History of Prehistoric South-West England

Prehistoric South-West England is in Prehistoric England.

Prehistoric South-West England is sometimes referred to as Wessex. Wessex describes the West Saxons who didn't arrive until after 500AD. Prehistoric South-West England includes Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire

Hambledon Hill Causewayed Enclosure, Prehistoric South-West England

Around 2850BC. Hambledon Hill Causewayed Enclosure is two causewayed enclosure linked by a bank and ditch running northwest–southeast. A third enclosure is now known to underlie later earthworks. In all, the area of activity covered more than 1 km2. Radiocarbon analysis gives a date of 2850 BC.

Hambledon Hill Iron Age Hill Fort, Prehistoric South-West England

Before 300BC. Hambledon Hill Iron Age Hill Fort is a huge 125,000m2 Iron Age Hill Fort in Dorset. It appears to have been abandoned by 300BC being superceded by nearby Hod Hill Iron Age Hill Fort.

Hod Hill Iron Age Hill Fort, Prehistoric South-West England

Around 500BC. Hod Hill Iron Age Hill Fort is an Iron Age Hill Fort in Dorset that was occupied by the Durotriges. Radiocarbon analysis suggests a date of 500 BC for the main rampart.

Before 300BC. Hambledon Hill Iron Age Hill Fort is a huge 125,000m2 Iron Age Hill Fort in Dorset. It appears to have been abandoned by 300BC being superceded by nearby Hod Hill Iron Age Hill Fort.

Knowlton Circles, Prehistoric South-West England

Around 2400BC. The Knowlton Circles aka Knowlton Henges aka Knowlton Rings are a complex of henges and earthworks in Knowlton. The henge enclosing Knowlton Church is the best known and best preserved, but there are at least two other henges in the vicinity as well as numerous round barrows.

Vale of Pewsey, Prehistoric South-West England

Marden Henge, Vale of Pewsey, Prehistoric South-West England

2500BC. Marden Henge is the largest Neolithic Henge enclosure discovered to date in Great Britain; its greatest width is 530m and area is 142,000 sq metres. Within the henge was the Hatfield Barrow which collapsed under excavation by William Cunnington 1754-1810 around 1805. It isn't known whether the Henge contained standing stones. Excavation has discovered a timber

The River Avon West rises around All Cannings in the Vale of Pewsey being formed from many streams from where it flows past Patney, around Marden Henge and Wilsford Henge, Rushall where it joins the River Avon East to form the Wiltshire River Avon.

Wilsford Henge, Vale of Pewsey, Prehistoric South-West England

Wilsford Henge is a Neolithic Henge on a gently sloping spur of land about 500m south of the River Avon West around 43 metres internal diameter. Excavation in 2015 discovered early Bronze Age crouched burial of an adolescent child which included sherds of beaker pottery and a collection of necklace beads.

The River Avon West rises around All Cannings in the Vale of Pewsey being formed from many streams from where it flows past Patney, around Marden Henge and Wilsford Henge, Rushall where it joins the River Avon East to form the Wiltshire River Avon.

Stanton Drew

Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

The Ridgeway Path is an ancient footpath that extends from Knap Hill, on the south of the Avebury Plateau, or The Sanctuary, to Ivinghoe Beacon - a distance of more than eighty miles following the scarp slopes. From Knap Hill the Ridgeway Path passes The Sanctuary, Prehistoric Avebury, Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Segsbury Camp, Scutchamer Knob, Goring, Swyncome, Chinnor, Princes Risborough, Boddington Hill Fort, Tring, Ivinghoe Beacon.

3600BC. Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow is Severn Cotswolds Tomb in Oxfordshire on the Ridgeway Path.

It was first constructed in wood around 3570BC then as a stone monument around 3430BC.

Dorset, Prehistoric South-West England

Dorset Cursus, Prehistoric South-West England

3300BC. The Dorset Cursus is a 10km neolithic cursus that extends across of Cranborne Chase from Dorset Cursus North-Western End Martin Down to the Thickthorn Down Long Barrows. The cursus consisted of a pair of parallel banks 1.5m high 80 m apart with external ditches 1.5m deep and 2m wide.

The Thickthorn Down Long Barrows are two Neolithic long barrows near the south-western end of the Dorset Cursus.

Dorset Cursus North-Western End Martin Down , Prehistoric South-West England

3300BC. The Dorset Cursus is a 10km neolithic cursus that extends across of Cranborne Chase from Dorset Cursus North-Western End Martin Down to the Thickthorn Down Long Barrows. The cursus consisted of a pair of parallel banks 1.5m high 80 m apart with external ditches 1.5m deep and 2m wide.

