Biography of Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672

In May 1638 [his father] George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny 1618-1642 (19) and Catherine Howard Countess Newburgh -1650 were married. They married in secret against the wishes of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (37).

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Catherine Howard Countess Newburgh -1650. In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

On 07 Mar 1639 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 was born to [his father] George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny 1618-1642 (20) and Catherine Howard Countess Newburgh -1650.

On 10 Dec 1645 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (6) was created 1st Earl Lichfield 1C 1645, 1st Baron Stuart.

Around Sep 1648 [his step-father] James Livingston 1st Earl Newburgh 1622-1670 (26) and Catherine Howard Countess Newburgh -1650 were married.

In 1650 [his mother] Catherine Howard Countess Newburgh -1650 died.

On 10 Aug 1660 Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (11) died of smallpox at Paris. He was buried in on 04 Sep 1660 in the Richmond Vault, Westminster Abbey. Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (21) succeeded 6th Duke Lennox, 3rd Duke Richmond 2C 1641. Mary Stewart Countess Arran 1651-1668 (9) succeeded 5th Baron Clifton.

On 15 Apr 1661 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (22) was appointed 462nd Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

John Evelyn's Diary 30 April 1663. 30 Apr 1663. Came his Majesty (32) to honor my poor villa with his presence, viewing the gardens, and even every room of the house, and was pleased to take a small refreshment. There were with him the Duke of Richmond (24), Earl of St. Alban's (58), Lord Lauderdale (46), and several persons of quality.

Before 05 Aug 1661 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Thomas Hales 3rd Baronet Hales 1695-1762 and John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Ham House Ham Richmond. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 and Elizabeth Murray Duchess Lauderdale 1626-1698. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 August 1663. 03 Aug 1663. Up both of us very betimes and to the Yard, and see the men called over and choose some to be discharged. Then to the Ropehouses and viewed them all and made an experiment which was the stronger, English or Riga hemp, the latter proved the stronger, but the other is very good, and much better we believe than any but Riga. We did many other things this morning, and I caused the Timber measurer to measure some timber, where I found much fault and with reason, which we took public notice of, and did give them admonition for the time to come.

At noon Mr. Pett (52) did give us a very great dinner, too big in all conscience, so that most of it was left untouched. Here was Collonell Newman and several other gentlemen of the country and officers of the yard.

After dinner they withdrew and Commissioner Pett (52), Mr. Coventry (35) and I sat close to our business all the noon in his parler, and there run through much business and answered several people. And then in the evening walked in the garden, where we conjured him to look after the yard, and for the time to come that he would take the whole faults and ill management of the yard upon himself, he having full power and our concurrence to suspend or do anything else that he thinks fit to keep people and officers to their duty. He having made good promises, though I fear his performance, we parted (though I spoke so freely that he could have been angry) good friends, and in some hopes that matters will be better for the time to come.

So walked to the Hillhouse (which we did view and the yard about it, and do think to put it off as soon as we can conveniently) and there made ourselves ready and mounted and rode to Gravesend (my riding Coate not being to be found I fear it is stole) on our way being overtaken by Captain Browne that serves the office of the Ordnance at Chatham. All the way, though he was a rogue and served the late times all along, yet he kept us in discourse of the many services that he did for many of the King's party, lords and Dukes, and among others he recovered a dog that was stolne from Mr. Cary (head-keeper of the buck-hounds to the King (33)) and preserved several horses of the Duke of Richmond's (24), and his best horse he was forst to put out his eyes and keep him for a stallion to preserve him from being carried away. But he gone at last upon my enquiry to tell us how (he having been here too for survey of the Ropeyard) the day's work of the Rope-makers become settled, which pleased me very well. Being come to our Inn Mr. Coventry (35) and I sat, and talked till 9 or 10 a-clock and then to bed.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

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In 1664 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (24) lived at 13 14 Great Piazza Covent Garden.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 February 1664. 22 Feb 1664. Thence, meeting Mr. Moore, and to the Exchange and there found my wife at pretty Doll's, and thence by coach set her at my uncle Wight's (62), to go with my aunt to market once more against Lent, and I to the Coffee-house, and thence to the 'Change, my chief business being to enquire about the manner of other countries keeping of their masts wet or dry, and got good advice about it, and so home, and alone ate a bad, cold dinner, my people being at their washing all day, and so to the office and all the afternoon upon my letter to Mr. Coventry (36) about keeping of masts, and ended it very well at night and wrote it fair over.

This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the King (33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (47), Buckingham (36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old Duke of Buckingham (71) could never get of the King (33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (46). He loves not the Queen (25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the King (33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the King (33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the King (33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the King (33)) be guarded, as the Queen-Mother's (54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.

That my Lord Lauderdale (47), being Middleton's (56) enemy, and one that scorns the Chancellor (55) even to open affronts before the King (33), hath got the whole power of Scotland into his hand; whereas the other day he was in a fair way to have had his whole estate, and honour, and life, voted away from him.

That the King (33) hath done himself all imaginable wrong in the business of my Lord Antrim (54), in Ireland; who, though he was the head of rebels, yet he by his letter owns to have acted by his father's and mother's, and his commissions; but it seems the truth is, he hath obliged himself, upon the clearing of his estate, to settle it upon a daughter of the Queene-Mother's (25) (by my Lord Germin (58), I suppose,) in marriage, be it to whom the Queene (54) pleases; which is a sad story.

It seems a daughter of the Duke of Lenox's (24) was, by force, going to be married the other day at Somerset House, to Harry Germin (28); but she got away and run to the King (33), and he says he will protect her. She is, it seems, very near akin to the King (33): Such mad doings there are every day among them!

The rape upon a woman at Turnstile the other day, her husband being bound in his shirt, they both being in bed together, it being night, by two Frenchmen, who did not only lye with her but abused her with a linke, is hushed up for £300, being the Queen Mother's (25) servants.

There was a French book in verse, the other day, translated and presented to the Duke of Monmouth (14) in such a high stile, that the Duke of York (30), he tells me, was mightily offended at it.

