreetly and sincerely utter'd that it could not but proceede from an extraordinary child, and one who lov'd her parents beyond example.

At London she tooke this fatal disease, and the occasion of her being there was this; my Lord Viscount Falkland's (29) Lady having ben our neighbour (as he was Treasurer of the Navy), she tooke so greate an affection to my daughter, that when they went back in the autumn to the Citty, nothing would satisfie their incessant importunity but letting her accompany my Lady, and staying sometime with her; it was with yc greatest reluctance I complied. Whilst she was there, my Lord (29) being musical, when I saw my Lady would not part with her till Christmas, I was not unwilling she should improve the opportunity of learning of Signr Pietro, who had an admirable way both of composure and teaching. It was the end of February before I could prevail with my Lady to part with her; but my Lord going into Oxfordshire to stand for Knight of the Shire there, she express'd her wish to come home, being tir'd of ye vain and empty conversation of the towne, ye theatres, the court, and trifling visites wch consum'd so much precious time, and made her sometimes misse of that regular course of piety that gave her ye greatest satisfaction. She was weary of this life, and I think went not thrice to Court all this time, except when her mother or I carried her. She did not affect shewing herselfe, she knew ye Court well, and pass'd one summer in it at Windsor with Lady Tuke one of the Queene's women of the bed chamber (a most virtuous relation of hers); she was not fond of that glittering scene, now become abominably licentious, though there was a designe of Lady Rochester (39) and Lady Clarendon to have made her a maid of honour to the Queene as soon as there was a vacancy. But this she did not set her heart upon, nor in deede on any thing so much as the service of God, a quiet and regular life, and how she might improve herselfe in the most necessary accomplishments, and to wch she was ariv'd at so greate a measure. This is y° little history and imperfect character of my deare child, whose piety, virtue, and incomparable endowments deserve a. Monument more durable than brasse and marble. Precious is the memorial of the just.

Much I could enlarge on every peribd of this hasty account, but that I ease and discharge my overcoming passion for the present, so many things worthy an excellent Christian and dutifull child crowding upon me. Never can I say enough, oh deare, my deare child, whose memory is so precious to me! This deare child was born at Wotton in the same house and chamber in which I first drew my breath, my wife (50) having retir'd to my brother there in the great sicknesse that yeare upon the first of that moneth, and neere the ve'ry houre that I was borne, upon the last: viz. October. 16 March. She was interr'd in the South-east end of the Church at Deptford, neere her grandmother and severall of my younger children and relations. My desire was she should have ben carried and layed among my own parents and relations at Wotton, where I desire to be interr'd myselfe, when God shall call me out of this uncertaine transitory life, but some circumstances did not permit it. Our vicar Dr. Holden preach'd her funeral sermon on 1 Phil. 21. "For to me to live is Christ and to die is gaine", upon which he made an apposite discourse, as those who heard it assur'd me (for griefe suffer'd me not to be present), concluding with a modest recital of her many virtues and signal piety, so as to draw both teares and admiration from the hearers. I was not altogether unwilling that something of this sort should be spoken, for the edification and encouragement of other young people. Divers noble persons honour'd her funeral, some in person, others sending their coaches, of wch there were six or seven with six horses, viz. the Countesse of Sunderland (39), Earle of Clarendon, Lord Godolphin (39), Sr Stephen Fox (57), Sr Wm Godolphin, Viscount Falkland, and others. There were distributed amongst her friends about 60 rings. Thus liv'd, died, and was buried the joy of my life, and ornament of her sex and of my poore family ! God Almighty of his infinite mercy grant me the grace thankfully to resigne myselfe and all I have, or had, to his Divine pleasure, and in his good time, restoring health and comfort to my family: " teach me so to number my days that I may apply my heart to wisdom", be prepar'd for my dissolution, and that into the hands of my blessed Saviour I may recommend my spirit ! Amen !

