On 23 Nov 1589 [his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (23) and [his mother] Anne of Denmark (14) were married at Bishop's Palace. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [his mother] She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.
On 19 Nov 1600 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 was born to [his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (34) and [his mother] Anne of Denmark (25) at Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline.
On 23 Dec 1600 the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. He was created Duke Albany 4C 1600.
On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (69) died at Richmond Palace around three in the morning.
[his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of [his grandmother] Mary Queen of Scots (60) who was the daughter of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform [his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.
On 05 Jan 1605 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York 4C 1605 and Knight of the Bath by his father [his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (38)
Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset 1579-1651 (26) were appointed Knight of the Bath.
Memorials of affairs of state in the reigns of Q Elizabeth and K James I Volume 2 Dudley Carleton to Mr Winwood Jan 1605. On Twelfth-Day we had the Creation of Duke Charles (4) now Duke of York; the Interim was entertained with making Knights of the Bath, which was three Days Work. They were eleven in Number, besides the little Duke, all of the King's Choice ; namely, the Lords Willoby, Compton, Chandois, and Norres; William Cecyll, Allen Percy, Thomas Somerset (26), Francis Manners (27), Clifford, young Howard, second Son of my Lord Chamberlaine, and Harrington. The Solemnity of the Creation was kept in the Hall, where first the Duke (4) was brought in accompanyed with his Knights, then carried out againe, and brought back by Earles in their Robes of the Garter. My Lord Admiral bare him, two others went as Supporters, and six marched before with the Ornaments. The Patent was read by my Lord of Cranborne (13), and drawn in most eloquent Law Latin by Mr. Attorney; but so, that we have a Duke of York in Title, but not in Substance. There was a publick Dinner in the great Chamber, where there was one Table for the Duke and his Earls Assistants, another for his Fellow Knights of the Bath.
On 05 Jun 1610 the Tethy's Festival Masque was performed at Whitehall Palace to celebrate the the investiture of [his brother] Prince Frederick (16) as Prince of Wales. The script was written by Samuel Daniel at the request of the [his mother] Queen (35), who appeared in person as Tethys a goddess of the sea. Inigo Jones Architect 1573-1652 (36) designed the staging and scenery.
Prince Charles (9) took the part of Zephyrus,.
[his sister] Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (13) appeared as the companion or daughter of Tethys, the "Nymph of Thames",.
Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) took the part of the "Nymph of Trent",.
Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk 1585-1654 (25) as "Nymph of Arun".
Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (34) as "Nymph of Derwent",.
Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 (20) as "Nymph of Lee",.
Anne Clifford Countess Dorset and Pembroke 1590-1676 (20) as "Nymph of Air",.
Susan Vere Countess Montgomery 1587-1628 (23) as "Nymph of Severn",.
Elizabeth Radclyffe Viscountess Haddington -1618 as "Nymph of Rother",.
Elizabeth Talbot Countess Kent 1582-1651 (28) as "Nymph of Medway",.
Four sisters, daughters of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (60) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess Worcester 1546-1621 (64), danced as the rivers of Monmouthshire:
Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (35) the "Nymph of Usk".
Katherine Somerset Baroness Petre 1575-1625 (35) the "Nymph of Olwy".
Elizabeth Somerset 1590-1625 (20) the "Nymph of Dulesse" (Dulas), and.
Mary Wintour the "Nymph of Wye".
In 1611 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (10) was appointed 405th Knight of the Garter by his father [his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (44).
In 1611 Maximilian Colt Sculptor 1575-1641 (36) carved 'a crown on the head of the Duke of York's (10) barge,' and in the following years he was employed in decorating the king's and queen's private barges. The last payment for this work was made on 14 Oct 1624.
On 06 Nov 1612 [his brother] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 (18) died. The death of the heir to the throne significant; compare William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy 1103-1120, Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376, Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502, Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751, perhaps Edward York Prince of Wales 1473-1484.
On 14 Feb 1613 Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (16) and [his sister] Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (16) were married at Chapel Royal Whitehall Palace. She a daughter of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.
A grand occasion that saw more royalty than ever visit the court of England. The marriage was an enormously popular match and was the occasion for an outpouring of public affection with the ceremony described as "a wonder of ceremonial and magnificence even for that extravagant age".
It was celebrated with lavish and sophisticated festivities both in London and Heidelberg, including mass feasts and lavish furnishings that cost nearly £50,000, and nearly bankrupted King James. Among many celebratory writings of the events was John Donne's (41) "Epithalamion, Or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St Valentine's Day".
On 10 Jul 1613 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (62) was paid £13.6s.8d. by the vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge, "in full satisfaction for Prince Charles (12) his picture", for a full-length portrait which is still in the Cambridge University Library.
The "Spanish Match" was the proposed marriage between Prince Charles (13), the son of [his father] King James I of Great Britain (47), and Infanta Maria Anna of Spain (7), the daughter of Philip III of Spain (35). Negotiations took place over the period 1614 to 1623, and during this time became closely related to aspects of British foreign and religious policy, before breaking down completely.
On 04 Nov 1616 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.
James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (11), brothers Robert Howard 1584-1653 (32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley 1601-1658 (15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (41) and John Cavendish -1618 were appointed Knight of the Bath.
On 02 Mar 1619 [his mother] Anne of Denmark (44) died.
On 04 Jan 1621 Charles Wilmot 1st Viscount Wilmot 1572-1644 (49) was created 1st Viscount Wilmot of Athlone by King Charles I (20) as a reward for his activities in Ireland.
On 08 Jan 1621 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport 1597-1666 (24) took part in a Masque before Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (20) staged by James Hay 1st Earl Carlisle 1580-1636 (41) at Essex House.
Around Feb 1621 Francis Norreys 1st Earl Berkshire 1579-1622 (41) was imprisoned for attacking Emanuel Scrope 1st Earl of Sunderland 1584-1630 (36) in front of the House of Lords in the presence the future Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (20) at Fleet Prison.
The Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir Simonds D'Ewes 1st Baronet 1602 1650 Volume 1 Chapter XI 1622. 17 Feb 1623. There happened on Monday, the 17th day of the month, so strange an accident as after ages will scarce believe it. For Charles Prince of Wales (22) began his journey from London into Spain on Monday, the 17th day of February, with the beloved Marquis of Buckingham (30), Sir Francis Cottington (44), and Mr. Endimion Porter (36), only in his campaign; who only, besides the King himself, were the alone men aquainted with the Prince's resolution. Their going was so secretly carried as none, I believe, knew of it in England till they were landed in France, through which kingdom they passed by posthorse into Spain.1 The journey was thought so dangerous, being above 1100 English miles by land, besides the crossing of the seas between Dover and Calais, as all men were generally ensaddened at the ad- venture, often wishing it had been better advised upon; although they knew the Spaniards durst do the Prince no harm, so long as his royal sister and her illustrious oflspring survived. Soon after followed the Lord Hays (43), Earl of Carlisle, and passed into France to excuse to that King the Prince's sudden and secret passing through his kingdom without giving him a visit. All men now took it for granted, that the Prince's marriage with the Infanta Maria, the King of Spain's sister, was concluded on, and that he went over only to consummate it; no man imagining that he would take up such a resolution upon uncertainties, especially occasioning so vast and unnecessary expense at a time when the King's wants pressed him much. But God, whose decree binds princes as well as peasants, had otherwise disposed, so as our royal suitor, arriving at Madrid in Spain on Friday the 7th (or 17th) of March, about three weeks later his departure from London, and taking ship for his return to England on the 18th (or 28th) of September, then next ensuing, stayed in Spain about seven months; in all which time he seldom saw or spoke with the Spanish Princess, nor could ever receive a fair or sincere denial from her brother, although her marriage had been absolutely disposed of by her father's last will and testament; he bequeathing her to Ferdinand, son and heir of Ferdinand the Second, Emperor of Germany, who afterwards did accordingly espouse her.
