Biography of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1680 Siege of Tangier

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

1690 Storming of Cork

On 29 May 1630 [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to [his grandfather] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and [his grandmother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. [his father] He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles IIIn 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 14 Apr 1659 [his step-father] Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (25) and [his mother] Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (18) were married.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne "The Elder" Engraver 1616-1691. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 November 1666.Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 July 1660. 13 Jul 1660. Up early, the first day that I put on my black camlett coat with silver buttons. To Mr. Spong, whom I found in his night-down writing of my patent, and he had done as far as he could "for that &c". by 8 o'clock. It being done, we carried it to Worcester House to the Chancellor, where Mr. Kipps (a strange providence that he should now be in a condition to do me a kindness, which I never thought him capable of doing for me), got me the Chancellor's receipt to my bill; and so carried it to Mr. Beale (28) for a dockett; but he was very angry, and unwilling to do it, because he said it was ill writ (because I had got it writ by another hand, and not by him); but by much importunity I got Mr. Spong to go to his office and make an end of my patent; and in the mean time Mr. Beale (28) to be preparing my dockett, which being done, I did give him two pieces, after which it was strange how civil and tractable he was to me. From thence I went to the Navy office, where we despatched much business, and resolved of the houses for the Officers and Commissioners, which I was glad of, and I got leave to have a door made me into the leads. From thence, much troubled in mind about my patent, I went to Mr. Beale (28) again, who had now finished my patent and made it ready for the Seal, about an hour after I went to meet him at the Chancellor's. So I went away towards Westminster, and in my way met with Mr. Spong, and went with him to Mr. Lilly (41) and ate some bread and cheese, and drank with him, who still would be giving me council of getting my patent out, for fear of another change, and my Lord Montagu's fall. After that to Worcester House, where by Mr. Kipps's means, and my pressing in General Montagu's name to the Chancellor, I did, beyond all expectation, get my seal passed; and while it was doing in one room, I was forced to keep Sir G. Carteret (50) (who by chance met me there, ignorant of my business) in talk, while it was a doing. Went home and brought my wife with me into London, and some money, with which I paid Mr. Beale (28) £9 in all, and took my patent of him and went to my wife again, whom I had left in a coach at the door of Hinde Court, and presented her with my patent at which she was overjoyed; so to the Navy office, and showed her my house, and were both mightily pleased at all things there, and so to my business. So home with her, leaving her at her mother's door. I to my Lord's, where I dispatched an order for a ship to fetch Sir R. Honywood home, for which I got two pieces of my Lady Honywood by young Mr. Powell. Late writing letters; and great doings of music at the next house, which was Whally's; the King and Dukes there with [his mother] Madame Palmer (19)1, a pretty woman that they have a fancy to, to make her husband a cuckold. Here at the old door that did go into his lodgings, my Lord, I, and W. Howe, did stand listening a great while to the music. After that home to bed. This day I should have been at Guildhall to have borne witness for my brother Hawly against Black Collar, but I could not, at which I was troubled. To bed with the greatest quiet of mind that I have had a great while, having ate nothing but a bit of bread and cheese at Lilly's (41) to-day, and a bit of bread and butter after I was a-bed.
Note 1. [his mother] Barbara Villiers (19), only child of [his grandfather] William (46), second Viscount Grandison, born November, 1640, married April 14th, 1659, to [his step-father] Roger Palmer (26), created Earl of Castlemaine, 1661. She became the [his father] King's (30) mistress soon after the Restoration, and was in 1670 made Lady Nonsuch, Countess of Southampton, and Duchess of Cleveland. She had six children by the King, one of them being created Duke of Grafton, and the eldest son succeeding her as [his illegitimate brother] Duke of Cleveland. She subsequently married Beau Fielding (10), whom she prosecuted for bigamy. She died October 9th, 1709, aged sixty-nine. Her life was written by G. Steinman Steinman, and privately printed 1871, with addenda 1874, and second addenda 1878.

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Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and [his step-mother] Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. He a son of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. [his step-mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

On 14 Feb 1663 [his illegitimate half-brother] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (13) was created 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Earl Doncaster, 1st Baron Scott of Tynedale by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32).

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

On 20 Apr 1663 [his illegitimate half-brother] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (14) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. She by marriage Duchess Monmouth.