On looking into her closet, it is incredible what a number of collections she had made from historians, poetes, travellers, &c. but above all devotions, contemplations, and resolutions on these contemplations, found under her hand in a booke most methodicaly dispos'd; prayers, meditations, and devotions on particular occasions, with many pretty letters to her confidants; one to a divine (not nam'd) to whom she writes that he would be her ghostly father, and would not despise her for her many errors and the imperfections of her youth, but beg of God to give her courage to acquaint him with all her faults, imploring his assistance and spiritual directions. I well remember she had often desir'd me to recommend her to such a person, but I did not think fit to do it as yet, seeing her apt to be scrupulous, and knowing the great innocency and integrity of her life. It is astonishing how one who had acquir'd such substantial and practical knowledge in other ornamental parts of education, especialy music both vocal and instrumental, In dauncing, paying and receiving visites, and necessary conversation, could accomplish halfe of what she has left; but as she never affected play or cards, which consume a world of precious time, so she was in continual exercise, which yet abated nothing of her most agreeable conversation. But she was a little miracle while she liv'd, and so she died!

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Digby Countess Sunderland 1646-1715. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 1661. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Copy of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 portrait of Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury and his first wife Theodosia Capell. Before 1725. John James Baker Painter -1725. Portrait of Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716.

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On 14 Mar 1685 Mary Evelyn 1665-1685 (20) died of smallpox.

Before 10 Jul 1685 Mr Hussey died of smallpox.

On 27 Aug 1685 Elizabeth Evelyn 1667-1685 (17) died of smallpox.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 August 1685. 27 Aug 1685. My daughter Elizabeth (17) died of the smallpox, soon after having married a young man, nephew of Sir John Tippett, surveyor of the Navy, and one of the Commissioners. The 30th she was buried in the Church at Deptford. Thus in lesse than six moneths were we deprived of two children for our unworthinesse and causes best knowne to God, whom I beseeche from the bottome of my heart that he will give us grace to make that right use of all these chastisements, that we may become better, and entirely submitt in all things to his infinite wise disposal. Amen.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 September 1685. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (52) to Portsmouth, whither his Ma* (51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (46), now wife to James Graham, Esq (36) of the privy purse to the King (55); her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

In 1666. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 February 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1666. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 April 1686. 15 Apr 1686. The Abp. of York (61) died of ye smallpox, aged 62, a corpulent man. He was my special loving friend, and whilst Bp. of Rochester (from whence he was translated) my excellent neighbour. He was an unexpressible losse to yc whole church, and that province especialy, he being a learned, wise, stoute, and most worthy prelate; I looke on this as a greate stroke to ye poore Church of England, now in this defecting period.

Around 1822. George Perfect Harding Painter 1781-1853. Portrait of John Dolben Archbishop 1625-1686. Cleary not contemporary the source of the image unknown.

Around 18 Apr 1686 John Dolben Archbishop 1625-1686 (61) died of smallpox. He had been returned from York to London when he came into contact with a person infected with small-pox. Becoming infected himself he died a few days later.

Around 1690 Henry Horatio O'Brien -1690 died of smallpox.

On 21 Oct 1690 Infanta Isabel Luísa of Portugal 1669-1690 (21) died of smallpox.

On 06 Aug 1691 Mary Compton Countess Dorset 1669-1691 (22) died of smallpox.

Around 1700 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Mary Compton Countess Dorset 1669-1691. One of the Hampton Court Beauties.

On 24 May 1694 Anthony Carey 5th Viscount Falkland 1656-1694 (38) died of smallpox. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. Lucius Carey 6th Viscount Falkland 1687-1730 (6) succeeded 6th Viscount Falkland.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 May 1694. 30 May 1694. This week we had news of my Lord Tiviot (65) having cut his own throat, through what discontent not yet said. He had been, not many years past, my colleague in the commission of the Privy Seal, in old acquaintance, very soberly and religiously inclined. Lord, what are we without thy continual grace!