Thickthorn Down Long Barrows, Dorset Cursus, Prehistoric South-West England

3300BC. The Dorset Cursus is a 10km neolithic cursus that extends across of Cranborne Chase from Dorset Cursus North-Western End Martin Down to the Thickthorn Down Long Barrows. The cursus consisted of a pair of parallel banks 1.5m high 80 m apart with external ditches 1.5m deep and 2m wide.

The Thickthorn Down Long Barrows are two Neolithic long barrows near the south-western end of the Dorset Cursus.

Somerset, Prehistoric South-West England

Stoney Middleton Long Barrow, Somerset, Prehistoric South-West England

3500BC. Stoney Middleton Long Barrow is a Neolithic Long Barrow constructed around 3500BC ±500 years around 7.5km south of Bath on high unlevel ground above a bend in the River Wellow. It is a Severn Cotswolds Tomb type. The stone structure is about 30 metres in length, 3m high, and contains a 12.8 metres long gallery with a roof of overlapping stones with three pairs of side chambers and an end chamber. The tomb was excavated by Richard Colt Hoare 2nd Baronet Barn Elms 1758-1838 in 1816-1817.

Around 1783. Prince Hoare 1755-1834. Portrait of Richard Colt Hoare 2nd Baronet Barn Elms 1758-1838.

Hembury Causewayed Enclosure, Prehistoric South-West England

Hembury Causewayed Enclosure is a Causewayed Enclosure located in south-east Devon. It was excavated by Dorothy Liddell Archaeologist 1890-1938 between 1930 and 1935.

Heritage Gateway.

Liddell's excavations, 1930-35: Neolithic occupation is represented by an east to west causewayed ditch across the centre of the site; south of this was an "extensive habitation site" with numerous cooking pits (which produced a radiocarbon date of circa 3240 BC). A Neolithic ditch underlay the Iron Age defensive works by the ne entrance, and a dwelling hut (hut circle) was excavated by the west entrance. Finds included pottery (similar to Windmill Hill Pottery) both "local" and "imported", numerous flints and charred grain.

Hembury Ware pottery is generally characterised by round bottomed bowls with lug handles. It is named after its type site Hembury Causewayed Enclosure.

Stonehenge

Prehistoric Avebury

Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow.

The monument includes a Neolithic long barrow, 650m WSW of Shepherds' Shore. It is situated on a false crest overlooking a slight valley to the south and west. The barrow is aligned ENE-WSW, is oval in shape and lies about 500m south of the Wansdyke. The barrow mound has been reduced by cultivation over the years but survives as a visible earthwork measuring 35m long and 16m wide. It stands up to 0.2m high. Originally, it stood at least 1m high and is known from partial excavation in the early 1800s to have contained both inhumation and cremation burials. Unusually, it appears that the barrow mound was constructed without flanking quarry ditches. Chalk and turf was gathered from nearby fields to construct the mound and use was made of the natural contours of the slope to enhance its profile.< a href="https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1014030?section=official-list-entry">Historic England.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

Avebury Henge, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury Henge is, arguably, the largest prehistoric monument in Britain and Europe. The henge has a diameter of around 350m and a circumference of 1 kilometre. Its ditch was originally 10m or more deep, 4m wide at its bottom, and its bank around the same in height. When originally cut the bank and ditch may have been bright white chalk. Even today after four and a half thousand years of erosion it remains steep. The ditch inside the bank which suggest it was keep something in rather than out. It isn't clear whether the bank and ditch were built before, at the same time or after the stone circles. There are three stone circles. The Outer Circle forms the perimeter inside the ditch, and two, North and South, inside the larger one. In addition there are stones that appear to complete the South Avenue to the centre of the South Circle - these stones are the largest at around 40 tons.

Avebury has suffered much damage over time by the destruction of the stones, by the development of Avebury village inside the henge and by the laying of a major road through the henge.

Prehistoric Avebury describes a number of Prehistoric monuments including the largest causewayed enclosure in Britain, Windmill Hill, the largest stone circle in Britain, Avebury Henge, the two largest prehistoric mounds in Europe Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound, the longest long barrows, West and East and the West Kennet Avenue. Avebury was clearly an important area in Prehistory. The Ridgeway Path passes near Avebury as do the the headwaters of the River Kennet. Stonehenge, built around the same time as the Avebury Henge, is seventeen miles away, more or less, almost exactly south.

