1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1662 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Wine is in Drink.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 November 1661. 25 Nov 1661. To Westminster Hall in the morning with Captain Lambert, and there he did at the Dog give me and some other friends of his, his foy, he being to set sail to-day towards the Streights. Here we had oysters and good wine. Having this morning met in the Hall with Mr. Sanchy, we appointed to meet at the play this afternoon.

At noon, at the rising of the House, I met with Sir W. Pen (40) and Major General Massy1, who I find by discourse to be a very ingenious man, and among other things a great master in the secresys of powder and fireworks, and another knight to dinner, at the Swan, in the Palace yard, and our meat brought from the Legg; and after dinner Sir W. Pen (40) and I to the Theatre, and there saw "The Country Captain", a dull play, and that being done, I left him with his Torys2 and went to the Opera, and saw the last act of "The Bondman", and there found Mr. Sanchy and Mrs. Mary Archer, sister to the fair Betty, whom I did admire at Cambridge, and thence took them to the Fleece in Covent Garden, there to bid good night to Sir W. Pen (40) who staid for me; but Mr. Sanchy could not by any argument get his lady to trust herself with him into the tavern, which he was much troubled at, and so we returned immediately into the city by coach, and at the Mitre in Cheapside there light and drank, and then yet her at her uncle's in the Old Jewry.

And so he and I back again thither, and drank till past 12 at night, till I had drank something too much. He all the while telling me his intention to get a girl who is worth £1000, and many times we had her sister Betty's health, whose memory I love. At last parted, and I well home, only had got cold and was hoarse and so to bed.

Note 1. Major-General Edward Massey (or Massie), son of John Massie, was captain of one of the foot companies of the Irish Expedition, and had Oliver Cromwell as his ensign (see Peacock's "Army Lists in 1642", p. 65). He was Governor of Gloucester in its obstinate defence against the royal forces, 1643; dismissed by the self- denying ordinance when he entered Charles II's service. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, September 3rd, 1651, but escaped abroad.

Note 2. This is a strange use of the word Tory, and an early one also. The word originally meant bogtrotters or wild Irish, and as Penn was Governor of Kildare these may have been some of his Irish followers. The term was not used politically until about 1679.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 December 1661. 06 Dec 1661. Lay long in bed, and then to Westminster Hall and there walked, and then with Mr. Spicer, Hawly, Washington, and little Mr. Ashwell (my old friends at the Exchequer) to the Dog, and gave them two or three quarts of wine, and so away to White Hall, where, at Sir G. Carteret's (51), Sir Williams both and I dined very pleasantly; and after dinner, by appointment, came the Governors of the East India Company, to sign and seal the contract between us1 (in the King's (31) name) and them.

And that done, we all went to the King's (31) closet, and there spoke with the King (31) and the Duke of York (28), who promise to be very careful of the India trade to the utmost.

So back to Sir G. Carteret's (51) and ended our business, and so away homewards, but Sir W. Batten (60) offering to go to the 3 Tuns at Charing Cross, where the pretty maid the daughter of the house is; I was saying that, that tickled Sir W. Pen (40), he seemed to take these words very captiously and angrily, which I saw, and seemed indifferent to go home in his coach with them, and so took leave to go to the Council Chamber to speak with my Lord Privy Seal, which I did, but they did stay for me, which I was pleased at, but no words passed between him and me in all our way home. So home and to bed.

Note 1. Charles II's charter to the Company, confirming and extending the former charter, is dated April 3rd, 1661. Bombay, just acquired as part of Queen Katherine's dowry, was made over to the Company by Letters Patent dated March 27th, 1669.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 December 1661. 07 Dec 1661. This morning comes Captain Ferrers and the German, Emanuel Luffe, who goes as one of my Lord's footmen, though he deserves a much better preferment, to take their leave of me, and here I got the German to play upon my Theorbo, which he did both below and in my wife's chamber, who was in bed. He plays bravely. I find by him that my lute is a most excellent lute. I did give them a mince pie and a collar of brawn and some wine for their breakfast, and were very merry, and sent for Mr. Adamson's neighbour to drink Mr. Shepley's health.