Note 1. "And now behold a, strange adventure and enterprise! The Prince and the Marquis of Buckingham, accompanied with Cottington and Endimion Porter, post in disgiuse to Spain to accelerate the marriage. The 17th of February they went privately from Court, and the next day came to Dover, where they embarked for Boulogne, and from thence rode post to Paris, where they made some atop. The Prince, shadowed under a bushy peruque, beheld the splendour of that court, and had a full view of the Princess Henrietta Maria (13), who was afterwards his royal consort. For, besides the great privacy of the journey, they had so laid the English ports, that none should follow or give the least advertisement, until they had got the start of intelligencers, and passed the bounds of France. Howbeit they escaped narrowly, and a swift intelligence sent to the King of Spain from Don Carlos Coloma was even at their heels before they arrived at Madrid. The Prince and Buckingham being in the territories of Spain, to make but little noise, rode post before their company. The 7th of March they arrived at Madrid, the royal residence, and were conveyed with much secrecy into the Earl of Bristol's (43) house—Rushworth, i. p. 76. A fuller account of this extraordinary adventure will be found elsewhere.
On 07 Mar 1623 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (22), accompanied by George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (30) and Endymion Porter 1587-1649 (36), arrived in Madrid, incognito, in an attempt to bring to a conclusion his betrothal to Maria Anna of Spain Holy Roman Empress 1606-1646 (16), much to the surprise of her brother Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665 (17) and the English ambassador John Digby 1st Earl Bristol 1580-1653 (43). The negotiations ultimately failed.
John Evelyn's Diary 1620 1636 Birth and Childhood. 1624. I was not initiated into any rudiments until near four years of age, and then one Frier taught us at the church-porch of Wotton; and I do perfectly remember the great talk and stir about Il Conde Gondomar (96), now Ambassador from Spain (for near about this time was the match of our Prince (23) with the Infanta (17) proposed); and the effects of that comet, 1618, still working in the prodigious revolutions now beginning in Europe, especially in Germany, whose sad commotions sprang from the Bohemians' defection from the Emperor Matthias; upon which quarrel the Swedes broke in, giving umbrage to the rest of the princes, and the whole Christian world cause to deplore it, as never since enjoying perfect tranquillity.
John Evelyn's Diary 1620 1636 Birth and Childhood. 1625. I was this year (being the first of the reign of King Charles (24)) sent by my father (38) to Lewes, in Sussex, to be with my grandfather, Standsfield (58), with whom I passed my childhood. This was the year in which the pestilence was so epidemical, that there died in London 5,000 a week, and I well remember the strict watches and examinations upon the ways as we passed; and I was shortly after so dangerously sick of a fever that (as I have heard) the physicians despaired of me.
In 1625 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire 1587-1669 (37) was appointed 422nd Knight of the Garter by his half fifth cousin Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24).
In 1625 Claude Guise 1578-1657 (46) was appointed 423rd Knight of the Garter by his second cousin once removed Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24).
On 27 Mar 1625 [his father] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House. His son Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.
On 02 Apr 1625 the first Parliament of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) known as the Useless Parliament sat.
On 01 May 1625 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15) were married by proxy at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15) by marriage Queen Consort England.
On 13 Jun 1625 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15) met for the first time at St Augustine's Abbey.
On 02 Feb 1626 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (25) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey. His wife Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (16) was not crowned since she being Catholic refused to attend an Anglican service. She watched Charles at a discreet distance.
Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (52) carried the Orb. Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (3) bore the Second Sword of State. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (41) carried the Spurs. Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (48) bore the Rod with the Dove.
William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (8), James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (19), James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk 1619-1689 (6), Roger Palmer 1577-1657 (49) and Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl Westmoreland 1602-1666 (24), John Maynard 1592-1658 (34) were appointed Knight of the Bath.
In 1627 Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647 (42) was appointed 425th Knight of the Garter by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (26).
In 1627 Richard Lovelace 1st Baron Lovelace 1564-1634 (63) was created as 1st Baron Lovelace by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (26).
In 1627 Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (44) was appointed 426th Knight of the Garter by his half fifth cousin Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (26).
In 1627 King Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden 1594-1632 (32) was appointed 424th Knight of the Garter by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (26).
In 1628 William Compton 1st Earl of Northampton -1630 was appointed 427th Knight of the Garter by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (27).
On 13 May 1629 [his son] Charles James Stewart 1629-1629 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (28) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (19).
On 10 Aug 1629 Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (54) was directed to hand over his authority as Lord Deputy of Ireland to the lords justices on the pretext that his services were required in England. King Charles I (28), recognising his good intentions, continued to hold him in favour.
In 1630 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) created four Knights of the Garter ...
Richard Weston 1st Earl of Portland 1577-1635 (52) was appointed 428th.
Robert Bertie 1582 1642 (47) was appointed 429th.
1630 William Cecil 2nd Earl Exeter 1566-1640 (64) was appointed 430th.
1630 James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 (23) was appointed 431st.
On 29 May 1630 [his son] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. [his son] He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.
In Jan 1631 Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis 1611-1662 (19) and Elizabeth Ashburnham 1613-1633 (18) were married. After the wedding King Charles I (30), Henrietta Maria (21) and Susan Feilding, Countess of Denbigh (48) wrote to congratulate his mother Jane, Baroness Cornwallis Bacon (50), and ask her to forgive him for his disobedience and return him to her favour. Denbigh said Ashburnham was her cousin "though her family be unfortunate".
On 05 Jul 1631 Edmund Waller Poet 1606-1687 (25) and Anne Banks -1634 were married in defiance of orders of the Privy Council of England and the Court of Aldermen of the City of London whose ward she was. Her father had left her £8000 when he died a year earlier. The Aldermen made a complaint to the Star Chamber, seeking that for the offence of marrying Anne without the court's permission the whole of the Banks fortune should be forfeited to the City of London, but they were denied such an outcome by a pardon from King Charles (30), who took a more tolerant view of the matter. Waller was then summoned to appear before the Court of Aldermen in December 1631, when he agreed to make a jointure of £1,000 a year to his wife, also giving her the power to spend £2,000 of her inheritance, and the Court accepted this proposal but fined him 500 marks.
On 04 Nov 1631 [his daughter] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (30) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (21).
In 1633 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) created four Knights of the Garter ...
[his nephew] Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern 1617-1680 (15) was appointed 432nd.
James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1612-1655 (20) was appointed 433rd.
On 07 May 1633 Henry Danvers 1st Earl Danby 1573-1644 (59) was appointed 434th.
William Douglas 7th Earl Morton 1582-1648 (51) was appointed 435th.
In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.
On 14 Oct 1633 [his son] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace. [his son] He was created 1st Duke York 5C 1633 at birth by his father.
On 17 Jan 1634 Edward Acton 1st Baronet 1600-1659 (33) was created 1st Baronet Acton of Aldenham Hall by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (33).
In 1635 Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668 (32) was appointed 436th Knight of the Garter by his half fifth cousin Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (34).
On 19 Dec 1635 Mary Witham Baronetess Bolles 1579-1662 (56) was created 1st Baronet Bolles then Jobson of Osberton by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (35). Possibly the only time a woman has been created a Baronet. There are examples of the widows of Baronets being given the rank of Baronet.
On 28 Dec 1635 [his daughter] Elizabeth Stewart 1635-1650 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (35) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (26).
Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).
In 1638 [his son] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (7) was appointed 437th Knight of the Garter by his father Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (37).
In May 1638 George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny 1618-1642 (19) and Catherine Howard Countess Newburgh -1650 were married. They married in secret against the wishes of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (37).
On 27 Jul 1639 Vivian Molyneux 1596-1642 (43) was knighted by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (38) at Berwick on Tweed.
In 1640 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (46) was appointed 438th Knight of the Garter by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39).
On 21 Jan 1640 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport 1597-1666 (43) participated with Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) in the extravagant masque on the theme of Philogenes, royal Lover of the People.