On 20 Apr 1663 [his illegitimate half-brother] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (14) was created 1st Duke Buccleuch, 1st Earl Dalkeith, 1st Baron Scott of Whitchester and Eskdale. Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) by marriage Duchess Buccleuch.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 September 1663. 22 Sep 1663. I up, well refreshed after my journey, and to my office and there set some things in order, and then Sir W. Pen (42) and I met and held an office, and at noon to dinner, and so by water with my wife to Westminster, she to see her father and mother, and we met again at my Lord's lodgings, and thence by water home again, where at the door we met Sir W. Pen (42) and his daughter coming to visit us, and after their visit I to my office, and after some discourse to my great satisfaction with Sir W. Warren about our bargain of masts, I wrote my letters by the post, and so home to supper and to bed. This day my wife showed me bills printed, wherein her father, with Sir John Collidon and Edward Ford (58), have got a patent for curing of smoky chimneys1. I wish they may do good thereof, but fear it will prove but a poor project.
This day the [his father] King (33) and [his step-mother] Queen (24) are to come to Oxford. I hear my [his mother] Baroness Castlemaine (22) is for certain gone to Oxford to meet him, having lain within here at home this week or two, supposed to have miscarried; but for certain is as great in favour as heretofore;2 at least Mrs. Sarah at my Lord's, who hears all from their own family, do say so.
Every day brings newes of the Turke's advance into Germany, to the awakeing of all the Christian Princes thereabouts, and possessing himself of Hungary.
My present care is fitting my wife's closett and my house, and making her a velvet coate, and me a new black cloth suit, and coate and cloake, and evening my reckoning as well as I can against Michaelmas Day, hoping for all that to have my balance as great or greater than ever I had yet.
Note 1. The Patent numbered 138 is printed in the appendix to Wheatley's "Samuel Pepys and the World he lived in" (p. 241). It is drawn in favour of John Colladon, Doctor in Physicke, and of Alexander Marchant, of St. Michall, and describes "a way to prevent and cure the smoakeing of Chimneys, either by stopping the tunnell towards the top, and altering the former course of the smoake, or by setting tunnells with checke within the chimneyes". Edward Ford's (58) name does not appear in the patent.
Note 2. According to Collins, Henry Fitzroy, [his mother] Baroness Castlemaine's (22) second son by Charles II, was born on September 20th, 1663. He was the first Duke of Grafton. B.

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On 28 Sep 1663 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 was born illegitimately to [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (33) and [his mother] Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (22).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 July 1667. 27 Jul 1667. At the office all the morning; and at noon to the 'Change, where I met Fenn; and he tells me that Sir John Coventry (31) do bring the confirmation of the peace; but I do not find the 'Change at all glad of it, but rather the worse, they looking upon it as a peace made only to preserve the [his father] King (37) for a time in his lusts and ease, and to sacrifice trade and his kingdoms only to his own pleasures: so that the hearts of merchants are quite down. He tells me that the [his father] King (37) and my [his mother] Baroness Castlemayne (26) are quite broke off, and she is gone away, and is with child, and swears the [his father] King (37) shall own it; and she will have it christened in the Chapel at White Hall so, and owned for the King's, as other Kings have done; or she will bring it into White Hall gallery, and dash the brains of it out before the King's face1.
He tells me that the [his father] King (37) and Court were never in the world so bad as they are now for gaming, swearing, whoring, and drinking, and the most abominable vices that ever were in the world; so that all must come to nought. He told me that Sir G. Carteret (57) was at this end of the town; so I went to visit him in Broad Street; and there he and I together: and he is mightily pleased with my Lady Jem's having a son; and a mighty glad man he is. He [Sir George Carteret (57)] tells me, as to news, that the peace is now confirmed, and all that over. He says it was a very unhappy motion in the House the other day about the land-army; for, whether the [his father] King (37) hath a mind of his own to do the thing desired or no, his doing it will be looked upon as a thing done only in fear of the Parliament. He says that the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) is suspected to be the great man that is for raising of this army, and bringing things to be commanded by an army; but he believes that he is wronged, and says that he do know that he is wronged therein. He do say that the Court is in a way to ruin all for their pleasures; and says that he himself hath once taken the liberty to tell the [his father] King (37) the necessity of having, at least, a show of religion in the Government, and sobriety; and that it was that, that did set up and keep up Oliver, though he was the greatest rogue in the world, and that it is so fixed in the nature of the common Englishman that it will not out of him. He tells me that while all should be labouring to settle the Kingdom, they are at Court all in factions, some for and others against my Chancellor (58), and another for and against another man, and the [his father] King (37) adheres to no man, but this day delivers himself up to this, and the next to that, to the ruin of himself and business; that he is at the command of any woman like a slave, though he be the best man to the [his grandmother] Queene (57) in the world, with so much respect, and never lies a night from her: but yet cannot command himself in the presence of a woman he likes. Having had this discourse, I parted, and home to dinner, and thence to the office all the afternoon to my great content very busy. It raining this day all day to our great joy, it having not rained, I think, this month before, so as the ground was everywhere so burned and dry as could be; and no travelling in the road or streets in London, for dust. At night late home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Charles owned only four children by [his mother] Baroness Castlemaine's (26) - [his illegitimate sister] Anne, Countess of Sussex (6), and the Dukes of [his illegitimate brother] Southampton (5), Grafton (3), and [his illegitimate brother] Northumberland (1). The last of these was born in 1665. The paternity of all her other children was certainly doubtful. See pp. 50,52.