At last we all parted, but within a quarter of an hour after they were gone, and my wife and I were talking about buying of a fine scallop which is brought her this morning by a woman to be sold, which is to cost her 45s., in comes the German back again, all in a goare of blood, which I wondered at, and tells me that he is afeard that the Captain is killed by the watermen at Towre Stayres; so I presently went thither, and found that upon some rude pressing of the watermen to ply the Captain, he struck one of them with his cane, which they would not take, but struck him again, and then the German drew his sword and ran at one of them, but they were both soundly beaten1. The Captain is, however, got to the boy that carries him and the pages to the Downs, and I went into the alehouse at the Stayres and got them to deliver the Captain's feathers, which one from the Captain was come to demand, and went home again, and there found my wife dressing of the German's head, and so did [give] him a cravett for his neck, and a crown in his purse, and sent him away again.

Then came Mr. Moore, and he and I to Westminster and to Worcester House to see Mr. Montagu before he goes away (this night), but could not see him, nor do I think he has a mind to see us for fear of our demanding of money of him for anything. So back to Whitehall, and eat a bit of meat at Wilkinson's, and then to the Privy Seal, and sealed there the first time this month; and, among other things that passed, there was a patent for Roger Palmer (Madam Palmer's husband) to be Earl of Castlemaine and Baron of Limbricke in Ireland; but the honour is tied up to the males got of the body of this wife, the Lady Barbary: the reason whereof every body knows. That done, by water to the office, when I found Sir W. Pen (40) had been alone all the night and was just rose, and so I to him, and with him I found Captain Holmes, who had wrote his case, and gives me a copy, as he hath many among his friends, and presented the same to the King (31) and Council. Which I shall make use of in my attempt of writing something concerning the business of striking sail, which I am now about. But he do cry out against Sir John Minnes (62), as the veriest knave and rogue and coward in the world, which I was glad to hear, because he has given out bad words concerning my Lord, though I am sorry it is so. Here Captain Cox then came in, and he and I staid a good while and so good night. Home and wrote by the post to my father, and so to bed.

Note 1. See a similar outrage, committed by Captain Ferrers, September 12th, 1662. Swords were usually worn by footmen. See May 4th, 1662, host. B.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 December 1661. 25 Dec 1661. In the morning to church, where at the door of our pew I was fain to stay, because that the sexton had not opened the door. A good sermon of Mr. Mills. Dined at home all alone, and taking occasion from some fault in the meat to complain of my maid's sluttery, my wife and I fell out, and I up to my chamber in a discontent.

After dinner my wife comes up to me and all friends again, and she and I to walk upon the leads, and there Sir W. Pen (40) called us, and we went to his house and supped with him, but before supper Captain Cock came to us half drunk, and began to talk, but Sir W. Pen (40) knowing his humour and that there was no end of his talking, drinks four great glasses of wine to him, one after another, healths to the King (31), and by that means made him drunk, and so he went away, and so we sat down to supper, and were merry, and so after supper home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 December 1661. 27 Dec 1661. In the morning to my Bookseller's to bespeak a Stephens's Thesaurus, for which I offer £4, to give to Paul's School; and from thence to Paul's Church; and there I heard Dr. Gunning (47) preach a good sermon upon the day (being St. John's day), and did hear him tell a story, which he did persuade us to believe to be true, that St. John and the Virgin Mary did appear to Gregory, a Bishopp, at his prayer to be confirmed in the faith, which I did wonder to hear from him.

Here I met with Mr. Crumlum (and told him of my endeavour to get Stephens's Thesaurus for the school), and so home, and after dinner comes Mr. Faulconberge to see me, and at his desire I sent over for his kinsman Mr. Knightly, the merchant, and so he came over and sat and drank with us, and at his request I went over with him, and there I sat till the evening, and till both Mr. Knightly and Mr. Faulconberge (for whom I sent my boy to get a coach to carry him to Westminster) were both drunk, and so home, but better wine I never drank in all my life. So home, and finding my wife gone to Sir W. Pen's (40), I went thither, and there I sat and played at cards and supped, and so home and to bed.

Before 1684. Circle of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Peter Gunning Bishop 1614-1684.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 December 1661. 30 Dec 1661. At the office about this estimate and so with my wife and Sir W. Pen (40) to see our pictures, which do not much displease us, and so back again, and I staid at the Mitre, whither I had invited all my old acquaintance of the Exchequer to a good chine of beef, which with three barrels of oysters and three pullets, and plenty of wine and mirth, was our dinner, and there was about twelve of us, among others Mr. Bowyer, the old man, and Mr. Faulconberge, Shadwell, Taylor, Spicer, Woodruffe (who by reason of some friend that dined with him came to us after dinner), Servington, &c., and here I made them a foolish promise to give them one this day twelvemonth, and so for ever while I live, but I do not intend it.