John Evelyn's Diary 11 April 1640. 11 Apr 1640. I went to London to see the solemnity of his Majesty's (39) riding through the city in state to the Short Parliament, which began the 13th following,—a very glorious and magnificent sight, the King (39) circled with his royal diadem and the affections of his people: but the day after I returned to Wotton again, where I stayed, my father's (53) indisposition suffering great intervals, till April 27th, when I was sent to London to be first resident at the Middle Temple: so as my being at the University, in regard of these avocations, was of very small benefit to me. Upon May the 5th following, was the Parliament unhappily dissolved; and, on the 20th I returned with my brother George to Wotton, who, on the 28th of the same month, was married at Albury to Mrs. Caldwell (an heiress of an ancient Leicestershire family, where part of the nuptials were celebrated).
On 05 May 1640 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) dissolved the Short Parliament.
Between Jun 1640 and Oct 1640 the Second Bishop's War was an attack by the Scottish Covenanters into England against Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39). The Scots crossed into Northumberland reaching Newcastle upon Tyne. In Oct 1640 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) sued for peace.
On 08 Jul 1640 [his son] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (30).
On 26 Oct 1640 the Treaty of Ripon was a peace treaty signed by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) to cease the war with Scotland in the North. Charles agreed the Scots could retain large parts of northern England, and to pay them £850 per day until the Aug 1641 1641 Treaty of London.
John Evelyn's Diary 30 December 1640. 30 Dec 1640. I saw his Majesty (40) (coming from his Northern Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all the marks of a happy peace, restored to the affections of his people, being conducted through London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d of November following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), to that long ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our sorrows for twenty years after, and the period of the most happy monarch in the world: Quis talia fando!
But my father (53) being by this time entered into a dropsy, an indisposition the most unsuspected, being a person so exemplarily temperate, and of admirable regimen, hastened me back to Wotton, December the 12th; where, the 24th following, between twelve and one o'clock at noon, departed this life that excellent man and indulgent parent, retaining his senses and piety to the last, which he most tenderly expressed in blessing us, whom he now left to the world and the worst of times, while he was taken from the evil to come.
In 1641 Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (56) struck Henry Howard 22nd Earl Arundel 5th Earl Surrey 2nd Earl Norfolk 1608-1652 (32) with a cane during a Meeting in the House of Lords. Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) replaced him as Lord Chamberlain with Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (49).
In 1641 Charles Cotterell Master of the Ceremonies 1615-1701 (25) was appointed Master of the Ceremonies by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40).
In 1641 Alexander Leslie 1st Earl Leven 1580-1661 (61) was created 1st Earl Leven by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40).
In 1641 Elizabeth Darcy 1st Countess Rivers 1581-1650 (60) was created 1st Earl Rivers 3C 1641 for life by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) since she had been passed over when her father's Earldom Earl Rivers 2C 1626 passed from her father to her eldest son John Savage 2nd Earl Rivers 1603-1654 (37).
In 1641 James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1612-1655 (28) was created 1st Duke Richmond 2C 1641 by his third cousin Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40). Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox Duchess Richmond 1622-1685 (19) by marriage Duchess Richmond.
On 13 Apr 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) was attainted by 204 votes to 59 ostensibly for his authoritarian rule as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Despite his promise not to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) signed the death warrant on the 10 May 1641 in the light of increasing pressure from Parliament and the commons.
Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver 1607-1677 (33). Engraving of the Trial of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) with the following marked:
A. Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40).
C. Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (31).
D. [his son] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (10).
E. Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (55), Lord High Steward.
F. Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester 1563-1642 (78), Lord Keeper of the Great Seal.
G. John Paulet 5th Marquess Winchester 1598-1675 (43).
H. Robert Bertie 1582 1642 (58), Lord Chamberlain.
I. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (56), Lord Chamberlain of the Household.
V. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48).
Z. Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk 1585-1654 (56).
John Evelyn's Diary 15 April 1641. 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall, which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King (40), Queen (31), [his son] Prince (10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (55), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.
John Evelyn's Diary 27 April 1641. 27 Apr 1641, came over out of Holland the young [his future son-in-law] Prince of Orange (14), with a splendid equipage, to make love to his Majesty's (40) eldest [his daughter] daughter (9), the now Princess Royal.
That evening, was celebrated the pompous funeral of the Duke of Richmond (66), who was carried in effigy, with all the ensigns of that illustrious family, in an open chariot, in great solemnity, through London to Westminster Abbey.
On 02 May 1641 [his son-in-law] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and [his daughter] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married. She a daughter of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.
John Evelyn's Diary 12 May 1641. 12 May 1641, I beheld on Tower-hill the fatal stroke which severed the wisest head in England from the shoulders of the Earl of Strafford (48), whose crime coming under the cognizance of no human law, or statute, a new one was made, not to be a precedent, but his destruction. With what reluctancy the King (40) signed the execution, he has sufficiently expressed; to which he imputes his own unjust suffering — to such exorbitancy were things arrived.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 May 1641. 19 May 1641, we made a short excursion to Rochester, and having seen the cathedral, went to Chatham to see the Royal Sovereign, a glorious vessel of burden lately built there, being for defence and ornament, the richest that ever spread cloth before the wind. She carried an hundred brass cannon, and was 1200 tons; a rare sailer, the work of the famous Phineas Pett, inventor of the frigate-fashion of building, to this day practised. But what is to be deplored as to this vessel is, that it cost his Majesty (40) the affections of his subjects, perverted by the malcontent great ones, who took occasion to quarrel for his having raised a very slight tax for the building of this, and equipping the rest of the navy without an act of Parliament; though, by the suffrages of the major part of the Judges, the King (40) might legally do in times of imminent danger, of which his Majesty (40) was best apprised. But this not satisfying a jealous party, it was condemned as unprecedential, and not justifiable as to the Royal prerogative; and, accordingly, the Judges were removed out of their places, fined, and imprisoned.
John Evelyn's Diary 24 May 1641. 24 May 1641, I returned to Wotton; and, on the 28th of June, I went to London with my sister Jane, and the day after sat to one Vanderborcht for my picture in oil, at Arundel House, whose servant that excellent painter was, brought out of Germany when the Earl returned from Vienna (whither he was sent Ambassador-extraordinary, with great pomp and charge, though without any effect, through the artifice of the Jesuited Spaniard, who governed all in that conjuncture). With Vanderborcht, the painter, he brought over Winceslaus Hollar, the sculptor, who engraved not only this unhappy Deputy's trial in Westminster Hall, but his decapitation; as he did several other historical things, then relating to the accidents happening during the Rebellion in England, with great skill, besides many cities, towns, and landscapes, not only of this nation, but of foreign parts, and divers portraits of famous persons then in being; and things designed from the best pieces of the rare paintings and masters of which the Earl of Arundel was possessor, purchased and collected in his travels with incredible expense; so as, though Hollar's were but etched in aqua-fortis, I account the collection to be the most authentic and useful extant. Hollar was the son of a gentleman near Prague, in Bohemia, and my very good friend, perverted at last by the Jesuits at Antwerp to change his religion; a very honest, simple, well-meaning man, who at last came over again into England, where he died. We have the whole history of the King's (40) reign, from his trial in Westminster-hall and before, to the restoration of King Charles II, represented in several sculptures, with that also of Archbishop Laud (67), by this indefatigable artist, besides innumerable sculptures in the works of Dugdale, Ashmole, and other historical and useful works. I am the more particular upon this for the fruit of that collection, which I wish I had entire.
24 May 1641. This picture [his portrait] I presented to my sister, being at her request, on my resolution to absent myself from this ill face of things at home, which gave umbrage to wiser than myself, that the medal was reversing, and our calamities but yet in their infancy; so that, on the 15th of July, having procured a pass at the Custom-house, where I repeated my oath of allegiance, I went from London to Gravesend, accompanied with one Mr. Caryll, a Surrey gentleman, and our servants, where we arrived by six o'clock that evening, with a purpose to take the first opportunity of a passage for Holland. But the wind as yet not favourable, we had time to view the Block-house of that town, which answered to another over against it at Tilbury, famous for the rendezvous of Queen Ehzabeth, in the year 1588, which we found stored with twenty pieces of cannon, and other ammunition proportionable.