3300BC. Windmill Hill is a causewayed enclosure around one mile north-west of the Avebury Henge. It was first occupied around 3800BC - the evidence being the presence of Hembury Ware.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Monuments means around 2400BC when some of the largest and most complex prehistoric monuments are constructed: Stonehenge Phase 3 II Sarsen Circle and Horseshoe when the great sarsen circle with lintels was constructed and the horseshoe of even larger sarsen trilithons, Avebury Henge and Silbury Hill. Archaeologists are undecided as to whether this activity is a continuation of the Neolithic, or represents a new culture. It appears to coincide with the development of metal working in copper, gold and bronze.

West Kennet Avenue is an Avenue that connects The Sanctuary to Avebury Henge; a distance of 2.5km formed from 100 pairs of stones formed from pairs of diamond shaped stones and a rectangular shaped stones. Some of the stones had Beaker Burials beneath dated to around 2200BC.

The Beckhampton Avenue is an Avenue described by William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 as connecting from Avebury Henge to the Long Stones. At his time only thirty stones remained. Since then all have gone. Not clear whether it really existed.

Avebury Stone Circles, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury Outer Circle, Avebury Stone Circles, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury Outer Circle is a stone circle that follows the ditch the stone being around 5m from its edge. The diamter is around 330m. Some stones are missing; it is believed originally there were ninety-eight some of which exceeded forty tons. The stones vary in height from 3.6m to 4.2m with the taller ones being near entrances.

Avebury Henge is, arguably, the largest prehistoric monument in Britain and Europe. The henge has a diameter of around 350m and a circumference of 1 kilometre. Its ditch was originally 10m or more deep, 4m wide at its bottom, and its bank around the same in height. When originally cut the bank and ditch may have been bright white chalk. Even today after four and a half thousand years of erosion it remains steep. The ditch inside the bank which suggest it was keep something in rather than out. It isn't clear whether the bank and ditch were built before, at the same time or after the stone circles. There are three stone circles. The Outer Circle forms the perimeter inside the ditch, and two, North and South, inside the larger one. In addition there are stones that appear to complete the South Avenue to the centre of the South Circle - these stones are the largest at around 40 tons.

Avebury has suffered much damage over time by the destruction of the stones, by the development of Avebury village inside the henge and by the laying of a major road through the henge.

Avebury North Circle, Avebury Stone Circles, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury North Circle is 98m diameter stone circle. Only four of its stones remain.

Avebury North Circle Cove, Avebury Stone Circles, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury North Circle Cove is at the centre of the Avebury North Circle is a cove originally formed from three enormous sarsen stones set in a 'C' shape - only two remain.

Avebury South Circle, Avebury Stone Circles, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury South Circle is a 108m diamerer stone circle. Little of it remains. It is believed a single monolith 5.5m tall stood at the centre of the Avebury South Circle.

Avebury Late Neolithic Early Broze Age Mounds, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Avebury Late Neolithic Early Broze Age Mounds are two Prehistoric Mounds: Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound. There is some debate as to whether Marlborough Mound is prehistoric.

Silbury Hill, Avebury Late Neolithic Early Broze Age Mounds, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Silbury Hill. Historic England 1008445:

Silbury Hill is located on a slight natural spur on the western side of the Kennet valley, south of the village of Avebury. The monument has a flat-topped conical mound surrounded by a quarry ditch and is clearly visible from much of the surrounding countryside. The mound, which is 39.3m high and has a diameter of 167.6m, was constructed in a series of steps, creating a profile resembling a stepped conical pyramid. Stone and wooden fences were used to control the placement of building material and to prevent the monument's sides from slipping. The mound is surrounded by a number of inter-connected quarry ditches which provided the majority of the materials needed to construct the mound. These quarry ditches are visible as earthworks, although they have been partially infilled as a result of ploughing over the years and would originally have been much deeper. A linear section of this quarry runs west from the monument and breaks the otherwise evenly spread layout of the ditch. The ditches have maximum dimensions of 355m east to west by c.240m north to south and now have a maximum depth of 1.3m. It has been suggested that the ditches were carefully laid out around the monument to form an image of the Neolithic `mother goddess' deity. The name `Silbury Hill' was in use in 1663, as was the alternative of Selbury, a direct derivation of the Selburi hille of c.1540. Excluded from the scheduling is the fence surrounding the mound and all signs around the monument's base but the ground beneath these features remains included in the scheduling.

