Biography of Empress Matilda 1102-1167

1100 Death of William Rufus Accession of Henry I

1100 Marriage of Henry I and Matilda

1120 Sinking of The White Ship

1121 Marriage of King Henry I and Adeliza of Louvain

1127 Oath of Allegiance to Empress Matilda

1135 Death of King Henry I

1141 First Battle of Lincoln

1152 Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1153 Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

1154 Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

1154 Death of King Stephen

1163 Baldwin III King Jerusalem Dies Almaric I King Jerusalem Succeeds

Death of William Rufus Accession of Henry I

On 02 Aug 1100 [her uncle] William "Rufus" II King England 1056-1100 (44) was killed whilst hunting, not known whether accidentally or otherwise, in the New Forest. His brother King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (32) succeeded I King England. The brothers Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan 1040-1118 (60) and Henry Beaumont 1st Earl Warwick 1050-1119 (50), and Roger Clare 1066-1131 (34) and Gilbert Clare 1066-1117 (34) were present.

Marriage of Henry I and Matilda

On 11 Nov 1100 [her father] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (32) and Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 (20) were married. He a son of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 (20) was crowned Queen Consort England at which time Edith was renamed Matilda.

On 07 Feb 1102 Empress Matilda was born to [her father] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (34) and Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 (22).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1109. 1109. In this year was the [her father] King Henry (41) at Christmas and at Easter in Normandy; and before Pentecost he came to this land, and held his court at Westminster. There were the conditions fully settled, and the oaths sworn, for giving his daughter (6) (137) to the emperor (27). (138)

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1110. 1110. This year before Lent the [her father] king (42) sent his daughter (7) with manifold treasures over sea, and gave her to the emperor (28).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1110. 1110. This year also died Earl Elias, who held Maine in fee-tail (140) of [her father] King Henry (42); and after his death the Earl of Anjou (21) succeeded to it, and held it against the [her father] king (42). This was a very calamitous year in this land, through the contributions which the [her father] king (42) received for his daughter's (7) portion, and through the badness of the weather, by which the fruits of the earth were very much marred, and the produce of the trees over all this land almost entirely perished. This year men began first to work at the new minster at Chertsey.

140. That is, the territory was not a "fee simple", but subject to "taillage" or taxation; and that particular species is probably here intended which is called in old French "en queuage", an expression not very different from that in the text above.

On 07 Jan 1114 Henry V Holy Roman Emperor 1081-1125 (32) and Empress Matilda (11) were married. She a daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Holy Roman Empress.

On 01 May 1118 [her mother] Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 (38) died at Westminster Palace. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1119. 1119. This year went [her brother] William (15), the son of King Henry (51) and Queen Matilda (16), into Normandy to his father, and there was given to him, and wedded to wife, the daughter (8) of the Earl of Anjou (30).

In 1119 [her brother] William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy 1103-1120 (15) and Matilda Anjou Abbess Fontevraud 1111-1154 (8) were married. He a son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

In Jun 1119 [her illegitimate half-brother] Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester 1099-1147 (20) and Mabel Fitzhamon Countess Gloucester were married at Lisieux, Calvados, Basse Normandie He a son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Gloucester.

Sinking of The White Ship

On 25 Nov 1120 the White Ship left Barfleur, Basse Normandie, with a party of young Normans. [her father] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (52) had left earlier on another ship. A mile out the White Ship foundered on a submerged rock. William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy 1103-1120 (17), his half-siblings Richard Fitzroy 1100-1120 (19) and Matilda Fitzroy Countess Perche -1120, William Bigod 1093-1120 (27), Lucia Mahaut Blois Countess Chester -1120, brothers Geoffrey Aigle -1120 and Engenulf Aigle -1120, half-brothers Richard Avranches 2nd Earl Chester 1094-1120 (26) and Ottiwel Avranches -1120, brothers Ivo Grandesmil -1120 and William Grandesmil -1120 and Geoffrey Ridel -1120 were all drowned.

In 1121 [her illegitimate half-brother] Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester 1099-1147 (22) was created 1st Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

Marriage of King Henry I and Adeliza of Louvain

On 24 Jan 1121, three months after the disaster that was the Sinking of The White Ship in which Henry's only legitimate son was drowned, with [her father] King Henry (53) needing an heir quickly, [her father] he and Adeliza_of_Louvain (18) were married at Windsor Castle. He a son of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She by marriage Queen Consort England. Despite fourteen years of marriage they didn't have any children. Following Henry's death she married William D'Aubigny 1st Earl Lincoln 1st Earl Arundel 1109-1176 (12) with whom she had seven children.

On 21 Jul 1122 [her illegitimate half-sister] Sybilla Fitzroy Queen Consort Scotland 1092-1122 (30) died.