Lord Falkland (38), grandson to the learned Lord Falkland (84), Secretary of State to King Charles I., and slain in his service, died now of the smallpox. He was a pretty, brisk, understanding, industrious young gentleman; had formerly been faulty, but now much reclaimed; had also the good luck to marry a very great fortune, besides being entitled to a vast sum, his share of the Spanish wreck, taken up at the expense of divers adventurers. From a Scotch Viscount he was made an English Baron, designed Ambassador for Holland; had been Treasurer of the Navy, and advancing extremely in the new Court. All now gone in a moment, and I think the title is extinct. I know not whether the estate devolves to my cousin Carew. It was at my Lord Falkland's, whose lady importuned us to let our daughter (26) be with her some time, so that that dear child took the same infection, which cost her valuable life.

Around 1630 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. In 1633 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. In 1635 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. Before 1643 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. Montacute House.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 November 1694. 22 Nov 1694. Visited the Bishop of Lincoln (58) [Tenison] newly come on the death of the Archbishop of Canterbury (64), who a few days before had a paralytic stroke,—the same day and month that Archbishop Sancroft (77) was put out. A very sickly time, especially the smallpox, of which divers considerable persons died. The State lottery drawing, Mr. Cock, a French refugee, and a President in the Parliament of Paris for the Reformed, drew a lot of £1,000 per annum.

Death of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House.

On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey. Thomas Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury 1636-1715 (58) preached the sermon.

She had reigned for five years. Her husband King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694. Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 December 1694. 29 Dec 1694. The smallpox increased exceedingly, and was very mortal. The Queen (32) died of it on the 28th.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 January 1695. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (44) and Princess Anne (29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen (32); to maintain them the King (44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.

In 1703 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Around 1705. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

In Nov 1695 John Guise 2nd Baronet Guise 1654-1695 (41) died of smallpox. He was buried in Church of St John the Baptist Elmore.

On 25 Feb 1699 Robert Shirley 1673-1699 (25) died of smallpox. Washington Shirley 2nd Earl Ferrers 1677-1729 (21) succeeded 2nd Earl Ferrers. Mary Levinge Countess Ferrers -1740 by marriage Countess Ferrers.

Around 1704. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Mary Levinge Countess Ferrers -1740.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 July 1700. 01 Jul 1700. I was visited with illness, but it pleased God that I recovered, for which praise be ascribed to him by me, and that he has again so graciously advertised me of my duty to prepare for my latter end, which at my great age, cannot be far off.

The Duke of Gloucester (10), son of the Princess Anne of Denmark (35), died of the smallpox.

On 30 Jul 1700 Prince William Duke Gloucester 1689-1700 (11) died of smallpox.

On 16 Sep 1700 Thomas Morgan 1664-1700 (36) died of smallpox. John Morgan of Tredegar 1671-1720 (29) inherited Tredegar House and estates worth £7000.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 November 1700. 05 Nov 1700. Came the news of my dear grandson (18) (the only male of my family now remaining) being fallen ill of the smallpox at Oxford, which after the dire effects of it in my family exceedingly afflicted me; but so it pleased my most merciful God that being let blood at his first complaint, and by the extraordinary care of Dr. Mander (Head of the college and now Vice Chancellor), who caused him to be brought and lodged in his own bed and bedchamber, with the advice of his physician and care of his tutor, there were all fair hopes of his recovery, to our infinite comfort. We had a letter every day either from the Vice Chancellor himself, or his tutor.

On 05 Jun 1701 Thomas Gee 1701-1721 died of smallpox. Buried at St Matthew's Church.

In Nov 1702 John Evelyn of Nutfield -1702 died of smallpox.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 November 1702. 08 Nov 1702. My kinsman, John Evelyn, of Nutfield, a young and very hopeful gentleman, and Member of Parliament, after having come to Wotton to see me, about fifteen days past, went to London and there died of the smallpox. He left a brother, a commander in the army in Holland, to inherit a fair estate.

Our affairs in so prosperous a condition both by sea and land, that there has not been so great an union in Parliament, Court, and people, in memory of man, which God in mercy make us thankful for, and continue! The Bishop of Exeter (52) preached before the Queen (37) and both Houses of Parliament at St. Paul's; they were wonderfully huzzaed in their passage, and splendidly entertained in the city.