The Duke of Monmouth's (14) mother's (34) brother hath a place at Court; and being a Welchman (I think he told me) will talk very broad of the King's being married to his sister (34).

The King (33) did the other day, at the Council, commit my Lord Digby's' (51) chaplin, and steward, and another servant, who went upon the process begun there against their lord, to swear that they saw him at church, end receive the Sacrament as a Protestant, (which, the judges said, was sufficient to prove him such in the eye of the law); the King (33), I say, did commit them all to the Gate-house, notwithstanding their pleading their dependance upon him, and the faith they owed him as their lord, whose bread they eat. And that the King (33) should say, that he would soon see whether he was King, or Digby (51).

That the Queene-Mother (25) hath outrun herself in her expences, and is now come to pay very ill, or run in debt; the money being spent that she received for leases. He believes there is not any money laid up in bank, as I told him some did hope; but he says, from the best informers he can assure me there is no such thing, nor any body that should look after such a thing; and that there is not now above £80,000 of the Dunkirke money left in stock.

That Oliver in the year when he spent £1,400,000 in the Navy, did spend in the whole expence of the Kingdom £2,600,000. That all the Court are mad for a Dutch war; but both he and I did concur, that it was a thing rather to be dreaded than hoped for; unless by the French King's (25) falling upon Flanders, they and the Dutch should be divided. That our Embassador (64) had, it is true, an audience; but in the most dishonourable way that could be; for the Princes of the Blood (though invited by our Embassador (64), which was the greatest absurdity that ever Embassador committed these 400 years) were not there; and so were not said to give place to our King's Embassador. And that our King did openly say, the other day in the Privy Chamber, that he would not be hectored out of his right and preeminencys by the King of France (25), as great as he was.

That the Pope is glad to yield to a peace with the French (as the newes-book says), upon the basest terms that ever was. That the talke which these people about our King, that I named before, have, is to tell him how neither privilege of Parliament nor City is any thing; but his will is all, and ought to be so: and their discourse, it seems, when they are alone, is so base and sordid, that it makes the eares of the very gentlemen of the back-stairs (I think he called them) to tingle to hear it spoke in the King's hearing; and that must be very bad indeed.

That my Lord Digby (51) did send to Lisbon a couple of priests, to search out what they could against the Chancellor (55) concerning the match, as to the point of his knowing before-hand that the Queene (54) was not capable of bearing children; and that something was given her to make her so. But as private as they were, when they came thither they were clapped up prisoners.

That my Lord Digby (51) endeavours what he can to bring the business into the House of Commons, hoping there to master the Chancellor (55), there being many enemies of his there; but I hope the contrary. That whereas the late King did mortgage 'Clarendon' to somebody for £20,000, and this to have given it to the Duke of Albemarle (55), and he sold it to my Chancellor (55), whose title of Earldome is fetched from thence; the King (33) hath this day sent his order to the Privy Seale for the payment of this £20,000 to my Chancellor (55), to clear the mortgage!

Ireland in a very distracted condition about the hard usage which the Protestants meet with, and the too good which the Catholiques. And from altogether, God knows my heart, I expect nothing but ruine can follow, unless things are better ordered in a little time.

He being gone my wife came and told me how kind my uncle Wight (62) had been to her to-day, and that though she says that all his kindness comes from respect to her she discovers nothing but great civility from him, yet but what she says he otherwise will tell me, but to-day he told her plainly that had she a child it should be his heir, and that should I or she want he would be a good friend to us, and did give my wife instructions to consent to all his wife says at any time, she being a pettish woman, which argues a design I think he has of keeping us in with his wife in order to our good sure, and he declaring her jealous of him that so he dares not come to see my wife as otherwise he would do and will endeavour to do. It looks strange putting all together, but yet I am in hopes he means well.

My aunt also is mighty open to my wife and tells her mighty plain how her husband did intend to double her portion to her at his death as a jointure. That he will give presently £100 to her niece Mary and a good legacy at his death, and it seems did as much to the other sister, which vexed [me] to think that he should bestow so much upon his wife's friends daily as he do, but it cannot be helped for the time past, and I will endeavour to remedy it for the time to come. After all this discourse with my wife at my office alone, she home to see how the wash goes on and I to make an end of my work, and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The tables at which the King (33) dined in public.-B.

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. Before 1628 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. In 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 wearing his Garter Robes and Leg Garter. Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. In 1619 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. Around 1625 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674. Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 May 1664. 13 May 1664. Up before three o'clock, and a little after upon the water, it being very light as at noon, and a bright sunrising; but by and by a rainbow appeared, the first that ever in a morning I saw, and then it fell a-raining a little, but held up again, and I to Woolwich, where before all the men came to work I with Deane (30) spent two hours upon the new ship, informing myself in the names and natures of many parts of her to my great content, and so back again, without doing any thing else, and after shifting myself away to Westminster, looking after Mr. Maes's business and others.