In 1123 William Clito Normandy Count Flanders 1102-1128 (20) and [her sister-in-law] Sibylla Anjou Countess Essex and Flanders 1112-1165 (11) were married. He a grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087.

On 23 May 1125 Henry V Holy Roman Emperor 1081-1125 (43) died probably from cancer in Utrecht.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1126. 1126. All this year was the [her father] King Henry (58) in Normandy—all till after harvest. Then came he to this land, betwixt the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas. With him came the queen (46), and his daughter (23), whom he had formerly given to the Emperor Henry of Lorrain (44) to wife. And he brought with him the Earl Waleram (22), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (28). And the earl (22) he sent to Bridgenorth in captivity: and thence he sent him afterwards to Wallingford; and Hugh (28) to Windsor Castle, whom he ordered to be kept in strong bonds.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1126. 1126. In this year the [her father] king (58) had his brother Robert (75) taken from the Bishop Roger of Salisbury, and committed him to his son1 Robert, Earl of Glocester (27), and had him led to Bristol, and there put into the castle. That was all done through his daughter's (23) counsel, and through David, the king of the Scots (42), her uncle.

Note 1. Illegitimate.

1127 Oath of Allegiance to Empress Matilda

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1127. 1127. This year held the [her father] King Henry (59) his court at Christmas in Windsor. There was David the king of the Scots (43), and all the head men that were in England, learned and lewd. And there he engaged the archbishops, and bishops, and abbots, and earls, and all the thanes that were there, to swear England and Normandy after his day into the hands of his daughter Athelicia (24), who was formerly the wife of the Emperor of Saxony (45). Afterwards he sent her (24) to Normandy; and with her went her brother Robert, Earl of Glocester (28), and Brian, son of the Earl Alan Fergan (27); (154) and he let her wed the son (13) of the Earl of Anjou (38), whose name was Geoffry Martel (13). All the French and English, however, disapproved of this; but the [her father] king (59) did it for to have the alliance of the Earl of Anjou (38), and for to have help against his nephew William (24).

On 10 Jun 1128 [her husband] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (14) was knighted by King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (60) in preparation for his wedding to Henry's daughter Empress Matilda (26).

On 17 Jun 1128 [her husband] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (14) and Empress Matilda (26) were married. She a daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

After 1132 Thierry Metz Count Flanders 1099-1168 and [her sister-in-law] Sibylla Anjou Countess Essex and Flanders 1112-1165 were married. [her sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess Flanders.

On 05 Mar 1133 [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 was born to Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (19) and Empress Matilda (31) at Le Mans. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

On 01 Jun 1134 [her son] Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes 1134-1158 was born to Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (20) and Empress Matilda (32) at Rouen or Argentan. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

Death of King Henry I

On 01 Dec 1135 [her father] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (67) died. The succession fell between Henrys daughter Empress Matilda (33) and Henry's nephew Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (41), son of Adela Normandy Countess Blois 1067-1137 (68) daughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. The period from 1135 to 1153 during which the succession was fought over is known as The Anarchy.

On 22 Jul 1136 [her son] William Plantagenet 1136-1164 was born to Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (22) and Empress Matilda (34) at Argentan or Angers. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