Mere I staid as long as I could keep them, and so home to Sir W. Pen (40), who with his children and my wife has been at a play to-day and saw "D'Ambois", which I never saw. Here we staid late at supper and playing at cards, and so home and

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 January 1662. 20 Jan 1662. This morning Sir Win. Batten (61) and Pen (40) and I did begin the examining the Treasurer's accounts, the first time ever he had passed in the office, which is very long, and we were all at it till noon, and then to dinner, he providing a fine dinner for us, and we eat it at Sir W. Batten's (61), where we were very merry, there being at table the Treasurer and we three, Mr. Wayth, Ferrer, Smith, Turner, and Mr. Morrice, the wine cooper, who this day did divide the two butts, which we four did send for, of sherry from Cales, and mine was put into a hogshead, and the vessel filled up with four gallons of Malaga wine, but what it will stand us in I know not: but it is the first great quantity of wine that I ever bought.

And after dinner to the office all the afternoon till late at night, and then home, where my aunt and uncle Wight and Mrs. Anne Wight came to play at cards (at gleek which she taught me and my wife last week) and so to supper, and then to cards and so good night. Then I to my practice of musique and then at 12 o'clock to bed. This day the workmen began to make me a sellar door out of the back yard, which will much please me.

1662 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 January 1662. 22 Jan 1662. After musique-practice, to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, in my way calling at Mr. George Montagu's (39), to condole him the loss of his son, who was a fine gentleman, and it is no doubt a great discomfort to our two young gentlemen, his companions in France. After this discourse he told me, among other news, the great jealousys that are now in the Parliament House. The Lord Chancellor (52), it seems, taking occasion from this late plot to raise fears in the people, did project the raising of an army forthwith, besides the constant militia, thinking to make the Duke of York (28) General thereof. But the House did, in very open terms, say, they were grown too wise to be fooled again into another army; and said they had found how that man that hath the command of an army is not beholden to any body to make him King.

There are factions (private ones at Court) about Madam Palmer; but what it is about I know not. But it is something about the King's favour to her now that the Queen (23) is coming. He told me, too, what sport the King (31) and Court do make at Mr. Edward Montagu's (27) leaving his things behind him.

But the Chancellor (taking it a little more seriously) did openly say to my Lord Chamberlain (60), that had it been such a gallant as my Lord Mandeville (27) his son, it might have; been taken as a frolique; but for him that would be thought a grave coxcomb, it was very strange..

Thence to the Hall, where I heard the House had ordered all the King's (61) murderers, that remain, to be executed, but Fleetwood (44) and Downes (53).

So to the Wardrobe and there dined, meeting my wife there, who went after dinner with my Lady to see Mr. George Montagu's (39) lady, and I to have a meeting by appointment with Tho. Trice and Dr. Williams in order to a treating about the difference between us, but I find there is no hopes of ending it but by law, and so after a pint or two of wine we parted.

So to the Wardrobe for my wife again, and so home, and after writing and doing some things to bed.

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671. In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. Around 1654. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Major General Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 January 1662. 26 Jan 1662. Lord's Day. To church in the morning, and then home to dinner alone with my wife, and so both to church in the afternoon and home again, and so to read and talk with my wife, and to supper and to bed. It having been a very fine clear frosty day-God send us more of them!—for the warm weather all this winter makes us fear a sick summer. But thanks be to God, since my leaving drinking of wine, I do find myself much better and do mind my business better, and do spend less money, and less time lost in idle company.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 February 1662. 03 Feb 1662. After musique practice I went to the office, and there with the two Sir Williams all the morning about business, and at noon I dined with Sir W. Batten (61) with many friends more, it being his wedding-day, and among other froliques, it being their third year, they had three pyes, whereof the middlemost was made of an ovall form, in an ovall hole within the other two, which made much mirth, and was called the middle piece; and above all the rest, we had great striving to steal a spooneful out of it; and I remember Mrs. Mills, the minister's wife, did steal one for me and did give it me; and to end all, Mrs. Shippman did fill the pye full of white wine, it holding at least a pint and a half, and did drink it off for a health to Sir William and my Lady, it being the greatest draft that ever I did see a woman drink in my life.