In the Painted Chamber I heard a fine conference between some of the two Houses upon the Bill for Conventicles. The Lords would be freed from having their houses searched by any but the Lord Lieutenant of the County; and upon being found guilty, to be tried only by their peers; and thirdly, would have it added, that whereas the Bill says, "That that, among other things, shall be a conventicle wherein any such meeting is found doing any thing contrary to the Liturgy of the Church of England", they would have it added, "or practice". The Commons to the Lords said, that they knew not what might hereafter be found out which might be called the practice of the Church of England; for there are many things may be said to be the practice of the Church, which were never established by any law, either common, statute, or canon; as singing of psalms, binding up prayers at the end of the Bible, and praying extempore before and after sermon: and though these are things indifferent, yet things for aught they at present know may be started, which may be said to be the practice of the Church which would not be fit to allow. For the Lords' priviledges, Mr. Walter told them how tender their predecessors had been of the priviledges of the Lords; but, however, where the peace of the Kingdom stands in competition with them, they apprehend those priviledges must give place. He told them that he thought, if they should owne all to be the priviledges of the Lords which might be demanded, they should be led like the man (who granted leave to his neighbour to pull off his horse's tail, meaning that he could not do it at once) that hair by hair had his horse's tail pulled off indeed: so the Commons, by granting one thing after another, might be so served by the Lords. Mr. Vaughan (60), whom I could not to my grief perfectly hear, did say, if that they should be obliged in this manner to, exempt the Lords from every thing, it would in time come to pass that whatever (be [it] never so great) should be voted by the Commons as a thing penall for a commoner, the contrary should be thought a priviledge to the Lords: that also in this business, the work of a conventicle being but the work of an hour, the cause of a search would be over before a Lord Lieutenant, who may be many miles off, can be sent for; and that all this dispute is but about £100; for it is said in the Act, that it shall be banishment or payment of £100. I thereupon heard the Duke of Lenox (25) say, that there might be Lords who could not always be ready to lose £100, or some such thing: They broke up without coming to any end in it. There was also in the Commons' House a great quarrel about Mr. Prin (64), and it was believed that he should have been sent to the Towre, for adding something to a Bill (after it was ordered to be engrossed) of his own head—a Bill for measures for wine and other things of that sort, and a Bill of his owne bringing in; but it appeared he could not mean any hurt in it. But, however, the King (33) was fain to write in his behalf, and all was passed over.

But it is worth my remembrance, that I saw old Ryly the Herald, and his son; and spoke to his son, who told me in very bad words concerning Mr. Prin (64), that the King (33) had given him an office of keeping the Records; but that he never comes thither, nor had been there these six months: so that I perceive they expect to get his imployment from him. Thus every body is liable to be envied and supplanted.

At noon over to the Leg, where Sir G. Ascue (48), Sir Robt. Parkhurst (61) and Sir W. Pen (43) dined. A good dinner and merry.

Thence to White Hall walking up and down a great while, but the Council not meeting soon enough I went homeward, calling upon my cozen Roger Pepys (47), with whom I talked and heard so much from him of his desire that I would see my brother's debts paid, and things still of that nature tending to my parting with what I get with pain to serve others' expenses that I was cruelly vexed.

Thence to Sir R. Bernard (63), and there heard something of Pigott's delay of paying our money, that that also vexed me mightily.

So home and there met with a letter from my cozen Scott, which tells me that he is resolved to meddle no more with our business, of administering for my father, which altogether makes me almost distracted to think of the trouble that I am like to meet with by other folks' business more than ever I hope to have by my owne. So with great trouble of mind to bed.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral George Ayscue 1616-1672. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 July 1665. 24 Jul 1665. And then up and home, and there dressed myself, and by appointment to Deptford, to Sir G. Carteret's (55), between six and seven o'clock, where I found him and my George Carteret 1st Baronet Metesches 1610-1680 (55) and Lady (63) almost ready, and by and by went over to the ferry, and took coach and six horses nobly for Dagenhams, himself and lady and their little daughter, Louisonne, and myself in the coach; where, when we come, we were bravely entertained and spent the day most pleasantly with the young ladies, and I so merry as never more. Only for want of sleep, and drinking of strong beer had a rheum in one of my eyes, which troubled me much. Here with great content all the day, as I think I ever passed a day in my life, because of the contentfulnesse of our errand, and the noblenesse of the company and our manner of going. But I find Mr. Carteret (24) yet as backward almost in his caresses, as he was the first day. !At night, about seven o'clock, took coach again; but, Lord! to see in what a pleasant humour Sir G. Carteret (55) hath been both coming and going; so light, so fond, so merry, so boyish (so much content he takes in this business), it is one of the greatest wonders I ever saw in my mind. But once in serious discourse he did say that, if he knew his son to be a debauchee, as many and, most are now-a-days about the Court, he would tell it, and my Lady Jem. should not have him; and so enlarged both he and she about the baseness and looseness of the Court, and told several stories of the Duke of Monmouth (16), and Richmond (26), and some great person, my Lord of Ormond's (54) second son (26), married to a Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran 1639-1685 (26) and lady (14) of extraordinary quality (fit and that might have been made a wife for the King (35) himself), about six months since, that this great person hath given the pox to———; and discoursed how much this would oblige the Kingdom if the King (35) would banish some of these great persons publiquely from the Court, and wished it with all their hearts.

We set out so late that it grew dark, so as we doubted the losing of our way; and a long time it was, or seemed, before we could get to the water-side, and that about eleven at night, where, when we come, all merry (only my eye troubled me, as I said), we found no ferryboat was there, nor no oares to carry us to Deptford. However, afterwards oares was called from the other side at Greenwich; but, when it come, a frolique, being mighty merry, took us, and there we would sleep all night in the coach in the Isle of Doggs. So we did, there being now with us my Lady Scott, and with great pleasure drew up the glasses, and slept till daylight, and then some victuals and wine being brought us, we ate a bit, and so up and took boat, merry as might be; and when come to Sir G. Carteret's (55), there all to bed.

In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688.

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In 1666 William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (64) assisted the Duchess of Cleveland (25) in her plan to cause King Charles II (35) to surprise his latest favourite, [his future wife] 'La Belle Stuart' (18) in company of the Duke of Richmond (26).

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties.

On 03 Dec 1666 James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 (3) was created 1st Duke Cambridge 1C 1664 by his father King James II (33). See Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 December 1666.

Those present included Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (36), King James II (33), Prince Rupert (46), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury 1591-1668 (75), George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 (57), Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire 1587-1669 (79), Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (27), Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671 (64), James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671.

In Mar 1667 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (27) and [his wife] Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702 (19) were married. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess Lennox, Duke Richmond 2C 1641.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 March 1667. 18 Mar 1667. Up betimes, and to the office to write fair my paper for Prince (47) against anon, and then to other business, where all the morning. Prince (47) by and by comes, and I did read over and give him the paper, which I think I have much obliged him in.