Around 1720 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Bishop Jonathan Trelawny 3rd Baronet 1650-1721.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 February 1703. 01 Feb 1703. A famous cause at the King's (72) Bench between Mr. Fenwick and his wife, which went for him with a great estate. The Duke of Marlborough (52) lost his only son (16) at Cambridge by the smallpox. A great earthquake at Rome, etc. A famous young woman (23), an Italian, was hired by our comedians to sing on the stage, during so many plays, for which they gave her £500; which part by her voice alone at the end of three scenes she performed with such modesty and grace, and above all with such skill, that there was never any who did anything comparable with their voices. She was to go home to the Court of the King (72) of Prussia, and I believe carried with her out of this vain nation above £1,000, everybody coveting to hear her at their private houses.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 known as The Triumph of the John, 1st Duke of Marlborough. In 1702. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722. Before 1744 Enoch

On 20 Feb 1703 John Churchill 1686-1703 (17) died of smallpox.

On 21 Nov 1703 Karl Frederick Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1702-1703 (1) died of smallpox (possibly) at Gotha.

On 29 Nov 1703 Sophie Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1697-1703 (6) died of smallpox at Gotha.

On 28 Mar 1704 Edward Ward 8th Baron Dudley 3rd Baron Ward 1683-1704 (20) died of smallpox.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 February 1705. 21 Feb 1705. Remarkable fine weather. Agues and smallpox much in every place.

On 27 Feb 1705 Christian Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1705-1705 was born to Frederick Saxe Coburg Altenburg II Duke Saxe Gotha Altenburg 1676-1732 (28) and Magdalena Augusta Anhalt Zerbst Anhaltzerbst Duchess Saxe Gotha Altenburg at Gotha. He died of smallpox on 05 Mar 1705 at Gotha.

In 1710 Margaret Brownlow 1687-1710 (23) died of smallpox. Her estate of £40,000 was divided between her four sisters: Jane Brownlow Duchess Ancaster and Kesteven -1736, Elizabeth Brownlow Countess Exeter 1681-1723 (29), Alicia Brownlow Baroness Guildford 1684-1727 (26) and Eleanor Brownlow Viscountess Tyconnel 1691-1730 (19).

Before 1710. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Margaret Brownlow 1687-1710. Belton House. Around 1710. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Alicia Brownlow Baroness Guildford 1684-1727. In 1702 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Eleanor Brownlow Viscountess Tyconnel 1691-1730. Before 02 Nov 1739 Charles Jervas Painter 1675-1739. Portrait of Eleanor Brownlow Viscountess Tyconnel 1691-1730. Before 1730. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Eleanor Brownlow Viscountess Tyconnel 1691-1730. Belton House.

On 16 Jun 1710 William Ashburnham 2nd Baron Ashburnham 1679-1710 (31) died of smallpox at Ashburnham. John Ashburnham 1st Earl Ashburham 1687-1737 (23) succeeded 3rd Baron Ashburnham of Ashburnham in Sussex.

In Jul 1710 Catherine Taylor -1710 died of smallpox.

1711 Smallpox Epidemic

In 1711 William Henry Osborne 1690-1711 (21) died of smallpox in Utrecht.

In 1711 Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor 1678-1711 (32) died of smallpox.

On 14 Apr 1711 Louis "Le Grand Dauphin" Bourbon Duke Burgundy 1661-1711 (49) died of smallpox. Louis Bourbon Duke Burgundy 1682-1712 (28) was appointed Duke Burgundy and Dauphin.

On 17 May 1711 William Henry Granville 3rd Earl of Bath 1692–1711 (19) died of smallpox. Earl Bath 3C 1661 extinct.

In 1713 William Pierrepoint 1692-1713 (21) died of smallpox.

On 22 Mar 1713 Robert Petre 7th Baron Petre 1689-1713 (24) died of smallpox. Robert Petre 8th Baron Petre 1713-1742 succeeded 7th Baron Petre.