Before we had dined came Sir G. Carteret (52), and we went all three to the office and did business there till night, and then to Sir W. Batten (61) again, and I went along with my lady and the rest of the gentlewomen to Major Holmes's, and there we had a fine supper, among others, excellent lobsters, which I never eat at this time of the year before. The Major hath good lodgings at the Trinity House. Here we staid, and at last home, and, being in my chamber, we do hear great noise of mirth at Sir William Batten's (61), tearing the ribbands from my Lady and him1. So I to bed.

Note 1. As if they were a newly-married couple.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 February 1662. 05 Feb 1662. Early at the office. Sir G. Carteret (52), the two Sir Williams and myself all alone reading of the Duke's institutions for the settlement of our office, whereof we read as much as concerns our own duties, and left the other officers for another time. I did move several things for my purpose, and did ease my mind.

At noon Sir W. Pen (40) dined with me, and after dinner he and I and my wife to the Theatre, and went in, but being very early we went out again to the next door, and drank some Rhenish wine and sugar, and so to the House again, and there saw "Rule a wife and have a wife" very well done. And here also I did look long upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), who, notwithstanding her late sickness, continues a great beauty.

Home and supped with Sir W. Pen (40) and played at cards with him, and so home and to bed, putting some cataplasm to my.... which begins to swell again.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1662. 17 Feb 1662. This morning, both Sir Williams, myself, and Captain Cocke (45) and Captain Tinker of the Convertine, which we are going to look upon (being intended to go with these ships fitting for the East Indys), down to Deptford; and thence, after being on shipboard, to Woolwich, and there eat something.

The Sir Williams being unwilling to eat flesh1, Captain Cocke (45) and I had a breast of veal roasted. And here I drank wine upon necessity, being ill for want of it, and I find reason to fear that by my too sudden leaving off wine, I do contract many evils upon myself.

Going and coming we played at gleeke, and I won 9s. 6d. clear, the most that ever I won in my life. I pray God it may not tempt me to play again. Being come home again we went to the Dolphin, where Mr. Alcock and my Lady and Mrs. Martha Batten came to us, and after them many others (as it always is where Sir W. Batten (61) goes), and there we had some pullets to supper. I eat though I was not very well, and after that left them, and so home and to bed.

Note 1. In Lent, of which the observance, intermitted for nineteen years, was now reviving. We have seen that Pepys, as yet, had not cast off all show of Puritanism. "In this month the Fishmongers' Company petitioned the King (31) that Lent might be kept, because they had provided abundance of fish for this season, and their prayer was granted".—Rugge. B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 March 1662. 22 Mar 1662. At the office all the morning.

At noon Sir Williams both and I by water down to the Lewes [Ship], Captain Dekins, his ship, a merchantman, where we met the owners, Sir John Lewes and Alderman Lewes, and several other great merchants; among others one Jefferys, a merry man that is a fumbler, and he and I called brothers, and he made all the mirth in the company. We had a very fine dinner, and all our wives' healths, with seven or nine guns apiece; and exceeding merry we were, and so home by barge again, and I vexed to find Griffin leave the office door open, and had a design to have carried away the screw or the carpet in revenge to him, but at last I would not, but sent for him and chid him, and so to supper and to bed, having drank a great deal of wine.

Maluesye Wine

Maluesye Wine. Also Malvesy. Chaucer "maluesye". Ultimately from Malvasia, the It. name of a town in the Morea, Gk. Monemvasia, where the wine was orig. produced. Most ampelographers believe that the Malvasia family of grapes are of ancient origin, most likely originating in Crete, Greece.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. George, Duke of Clarence (28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother (35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen (41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke (28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. See Execution of George Duke of Clarence.

New Chronicles of England and France by Robert Fabyan 1478. THis yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the duke of Clarence (28) and .... 2brother to the kynge, thanne beyng prysoner in ye Tower, was secretely put to deth & drowned in a barell of maluesye within the sayd Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it myght haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thynge whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to y begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and desyre of veyngiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London. Duke Clarence 3C 1461 extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. 30 Jul 1557. The xxx day of July master Dave Gyttons, master Meynard, and master Draper, and master Smyth, master Coldwelle, and master Asse and Gybes, and master Packyngtun, and monser the Machyn de Henry [Note. The writer of this diary.], and mony mo, ded ett alff a busshell of owsturs [oysters] in Anckur lane at master Smyth and master Gytton's seller a-pone hoghedes, and candyll lyght, and onyons and red alle and clarett alle, and muskadylle and malmesey alle, fre cope [Note. Possibly 'free cups'], at viij in the mornyng.