In Aug 1641 John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671 (42) took Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (31) to safety in the Netherlands. He was knighted by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) for doing so.
On 06 Sep 1641 William Fermor 1st Baronet 1621-1661 (20) was created 1st Baronet Fermor by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) who also gave him the command of a troop of horse, and afterwards made him a Privy Councillor to [his son] Charles, Prince of Wales (11).
John Evelyn's Diary 08 October 1641. 08 Oct 1641. Being the morning I came away, I went to see the Prince's Court, an ancient, confused building, not much unlike the Hofft, at the Hague: there is here likewise a very large Hall, where they vend all sorts of wares. Through this we passed by the chapel, which is indeed rarely arched, and in the middle of it was the hearse, or catafalco, of the late Archduchess, the wise and pious Clara Eugenia. Out of this we were conducted to the lodgings, tapestried with incomparable arras, and adorned with many excellent pieces of Rubens (64), old and young Breugel, Titian, and Stenwick, with stories of most of the late actions in the Netherlands.
By an accident, we could not see the library. There is a fair terrace which looks to the vineyard, in which, on Pedestals, are fixed the statues of all the Spanish kings of the house of Austria. The opposite walls are painted by Rubens (64), being an history of the late tumults in Belgia: in the last piece, the Archduchess shuts a great pair of gates upon Mars, who is coming out of hell, armed, and in a menacing posture; which, with that other of the Infanta taking leave of Don Philip the Fourth, is a most incomparable table.
From hence, we walked into the park, which for being entirely within the walls of the city is particularly remarkable; nor is it less pleasant than if in the most solitary Recesses; so naturally is it furnished with whatever may render it agreeable, melancholy, and country-like. Here is a stately heronry, divers springs of water, artificial cascades, rocks, grots, one whereof is composed of the extravagant roots of trees cunningly built and hung together with wires. In this park are both fallow and red deer.
From hence, we were led into the Menage, and out of that into a most sweet and dehcious garden, where was another grot of more neat and costly materials, full of noble statues, and entertaining us with artificial music; but the hedge of water, in form of lattice-work, which the fountaineer caused to ascend out of the earth by degrees, exceedingly pleased and surprised me; for thus with a pervious wall, or rather a palisade hedge of water, was the whole parterre environed.
There is likewise a fair aviary; and in the court next it are kept divers sorts of animals, rare and exotic fowl, as eagles, cranes, storks, bustards, pheasants of several kinds, and a duck having four wings. In another division of the same close are rabbits of an almost perfect yellow colour.
There was no Court now in the palace, the Infante Cardinal (32), who was the Governor of Flanders, being dead but newly, and every one in deep mourning.
At near eleven o'clock, I repaired to his Majesty's (40) agent. Sir Henry De Vic (42), who very courteously received me, and accommodated me with a coach and six horses, which carried me from Brussels to Ghent, where it was to meet my Lord of Arundel (56), Earl Marshal of England, who had requested me when I was at Antwerp to send it for him, if I went not thither myself.
Thus taking leave of Brussels and a sad Court, yet full of gallant persons, (for in this small city, the acquaintance being universal, ladies and gentlemen, I perceived, had great diversions and frequent meetings,) I hasted towards Ghent. On the way, 1 met with divers little waggons, prettily contrived and full of peddling merchandises, dravm by mastiff-dogs, harnessed completely like so many coachhorses; in some four, in others six, as in Brussels itself I had observed. In Antwerp I saw, as I remember, four dogs draw five lusty children in a chariot: the master commands them whither he pleases, crying his wares about the streets. After passing through Ouse, by six in the evening, I arrived at Ghent. This is a city of so great a circumference, that it is reported to be seven leagues round; but there is not half of it now built, much of it remaining in fields and desolate pastures even within the walls, which have strong gates towards the west, and two fair churches.
Here I beheld the Palace wherein John of Gaunt and Charles V were born; whose statue stands in the market-place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which (as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about their necks, in token of submission and penance for an old rebellion of theirs; but now the hemp is changed into a blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meeting in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleasant and courteous priest.
John Evelyn's Diary 23 November 1641. 23 Nov 1641. I returned to London; and, on the 25th, saw his Majesty (41) ride through the City after his coming out of Scotland, and a Peace proclaimed, with great acclamations and joy of the giddy people.
In 1642 [his son] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (8) was appointed 439th Knight of the Garter by his father Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41).
In 1642 [his nephew] Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22) was appointed 440th Knight of the Garter by his uncle Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41).
On 04 Jan 1642 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) sent soldiers into Parliament to arrest a five MPs: Pym, John Hampden Politician 1595-1643 (46), Hazlerigg, Holies and Strode (44). They had received warning and sought safety. After this Civil War was certain, and men began to choose their side.
In Jun 1642 William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (24) was with King Charles I (41) at York.
On 13 Oct 1642 King Charles I (41) stayed the night at the house of William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (25) at Latimer House Chesham.
On 14 Oct 1642 Richard Newport 1st Baron Newport 1587-1651 (55) was created 1st Baron Newport of High Ercall in Shropshire; by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) in return for having provided £6000 for the purchase of artillery before the Battle of Edge Hill.
On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill. The Royal army was commanded by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) (with his son [his son] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (12) present), [his nephew] Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22) and Richard Spencer 1593-1661 (49) commanded the army that included [his nephew] Maurice Palatinate Simmern 1621-1652 (21), Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron 1606-1679 (36), Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (32), Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 (22), Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton 1601-1643 (41), Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet Salusbury Lleweni 1612-1643 (30), John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (55).
George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny 1618-1642 (24) was killed.
Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh 1608-1675 (34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (51). Oliver St John 5th Baron St John Bletso 1603-1642 (39) was wounded.
Samuel Sandys 1615-1685 (27) commanded a troop of horse.
Richard Sandys 1616-1642 (26) was killed.
Thomas Strickland 1621-1694 (20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry.
Henry Hunloke 1st Baronet 1618-1648 (24) was knighted by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41).
William Dugdale 1605-1686 (37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.
John Hinton Physician 1604- (38) was present.
Edward Verney Standard Bearer 1590-1642 (52) was killed.
John Assheton 1613-1642 (29) was killed.
Robert Bertie 1582 1642 (59) was killed. His son Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey 1608-1666 (34) succeeded 2nd Earl Lindsey, 15th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Martha Cockayne Countess Lindsey Countess Holderness 1605-1641 (37) by marriage Countess Lindsey.
John Evelyn's Diary 12 November 1642. 12 Nov 1642. The 12th of November was the Battle of Brentford, surprisingly fought; and to the great consternation of the City, had his Majesty (41) (as it was believed he would) pursued his advantage. I came in with my horse and arms just at the retreat; but was not permitted to stay longer than the 15th, by reason of the army marching to Gloucester; which would have left both me and my brothers exposed to ruin, without any advantage to his Majesty (41).
On 28 Feb 1643 Henry Hunloke 1st Baronet 1618-1648 (25) was created 1st Baronet Hunloke of Wingerworth in Derbyshire by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42).
John Evelyn's Diary 12 July 1643. 12 Jul 1643. I sent my black menage horse and furniture with a friend to his Majesty (42), then at Oxford.
John Evelyn's Diary 23 July 1643. 23 Jul 1643. The Covenant being pressed, I absented myself; but, finding it impossible to evade the doing very unhandsome things, and which had been a great cause of my perpetual motions hitherto between Wotton and London, October the 2d, I obtained a license of his Majesty (42), dated at Oxford and signed by the King, to travel again.