On 17 Apr 1714 Baptist Noel 3rd Earl Gainsborough 1684-1714 (30) died of smallpox. Baptist Noel 4th Earl Gainsborough 1708-1751 (6) succeeded 4th Earl Gainsborough 1C 1682.

On 05 Jul 1714 Robert Shirley 1692-1714 (21) died of smallpox. Monument in Holy Trinity Church Staunton Harold. Elbow Reclining Figure. Powdered Wig. Heeled Shoes. Possibly by John Michael Rysbrack 1694-1770 (20).

In 1753 Andrea Soldi Painter 1703-1771. Portrait of John Michael Rysbrack 1694-1770. In 1728 John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of John Michael Rysbrack 1694-1770.

In 1721 Elizabeth Booth 1719-1721 (1) died of smallpox.

In 1721 Helen Froggatt 1698-1721 (22) died of smallpox.

1721. An outbreak of smallpox occurred during this year in Kinder. See note below.

On 21 May 1721 Francis Gee 1704-1721 (17) died of smallpox. He was buried at St Matthew's Church.

On 23 May 1721 Essex Finch 1687-1721 (34) died of smallpox.

In Oct 1721 John Booth -1721 died of smallpox.

On 04 Jun 1723 Léopold Clement Charles Lorraine 1707-1723 (16) died of smallpox.

1710.Pierre Gobert Painter 1662-1744. Portrait of Léopold Clement Charles Lorraine 1707-1723. 1722.Pierre Gobert Painter 1662-1744. Portrait of Léopold Clement Charles Lorraine 1707-1723.

On 31 Aug 1724 Louis I King Spain 1707-1724 (17) died of smallpox. He was buried at the El Escorial Palace. Philippe V King Spain 1683-1746 (40) returned to the Spanish throne.

1723.Jean Ranc Painter 1674-1735. Portrait of Philippe V King Spain 1683-1746. 1723.Jean Ranc Painter 1674-1735. Portrait of Philippe V King Spain 1683-1746.

On 29 Mar 1726 Dorothy Walpole Viscountess Townsend 1686-1726 (39) died although the circumstances are somewhat mysterious; possibly smallpox.

Around 1718 Charles Jervas Painter 1675-1739. Portrait of Dorothy Walpole Viscountess Townsend 1686-1726.

On 16 Dec 1731 Robert Rochfort 1st Earl of Belvedere 1708-1774 (23) and Elizabeth Tenison -1732 were married. She died a year later from smallpox.

In 1732 Elizabeth Tenison -1732 died of smallpox.

On 13 May 1737 William Wodehouse 1706-1737 (31) died of smallpox wihout issue. He was buried in St James'.

In 23 Feb 1738 Edmund Quincy 1681-1737 (56) died of smallpox.

On 02 Jul 1742 Robert Petre 8th Baron Petre 1713-1742 (29) died of smallpox at Ingatestone Hall Ingatestone Blackmore. Robert Edward Petre 9th Baron Petre 1742-1801 succeeded 9th Baron Petre.

In 1746 Elizabeth Fazakerley -1746 died of smallpox.

On 01 Apr 1750 Francis Scott 1721-1750 (29) died of smallpox. He was buried at Buccleuch Crypt, St Nicholas Church, Dalkeith.

On 24 Aug 1751 James Aston 5th Baronet 1723-1751 (28) died of smallpox without male issue.

In 1752 Margaret Cecil -1752 died of smallpox at Earl of Egmont's House Pall Mall.

On 31 Jan 1760 Mary Radclyffe 1714-1760 (46) died of smallpox in Brussels.

On 23 Dec 1762 Maria Johanna Gabriela of Austria 1750-1762 (12) died of smallpox.

Before 23 Dec 1762. Martin van Meytens Painter 1695-1770. Portrait of Maria Johanna Gabriela of Austria 1750-1762.

On 10 May 1774 Louis XV King France 1710-1774 (64) died of smallpox. Louis XVI King France 1754-1793 (19) succeeded XVI King France: Capet Valois Bourbon.