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Before 1670 [his illegitimate brother] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 was created 1st Baron Limerick.

In 1670 [his mother] Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (29) was created 1st Duke Cleveland 1C 1670, 1st Earl of Southampton 3C 1670 and Baron Nonsuch by [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (39) for having given borth to five of the King's illegitimate children.

On 01 Aug 1672 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (8) and [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (17) were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1700 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723. One of the Hampton Court Beauties.In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723.

On 01 Aug 1672 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (8) was created 1st Earl Euston, 1st Viscount Ipswich, 1st Baron Sudbury. [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (17) by marriage Countess Euston.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 August 1672. 01 Aug 1672. I was at the betrothal of [his father-in-law] Lord Arlington's (54) only [his wife] daughter (17) (a sweet child if ever there was any to the Duke of Grafton (8), the [his father] King's (42) natural son by the [his mother] Duchess of Cleveland (31); the Archbishop of Canterbury (74) officiating, the [his father] King (42) and the grandees being present. I had a favor given me by my Lady; but took no great joy at the thing for many reasons.

Before 1673 William Paston 2nd Earl of Yarmouth 1654-1732 and [his illegitimate half-sister] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth 1650-1684 were married. She a daughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. [his illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Countess of Yarmouth.

Around 1673 [his illegitimate nephew] Charles Scott 1st Earl Doncaster 1672-1674 was created 1st Earl Doncaster.

On 09 Feb 1674 [his illegitimate nephew] Charles Scott 1st Earl Doncaster 1672-1674 (1) died.

On 16 May 1674 Thomas Lennard Earl of Sussex 1654-1715 (20) and [his illegitimate sister] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex 1661-1722 (13) were married at Hampton Court Palace. They were first cousins once removed. She a daughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 01 Oct 1674 [his illegitimate brother] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (8) was created 1st Earl of Northumberland 4C 1674, 1st Viscount Falmouth, 1st Baron Pontefract by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

In 1675 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (11) was created 1st Duke Grafton 1C 1675 by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44). [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (19) by marriage Duchess Grafton.

In 1675 [his illegitimate brother] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (12) was created 1st Duke Southampton, 1st Earl Chichester 2C 1644, 1st Baron Newbury by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

On 28 Jul 1675 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (18) was created 1st Earl Plymouth 1C 1675, 1st Viscount Totnes, 1st Baron Dartmouth.

On 09 Aug 1675 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1672-1723 (3) was created 1st Duke Richmond 3C 1675, 1st Earl March 4C 1675, 1st Baron Settrington by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (45).

On 21 Dec 1676 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 (6) was created 1st Earl Burford, 1st Baron Heddington by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (46).

Around 1690 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726.

On 06 Feb 1677 Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield 1663-1716 (14) and [his illegitimate sister] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield 1664-1718 (12) were married. They were third cousins. She a daughter of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. [his illegitimate sister] She by marriage Countess Lichfield.