On 03 Aug 1643 Chichester Wrey 3rd Baronet Wrey 1628-1668 (15) was knighted by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) at Bristol Castle Bristol.
On 20 Sep 1643 the First Battle of Newbury was fought at Newbury with Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) commanding the Royalist army and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (52) commanding the victorious Parliamentary army. For Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42)John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (44) fought with distinction. Henry Bertie -1643, Robert Dormer 1st Earl Carnarvon 1610-1643 (33) was killed.
William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison 1614-1643 (29) was killed. His brother John Villiers 3rd Viscount Grandison -1661 succeeded 3rd Viscount Grandison 1C 1620.
Edward Villiers 1620-1689 (23) fought.
Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (33) was killed. His son Lucius Carey 3rd Viscount Falkland 1632-1649 (11) succeeded 3rd Viscount Falkland.
Richard Neville 1615-1676 (28) served under the Earl Carnarvon (33). Carnarvon was killed and Neville took up the command as a Colonel of Horse.
Major General Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692 (25) was wounded.
On 04 Oct 1643 Edward Ford 1605-1670 (38) was knighted by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) at Oxford.
In 1644 [his nephew] Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (24) was created 1st Duke Cumberland 1C 1644, 1st Earl Holderness 2C 1644 by his uncle Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (43).
On 23 May 1644 Alice Leigh 1st Duchess Dudley 1578-1669 (66) was created 1st Duke Dudley by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (43) for life. Her husband Robert Dudley 1574-1649 (69) had claimed to be the legitimate son of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 but the Star Chamber found against him. Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (43) disagreed with their verdict and, in compensation of her subsequent treatment, awarded her the Dukedom ...
And whereas, our father not knowing the truth of the lawful birth of the said Sir Robert (as we piously believe) granted away the titles of the said earldom to others ... and holding ourselves in honour and conscience obliged to make reparation; and also the said great estate which the Lady Alice had in Kenilworth, and sold at our desire to us at a very great undervalue... we do... give and grant unto the said Lady Alice Dudley the title of Duchess of Dudley for life.
On 16 Jun 1644 [his daughter] Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 was born to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (43) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (34) at Bedford House Exeter. John Hinton Physician 1604- (40) was in attendance.
In 1645 Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette d'Epernon (53) was appointed 442nd Knight of the Garter by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (44).
On 03 Jan 1645 King Charles I (44) rewarded his supporters with Baronies ...
John Brooke 1st Baron Cobham 1575-1660 (69) was created 1st Baron Cobham. Frances Bampfield Baroness Cobham -1676 by marriage Baroness Cobham.
John Lucas 1st Baron Lucas Shenfield 1606-1671 (38) was created 1st Baron Lucas of Shenfield.
On 27 Jan 1645 John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689 (30) was created 1st Baron Belasyse of Worlaby in Lincolnshire by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (44). Anne Paulett Viscountess Ipswich -1694 by marriage Viscountess Ipswich.
Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 27 Jan 1645. mr white the churc man about ministeres, died the 27 of Ja: and was buried the 30. in the tempell church.
NOTE. Mr. John. White was chairman of the Committee of the House of Commons to remove scandalous ministers, which was appointed in 1640. A charge of popery or of loyalty to the King (44) was sufficient to secure ejection.
On 12 Apr 1645 Colonel William Legge -1670 was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (44).
On 08 Jul 1645 George Hawley 1st Baron Hawley 1608-1684 (37) was created 1st Baron Hawley of Donsmore by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (44).
After Jan 1647 John Coke 1607-1650 was one of the nine commissioners appointed to take charge of King Charles I at Holdenby House Holdenby.
John Evelyn's Diary 05 October 1647. 05 Oct 1647. I came to Wotton, the place of my birth, to my brother (30), and on the 10th to Hampton Court where I had the honor to kiss his Majesty's (46) hand, and give him an account of several things I had in charge, he being now in the power of those execrable villains who not long after murdered him. I lay at my cousin, Sergeant Hatton's at Thames Ditton, whence, on the 13th, I went to London.
On 10 Nov 1647 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (46) escaped from Hampton Court Palace with John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley 1602-1678 (45).
Between 15 Sep 1648 and 27 Nov 1648 the Treaty of Newport attempted to reconcile Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (47) (who was imprisoned at nearby Carisbrooke Castle) with Parliament. Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles 1599-1680 (48) and Henry Vane "The Younger" 1613-1662 (35) represented Parliament. James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (37) represented King Charles. The Treaty eventually came to nothing.
Parliament was also represented by John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (50), John Glynne Judge 1602-1666 (46), Nathaniel Fiennes 1608-1669 (40), William Pierrepoint of Thoresby 1608-1678 (40), Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668 (45), William Fiennes 1st Viscount Saye and Sele 1582-1662 (66), Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (63), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury 1591-1668 (57), James Cranfield 2nd Earl Middlesex 1621-1651 (27) and Thomas Wenman 2nd Viscount Wenman 1596-1665 (52).
On 04 Jan 1649 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was committed for trial by the Rump Parliament.
On 06 Jan 1649 Thomas Pride, on behalf of Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax 1612-1671 (36) and Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (38), supported by two regiments, and Nathaniel Rich's Regiment of Horse, with Thomas Grey 1623-1657 (26), prevented MPs opposed to the trial of King Charles I (48) from entering Parliament including ...
James Herbert 1623-1667 (26).
Robert Pye 1620-1701 (29).
Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet Browne -1661.
Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles 1599-1680 (49).
John Spelman MP 1606-1663 (42).
John Evelyn's Diary 17 January 1649. 17 Jan 1649. To London. I heard the rebel, Peters, incite the rebel powers met in the Painted Chamber, to destroy his Majesty (48); and saw that archtraitor, Bradshaw (47), who not long after condemned him.
John Evelyn's Diary 22 January 1649. 22 Jan 1649. I went through a course of chemistry, at Sayes Court. Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid tempests of wind.
The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and murder our excellent King (48) on the 30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it from my brother George (31), and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.
On 23 Jan 1649 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was tried at Westminster Hall by Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (56). The fifty-nine signatories of his Death Warrant were:
1 John Bradshaw Judge 1602-1659
2 Thomas Grey 1623-1657
3 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658
4 Edward Whalley 1607-1675
7 John Danvers 1588-1655
9 Henry Ireton 1611-1651
11 Hardress Waller Regicide 1604-1666
14 Major-General William Goffe 1605-1679
17 General Thomas Harrison 1616-1660
21 Admiral Richard Deane Regicide 1610-1653
27 Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660
34 Richard Ingoldsby Judge Regicide 1617-1685
42 John Jones Regicide 1597-1660
45 Major General Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692
54 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660
55 John Downes Regicide 1609-1666
57 Thomas Scot Regicide -1660
58 John Carew Regicide 1622-1660
The commissioners who sat at the trial but did not sign the Death Warrant included:
William Monson 1st Viscount Monson 1599-1672 (50)
The Captain of the Guard was Daniel Axtell (27). The guards included Francis Hacker Regicide -1660.
The Solicitor-General was John Cook Regicide 1608-1660 (41).
On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.
On 09 Feb 1649 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was buried in the Henry VIII Vault Quire St George's Chapel Windsor Castle without ceremony.
Memoirs of Jean Francois Paul de Gondi Cardinal de Retz Book 1. The 24th of February, 1649, the Parliament's deputies waited on the Queen (10) with an account of the audience granted to the envoy of the Archduke. The Queen (10) told them that they should not have given audience to the envoy, but that, seeing they had done it, it was absolutely necessary to think of a good peace, that she was entirely well disposed; and the Duc d'Orléans and the Prince de Conde promised the deputies to throw open all the passages as soon as the Parliament should name commissioners for the treaty.