1715.Jean Ranc Painter 1674-1735. Portrait of Louis XV King France 1710-1774. 1769. Joseph Ducreux Baron Ducreux Painter 1735-1802. Portrait of Marie Antoinette Queen France 1755-1793 sent to Louis XVI King France 1754-1793 befor their wedding. Around 1784. Joseph Boze Painter 1746-1826. Portrait of Louis XVI King France 1754-1793.

1789. Lichfield Cathedral. Monument to Mary Wortley Montagu née Pierrepoint 1689-1762 (99). Sculpted by Thomas-Henry Scheemakers 1740-1808 (49).

The inscription:

Sacred to the Memory of the Right Honorable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu who happily introduced from Turkey, into this country, The Salutary Art of inoculating the Small Pox. Convinced of its efficacy she first tried it with success on her own children. And then recommended the practice of it to her fellow citizens. The by her Example and Advice we have softened the virulence and escaped the danger of of this malignant disease. To perpetuate the memory of such benevolence, and to express gratitude, for the benefit of herself received from this alleviating art. This monument is erected by Henrietta Inge (72) relict of Theodore William Inge (78) Esq. and daughter to Sir John Wrottesley Baronet in the year of our lord MDCCLXXXIX [1989].

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Mary Wortley Montagu née Pierrepoint 1689-1762. Around 1718 Johnathan

Development of Smallpox Vaccine

On 14 May 1796 Edward Jenner Physician Scientist 1749-1823 (46) inoculated eight year old James Phipps against smallpox using pus from the cowpos blisters of milkmaid Sarah Nelmes. He later injected the boy with variolous material without disease following. The boy's response indicated he was immune to smallpox. He then tested a further twenty-three people including his eleven month old son Robert. Within years the whole of Europe had been innoculated against smallpox.

On 20 Apr 1848 Katherine Isabella Manners 1809-1848 (39) died of smallpox at 47 Eaton Place.

1839 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of Katherine Isabella Manners 1809-1848.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 March 1646. Passing through the same pleasant valley between the horrid mountains on either hand, like a gallery many miles in length, we got to Martigni, where also we were well entertained. The houses in this country are all built of fir boards, planed within, low, and seldom above one story. The people very clownish and rusticly clad, after a very odd fashion, for the most part in blue cloth, very whole and warm, with little variety of distinction between the gentleman and common sort, by a law of their country being exceedingly frugal. Add to this their great honesty and fidelity, though exacting enough for what they part with: I saw not one beggar. We paid the value of twenty shillings English, for a day's hire of one horse. Every man goes with a sword by his side, the whole country well disciplined, and indeed impregnable, which made the Romans have such ill success against them; one lusty Swiss at their narrow passages is sufficient to repel a legion. It is a frequent thing here for a young tradesman, or farmer, to leave his wife and children for twelve or fifteen years, and seek his fortune in the wars in Spain, France, Italy, or Germany, and then return again to work. I look upon this country to be the safest spot of all Europe, neither envied nor envying; nor are any of them rich, nor poor; they live in great simplicity and tranquillity; and, though of the fourteen Cantons half be Roman Catholics, the rest reformed, yet they mutually agree, and are confederate with Geneva, and are its only security against its potent neighbors, as they themselves are from being attacked by the greater potentates, by the mutual jealousy of their neighbors, as either of them would be overbalanced, should the Swiss, who are wholly mercenary and auxiliaries, be subjected to France or Spain.