Prehistoric Avebury describes a number of Prehistoric monuments including the largest causewayed enclosure in Britain, Windmill Hill, the largest stone circle in Britain, Avebury Henge, the two largest prehistoric mounds in Europe Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound, the longest long barrows, West and East and the West Kennet Avenue. Avebury was clearly an important area in Prehistory. The Ridgeway Path passes near Avebury as do the the headwaters of the River Kennet. Stonehenge, built around the same time as the Avebury Henge, is seventeen miles away, more or less, almost exactly south.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Monuments means around 2400BC when some of the largest and most complex prehistoric monuments are constructed: Stonehenge Phase 3 II Sarsen Circle and Horseshoe when the great sarsen circle with lintels was constructed and the horseshoe of even larger sarsen trilithons, Avebury Henge and Silbury Hill. Archaeologists are undecided as to whether this activity is a continuation of the Neolithic, or represents a new culture. It appears to coincide with the development of metal working in copper, gold and bronze.

2400BC. Silbury Hill is a Prehistoric Mound - the largest in Europe. Around 40m high and 167 meters wide at its base. The summit is flat; 30m wide. No-one knows why it was built. It is at the headwaters of the River Kennet with views west downriver to Marlborough where there is, possibly, another Prehistoric Mound, half the height, next to the River Kennet; the Marlborough Mound. Silbury Hill was constructed around 2400BC. Its construction is complex being a gravel core with kerbs on which alternate layers of chalk rubble and earth. A second phase involved the addition of furthe chalk.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 June 1668. 15 Jun 1668. Monday. Up, and with Mr. Butts to look into the baths, and find the King and Queen's full of a mixed sort, of good and bad, and the Cross only almost for the gentry.

So home and did the like with my wife, and did pay my guides, two women, 5s.; one man, 2s. 6d.; poor, 6d.; woman to lay my foot-cloth, 1s.

So to our inne, and there eat and paid reckoning, £1 8s. 6d.; servants, 3s.; poor, 1s.; lent the coach man, 10s. Before I took coach, I went to make a boy dive in the King's bath, 1s. I paid also for my coach and a horse to Bristol, £1 1s. 6d. Took coach, and away, without any of the company of the other stage-coaches, that go out of this town to-day; and rode all day with some trouble, for fear of being out of our way, over the Downes, where the life of the shepherds is, in fair weather only, pretty. In the afternoon come to Abebury, where, seeing great stones like those of Stonage standing up, I stopped, and took a countryman of that town, and he carried me and shewed me a place trenched in, like Old Sarum almost, with great stones pitched in it, some bigger than those at Stonage in figure, to my great admiration: and he told me that most people of learning, coming by, do come and view them, and that the King (38) did so: and that the Mount cast hard by is called Selbury, from one King Seall buried there, as tradition says. I did give this man 1s.

So took coach again, seeing one place with great high stones pitched round, which, I believe, was once some particular building, in some measure like that of Stonage. But, about a mile off, it was prodigious to see how full the Downes are of great stones; and all along the vallies, stones of considerable bigness, most of them growing certainly out of the ground so thick as to cover the ground, which makes me think the less of the wonder of Stonage, for hence they might undoubtedly supply themselves with stones, as well as those at Abebury. In my way did give to the poor and menders of the highway 3s. Before night, come to Marlborough, and lay at the Hart; a good house, and a pretty fair town for a street or two; and what is most singular is, their houses on one side having their pent-houses supported with pillars, which makes it a good walk. My wife pleased with all, this evening reading of "Mustapha" to me till supper, and then to supper, and had musique whose innocence pleased me, and I did give them 3s.

So to bed, and lay well all night, and long, so as all the five coaches that come this day from Bath, as well as we, were gone out of the town before six.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

On 11 Jul 1723 William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 (35) drew Silbury Hill and wrote that a skeleton and bridle had been discovered during tree planting on the summit. The feature noted 'B' or the Snakes Head or Hakpen is The Sanctuary.

Around 1776 Edward Drax of Bath hired Cornish or Mendips miners on behalf of Hugh Percy 2nd Duke Northumberland 1742-1817 (33) to sink a 40m shaft into the summit into Silbury Hill. His subsequent letters describing a 12m "perpendicular cavity" 15 cm wide were discovered in the British Library in Feb 2010. Fragments of wood, possibly found in a separate excavation, thought to be oak, were found at the bottom of the shaft. Drax wrote "We have already followed it already about 20 feet, we can plumb it about eleven feet more." .... "something now perished must have remained in this hole to keep it open".

On 23 Jan 2010 a lecture held at the Wiltshire Heritage Museum, Devizes, titled "Silbury Hill: the Archaeology of a Monumental Mound" by Jim Leary, the English Heritage archaeologist responsible for the survey on Silbury Hill in 2007/8 made no mention of a totem pole or oak tree found at the centre of the hill. There was also no mention of a separate excavation that found "fragments of oak".