Flamarin being sent at the same time into the city from the Duc d'Orléans to condole with the Queen of England (39) on the death of her husband (48) (King Charles I.), went, at La Riviere's solicitation, to M. de La Rochefoucault, whom he found in his bed on account of his wounds and quite wearied with the civil war, and persuaded him to come over to the Court interest. He told Flamarin that he had been drawn into this war much against his inclinations, and that, had he returned from Poitou two months before the siege of Paris, he would have prevented Madame de Longueville engaging in so vile a cause, but that I had taken the opportunity of his absence to engage both her and the Prince de Conti, that he found the engagements too far advanced to be possibly dissolved, that the diabolical Coadjutor would not bear of any terms of peace, and also stopped the ears of the Prince de Conti and Madame de Longueville, and that he himself could not act as he would because of his bad state of health. I was informed of Flamarin's negotiations for the Court interest, and, as the term of his passport had expired, ordered the 'prevot des marchands' to command him to depart from the city.
John Evelyn's Diary 12 May 1649. 12 May 1649. I purchased the manor of Warley Magna, in Essex: in the afternoon went to see Gildron's collections of paintings, where I found Mr. Endymion Porter (62), of his late Majesty's (48) bedchamber.
John Evelyn's Diary 28 October 1653. 28 Oct 1653. Went to London, to visit my Lady Gerrard, where I saw that cursed woman called the Lady Norton, of whom it was reported that she spit in our King's (52) face as he went to the scaffold. Indeed, her talk and discourse was like an impudent woman.
John Evelyn's Diary 08 June 1654. 08 Jun 1654.. my wife (19) and I set out in a coach and four horses, in our way to visit relations of hers in Wiltshire, and other parts, where we resolved to spend some months. We dined at Windsor, saw the Castle and Chapel of St. George, where they have laid our blessed Martyr, King Charles (53), in the vault just before the alter. The church and workmanship in stone is admirable. The Castle itself is large in circumference; but the rooms melancholy, and of ancient magnificence. The keep, or mount, hath, besides its incomparable prospect, a very profound well; and the terrace toward Eton, with the park, meandering Thames, and sweet meadows, yield one of the most delightful prospects. That night, we lay at Reading. Saw my Lord Craven's (46) house at Causam [Caversham], now in ruins, his goodly woods felling by the Rebels.
John Evelyn's Diary 14 August 1654. 14 Aug 1654. This place is remarkable for being the place where his Majesty (53) first erected his standard at the beginning of our late unhappy differences. The prospects from this city toward the river and meadows are most delightful.
John Evelyn's Diary 18 August 1654. 18 Aug 1654. We went to Beverley, a large town with two stately churches, St. John's and St. Mary's, not much inferior to the best of our cathedrals. Here a very old woman showed us the. Monuments, and, being above 100 years of age, spoke the language of Queen Mary's days, in whose time she was born; she was widow of a sexton who had belonged to the church a hundred years.
Hence, we passed through a fenny but rich country to Hull, situated like Calais, modernly and strongly fortified with three block-houses of brick and earth. It has a good market place and harbor for ships. Famous also (or rather infamous) is this town for Hotham's (65) refusing entrance to his Majesty (53). The water-house is worth seeing. And here ends the south of Yorkshire.
On 13 May 1659 [his son] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 4C 1659, 1st Earl Cambridge 5C 1659 by his father Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (58).
In 1660 Thomas Howard 5th Duke Norfolk 1627-1677 (32) was restored 5th Duke Norfolk 3C 1483 by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (59) in response to a petition by Parliament it having previusly been forfeited in 1572 by his great-great-grandfather Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 who had been executed for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 January 1660. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's (19) speech, which he is to make the next apposition,—[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]—and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to—let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King (59), or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's (58) lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the smallpox. Thence back to Westminster Hall, where I heard how Sir H. Vane (46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby, as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 January 1660. 25 Jan 1660. Wednesday. Called up early to Mr Downing (35); he gave me a Character, such a one as my Lord's (34), to make perfect, and likewise gave me his order for £500 to carry to Mr. Frost, which I did and so to my office, where I did do something about the character till twelve o'clock. Then home find found my wife and the maid at my Lord's (34) getting things ready against to-morrow. I went by water to my Uncle White's' to dinner, where I met my father (59), where we alone had a fine jole of Ling to dinner. After dinner I took leave, and coming home heard that in Cheapside there had been but a little before a gibbet set up, and the picture of Huson1 hung upon it in the middle of the street. I called at Paul's Churchyard, where I bought Buxtorf's Hebrew Grammar; and read a declaration of the gentlemen of Northampton which came out this afternoon. Thence to my father's (59), where I staid with my mother a while and then to Mr. Crew's (62) about a picture to be sent into the country, of Mr. Thomas Crew, to Lord. So [to] my Lady Wright to speak with her, but she was abroad, so Mr. Evans, her butler, had me into his buttery, and gave me sack and a lesson on his lute, which he played very well. Thence I went to Lord's (34) and got most things ready against tomorrow, as fires and laying the cloth, and my wife was making of her tarts and larding of her pullets till eleven o'clock. This evening Mr Downing (35) sent for me, and gave me order to go to Mr. Jessop for his papers concerning his dispatch to Holland which were not ready, only his order for a ship to transport him he gave me. To my Lord's (34) again and so home with my wife, tired with this day's work.
Note 1. John Hewson, who, from a low origin, became a colonel in the Parliament army, and sat in judgment on the King (59): he escaped hanging by flight, and died in 1662, at Amsterdam. A curious notice of Hewson occurs in Rugge's "Diurnal", December 5th, 1659, which states that "he was a cobbler by trade, but a very stout man, and a very good commander; but in regard of his former employment, they [the city apprentices] threw at him old shoes, and slippers, and turniptops, and brick-bats, stones, and tiles".... "At this time [January, 1659-60] there came forth, almost every day, jeering books: one was called 'Colonel Hewson's Confession; or, a Parley with Pluto,' about his going into London, and taking down the gates of Temple-Bar". He had but one eye, which did not escape the notice of his enemies. B.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 May 1660. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the [his son] King's (29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (42), while I and the rest went to see the Queen (50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the [his daughter] Princess Dowager's (28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:—"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".
Here I met with Mr. Woodcock of Cambridge, Mr. Hardy and another, and Mr. Woodcock beginning we had two or three fine songs, he and I, and W. Howe to the Echo, which was very pleasant, and the more because in a heaven of pleasure and in a strange country, that I never was taken up more with a sense of pleasure in my life. After that we parted and back to the Hague and took a tour or two about the Forehault3, where the ladies in the evening do as our ladies do in Hide Park. But for my life I could not find one handsome, but their coaches very rich and themselves so too. From thence, taking leave of the Doctor, we took wagon to Scheveling, where we had a fray with the Boatswain of the Richmond, who would not freely carry us on board, but at last he was willing to it, but then it was so late we durst not go. So we returned between 10 and 11 at night in the dark with a wagon with one horse to the Hague, where being come we went to bed as well as we could be accommodated, and so to sleep.
Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, [his son] Charles II (29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.
Note 2. [his daughter] Mary, Princess Royal (28), eldest daughter of Charles I (59), and widow of [his son-in-law] William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (33). She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.
Note 3. The Voorhout is the principal street of the Hague, and it is lined with handsome trees.
In 1661 John Banks 1st Baronet 1627-1699 (34) was created 1st Baronet Banks of London by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (60).
Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 January 1662. 22 Jan 1662. After musique-practice, to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, in my way calling at Mr. George Montagu's (39), to condole him the loss of his son, who was a fine gentleman, and it is no doubt a great discomfort to our two young gentlemen, his companions in France. After this discourse he told me, among other news, the great jealousys that are now in the Parliament House. The Lord Chancellor (52), it seems, taking occasion from this late plot to raise fears in the people, did project the raising of an army forthwith, besides the constant militia, thinking to make the [his son] Duke of York (28) General thereof. But the House did, in very open terms, say, they were grown too wise to be fooled again into another army; and said they had found how that man that hath the command of an army is not beholden to any body to make him King.