History of England by Polydore Vergil 1478. Book 24. Chapter 26. King Edward, who in the meane time desyryd to know of his ambassadors proceedinges with the duke, and therfor thowght the tyme very long till he might heare tlierof, when he understoode that they had bene so nighe the very poynt of conveyghing erle Henry prysoner to him into England as nothing could be more nere and escape, was very sory that the matter had not succedyd. But hearing that therle showed be safely kept his mynde was easyd, and from thencefoorth thowght best to have more regard how to encrease his owne welth, which was very sclender, than of any thing els; and so for a while gave himself to seke busyly his owne profyt; whereby when he had fyllyd his coffers with gold and silver suffycyently, remembring then what appertanyd to honor, he shewyd himself furthwith a lyberall, bowntyfull, and profytable prince to the commonwelth: but eaven loe sudaynly he fell into a fact most horryble, commandyng rashly and uppon the suddane his brother George duke of Clarence to be apprehendyd and put to death, who was drowned (as they say) in a butte of malmesey; the woorst example that ever man cowld committed remember. And as touching the cause of his death, thowgh I Tower, have enqueryd of many, who wer not of leest authorytie emongest The maner the kinges cownsaylle at that time, yeat have I no certaintie therof to leave in memory. A report was eaven then spred rences emongest the common people, that the king was afeard, by reason of a soothsayers prophecy, and so became incensyd agaynst his broother George, which prophecy was, that, after king Edward, showld raigne soome one the first letter of whose name should be G. And because the devels ar wont in that sort to envegle the mynds of them who conceave pleasures in suche illusions, with ther crafty conceytes and subtylties, menn sayd afterwardes that the same prophecy tooke effect, whan after Edward the duke of Glocester usurpyd the kingdom. Others lay an other cause of his death, which ys in this sort. That abowt the same time thold hatryd renewing betwixt the two brothers, then the which nothing ys more vehement, the duke, being a wydower, requyryd, by meane of his sister Margaret, to have in maryage Mary, thonely dowghter of Charles duke of Burgoigne, and that king Edward, envying his brothers prosperytie, hinderyd that afFynytie. Theruppon pryvy grudge further growing, a certane servant of the dukes was the very same time also convict of sorcery and executyd, against which dede whan the duke could not hold him content, but vehemently speake and cry owt, the king muche movyd with this exclamation commyttyd the duke to warde, and not long after, being condemnyd, by right or wrong, put him to death. But yt ys very lykly that king Edward right soone repentyd that dede; for (as men say) whan so ever any sewyd for saving a mans lyfe, he was woont to cry owt in a rage, " O infortunate broother, for ■whose lyfe no man in this world wold once make request; affirming in that manyfestly, that he was cast away by envy of the nobylytie. The duke left behind him two chyldren, Margaret, who after maryed to Rycherd Pole, and Edward, whom the king made erle of Warwicke. These thinges were doone that yere which was of mans salvation M.cccc.lxxxtie and the xixten yere of king Edwardes raigne. And thus being delyveryd from all care of warres and cyvill seditions, which before that time might have happenyd, the king began to marke more severely thofFences of noblemen, and to be more covetous in gathering of money, by reason wherof many were persw^adyd in ther opynyons that he wold from thencefurth proove an hard and severe prince; for after the death of his brother, as he perceavyd that every man fearyd him, so now he fearyd nobody. But that matter was preventyd by brevytie of his lyfe. And thus may we se that as well prosperytie ys soometyme cause of evell unto them who enjoy yt, as adversytie profytable to them who ar patient.

Richard III Act 1 Scene 4 Lines 86 166. [Enter two Murderers].

BRAKENBURY. What wouldst thou, fellow? And how cam’st thou hither?

SECOND MURDERER I would speak with Clarence, and I came hither on my legs.

BRAKENBURY What, so brief?

FIRST MURDERER ’Tis better, sir, than to be tedious. Let him see our commission, and talk no more.

[Brakenbury reads the commission.]