In 1849 John Merewether Antiquarian 1797-1850 (52) had excavations made in thrirty-three round barrows, West Kennet Long Barrow and Silbury Hill.

After 1918 Flinders Petrie Archaeologist 1853-1942 excavated at Silbury Hill.

1934. Philip de László Painter 1869-1937. Portrait of Flinders Petrie Archaeologist 1853-1942.

From 1968 to 1970 Richard J C Atkinson Archaeologist 1920-1994 (49) undertook excavations at Silbury Hill that were filmed by the BBC. He dug numerous trenches at the site and reopened the 1849 tunnel, where he found material suggesting a Neolithic date. His carbon dates are considered unrealiable.

Marlborough Mound is a probable Prehistoric Mound located at Marlborough School next the the River Kennet. Its base diameter is 83m and a height of 19 meters. Around half the size of Silbury Hill which is 5.2 miles West upstream on the River Kennet. Curiously Silbury Hill and the Marlborough Mound are 5.2 miles apart east to west more or less exactly east to west - a difference of 0.8 degrees.

Avebury Late Neolithic Early Broze Age Mounds are two Prehistoric Mounds: Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound. There is some debate as to whether Marlborough Mound is prehistoric.

Marlborough Mound, Avebury Late Neolithic Early Broze Age Mounds, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Marlborough Mound is a probable Prehistoric Mound located at Marlborough School next the the River Kennet. Its base diameter is 83m and a height of 19 meters. Around half the size of Silbury Hill which is 5.2 miles West upstream on the River Kennet. Curiously Silbury Hill and the Marlborough Mound are 5.2 miles apart east to west more or less exactly east to west - a difference of 0.8 degrees.

Marlborough Mound. Historic England 1005634.

This monument includes a motte castle situated on the summit of a ridge surrounded by a meander of the River Kennet and within the grounds of Marlborough College within a Grade II Registered Garden (2247). The motte survives as a circular mound of up to 85m in diameter and 18m high. Excavations in 1912 found layers of charcoal and antler picks which have long caused speculation as to whether this was a prehistoric earthwork which was re-used as a motte, although a survey in 2001 did not prove the castle to be anything other than medieval in origin. Further excavations in 1936 found the footings for a curtain wall and the buttress for a shell keep on the summit together with 12th to 13th century pottery. Speculation of this having once been part of a much larger castle with baileys was apparently fuelled by the discovery of a V-shaped profile ditch to the north of the motte in 2000 and it has long been believed that much of the bailey extended to the south although the extent of this is not known. In 2005 further excavations indicated the spiral path which winds its way up to the summit was in existence from 1654. Marlborough was part of a royal borough which was visited often by sovereigns, there is no documentary mention of a castle prior to 1138, but it is thought significant that William I imprisoned Bishop Aethelfric of Selsey in Marlborough and that Henry I held an Easter Court there in 1110. Also, several charters were signed in Marlborough which implies the castle did already exist. The first definitive documentary record was in 1139 when it was held by King Stephen from the Empress Matilda. There was further building work during the reign of Henry II which included the 'Great Tower' and continued from 1175 to 1179. King John had the castle repaired and a ring wall built around the motte in 1209-11. Henry III spent £2000 on works between 1227 and 1272 which included work on two chapels, the hall, the keep, two barbicans, a curtain wall, two bridges, gatehouse, and the Queen's apartments. From 1273-1369 it formed part of the Queen's possessions as her 'Dower House'. However, by 1403 it had deteriorated significantly and subsequently remained neglected. Allegedly the black marble font now in Preshute Church came from the castle chapel and was supposedly used to baptise King John and Edward the Black Prince. The winding path, a grotto (listed at Grade II) and a water tower on top of the motte were all landscape garden features from the 17th to 18th centuries. The grotto was originally part of a canal and cascade feature associated with the mound.

Prehistoric Avebury describes a number of Prehistoric monuments including the largest causewayed enclosure in Britain, Windmill Hill, the largest stone circle in Britain, Avebury Henge, the two largest prehistoric mounds in Europe Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound, the longest long barrows, West and East and the West Kennet Avenue. Avebury was clearly an important area in Prehistory. The Ridgeway Path passes near Avebury as do the the headwaters of the River Kennet. Stonehenge, built around the same time as the Avebury Henge, is seventeen miles away, more or less, almost exactly south.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

Avebury Late Neolithic Early Broze Age Mounds are two Prehistoric Mounds: Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound. There is some debate as to whether Marlborough Mound is prehistoric.

Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

West Kennet Avenue and Sanctuary, Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

West Kennet Avenue, West Kennet Avenue and Sanctuary, Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

West Kennet Avenue is an Avenue that connects The Sanctuary to Avebury Henge; a distance of 2.5km formed from 100 pairs of stones formed from pairs of diamond shaped stones and a rectangular shaped stones. Some of the stones had Beaker Burials beneath dated to around 2200BC.

Prehistoric Avebury describes a number of Prehistoric monuments including the largest causewayed enclosure in Britain, Windmill Hill, the largest stone circle in Britain, Avebury Henge, the two largest prehistoric mounds in Europe Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound, the longest long barrows, West and East and the West Kennet Avenue. Avebury was clearly an important area in Prehistory. The Ridgeway Path passes near Avebury as do the the headwaters of the River Kennet. Stonehenge, built around the same time as the Avebury Henge, is seventeen miles away, more or less, almost exactly south.

3000BC. The Sanctuary is fifty-eight stone-sockets and sixty-two post-holes forming concentric circles located at the southern end of the West Kennet Avenue on Overton Hill next to the Ridgeway Path. The overall diameter is 40m. William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 reported in 1724 that locals called it The Sanctuary. From The Sanctuary may be seen West Kennet Long Barrow, East Kennet Long Barrow and Windmill Hill.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

Around 2400BC 42 sarsen stones forming a boundary ring 40m across replaced all the timber structures. Possibly around the same time West Kennet Avenue was constructed.

Woden Hill Bronze Age Cemetry.Historic England Entry.

The monument includes a round barrow cemetery containing nine individual barrows, situated 400m south of Avebury henge monument on Woden Hill. The cemetery occupies the crest of Woden Hill and the upper east-facing slope which overlooks the Avenue linking the Avebury henge and The Sanctuary. One of the nine barrows is a bowl barrow and survives as an upstanding earthwork; it has a mound 16m in diameter and 0.3m high. Surrounding the mound, but no longer visible at ground level, is a quarry ditch from which material was obtained during the construction of the monument. This has been infilled by cultivation but survives as a buried feature c.3m wide. The remaining eight barrows have been levelled over the years and are no longer visible at ground level. Buried features will survive, however, and these levelled barrows, known as ring ditches, are visible on aerial photographs and vary between 15m and 34m in diameter. Excluded from the scheduling are the boundary fences running across the site, although the ground beneath these features is included.

The Sanctuary, West Kennet Avenue and Sanctuary, Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

The Ridgeway Path is an ancient footpath that extends from Knap Hill, on the south of the Avebury Plateau, or The Sanctuary, to Ivinghoe Beacon - a distance of more than eighty miles following the scarp slopes. From Knap Hill the Ridgeway Path passes The Sanctuary, Prehistoric Avebury, Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Segsbury Camp, Scutchamer Knob, Goring, Swyncome, Chinnor, Princes Risborough, Boddington Hill Fort, Tring, Ivinghoe Beacon.

3000BC. The Sanctuary is fifty-eight stone-sockets and sixty-two post-holes forming concentric circles located at the southern end of the West Kennet Avenue on Overton Hill next to the Ridgeway Path. The overall diameter is 40m. William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 reported in 1724 that locals called it The Sanctuary. From The Sanctuary may be seen West Kennet Long Barrow, East Kennet Long Barrow and Windmill Hill.

Around 3000BC a ring of eight wooden posts 4.5m across with a central post was constructed at The Sanctuary; possibly a round building.

Before 2800BC the first ring was englarged to 6m and a second ring of eight posts of diameter 11.2m was added to The Sanctuary.

After 2800BC a 21m diameter circle of 33 posts was added, and at the same time an inner stone circle of 15 or 16 sarsen stones was added to The Sanctuary alongside the now middle ring.

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

On 08 Jul 1723 The Sanctuary was drawn by William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 (35). Local farmers destroyed the site shortly after. The drawing by Stukeley (35) somewhat confusing since the hill in front of Overton HIll is Woden's Hill; Windmill Hill is further away? On the left unmarked is West Kennet Long Barrow.

On 11 Jul 1723 William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 (35) drew Silbury Hill and wrote that a skeleton and bridle had been discovered during tree planting on the summit. The feature noted 'B' or the Snakes Head or Hakpen is The Sanctuary.

In 1930 husband and wife Benjamin (69) and Maud (60) Cunnington undertook excavations of The Sanctuary.

West Kennet Avenue is an Avenue that connects The Sanctuary to Avebury Henge; a distance of 2.5km formed from 100 pairs of stones formed from pairs of diamond shaped stones and a rectangular shaped stones. Some of the stones had Beaker Burials beneath dated to around 2200BC.