There are factions (private ones at Court) about Madam Palmer; but what it is about I know not. But it is something about the King's favour to her now that the [his future daughter-in-law] Queen (23) is coming. He told me, too, what sport the [his son] King (31) and Court do make at Mr. Edward Montagu's (27) leaving his things behind him.
But the Chancellor (taking it a little more seriously) did openly say to my Lord Chamberlain (60), that had it been such a gallant as my Lord Mandeville (27) his son, it might have; been taken as a frolique; but for him that would be thought a grave coxcomb, it was very strange..
Thence to the Hall, where I heard the House had ordered all the King's (61) murderers, that remain, to be executed, but Fleetwood (44) and Downes (53).
So to the Wardrobe and there dined, meeting my wife there, who went after dinner with my Lady to see Mr. George Montagu's (39) lady, and I to have a meeting by appointment with Tho. Trice and Dr. Williams in order to a treating about the difference between us, but I find there is no hopes of ending it but by law, and so after a pint or two of wine we parted.
So to the Wardrobe for my wife again, and so home, and after writing and doing some things to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 January 1663. 30 Jan 1663. A solemn fast for the King's (62) murther, and we were forced to keep it more than we would have done, having forgot to take any victuals into the house. I to church in the forenoon, and Mr. Mills made a good sermon upon David's heart smiting him for cutting off the garment of Saul1.
Home, and whiled away some of the afternoon at home talking with my wife.
So to my office, and all alone making up my month's accounts, which to my great trouble I find that I am got no further than £640. But I have had great expenses this month. I pray God the next may be a little better, as I hope it will.
In the evening my manuscript is brought home handsomely bound, to my full content; and now I think I have a better collection in reference to the Navy, and shall have by the time I have filled it, than any of my predecessors.
So home and eat something such as we have, bread and butter and milk, and so to bed.
Note 1. Samuel, chap. xxiv. v. 5, "And it came to pass afterward, that David's heart smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt"..
Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 June 1663. 01 Jun 1663. So home to supper and to bed. This day I hear at Court of the great plot which was lately discovered in Ireland, made among the Presbyters and others, designing to cry up the Covenant, and to secure Dublin Castle and other places; and they have debauched a good part of the army there, promising them ready money1. Some of the Parliament there, they say, are guilty, and some withdrawn upon it; several persons taken, and among others a son of Scott's, that was executed here for the King's (62) murder. What reason the [his son] King (33) hath, I know not; but it seems he is doubtfull of Scotland: and this afternoon, when I was there, the Council was called extraordinary; and they were opening the letters this last post's coming and going between Scotland and us and other places. Blessed be God, my head and hands are clear, and therefore my sleep safe.
The King of France (24) is well again.
Note 1. This was known as "Blood's Plot", and was named after Colonel Thomas Blood (45), afterwards notorious for his desperate attack upon the Duke of Ormond (52) in St. James's Street (1670) and for his robbery of the crown jewels in the Tower (1671). He died August 24th, 1680.
John Evelyn's Diary 03 January 1666. 03 Jan 1666. I supped in Nonesuch House, whither the office of the Exchequer was transferred during the plague, at my good friend.
Mr. Packer's (47), and took an exact view of the plaster statues and bass-relievos inserted between the timbers and puncheons of the outside walls of the Court; which must needs have been the work of some celebrated Italian. I much admired how they had lasted so well and entire since the time of Henry VIII., exposed as they are to the air; and pity it is they are not taken out and preserved in some dry place; a gallery would become them. There are some mezzo-relievos as big as the life; the story is of the Heathen Gods, emblems, compartments, etc. The palace consists of two courts, of which the first is of stone, castle like, by the Lord Lumleys (of whom it was purchased), the other of timber, a Gothic fabric, but these walls incomparably beautiful. I observed that the appearing timber-puncheons, entrelices, etc., were all so covered with scales of slate, that it seemed carved in the wood and painted, the slate fastened on the timber in pretty figures, that has, like a coat of armor, preserved it from rotting. There stand in the garden two handsome stone pyramids, and the avenue planted with rows of fair elms, but the rest of these goodly trees, both of this and of Worcester Park adjoining, were felled by those destructive and avaricious rebels in the late war, which defaced one of the stateliest seats his Majesty (65) had.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 February 1666. 26 Feb 1666. Called up about five in the morning, and my Lord up, and took leave, a little after six, very kindly of me and the whole company. Then I in, and my wife up and to visit my Lady Slaving in her bed, and there sat three hours, with Lady Jemimah with us, talking and laughing, and by and by my Baroness Carteret (64) comes, and she and I to talke, I glad to please her in discourse of Sir G. Carteret (56), that all will do well with him, and she is much pleased, he having had great annoyance and fears about his well doing, and I fear hath doubted that I have not been a friend to him, but cries out against my Baroness Castlemaine's (25), that makes the [his son] King (35) neglect his business and seems much to fear that all will go to wracke, and I fear with great reason; exclaims against the Duke of Albemarle (57), and more the Duchesse (46) for a filthy woman, as indeed she is.
Here staid till 9 o'clock almost, and then took coach with so much love and kindnesse from my Baroness Carteret (64), Lady Jemimah, and Lady Slaving, that it joys my heart, and when I consider the manner of my going hither, with a coach and four horses and servants and a woman with us, and coming hither being so much made of, and used with that state, and then going to Windsor and being shewn all that we were there, and had wherewith to give every body something for their pains, and then going home, and all in fine weather and no fears nor cares upon me, I do thinke myself obliged to thinke myself happy, and do look upon myself at this time in the happiest occasion a man can be, and whereas we take pains in expectation of future comfort and ease, I have taught myself to reflect upon myself at present as happy, and enjoy myself in that consideration, and not only please myself with thoughts of future wealth and forget the pleasure we at present enjoy.
So took coach and to Windsor, to the Garter, and thither sent for Dr. Childe (60); who come to us, and carried us to St. George's Chappell; and there placed us among the Knights' stalls (and pretty the observation, that no man, but a woman may sit in a Knight's place, where any brass-plates are set); and hither come cushions to us, and a young singing-boy to bring us a copy of the anthem to be sung. And here, for our sakes, had this anthem and the great service sung extraordinary, only to entertain us. It is a noble place indeed, and a good Quire of voices. Great bowing by all the people, the poor Knights particularly, to the Alter.
After prayers, we to see the plate of the chappell, and the robes of Knights, and a man to shew us the banners of the several Knights in being, which hang up over the stalls. And so to other discourse very pretty, about the Order. Was shewn where the late [King] (65) is buried, and King Henry the Eighth, and my Lady [Jane] Seymour.
This being done, to the King's house, and to observe the neatness and contrivance of the house and gates: it is the most romantique castle that is in the world. But, Lord! the prospect that is in the balcone in the Queene's (56) lodgings, and the terrace and walk, are strange things to consider, being the best in the world, sure. Infinitely satisfied I and my wife with all this, she being in all points mightily pleased too, which added to my pleasure; and so giving a great deal of money to this and that man and woman, we to our taverne, and there dined, the Doctor with us; and so took coach and away to Eton, the Doctor (60) with me.
Before we went to Chappell this morning, Kate Joyce, in a stage-coach going toward London, called to me. I went to her and saluted her, but could not get her to stay with us, having company. At Eton I left my wife in the coach, and he and I to the College, and there find all mighty fine. The school good, and the custom pretty of boys cutting their names in the struts of the window when they go to Cambridge, by which many a one hath lived to see himself Provost and Fellow, that had his name in the window standing. To the Hall, and there find the boys' verses, "De Peste"; it being their custom to make verses at Shrove-tide. I read several, and very good ones they were, and better, I think, than ever I made when I was a boy, and in rolls as long and longer than the whole Hall, by much. Here is a picture of Venice hung up given, and a monument made of Sir H. Wotton's giving it to the College.