A little before noon comes my old good friend, Mr. Richard Cumberland (35), to see me, being newly come to town, whom I have not seen almost, if not quite, these seven years. In his plain country-parson's dress. I could not spend much time with him, but prayed him come with his brother, who was with him, to dine with me to-day; which he did do and I had a great deal of his good company; and a most excellent person he is as any I know, and one that I am sorry should be lost and buried in a little country town, and would be glad to remove him thence; and the truth is, if he would accept of my sister's fortune, I should give £100 more with him than to a man able to settle her four times as much as, I fear, he is able to do; and I will think of it, and a way how to move it, he having in discourse said he was not against marrying, nor yet engaged. I shewed him my closet, and did give him some very good musique, Mr. Caesar being here upon his lute.

They gone I to the office, where all the afternoon very busy, and among other things comes Captain Jenifer to me, a great servant of my Lord Sandwich's (41), who tells me that he do hear for certain, though I do not yet believe it, that Sir W. Coventry (39) is to be Secretary of State, and my Lord Arlington (49) Lord Treasurer. I only wish that the latter were as fit for the latter office as the former is for the former, and more fit than my Lord Arlington (49). Anon Sir W. Pen (45) come and talked with me in the garden, and tells me that for certain the Duke of Richmond (28) is to marry [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (19), he having this day brought in an account of his estate and debts to the King (36) on that account.

At night home to supper and so to bed. My father's letter this day do tell me of his own continued illness, and that my mother grows so much worse, that he fears she cannot long continue, which troubles me very much. This day, Mr. Caesar told me a pretty experiment of his, of angling with a minikin, a gut-string varnished over, which keeps it from swelling, and is beyond any hair for strength and smallness. The secret I like mightily.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 March 1667. 19 Mar 1667. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At noon dined at home very pleasantly with my wife, and after dinner with a great deal of pleasure had her sing, which she begins to do with some pleasure to me, more than I expected.

Then to the office again, where all the afternoon close, and at night home to supper and to bed. It comes in my mind this night to set down how a house was the other day in Bishopsgate Street blowed up with powder; a house that was untenanted, and between a flax shop and a—————-, both bad for fire; but, thanks be to God, it did no more hurt; and all do conclude it a plot. I would also remember to my shame how I was pleased yesterday, to find the righteous maid of Magister Griffin sweeping of 'nostra' office, 'elle con the Roman nariz and bonne' body which I did heretofore like, and do still refresh me to think 'que elle' is come to us, that I may 'voir her aliquando' [Note. 'See her frequently/sometimes/now and then'].

This afternoon I am told again that the town do talk of my Lord Arlington's (49) being to be Lord Treasurer, and Sir W. Coventry (39) to be Secretary of State; and that for certain the match is concluded between the Duke of Richmond (28) and [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (19), which I am well enough pleased with; and it is pretty to consider how his quality will allay people's talk; whereas, had a meaner person married her, he would for certain have been reckoned a cuckold at first-dash.

Poll Bill

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 March 1667. 20 Mar 1667. Up pretty betimes, and to the Old Swan, and there drank at Michell's, but his wife is not there, but gone to her mother's, who is ill, and so hath staid there since Sunday.

Thence to Westminster Hall and drank at the Swan, and 'baiserais the petite misse'; and so to Mrs. Martin's.... I sent for some burnt wine, and drank and then away, not pleased with my folly, and so to the Hall again, and there staid a little, and so home by water again, where, after speaking with my wife, I with Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir J. Minnes (68) to our church to the vestry, to be assessed by the late Poll Bill, where I am rated as an Esquire, and for my office, all will come to about £50. But not more than I expected, nor so much by a great deal as I ought to be, for all my offices. So shall be glad to escape so.

Thence by water again to White Hall, and there up into the house, and do hear that newes is come now that the enemy do incline again to a peace, but could hear no particulars, so do not believe it. I had a great mind to have spoke with the King (36), about a business proper enough for me, about the French prize man-of-war, how he would have her altered, only out of a desire to show myself mindful of business, but my linen was so dirty and my clothes mean, that I neither thought it fit to do that, nor go to other persons at the Court, with whom I had business, which did vex me, and I must remedy [it]. Here I hear that the Duke of Richmond (28) and [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (19) were betrothed last night.

Thence to Westminster Hall again, and there saw Betty Michell, and bought a pair of gloves of her, she being fain to keep shop there, her mother being sick, and her father gathering of the tax. I 'aimais her de toute my corazon'.

Thence, my mind wandering all this day upon 'mauvaises amours' which I be merry for.

So home by water again, where I find my wife gone abroad, so I to Sir W. Batten (66) to dinner, and had a good dinner of ling and herrings pie, very good meat, best of the kind that ever I had.

Having dined, I by coach to the Temple, and there did buy a little book or two, and it is strange how "Rycaut's Discourse of Turky", which before the fire I was asked but 8s. for, there being all but twenty-two or thereabouts burned, I did now offer 20s., and he demands 50s., and I think I shall give it him, though it be only as a monument of the fire.

So to the New Exchange, where I find my wife, and so took her to Unthanke's, and left her there, and I to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, only out of idleness, and to get some little pleasure to my 'mauvais flammes', but sped not, so back and took up my wife; and to Polichinelli at Charing Crosse, which is prettier and prettier, and so full of variety that it is extraordinary good entertainment.

Thence by coach home, that is, my wife home, and I to the Exchange, and there met with Fenn, who tells me they have yet no orders out of the Exchequer for money upon the Acts, which is a thing not to be borne by any Prince of understanding or care, for no money can be got advanced upon the Acts only from the weight of orders in form out of the Exchequer so long time after the passing of the Acts.

So home to the office a little, where I met with a sad letter from my brother, who tells me my mother is declared by the doctors to be past recovery, and that my father is also very ill every hour: so that I fear we shall see a sudden change there. God fit them and us for it! So to Sir W. Pen's (45), where my wife was, and supped with a little, but yet little mirth, and a bad, nasty supper, which makes me not love the family, they do all things so meanly, to make a little bad show upon their backs.