Woden Hill Bronze Age Cemetry.Historic England Entry.

The monument includes a round barrow cemetery containing nine individual barrows, situated 400m south of Avebury henge monument on Woden Hill. The cemetery occupies the crest of Woden Hill and the upper east-facing slope which overlooks the Avenue linking the Avebury henge and The Sanctuary. One of the nine barrows is a bowl barrow and survives as an upstanding earthwork; it has a mound 16m in diameter and 0.3m high. Surrounding the mound, but no longer visible at ground level, is a quarry ditch from which material was obtained during the construction of the monument. This has been infilled by cultivation but survives as a buried feature c.3m wide. The remaining eight barrows have been levelled over the years and are no longer visible at ground level. Buried features will survive, however, and these levelled barrows, known as ring ditches, are visible on aerial photographs and vary between 15m and 34m in diameter. Excluded from the scheduling are the boundary fences running across the site, although the ground beneath these features is included.

Beckhampton Avenue and Longstone, Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Beckhampton Avenue, Beckhampton Avenue and Longstone, Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury describes the period when Avebury Henge, Marlborough Mound, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet Avenue, The Sanctuary, the Beckhampton Avenue and the Long Stones and South Street Long Barrow were constructed. Around 2400BC. It isn't clear whether this period is a continuation of the preceding Neolithic, a new culture, or the start of the Bronze Age culture. The period is contemporary with the final building stage of Stonehenge some tweny miles south.

The Beckhampton Avenue is an Avenue described by William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 as connecting from Avebury Henge to the Long Stones. At his time only thirty stones remained. Since then all have gone. Not clear whether it really existed.

Long Stones, Beckhampton Avenue and Longstone, Avebury Avenues, Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Long Stones, aka Adam and Eve, Longstone Cove, Devil's Coits, describe two large upright sarsen stones in a field to the south-west of the Avebury Henge. William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 described one of these stones as having formed a cove at the terminus of a Beckhampton Avenue. One of the stones fell and was re-erected in 1911. During the course of its re-erection husband and wife Benjamin and Maud Cunnington discovered a crouched skeleton with beaker ware at its foot.

The Beckhampton Avenue is an Avenue described by William Stukeley Antiquarian 1687-1765 as connecting from Avebury Henge to the Long Stones. At his time only thirty stones remained. Since then all have gone. Not clear whether it really existed.

Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Bronze Age Avebury describes the period after the construction of the henge, circles and mounds, when it appears only Burial Mounds were constructed. There are many in the Avebury landscape, frequently, now, with a group of trees growing around them making them easy to spot.

Woden Hill Bronze Age Cemetry, Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Woden Hill Bronze Age Cemetry.Historic England Entry.

The monument includes a round barrow cemetery containing nine individual barrows, situated 400m south of Avebury henge monument on Woden Hill. The cemetery occupies the crest of Woden Hill and the upper east-facing slope which overlooks the Avenue linking the Avebury henge and The Sanctuary. One of the nine barrows is a bowl barrow and survives as an upstanding earthwork; it has a mound 16m in diameter and 0.3m high. Surrounding the mound, but no longer visible at ground level, is a quarry ditch from which material was obtained during the construction of the monument. This has been infilled by cultivation but survives as a buried feature c.3m wide. The remaining eight barrows have been levelled over the years and are no longer visible at ground level. Buried features will survive, however, and these levelled barrows, known as ring ditches, are visible on aerial photographs and vary between 15m and 34m in diameter. Excluded from the scheduling are the boundary fences running across the site, although the ground beneath these features is included.

East Kennet Bowl Barrow, Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

East Kennet Bowl Barrow. Historic England 1014038.

The monument includes a bowl barrow situated 200m north of the East Kennet long barrow. It forms part of a Bronze Age round barrow cemetery which is clustered around the long barrow and contains a total of five round barrows. This is one of a number of cemeteries located on the Downs south of Avebury. The barrow mound has been levellled by cultivation and is no longer visible at ground level. However, from aerial photographs it is known to measure c.28m in diameter. Surrounding the original extent of the mound is a 2m wide quarry ditch from which material was obtained during its construction. This has become infilled due to cultivation but survives as a buried feature, also visible on aerial photographs.

Windmill Hill Bowl Barrow, Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Windmill Hill Bowl Barrow. Historic England 1014057.

The monument includes one of a pair of bowl barrows set on a gentle south facing slope overlooking Avebury and 750m south-east of Windmill Hill. The barrow has a mound 28m in diameter and up to 0.67m high. Surrounding the barrow mound, but no longer visible at ground level, is a ditch from which material was quarried during construction of the monument. This has become infilled over the years but survives as a buried feature c.3m wide.