We were now arrived at St. Maurice, a large handsome town and residence of the President, where justice is done. To him we presented our letter from Sion, and made known the ill usage we had received for killing a wretched goat, which so incensed him, that he swore if we would stay he would not only help us to recover our money again, but most severely punish the whole rabble; but our desire of revenge had by this time subsided, and glad we were to be gotten so near France, which we reckoned as good as home. He courteously invited us to dine with him; but we excused ourselves, and, returning to our inn, while we were eating something before we took horse, the Governor had caused two pages to bring us a present of two great vessels of covered plate full of excellent wine, in which we drank his health, and rewarded the youths; they were two vast bowls supported by two Swiss, handsomely wrought after the German manner. This civility and that of our host at Sion, perfectly reconciled us to the highlanders; and so, proceeding on our journey we passed this afternoon through the gate which divides the Valais from the Duchy of Savoy, into which we were now entering, and so, through Montei, we arrived that evening at Beveretta. Being extremely weary and complaining of my head, and finding little accommodation in the house, I caused one of our hostess's daughters to be removed out of her bed and went immediately into it while it was yet warm, being so heavy with pain and drowsiness that I would not stay to have the sheets changed; but I shortly after paid dearly for my impatience, falling sick of the smallpox as soon as I came to Geneva, for by the smell of frankincense and the tale the good woman told me of her daughter having had an ague, I afterward concluded she had been newly recovered of the smallpox. Notwithstanding this, I went with my company, the next day, hiring a bark to carry us over the lake; and indeed, sick as I was, the weather was so serene and bright, the water so calm, and air so temperate, that never had travelers a sweeter passage. Thus, we sailed the whole length of the lake, about thirty miles, the countries bordering on it (Savoy and Berne) affording one of the most delightful prospects in the world, the Alps covered with snow, though at a great distance, yet showing their aspiring tops. Through this lake, the river Rhodanus passes with that velocity as not to mingle with its exceeding deep waters, which are very clear, and breed the most celebrated trout for largeness and goodness of any in Europe. I have ordinarily seen one of three feet in length sold in the market for a small price, and such we had in the lodging where we abode, which was at the White Cross. All this while, I held up tolerably; and the next morning having a letter for Signor John Diodati, the famous Italian minister and translator of the Holy Bible into that language, I went to his house, and had a great deal of discourse with that learned person. He told me he had been in England, driven by tempest into Deal, while sailing for Holland, that he had seen London, and was exceedingly taken with the civilities he received. He so much approved of our Church-government by Bishops, that he told me the French Protestants would make no scruple to submit to it and all its pomp, had they a king of the Reformed religion as we had. He exceedingly deplored the difference now between his Majesty and the Parliament. After dinner, came one Monsieur Saladine, with his little pupil, the Earl of Caernarvon, to visit us, offering to carry us to the principal places of the town; but, being now no more able to hold up my head, I was constrained to keep my chamber, imagining that my very eyes would have dropped out; and this night I felt such a stinging about me, that I could not sleep. In the morning, I was very ill, but sending for a doctor, he persuaded me to be bled. He was a very learned old man, and, as he said, he had been physician to Gustavus the Great, King of Sweden, when he passed this way into Italy, under the name of Monsieur Gars, the initial letters of Gustavus Adolphus Rex Sueciæ, and of our famous Duke of Buckingham, on his returning out of Italy. He afterward acknowledged that he should not have bled me, had he suspected the smallpox, which broke out a day after. He afterward purged me, and applied leeches, and God knows what this would have produced, if the spots had not appeared, for he was thinking of bleeding me again. They now kept me warm in bed for sixteen days, tended by a vigilant Swiss matron, whose monstrous throat, when I sometimes awakened out of unquiet slumbers, would affright me. After the pimples were come forth, which were not many, I had much ease as to pain, but infinitely afflicted with heat and noisomeness. By God's mercy, after five weeks' keeping my chamber, I went abroad. Monsieur Saladine and his lady sent me many refreshments. Monsieur Le Chat, my physician, to excuse his letting me bleed, told me it was so burnt and vicious as it would have proved the plague, or spotted fever, had he proceeded by any other method. On my recovering sufficiently to go abroad, I dined at Monsieur Saladine's, and in the afternoon went across the water on the side of the lake, and took a lodging that stood exceedingly pleasant, about half a mile from the city for the better airing; but I stayed only one night, having no company there, save my pipe; so, the next day, I caused them to row me about the lake as far as the great stone, which they call Neptune's Rock, on which they say sacrifice was anciently offered to him. Thence, I landed at certain cherry gardens and pretty villas by the side of the lake, and exceedingly pleasant. Returning, I visited their conservatories of fish; in which were trouts of six and seven feet long, AS THEY AFFIRMED.

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