Before 1138 Alan "Black" Penthièvre 1st Earl Richmond 1099-1146 and [her illegitimate niece] Bertha Canhiart I Duchess Brittany 1124-1155 were married. They were half second cousins once removed. She a granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle King Stephen 1140. 1140. And the earl stole out, and went after [her illegitimate half-brother] Robert, Earl of Glocester (41), and brought him thither with a large army. And they fought strenuously on Candlemas day against their lord, and took him; for his men forsook him and fled. And they led him to Bristol, and there put him into prison in close quarters. Then was all England stirred more than ere was, and all evil was in the land. Afterwards came the daughter of King Henry (72), who had been Empress of Germany (37), and now was Countess of Anjou. She came to London; but the people of London attempted to take her, and she fled, losing many of her followers. After this the Bishop of Winchester, Henry (42), the brother of King Stephen (46), spake with [her illegitimate half-brother] Earl Robert (41), and with the empress, and swore them oaths, "that he never more would hold with the king (46), his brother," and cursed all the men that held with him, and told them, that he would give them up Winchester; and he caused them to come thither. When they were therein, then came the king (46)'s queen with all her strength, and beset them, so that there was great hunger therein. When they could no longer hold out, then stole they out, and fled; but those without were aware, and followed them, and took Robert, Earl of Glocester, and led him to Rochester, and put him there into prison; but the empress (37) fled into a monastery. Then went the wise men between the king (46)'s friends and the earl's friends; and settled so that they should let the king (46) out of prison for the earl, and the earl for the king (46); and so they did. After this settled the king (46) and Earl Randolph at Stamford, and swore oaths, and plighted their troth, that neither should betray the other. But it availed nothing. For the king (46) afterwards took him at Northampton, through wicked counsel, and put him into prison; and soon after he let him out again, through worse counsel, on the condition that he swore by the crucifix, and found hostages, that he would give up all his castles. Some he gave up, and some gave he not up; and did then worse than he otherwise would. Then was England very much divided. Some held with the king (46), and some with the empress (37); for when the king (46) was in prison, the earls and the rich men supposed that he never more would come out: and they settled with the empress (37), and brought her into Oxford, and gave her the borough. When the king (46) was out, he heard of this, and took his force, and beset her in the tower. (165) And they let her down in the night from the tower by ropes. And she stole out, and fled, and went on foot to Wallingford. Afterwards she went over sea; and those of Normandy turned all from the king (46) to the Earl of Anjou (26); some willingly, and some against their will; for he beset them till they gave up their castles, and they had no help of the king (46). Then went Eustace, the king (46)'s son, to France, and took to wife the sister of the King of France (58). He thought to obtain Normandy thereby; but he sped little, and by good right; for he was an evil man. Wherever he was, he did more evil than good; he robbed the lands, and levied heavy guilds upon them. He brought his wife to England, and put her into the castle at… (166) Good woman she was; but she had little bliss with him; and Christ would not that he should long reign. He therefore soon died, and his mother also. And the Earl of Anjou died; and his son Henry took to the earldom. And the Queen of France parted from the king (46); and she came to the young Earl Henry; and he took her to wife, and all Poitou with her. Then went he with a large force into England, and won some castles; and the king (46) went against him with a much larger force. Nevertheless, fought they not; but the archbishop and the wise men went between them, and made this settlement: That the king (46) should be lord and king (46) while he lived, and after his day Henry should be king (46): that Henry should take him for a father; and he him for a son: that peace and union should be betwixt them, and in all England. This and the other provisions that they made, swore the king (46) and the earl to observe; and all the bishops, and the earls, and the rich men. Then was the earl received at Winchester, and at London, with great worship; and all did him homage, and swore to keep the peace. And there was soon so good a peace as never was there before. Then was the king (46) stronger than he ever was before. And the earl went over sea; and all people loved him; for he did good justice, and made peace.

165. The tower of the castle at Oxford, built by D'Oyley, which still remains.

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First Battle of Lincoln

On 02 Feb 1141 the army of Empress Matilda (38) commanded by [her illegitimate half-brother] Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester 1099-1147 (42) defeated the army of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (47). Matilda's army included Ranulf Gernon 4th Earl Chester 1099-1153 (42) and Madog ap Maredudd Mathrafal Prince Powys -1160. Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (47), Gilbert Gaunt 1st Earl Lincoln 1126-1156 (15), William "The Younger" Peverell 1080-1155 (61) and Ilbert Lacy 3rd Baron Pontefract -1141 were captured. William "Fat" Blois 1st Earl Albermarle aka Aumale 1st Earl York 1101-1179 (40) fought for Stephen, his cousin.

In 1142 [her illegitimate nephew] Richard Fitzrobert Bishop Bayeux -1142 died.

In 1144 [her husband] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (30) by conquest Duke Normandy. Empress Matilda (41) by marriage Duchess Normandy.

Around May 1144 Roger Fitzmiles 2nd Earl Hereford 1124-1155 (19) and Empress Matilda (42) were in Devizes.

In or before 1147 Ranulf Gernon 4th Earl Chester 1099-1153 (48) and [her illegitimate niece] Matilda Fitzrobert Countess Chester -1189 were married. They were half third cousins. She a granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. [her illegitimate niece] She by marriage Countess Chester.

On 31 Oct 1147 [her illegitimate half-brother] Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester 1099-1147 (48) died. His son William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester -1183 succeeded 2nd Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

In 1148 Eudes Rohan Viscount Porhoët and [her illegitimate niece] Bertha Canhiart I Duchess Brittany 1124-1155 (23) were married. She a granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

In 1148 Odo II Duke Brittany -1180 and [her illegitimate niece] Bertha Canhiart I Duchess Brittany 1124-1155 (23) were married. She a granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

On 17 Sep 1148 Conan "Fat" Canhiart III Duke Brittany 1096-1148 (52) died. He had disinherited his son Hoel on his deathbed for being illegitimate. His daughter [her illegitimate niece] Bertha Canhiart I Duchess Brittany 1124-1155 (23) succeeded I Duke Brittany. Odo II Duke Brittany -1180 by marriage Duke Brittany.

In 1150 [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (16) was created as Duke Normandy by Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (30).

On 07 Sep 1151 [her husband] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (38) died at Château du Loir. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral.

Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 18 May 1152 Whit Sunday [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (30) were married at Poitiers Cathedral. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. They were more closely related than Eleanor and her previous husband Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (32). The marriage would bring the Kingdom of England, and the Duchies of Normandy and Aquitaine under the control of [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19).

Around 05 Jun 1152 [her daughter-in-law] Eleanor of Aquitaine (30) visited Fontevraud Abbey where she met Abbess Matilda (41) (her husband's Henry's (19) aunt by marriage - Abbess Matilda (41) had married William Adelin (48) brother of his mother Empress Matilda (50) who had died in the White Ship Disaster).

Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

Before Jan 1153 [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 visited his mother Empress Matilda in Rouen to seek funds for his impending invasion of England.

Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

Around Mar 1154 [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (20) returned to Rouen and met with his mother Empress Matilda (52), and his brothers. Eleanor of Aquitaine (32) joined them to celebrate Easter with their first son William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 who met his father for the first time aged around eight months.

Death of King Stephen

On 25 Oct 1154 Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (60) died at Priory of St Martin Dover. His first cousin once removed [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) succeeded II King England.

In 1155 [her illegitimate niece] Bertha Canhiart I Duchess Brittany 1124-1155 (30) died. Her son Conan "The Young" Penthièvre IV Duke Brittany 1138-1171 (17) succeeded IV Duke Brittany.

On 06 Jan 1156 Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 was born to [her son] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (34) at Windsor Castle (probably) and named after her paternal grandmother Empress Matilda (53).

In 1157 [her former brother-in-law] Almaric I King Jerusalem 1136-1174 (21) and Agnes Courtenay Queen Jerusalem 1136-1184 (21) were married. She by marriage Queen Jerusalem.

On 26 Jul 1158 [her son] Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes 1134-1158 (24) died at Nantes.

Baldwin III King Jerusalem Dies Almaric I King Jerusalem Succeeds

On 10 Feb 1163 [her former brother-in-law] Baldwin III King Jerusalem 1130-1163 (33) died at Beirut. His brother Almaric I King Jerusalem 1136-1174 (27) succeeded I King Jerusalem.

In Apr 1164 [her illegitimate step-son] Hamelin Warenne 4th Earl Surrey 1129-1202 (35) and Isabella Warenne Countess Boulogne 4th Countess Surrey 1137-1203 (27) were married. [her illegitimate step-son] Hamelin Warenne 4th Earl Surrey 1129-1202 (35) by marriage 4th Earl Surrey 1C 1088.

1165 Letter IV. Empress Matilda 1102 1167 to Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119 1170. 1165. Letter IV. Empress Matilda (62) to Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (45).

To Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, Matilda the empress.

My lord pope sent to me, enjoining me, for the remission of my sins, to interfere to renew peace and concord between you and the [her son] king, my son (31), and to try to reconcile you to him. You, as you well know, have asked the same thing from me; wherefore, with the more good-will, for the honour of God and the Holy Church, I have begun and carefully treated of that affair. But it seems a very hard thing to the king, as well as to his barons and council, seeing he so loved and honoured you, and appointed you lord of his whole kingdom and of all his lands, and raised you to the highest honours in the land, believing he might trust you rather than any other; and especially so, because he declares that you have, as far as you could, roused his whole kingdom against him; nor was it your fault that you did not disinherit him by main force. Therefore I send you my faithful servant, Archdeacon Laurence, that by him I may know your will in these affairs, and what sort of disposition you entertain towards my son, and how you intend to conduct yourself, if it should happen that he fully grants my petition and prayer on your behalf. One thing I plainly tell you, that you cannot recover the king's favour, except by great humility and most evident moderation. However, what you intend to do in this matter signify to me by my messenger and your letters.

In 1165 [her former sister-in-law] Sibylla Anjou Countess Essex and Flanders 1112-1165 (53) died.

In 1167 [her former brother-in-law] Almaric I King Jerusalem 1136-1174 (31) and Maria Komnenos Queen Jerusalem 1154-1217 (13) were married. She by marriage Queen Jerusalem.

On 10 Sep 1167 Empress Matilda (65) died. She was buried under the high alter at Bec Abbey during a service performed by Rotrou Newburgh Archbishop Rouen -1183. Her tomb's epitaph reads 'Great by birth, greater by marriage, greatest in her offspring: here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry'.

After 1846 Empress Matilda was re-buried in Rouen Cathedral, Rouen.

[her illegitimate nephew] William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester -1183 and Hawise Beaumont Countess Gloucester were married. They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Gloucester.

Routrou "The Great" Chateaudun III Count Perche 1080-1144 and [her illegitimate half-sister] Matilda Fitzroy Countess Perche -1120 were married. She a daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. [her illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Countess Perche.

[her uncle] Alexander "Fierce" I King Scotland 1078-1124 and Sybilla Fitzroy Queen Consort Scotland 1092-1122 were married. She a daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.