Thence to the porter's, in the absence of the butler, and did drink of the College beer, which is very good; and went into the back fields to see the scholars play. And so to the chappell, and there saw, among other things, Sir H. Wotton's stone with this Epitaph Hic facet primus hujus sententiae Author:— Disputandi pruritus fit ecclesiae scabies1. But unfortunately the word "Author" was wrong writ, and now so basely altered that it disgraces the stone.
Thence took leave of the Doctor (60), and so took coach, and finely, but sleepy, away home, and got thither about eight at night, and after a little at my office, I to bed; and an houre after, was waked with my wife's quarrelling with Mercer, at which I was angry, and my wife and I fell out. But with much ado to sleep again, I beginning to practise more temper, and to give her her way.
Note 1. TT. "Hic facet primus hujus sententiae Author:— Disputandi pruritus fit ecclesiae scabies" ie Here lies the first auctor of this maxim, an itch for disputation is the incurable disease of the church. Auctor means origininator. The carver of the inscription wrote author. The inscription ends "Nomen alias quære" ie Inquire his name elsewhere.
John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet Street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his [his son] Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King (65)) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His [his son] Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his [his son] Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.
John Evelyn's Diary 06 August 1674. 06 Aug 1674. I went to Groombridge, to see my old friend, Mr. Packer (56); the house built within a moat, in a woody valley. The old house had been the place of confinement of the Duke of Orléans, taken by one Waller (whose house it then was) at the Battle of Agincourt, now demolished, and a new one built in its place, though a far better situation had been on the south of the wood, on a graceful ascent. At some small distance, is a large chapel, not long since built by Mr. Packer's father, on a vow he made to do it on the return of King Charles I (73) out of Spain, 1625, and dedicated to St. Charles, but what saint there was then of that name I am to seek, for, being a Protestant, I conceive it was not Borromeo.
I went to see my farm at Ripe, near Lewes.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 July 1676. 19 Jul 1676. Went to the funeral of Sir William Sanderson (90), husband to the Mother of the Maids (72), and author of two large but mean histories of [his father] King James and King Charles I (75). He was buried at Westminster Abbey.
John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1688. 30 Jan 1688. Being the Martyrdom day of King Charles I (87), our curate made a florid oration against the murder of that excellent Prince, with an exhortation to obedience from the example of David; 1 Samuel xxvi. 6.
John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1689. 30 Jan 1689. The anniversary of King Charles I's (88) MARTYRDOM; but in all the public offices and pulpit prayers, the collects, and litany for the King (38) and [his daughter-in-law] Queen (30) were curtailed and mutilated. Dr. Sharp (43) preached before the Commons, but was disliked, and not thanked for his sermon.
Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (65). Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.
My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. Sir Thomas, who was a hospitable and generous man, died in 1549, and Deene passed to his son Edmund, who married Agnes Bussey, a member of the great Lincohishire family. Sir Edmund Brudenell carried out extensive building operations at Deene, and the numerous initials of E. and A. and the many shields with the Brudenell and Bussey arms show that he considered his alliance with their family an important one. Camden mentions that Sir Edmund had literary and antiquarian tastes, which were also possessed by his nephew Thomas, who succeeded to the estates in 1606. He also built largely, but the great Tower was not finished until about 1628. Sir Thomas was a staunch cavalier, who raised soldiers for the King's garrisons, and he was made a Baron by Charles I. After the Royal cause was lost he suffered the penalty of his loyalty and was imprisoned in the Tower for twenty years. The brave old cavalier kept a most interesting diary during his imprisonment, which is still preserved in the library at Deene; it consists of about 30 or 40 volumes of MS., which give interesting details of his confinement and the principal events of the time.
Henry Murray of Berkhampstead -1672 was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.
Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645 1651: Introduction. When the Diary begins in January 1645, the Civil War was at its height; in June of that year the battle of Naseby was fought. This battle destroyed the King's army in the field, and within another twelve months the garrisons in castle and town were subdued. The city of Oxford capitulated on June 24th, 1646; The Diary is that of a lady living in troubled times, her husband imprisoned, the estate despoiled; leading men in the State brought to execution. The first entry is that Sir John Hotham and his son were executed on Tower Hill. Sir John Hotham was a cousin of Sir Hugh Cholmley the husband of Sir Roger's sister. A later entry is " cap: Brown Bushill was beheaded on Tower Hill by the parle for adhering to the King". Brown Bushill was a sea captain, his mother being Dorothy Cholmley. Even after the Restoration under Charles II there was a family tragedy, Sir Thomas Twisden, Sir Roger's brother, was one of the judges who sentenced Sir Harry Vane to death, his own cousin and near neighbour. They were anxious times of house searchings and imprisonments, and none knew what might come next. On the tombstone of Sir Hugh Cholmley's wife, Elizabeth Twysden Lady Cholmley, are the words " she was very beautifull, of great injenuity a discerning judg* in great dangers had a courage above her sex of a most noble nature compassionate to all in distresse ". Sir Hugh Cholmley mentioned frequently in the Diary is called " my bro. cho"..
Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. The necessity of affairs had exposed [his son] Charles II from his earliest youth to the toils and perils of a bloody war. The fate of the king his father had left him for inheritance nothing but his misfortunes and disgraces. They overtook him everywhere; but it was not until he had struggled with his ill-fortune to the last extremity that he submitted to the decrees of Providence.
All those who were either great on account of their birth or their loyalty had followed him into exile; and all the young persons of the greatest distinction having afterwards joined him, composed a court worthy of a better fate.
Plenty and prosperity, which are thought to tend only to corrupt manners, found nothing to spoil in an indigent and wandering court. Necessity, on the contrary, which produces a thousand advantages whether we will or no, served them for education; and nothing was to be seen among them but an emulation in glory, politeness, and virtue.
With this little court, in such high esteem for merit, the [his son] King of England returned two years prior to the period we mention, to ascend a throne which, to all appearances, he was to fill as worthily as the most glorious of his predecessors. The magnificence displayed on thus occasion was renewed at his coronation.
The death of the [his son] Duke of Gloucester, and of the [his daughter] Princess Royal, which followed soon after, had interrupted the course of this splendour by a tedious mourning, which they quitted at last to prepare for the reception of the Infanta of Portugal.
John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. Evelyn lived in the busy and important times of King Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, King Charles II, King James II, and King William, and early accustomed himself to note such things as occurred, which he thought worthy of remembrance. He was known to, and had much personal intercourse with, the Kings Charles II and James II; and he was in habits of great intimacy with many of the ministers of these two monarchs, and with many of the eminent men of those days, as well among the clergy as the laity. Foreigners distinguished for learning, or arts, who came to England, did not leave it without visiting him.
The following pages contribute extensive and important particulars of this eminent man. They show that he did not travel merely to count steeples, as he expresses himself in one of his Letters: they develop his private character as one of the most amiable kind. With a strong predilection for monarchy, with a personal attachment to Kings Charles II and James II, formed when they resided at Paris, he was yet utterly averse to the arbitrary measures of these monarchs.
Strongly and steadily attached to the doctrine and practice of the Church of England, he yet felt the most liberal sentiments for those who differed from him in opinion. He lived in intimacy with men of all persuasions; nor did he think it necessary to break connection with anyone who had ever been induced to desert the Church of England, and embrace the doctrines of that of Rome. In writing to the brother of a gentleman thus circumstanced, in 1659, he expresses himself in this admirable manner: "For the rest, we must commit to Providence the success of times and mitigation of proselytical fervors; having for my own particular a very great charity for all who sincerely adore the Blessed Jesus, our common and dear Saviour, as being full of hope that God (however the present zeal of some, and the scandals taken by others at the instant [present] affliction of the Church of England may transport them) will at last compassionate our infirmities, clarify our judgments, and make abatement for our ignorances, superstructures, passions, and errors of corrupt times and interests, of which the Romish persuasion can no way acquit herself, whatever the present prosperity and secular polity may pretend. But God will make all things manifest in his own time, only let us possess ourselves in patience and charity. This will cover a multitude of imperfections"..