BRAKENBURY. I am in this commanded to deliver The noble Duke of Clarence to your hands. I will not reason what is meant hereby Because I will be guiltless from the meaning. There lies the Duke asleep, and there the keys. He hands them keys. I’ll to the King and signify to him That thus I have resigned to you my charge.

FIRST MURDERER You may, sir. ’Tis a point of wisdom. Fare you well.

[Brakenbury and the Keeper exit].

SECOND MURDERER What, shall I stab him as he sleeps?

FIRST MURDERER No. He’ll say ’twas done cowardly, when he wakes.

SECOND MURDERER Why, he shall never wake until the great Judgment Day.

FIRST MURDERER Why, then he’ll say we stabbed him sleeping.

SECOND MURDERER The urging of that word "judgment" hath bred a kind of remorse in me.

FIRST MURDERER What, art thou afraid?

SECOND MURDERER Not to kill him, having a warrant, but to be damned for killing him, from the which no warrant can defend me.

FIRST MURDERER I thought thou hadst been resolute.

SECOND MURDERER So I am—to let him live.

FIRST MURDERER I’ll back to the Duke of Gloucester and tell him so.

SECOND MURDERER Nay, I prithee stay a little. I hope this passionate humor of mine will change. It was wont to hold me but while one tells twenty.

FIRST MURDERER How dost thou feel thyself now?

SECOND MURDERER Faith, some certain dregs of conscience are yet within me.

FIRST MURDERER Remember our reward when the deed’s done.

SECOND MURDERER Zounds, he dies! I had forgot the reward.

FIRST MURDERER Where’s thy conscience now?

SECOND MURDERER O, in the Duke of Gloucester’s purse.

FIRST MURDERER When he opens his purse to give us our reward, thy conscience flies out.

SECOND MURDERER ’Tis no matter. Let it go. There’s few or none will entertain it.

FIRST MURDERER What if it come to thee again?

SECOND MURDERER I’ll not meddle with it. It makes a man a coward: a man cannot steal but it accuseth him; a man cannot swear but it checks him; a man cannot lie with his neighbor’s wife but it detects him. ’Tis a blushing, shamefaced spirit that mutinies in a man’s bosom. It fills a man full of obstacles. It made me once restore a purse of gold that by chance I found. It beggars any man that keeps it. It is turned out of towns and cities for a dangerous thing, and every man that means to live well endeavors to trust to himself and live without it.

FIRST MURDERER Zounds, ’tis even now at my elbow, persuading me not to kill the Duke.

SECOND MURDERER Take the devil in thy mind, and believe him not. He would insinuate with thee but to make thee sigh.

FIRST MURDERER I am strong-framed. He cannot prevail with me.

SECOND MURDERER Spoke like a tall man that respects thy reputation. Come, shall we fall to work?

FIRST MURDERER Take him on the costard with the hilts of thy sword, and then throw him into the malmsey butt in the next room.

SECOND MURDERER O, excellent device—and make a sop of him!

FIRST MURDERER Soft, he wakes.


FIRST MURDERER No, we’ll reason with him.

Richard III Act 1 Scene 4 Lines 167 to 297. [Clarence wakes].

CLARENCE. Where art thou, keeper? Give me a cup of wine.

SECOND MURDERER. You shall have wine enough, my lord, anon.

CLARENCE. In God’s name, what art thou?

FIRST MURDERER A man, as you are.

CLARENCE But not, as I am, royal.

FIRST MURDERER Nor you, as we are, loyal.

CLARENCE Thy voice is thunder, but thy looks are humble.

FIRST MURDERER My voice is now the King’s, my looks mine own.

CLARENCE How darkly and how deadly dost thou speak! Your eyes do menace me. Why look you pale? Who sent you hither? Wherefore do you come?


CLARENCE To murder me?

BOTH Ay, ay.

CLARENCE You scarcely have the hearts to tell me so And therefore cannot have the hearts to do it. Wherein, my friends, have I offended you? FIRST MURDERER Offended us you have not, but the King.

CLARENCE I shall be reconciled to him again.

SECOND MURDERER Never, my lord. Therefore prepare to die.

CLARENCE Are you drawn forth among a world of men To slay the innocent? What is my offense? Where is the evidence that doth accuse me? What lawful quest have given their verdict up Unto the frowning judge? Or who pronounced The bitter sentence of poor Clarence’ death Before I be convict by course of law? To threaten me with death is most unlawful. I charge you, as you hope to have redemption, By Christ’s dear blood shed for our grievous sins, That you depart, and lay no hands on me. The deed you undertake is damnable.