Thence home and to bed, very much troubled about my father's and my mother's illness.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 April 1667. 16 Apr 1667. Up, and to the office, where sat all the morning, at noon home to dinner, and thence in haste to carry my wife to see the new play I saw yesterday, she not knowing it. But there, contrary to expectation, find "The Silent Woman". However, in; and there Knipp come into the pit. I took her by me, and here we met with Mrs. Horsley, the pretty woman—an acquaintance of Mercer's, whose house is burnt. Knipp tells me the King (36) was so angry at the liberty taken by Lacy's (52), part to abuse him to his face, that he commanded they should act no more, till Moone went and got leave for them to act again, but not this play. The King (36) mighty angry; and it was bitter indeed, but very true and witty. I never was more taken with a play than I am with this "Silent Woman", as old as it is, and as often as I have seen it. There is more wit in it than goes to ten new plays.

Thence with my wife and Knipp to Mrs. Pierce's, and saw her closet again, and liked her picture.

Thence took them all to the Cake-house, in Southampton Market-place, where Pierce told us the story how, in good earnest, [the King (36)] is offended with the Duke of Richmond's (28) marrying, and [his wife] Mrs. Stewart's (19) sending the King (36) his jewels again. As she tells it, it is the noblest romance and example of a brave lady that ever I read in my life. Pretty to hear them talk of yesterday's play, and I durst not own to my wife to have seen it.

Thence home and to Sir W. Batten's (66), where we have made a bargain for the ending of some of the trouble about some of our prizes for £1400.

So home to look on my new books that I have lately bought, and then to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 April 1667. 26 Apr 1667. Up, and by coach with Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (46) to White Hall, and there saw the Duke of Albemarle (58), who is not well, and do grow crazy.

Thence I to St. James's, to meet Sir G. Carteret (57), and did, and Lord Berkely (65), to get them (as we would have done the Duke of Albemarle (58)) to the meeting of the Lords of Appeale in the business of one of our prizes. With them to the meeting of the Guinny company, and there staid, and went with Lord Berkely. While I was waiting for him in the Matted Gallery, a young man was most finely working in Indian inke the great picture of the King (36) and Queen (28) sitting, [Charles I and Henrietta Maria.] by Van Dyke (68); and did it very finely.

Thence to Westminster Hall to hear our cause, but [it] did not come before them to-day, so went down and walked below in the Hall, and there met with Ned Pickering (49), who tells me the ill newes of his nephew Gilbert (15), who is turned a very rogue, and then I took a turn with Mr. Evelyn (46), with whom I walked two hours, till almost one of the clock: talking of the badness of the Government, where nothing but wickedness, and wicked men and women command the King (36): that it is not in his nature to gainsay any thing that relates to his pleasures; that much of it arises from the sickliness of our Ministers of State, who cannot be about him as the idle companions are, and therefore he gives way to the young rogues; and then, from the negligence of the Clergy, that a Bishop shall never be seen about him, as the King of France (28) hath always: that the King (36) would fain have some of the same gang to be Lord Treasurer (60), which would be yet worse, for now some delays are put to the getting gifts of the King (36), as that whore my Baroness Byron (40)1, who had been, as he called it, the King's seventeenth whore abroad, did not leave him till she had got him to give her an order for £4000 worth of plate to be made for her; but by delays, thanks be to God! she died before she had it. !He tells me mighty stories of the King of France (28), how great a Prince he is. He hath made a code to shorten the law; he hath put out all the ancient commanders of castles that were become hereditary; he hath made all the Fryers subject to the bishops, which before were only subject to Rome, and so were hardly the King's subjects, and that none shall become 'religieux' but at such an age, which he thinks will in a few, years ruin the Pope, and bring France into a patriarchate. He confirmed to me the business of the want of paper at the Council-table the other day, which I have observed; Wooly being to have found it, and did, being called, tell the King (36) to his face the reason of it; and Mr. Evelyn (46) tells me several of the menial servants of the Court lacking bread, that have not received a farthing wages since the King's coming in. He tells me the King of France (28) hath his mistresses, but laughs at the foolery of our King, that makes his bastards Princes2, and loses his revenue upon them, and makes his mistresses his masters and the King of France (28) did never grant Lavalliere (22)3 any thing to bestow on others, and gives a little subsistence, but no more, to his bastards.

He told me the whole story of [his wife] Mrs. Stewart's (19) going away from Court, he knowing her well; and believes her, up to her leaving the Court, to be as virtuous as any woman in the world: and told me, from a Lord that she told it to but yesterday, with her own mouth, and a sober man, that when the Duke of Richmond (28) did make love to her, she did ask the King (36), and he did the like also; and that the King (36) did not deny it, and [she] told this Lord that she was come to that pass as to resolve to have married any gentleman of £1500 a-year that would have had her in honour; for it was come to that pass, that she could not longer continue at Court without prostituting herself to the King (36)4, whom she had so long kept off, though he had liberty more than any other had, or he ought to have, as to dalliance5. She told this Lord that she had reflected upon the occasion she had given the world to think her a bad woman, and that she had no way but to marry and leave the Court, rather in this way of discontent than otherwise, that the world might see that she sought not any thing but her honour; and that she will never come to live at Court more than when she comes to town to come to kiss the Queene (57) her Mistress's hand: and hopes, though she hath little reason to hope, she can please her Lord so as to reclaim him, that they may yet live comfortably in the country on his estate. She told this Lord that all the jewells she ever had given her at Court, or any other presents, more than the King's allowance of £700 per annum out of the Privypurse for her clothes, were, at her first coming the King (36) did give her a necklace of pearl of about £1100 and afterwards, about seven months since, when the King (36) had hopes to have obtained some courtesy of her, the King (36) did give her some jewells, I have forgot what, and I think a pair of pendants. The Duke of York (33), being once her Valentine, did give her a jewell of about £800; and my Lord Mandeville (33), her Valentine this year, a ring of about £300; and the King of France (28) would have had her mother, who, he says, is one of the most cunning women in the world, to have let her stay in France, saying that he loved her not as a mistress, but as one that he could marry as well as any lady in France; and that, if she might stay, for the honour of his Court he would take care she should not repent. But her mother, by command of the Queen-Mother (57), thought rather to bring her into England; and the King of France (28) did give her a jewell: so that Mr. Evelyn (46) believes she may be worth in jewells about £6000, and that that is all that she hath in the world: and a worthy woman; and in this hath done as great an act of honour as ever was done by woman.