Kitchen Barrow Bowl Barrow, Bronze Age Avebury, Shepherd's Shore Long Barrow, Prehistoric South-West England

Kitchen Barrow Bowl Barrow. Historic England 101426.

The monument includes a bowl barrow situated 800m east of Kitchen Long Barrow. It forms the southern outlier of a cemetery which includes a total of five barrows. This is one of a number of cemeteries located on the Downs. The barrow has a mound which has been reduced by cultivation in the past but which survives as a visible monument, best seen from the east. It measures 12m in diameter and up to 0.6m high. The western half of the barrow has been reduced to the point where it is no longer clearly definable at ground level. This difference in survival of the mound, which originally stood at least 0.9m high, is due to the fact that it is crossed from north east to south west by a fence line which forms the parish boundary and the extent of cultivation either side of the boundary has been variable. Surrounding the original extent of the mound is a 2m quarry ditch from which material was obtained during its construction. This survives as a buried feature below the modern ground level. Beyond the ditch lies a 1.5m wide counter-scarp bank which stands 0.3m high on the eastern side of the monument. It has been levelled to the west. During the late 1850s the barrow was partly excavated and a secondary cremation burial was found, placed on a flat stone beneath an inverted Late Bronze Age bucket urn.

Iron Age Hill Forts, Prehistoric South-West England

Around 3600BC. The The Trundle is a causewayed enclosure that became an Iron Age Hill Forts in West Sussex. It rises above the neighbouring hills and so is clearly visible from all sides having an elevation of 206m. The causewayed enclosure consists of at least four circular or partly circular ditches enclosing 9300m2.

Uffington Castle and White Horse, Iron Age Hill Forts, Prehistoric South-West England

The Ridgeway Path is an ancient footpath that extends from Knap Hill, on the south of the Avebury Plateau, or The Sanctuary, to Ivinghoe Beacon - a distance of more than eighty miles following the scarp slopes. From Knap Hill the Ridgeway Path passes The Sanctuary, Prehistoric Avebury, Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Segsbury Camp, Scutchamer Knob, Goring, Swyncome, Chinnor, Princes Risborough, Boddington Hill Fort, Tring, Ivinghoe Beacon.

Uffington Castle, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Iron Age Hill Forts, Prehistoric South-West England

Barbury Castle, Iron Age Hill Forts, Prehistoric South-West England

The Ridgeway Path is an ancient footpath that extends from Knap Hill, on the south of the Avebury Plateau, or The Sanctuary, to Ivinghoe Beacon - a distance of more than eighty miles following the scarp slopes. From Knap Hill the Ridgeway Path passes The Sanctuary, Prehistoric Avebury, Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Segsbury Camp, Scutchamer Knob, Goring, Swyncome, Chinnor, Princes Risborough, Boddington Hill Fort, Tring, Ivinghoe Beacon.

Around 550BC. Barbury Castle is a Multivallate Hill Fort in Wiltshire located on the Ridgeway Path. It has two deep defensive ditches and ramparts. The sitre was first occupied around the 6th Century BC. In 1996 a geophysical survey revealed traces of forty hut circles inside the castle.

Around 550. Gewisse was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom based in the upper Thames region around Dorchester on Thames. In 552 the Gewisse captured Old Sarum. In 556 the Gewisse captured Barbury Castle.

In 556 Cynric King Wessex and Ceawlin King Wessex -592 defeated the Britons at Barbury Castle during the Battle of Beran Burg. Barbury Castle possibly of strategic importance since it is located on the Ridgeway with extensive views over the Thames valley.

Liddington Castle, Iron Age Hill Forts, Prehistoric South-West England

The Ridgeway Path is an ancient footpath that extends from Knap Hill, on the south of the Avebury Plateau, or The Sanctuary, to Ivinghoe Beacon - a distance of more than eighty miles following the scarp slopes. From Knap Hill the Ridgeway Path passes The Sanctuary, Prehistoric Avebury, Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Segsbury Camp, Scutchamer Knob, Goring, Swyncome, Chinnor, Princes Risborough, Boddington Hill Fort, Tring, Ivinghoe Beacon.

Around 650BC. Liddington Castle is a Late Bronze Age Early Iron Age Univallate Hill Fort in Wiltshire at altitude 277m sited on a commanding high point close to the Ridgeway Path covering an area of 30000 square metres. Its first occupation dates to around the 7th Century BC. The earthworks consist of a relatively simple oval bank of timber and earth fronted by a ditch, with opposing causewayed entrances on the east and west sides.