FIRST MURDERER What we will do, we do upon command.

SECOND MURDERER And he that hath commanded is our king.

CLARENCE Erroneous vassals, the great King of kings Hath in the table of His law commanded That thou shalt do no murder. Will you then Spurn at His edict and fulfill a man’s? Take heed, for He holds vengeance in His hand To hurl upon their heads that break His law.

SECOND MURDERER And that same vengeance doth He hurl on thee For false forswearing and for murder too. Thou didst receive the sacrament to fight In quarrel of the House of Lancaster.

FIRST MURDERER And, like a traitor to the name of God, Didst break that vow, and with thy treacherous blade Unrippedst the bowels of thy sovereign’s son.

SECOND MURDERER Whom thou wast sworn to cherish and defend.

FIRST MURDERER How canst thou urge God’s dreadful law to us When thou hast broke it in such dear degree?

CLARENCE Alas! For whose sake did I that ill deed? For Edward, for my brother, for his sake. He sends you not to murder me for this, For in that sin he is as deep as I. If God will be avengèd for the deed, O, know you yet He doth it publicly! Take not the quarrel from His powerful arm; He needs no indirect or lawless course To cut off those that have offended Him.

FIRST MURDERER Who made thee then a bloody minister When gallant-springing, brave Plantagenet, That princely novice, was struck dead by thee?

CLARENCE My brother’s love, the devil, and my rage.

FIRST MURDERER Thy brother’s love, our duty, and thy faults Provoke us hither now to slaughter thee.

CLARENCE If you do love my brother, hate not me. I am his brother, and I love him well. If you are hired for meed, go back again, And I will send you to my brother Gloucester, Who shall reward you better for my life Than Edward will for tidings of my death.

SECOND MURDERER You are deceived. Your brother Gloucester hates you.

CLARENCE O no, he loves me, and he holds me dear. Go you to him from me.

FIRST MURDERER Ay, so we will.

CLARENCE Tell him, when that our princely father York Blessed his three sons with his victorious arm, He little thought of this divided friendship. Bid Gloucester think of this, and he will weep.

FIRST MURDERER Ay, millstones, as he lessoned us to weep.

CLARENCE O, do not slander him, for he is kind.

FIRST MURDERER Right, as snow in harvest. Come, you deceive yourself. ’Tis he that sends us to destroy you here.

CLARENCE It cannot be, for he bewept my fortune, And hugged me in his arms, and swore with sobs That he would labor my delivery.

FIRST MURDERER Why, so he doth, when he delivers you From this Earth’s thralldom to the joys of heaven.

SECOND MURDERER Make peace with God, for you must die, my lord.

CLARENCE Have you that holy feeling in your souls To counsel me to make my peace with God, And are you yet to your own souls so blind That you will war with God by murd’ring me? O sirs, consider: they that set you on To do this deed will hate you for the deed.

SECOND MURDERER, to First Murderer What shall we do?

CLARENCE Relent, and save your souls. Which of you—if you were a prince’s son Being pent from liberty, as I am now—If two such murderers as yourselves came to you, Would not entreat for life? Ay, you would beg, Were you in my distress.

FIRST MURDERER Relent? No. ’Tis cowardly and womanish.

CLARENCE Not to relent is beastly, savage, devilish. To Second Murderer. My friend, I spy some pity in thy looks. O, if thine eye be not a flatterer, Come thou on my side and entreat for me. A begging prince what beggar pities not?

SECOND MURDERER Look behind you, my lord.

FIRST MURDERER Take that, and that. (Stabs him.) If all this will not do, I’ll drown you in the malmsey butt within. He exits with the body.

SECOND MURDERER A bloody deed, and desperately dispatched. How fain, like Pilate, would I wash my hands Of this most grievous murder.

[Enter First Murderer]

FIRST MURDERER How now? What mean’st thou that thou help’st me not? By heavens, the Duke shall know how slack you have been.

SECOND MURDERER I would he knew that I had saved his brother. Take thou the fee, and tell him what I say, For I repent me that the Duke is slain.

[He exits].

FIRST MURDERER So do not I. Go, coward as thou art. Well, I’ll go hide the body in some hole Till that the Duke give order for his burial. And when I have my meed, I will away, For this will out, and then I must not stay.

[He exits].