That now the Countesse Castlemayne (26) do carry all before her: and among other arguments to prove [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (19) to have been honest to the last, he says that the King's keeping in still with my Baroness Castlemayne (26) do show it; for he never was known to keep two mistresses in his life, and would never have kept to her had he prevailed any thing with [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (19).

She is gone yesterday with her Lord to Cobham. He did tell me of the ridiculous humour of our King and Knights of the Garter the other day, who, whereas heretofore their robes were only to be worn during their ceremonies and service, these, as proud of their coats, did wear them all day till night, and then rode into the Parke with them on. Nay, and he tells me he did see my Lord Oxford (40) and the Duke of Monmouth (18) in a Hackney-coach with two footmen in the Parke, with their robes on; which is a most scandalous thing, so as all gravity may be said to be lost among us.

By and by we discoursed of Sir Thomas Clifford (36), whom I took for a very rich and learned man, and of the great family of that name. He tells me he is only a man of about seven-score pounds a-year, of little learning more than the law of a justice of peace, which he knows well: a parson's son, got to be burgess in a little borough in the West, and here fell into the acquaintance of my Lord Arlington (49), whose creature he is, and never from him; a man of virtue, and comely, and good parts enough; and hath come into his place with a great grace, though with a great skip over the heads of a great many, as Chichly and Duncum, and some Lords that did expect it.

By the way, he tells me, that of all the great men of England there is none that endeavours more to raise those that he takes into favour than my Lord Arlington (49); and that, on that score, he is much more to be made one's patron than my Chancellor (58), who never did, nor never will do, any thing, but for money! After having this long discourse we parted, about one of the clock, and so away by water home, calling upon Michell, whose wife and girle are pretty well, and I home to dinner, and after dinner with Sir W. Batten (66) to White Hall, there to attend the Duke of York (33) before council, where we all met at his closet and did the little business we had, and here he did tell us how the King of France (28) is intent upon his design against Flanders, and hath drawn up a remonstrance of the cause of the war, and appointed the 20th of the next month for his rendezvous, and himself to prepare for the campaign the 30th, so that this, we are in hopes, will keep him in employment. Turenne is to be his general. Here was Carcasses business unexpectedly moved by him, but what was done therein appears in my account of his case in writing by itself. Certain newes of the Dutch being abroad on our coast with twenty-four great ships.

This done Sir W. Batten (66) and I back again to London, and in the way met my Lady Newcastle (44) going with her coaches and footmen all in velvet: herself, whom I never saw before, as I have heard her often described, for all the town-talk is now-a-days of her extravagancies, with her velvetcap, her hair about her ears; many black patches, because of pimples about her mouth; naked-necked, without any thing about it, and a black just-au-corps. She seemed to me a very comely woman: but I hope to see more of her on Mayday. My mind is mightily of late upon a coach.

At home, to the office, where late spending all the evening upon entering in long hand our late passages with Carcasse for memory sake, and so home in great pain in my back by the uneasiness of Sir W. Batten's (66) coach driving hard this afternoon over the stones to prevent coming too late. So at night to supper in great pain, and to bed, where lay in great pain, not able to turn myself all night.

Note 1. Eleanor (40), daughter of Robert Needham, Viscount Kilmurrey, and widow of Peter Warburton, became in 1644 the second wife of John Byron (68), first Lord Byron. Died 1663. B.

Note 2. Louis made his own bastards dukes and Princes, and legitimatized them as much as he could, connecting them also by marriage with the real blood-royal. B.

Note 3. Louise Francoise de la Baume le Blanc de la Valliere (22) had four children by Louis XIV., of whom only two survived - Marie Anne Bourbon, called Mademoiselle de Blois, born in 1666, afterwards married to the Prince de Conti (6), and the Comte de Vermandois, born in 1667. In that year (the very year in which Evelyn was giving this account to Pepys), the Duchy of Vaujour and two baronies were created in favour of La Valliere, and her daughter, who, in the deed of creation, was legitimatized, and styled Princess. B.

Note 4. Even at a much later time Mrs. GoDolphin well resolved "not to talk foolishly to men, more especially the King (36)",—"be sure never to talk to the King (36)" ("Life", by Evelyn). These expressions speak volumes as to Charles's character. B.

Note 5. Evelyn evidently believed the Duchess of Richmond to be innocent; and his testimony, coupled with her own declaration, ought to weigh down all the scandal which Pepys reports from other sources. B.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1656 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Aubrey Vere 20th Earl Oxford 1627-1703. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1630-1673. Before 1652. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 July 1667. 17 Jul 1667. Home, and to dinner, and by and by comes Mr. Pierce, who is interested in the Panther, for some advice, and then comes Creed, and he and I spent the whole afternoon till eight at night walking and talking of sundry things public and private in the garden, but most of all of the unhappy state of this nation at this time by the negligence of the King (37) and his Council. The Duke of Buckingham (39) is, it seems, set at liberty, without any further charge against him or other clearing of him, but let to go out; which is one of the strangest instances of the fool's play with which all publick things are done in this age, that is to be apprehended. And it is said that when he was charged with making himself popular—as indeed he is, for many of the discontented Parliament, Sir Robert Howard (41) and Sir Thomas Meres, and others, did attend at the Council-chamber when he was examined—he should answer, that whoever was committed to prison by my Chancellor (58) or my Lord Arlington (49), could not want being popular. But it is worth considering the ill state a Minister of State is in, under such a Prince as ours is; for, undoubtedly, neither of those two great men would have been so fierce against the Duke of Buckingham (39) at the Council-table the other day, had they [not] been assured of the King's good liking, and supporting them therein: whereas, perhaps at the desire of my Baroness Castlemayne (26), who, I suppose, hath at last overcome the King (37), the Duke of Buckingham (39) is well received again, and now these men delivered up to the interest he can make for his revenge. He told me over the story of [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (20), much after the manner which I was told it long since, and have entered it in this book, told me by Mr. Evelyn (46); only he says it is verily believed that the King (37) did never intend to marry her to any but himself, and that the Duke of York (33) and Chancellor (58) were jealous of it; and that [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (20) might be got with child by the King (37), or somebody else, and the King (37) own a marriage before his contract, for it is but a contract, as he tells me, to this day, with the Queene (57), and so wipe their noses of the Crown; and that, therefore, the Duke of York (33) and Chancellor (58) did do all they could to forward the match with my Lord Duke of Richmond (28), that she might be married out of the way; but, above all, it is a worthy part that this good lady hath acted.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 December 1667. 26 Dec 1667. Up and to Westminster, and there to the Swan, and by chance met Mr. Spicer and another 'Chequer clerk, and there made them drink, and there talked of the credit the 'Chequer is now come to and will in a little time, and so away homeward, and called at my bookseller's, and there bought Mr. Harrington's (56) works, "Oceana", &c., and two other books, which cost me £4, and so home, and there eat a bit, and then with my wife to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Surprizall"; which did not please me to-day, the actors not pleasing me; and especially Nell's (17) acting of a serious part, which she spoils. Here met with Sir W. Pen (46), and sat by him, and home by coach with him, and there to my office a while, and then home to supper and to bed. I hear this day that [his wife] Mrs. Stewart (20) do at this day keep a great court at Somerset House, with her husband the Duke of Richmond (28), she being visited for her beauty's sake by people, as the Queen (29) is, at nights; and they say also that she is likely to go to Court again, and there put my Baroness Castlemayne's (27) nose out of joynt. God knows that would make a great turn. This day I was invited to have gone to my cozen Mary Pepys' burial, my uncle Thomas' (72) daughter, but could not.

Before 08 Oct 1699 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Around1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Before 14 Nov 1687 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 December 1667. 27 Dec 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there walked with Creed in the Matted Gallery till by and by a Committee for Tangier met: the Duke of York (34) there; and there I did discourse over to them their condition as to money, which they were all mightily, as I could desire, satisfied with, but the Duke of Albemarle (59), who takes the part of the Guards against us in our supplies of money, which is an odd consideration for a dull, heavy blockhead as he is, understanding no more of either than a goose: but the ability and integrity of Sir W. Coventry (39), in all the King's concernments, I do and must admire. After the Committee up, I and Sir W. Coventry (39) walked an hour in the gallery, talking over many businesses, and he tells me that there are so many things concur to make him and his Fellow Commissioners unable to go through the King's work that he do despair of it, every body becoming an enemy to them in their retrenchments, and the King (37) unstable, the debts great and the King's present occasions for money great and many and pressing, the bankers broke and every body keeping in their money, while the times are doubtful what will stand. But he says had they come in two years ago they doubt not to have done what the King (37) would by this time, or were the King (37) in the condition as heretofore, when the Chancellor (58) was great, to be able to have what sums of money they pleased of the Parliament, and then the ill administration was such that instead of making good use of this power and money he suffered all to go to ruin. But one such sum now would put all upon their legs, and now the King (37) would have the Parliament give him money when they are in an ill humour and will not be willing to give any, nor are very able, and besides every body distrusts what they give the King (37) will be lost; whereas six months hence, when they see that the King (37) can live without them, and is become steady, and to manage what he has well, he doubts not but their doubts would be removed, and would be much more free as well as more able to give him money. He told me how some of his enemies at the Duke of York's (34) had got the Duke of York's (34) commission for the Commissioners of his estate changed, and he and Brouncker (47) and Povy (53) left out: that this they did do to disgrace and impose upon him at this time; but that he, though he values not the thing, did go and tell the Duke of York (34) what he heard, and that he did not think that he had given him any reason to do this, out of his belief that he would not be as faithful and serviceable to him as the best of those that have got him put out. Whereupon the Duke of York (34) did say that it arose only from his not knowing whether now he would have time to regard his affairs; and that, if he should, he would put him into the commission with his own hand, though the commission be passed. He answered that he had been faithful to him, and done him good service therein, so long as he could attend it; and if he had been able to have attended it more, he would not have enriched himself with such and such estates as my Chancellor (58) hath got, that did properly belong to his Royal Highness, as being forfeited to the King (37), and so by the King's gift given to the Duke of York (34). Hereupon the Duke of York (34) did call for the commission, and hath since put him in. This he tells me he did only to show his enemies that he is not so low as to be trod on by them, or the Duke hath any so bad opinion of him as they would think. Here we parted, and I with Sir H. Cholmly (35) went and took a turn into the Park, and there talked of several things, and about Tangier particularly, and of his management of his business, and among other discourse about the method he will leave his accounts in if he should suddenly die, he says there is nothing but what is easily understood, but only a sum of £500 which he has entered given to E. E. S., which in great confidence he do discover to me to be my Lord Sandwich (42), at the beginning of their contract for the Mole, and I suppose the rest did the like, which was £1500, which would appear a very odd thing for my Lord to be a profiter by the getting of the contract made for them. But here it puts me into thoughts how I shall own my receiving of £200 a year from him, but it is his gift, I never asked of him, and which he did to Mr. Povy (53), and so there is no great matter in it.

Thence to other talk. He tells me that the business of getting the [his wife] Duchess of Richmond (20) to Court is broke off, the Duke (28) not suffering it; and thereby great trouble is brought among the people that endeavoured it, and thought they had compassed it. And, Lord! to think that at this time the King (37) should mind no other cares but these! He tells me that my Lord of Canterbury (69) is a mighty stout man, and a man of a brave, high spirit, and cares not for this disfavour that he is under at Court, knowing that the King (37) cannot take away his profits during his life, and therefore do not value it1.

Thence I home, and there to my office and wrote a letter to the Duke of York (34) from myself about my clerks extraordinary, which I have employed this war, to prevent my being obliged to answer for what others do without any reason demand allowance for, and so by this means I will be accountable for none but my own, and they shall not have them but upon the same terms that I have, which is a profession that with these helps they will answer to their having performed their duties of their places.

So to dinner, and then away by coach to the Temple, and then for speed by water thence to White Hall, and there to our usual attending the Duke of York (34), and did attend him, where among other things I did present and lodge my letter, and did speed in it as I could wish.

Thence home with Sir W. Pen (46) and Comm. Middleton by coach, and there home and to cards with my wife, W. Hewer (25), Mercer, and the girle, and mighty pleasant all the evening, and so to bed with my wife, which I have not done since her being ill for three weeks or thereabouts.

Note 1. This character of Archbishop Sheldon (69) does not tally with the scandal that Pepys previously reported of him. Burnet has some passages of importance on this in his "Own Time", Book II He affirms that Charles's final decision to throw over Clarendon was caused by the Chancellor's (58) favouring [his wife] Mrs. Stewart's (20) marriage with the Duke of Richmond. The King (37) had a conference with Sheldon on the removal of Clarendon, but could not convert the archbishop to his view. Lauderdale told Burnet that he had an account of the interview from the King (37). "the King (37) and Sheldon had gone into such expostulations upon it that from that day forward Sheldon could never recover the King's confidence"..

Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.

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Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (49). Portrait of Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (28).

On 04 Jul 1668 Mary Stewart Countess Arran 1651-1668 (16) died. Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (29) succeeded 6th Baron Clifton.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 September 1668. 08 Sep 1668. Up, and by water to White Hall, and to St. James's, there to talk a little with Mr. Wren (39) about the private business we are upon, in the Office, where he tells me he finds that they all suspect me to be the author of the great letter, which I value not, being satisfied that it is the best thing I could ever do for myself; and so, after some discourse of this kind more, I back to the Office, where all the morning; and after dinner to it again, all the afternoon, and very late, and then home to supper, where met W. Batelier and Betty Turner; and, after some talk with them, and supper, we to bed. This day, I received so earnest an invitation again from Roger Pepys (51), to come to Sturbridge-Fair [at Cambridge] that I resolve to let my wife go, which she shall do the next week, and so to bed. This day I received two letters from the Duke of Richmond (29) about his yacht, which is newly taken into the King's service, and I am glad of it, hoping hereby to oblige him, and to have occasions of seeing his noble Duchess, which I admire.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 September 1668. 09 Sep 1668. Up, and to the office, and thence to the Duke of Richmond's (29) lodgings by his desire, by letter, yesterday. I find him at his lodgings in the little building in the bowling-green, at White Hall, that was begun to be built by Captain Rolt (39). They are fine rooms. I did hope to see his lady, the beautiful [his wife] Mrs. Stuart (21), but she, I hear, is in the country. His business was about his yacht, and he seems a mighty good-natured man, and did presently write me a warrant for a doe from Cobham, when the season comes, bucks season being past. I shall make much of this acquaintance, that I may live to see his lady near.

Thence to Westminster, to Sir R. Longs (68) Office: and, going, met Mr. George Montagu (46), who talked and complimented me mightily; and long discourse I had with him, who, for news, tells me for certain that Trevor do come to be Secretary at Michaelmas, and that Morrice (65) goes out, and he believes, without any compensation. He tells me that now Buckingham (40) does rule all; and the other day, in the King's journey he is now on, at Bagshot, and that way, he caused Prince Rupert's (48) horses to be turned out of an inne, and caused his own to be kept there, which the Prince complained of to the King (38), and the Duke of York (34) seconded the complaint; but the King (38) did over-rule it for Buckingham (40), by which there are high displeasures among them; and Buckingham and Arlington (50) rule all.

Thence by water home and to dinner, and after dinner by water again to White Hall, where Brouncker (48), W. Pen (47), and I attended the Commissioners of the Treasury about the victualling-contract, where high words between Sir Thomas Clifford (38) and us, and myself more particularly, who told him that something, that he said was told him about this business, was a flat untruth. However, we went on to our business in, the examination of the draught, and so parted, and I vexed at what happened, and Brouncker (48) and W. Pen (47) and I home in a Hackney coach. And I all that night so vexed that I did not sleep almost all night, which shows how unfit I am for trouble. So, after a little supper, vexed, and spending a little time melancholy in making a base to the Lark's song, I to bed.

Before 13 Jul 1673 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Robert Long 1st Baronet Long 1600-1673. Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of William Morice 1602-1676.

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In Dec 1672 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (33) drowned at Elsinor. Duke Lennox, Duke Richmond 2C 1641, Earl Lichfield 1C 1645, Baron Stuart extinct. [his sister] Katherine Stewart 1640-1702 (32) succeeded 7th Baron Clifton.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 July 1674. 22 Jul 1674. I went to Windsor with my wife (39) and son (19) to see my daughter Mary (9), who was there with my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his Majesty (44). Next day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's (52) at Cranbourne Lodge, in the Forest; there were his Majesty (44), the Queen (35), Duke (40), Duchess (15), and all the Court. I returned in the evening with Sir Joseph Williamson (40), now declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College, Oxford, of which he came to be a fellow; then traveled with ... and returning when the King (44) was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr. Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (56) (now Lord Arlington) succeeding, Williamson is transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business (though sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to his man Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) there was a kind of necessity to advance him; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of this obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their original. Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at Jeu de Goblets, exceedingly formal, a severe master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord O'Brien (32), that after a few months of that gentleman's death, he married his [his sister] widow (34), who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Richmond (35), brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they lived not so kindly after marriage as they did before. She was much censured for marrying so meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family.

Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692. In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.

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John Evelyn's Diary 14 October 1675. 14 Oct 1675. Dined at Kensington with my old acquaintance, Mr. Henshaw (57), newly returned from Denmark, where he had been left resident after the death of the Duke of Richmond (36), who died there Ambassador.

On 15 Oct 1702 [his wife] Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702 (55) died.