Before 1718 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield 1664-1718.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 September 1677. 10 Sep 1677. To divert me, my [his father-in-law] Lord (59) would needs carry me to see Ipswich, when we dined with one Mr. Mann by the way, who was Recorder of the town. There were in our company my Lord Huntingtower (28), son to the Duchess of Lauderdale (50), Sir Edward Bacon, a learned gentleman of the family of the great Chancellor Verulam, and Sir John Felton, with some other knights and gentlemen. After dinner came the bailiff and magistrates in their formalities with their maces to compliment my [his father-in-law] Lord (59), and invite him to the town-house, where they presented us a collation of dried sweetmeats and wine, the bells ringing, etc. Then, we went to see the town, and first, the Lord Viscount Hereford's (3) house, which stands in a park near the town, like that at Brussels, in Flanders; the house not great, yet pretty, especially the hall. The stews for fish succeeded one another, and feed one the other, all paved at bottom. There is a good picture of the blessed virgin in one of the parlors, seeming to be of Holbein, or some good master. Then we saw the Haven, seven miles from Harwich. The tide runs out every day, but the bedding being soft mud, it is safe for shipping and a station. The trade of Ipswich is for the most part Newcastle upon Tyne coals, with which they supply London; but it was formerly a clothing town. There is not any beggar asks alms in the whole place, a thing very extraordinary, so ordered by the prudence of the magistrates. It has in it fourteen or fifteen beautiful churches: in a word, it is for building, cleanness, and good order, one of the best towns in England. Cardinal Wolsey was a butcher's son of Ipswich, but there is little of that magnificent Prelate's foundation here, besides a school and I think a library, which I did not see. His intentions were to build some great thing. We returned late to Euston, having traveled about fifty miles this day.
Since first I was at this place, I found things exceedingly improved. It is seated in a bottom between two graceful swellings, the main building being now in the figure of a Greek II with four pavilions, two at each corner, and a break in the front, railed and balustered at the top, where I caused huge jars to be placed full of earth to keep them steady upon their pedestals between the statues, which make as good a show as if they were of stone, and, though the building be of brick, and but two stories besides cellars and garrets covered with blue slate, yet there is room enough for a full court, the offices and outhouses being so ample and well disposed. the [his father] King's (47) apartment is painted à fresco, and magnificently furnished. There are many excellent pictures of the great masters. The gallery is a pleasant, noble room; in the break, or middle, is a billiard table, but the wainscot, being of fir, and painted, does not please me so well as Spanish oak without paint. The chapel is pretty, the porch descending to the gardens. The orange garden is very fine, and leads into the greenhouse, at the end of which is a hall to eat in, and the conservatory some hundred feet long, adorned with maps, as the other side is with the heads of the Cæsars, ill cut in alabaster; above are several apartments for my Lord, Lady, and Duchess, with kitchens and other offices below, in a lesser form; lodgings for servants, all distinct for them to retire to when they please and would be in private, and have no communication with the palace, which he tells me he will wholly resign to his son-in-law and daughter, that charming young creature.
The canal running under my [his mother-in-law] Lady's (43) dressing room chamber window, is full of carps and fowl, which come and are fed there. The cascade at the end of the canal turns a cornmill that provides the family, and raises water for the fountains and offices. To pass this canal into the opposite meadows, Sir Samuel Morland (52) has invented a screw bridge, which, being turned with a key, lands you fifty feet distant at the entrance of an ascending walk of trees, a mile in length,—as it is also on the front into the park,—of four rows of ash trees, and reaches to the park pale, which is nine miles in compass, and the best for riding and meeting the game that I ever saw. There were now of red and fallow deer almost a thousand, with good covert, but the soil barren and flying sand, in which nothing will grow kindly. The tufts of fir, and much of the other wood, were planted by my direction some years before. This seat is admirably placed for field sports, hawking, hunting, or racing. The Mutton is small, but sweet. The stables hold thirty horses and four coaches. The out-offices make two large quadrangles, so as servants never lived with more ease and convenience; never master more civil. Strangers are attended and accommodated as at their home, in pretty apartments furnished with all manner of conveniences and privacy.
There is a library full of excellent books; bathing rooms, elaboratory, dispensary, a decoy, and places to keep and fat fowl in. He had now in his new church (near the garden) built a dormitory, or vault, with several repositories, in which to bury his family.
In the expense of this pious structure, the church is most laudable, most of the houses of God in this country resembling rather stables and thatched cottages than temples in which to serve the Most High. He has built a lodge in the park for the keeper, which is a neat dwelling, and might become any gentleman. The same has he done for the parson, little deserving it for murmuring that my Lord put him some time out of his wretched hovel, while it was building. He has also erected a fair inn at some distance from his palace, with a bridge of stone over a river near it, and repaired all the tenants' houses, so as there is nothing but neatness and accommodations about his estate, which I yet think is not above £1,500 a year. I believe he had now in his family one hundred domestic servants.
His [his mother-in-law] lady (43) (being one of the Brederode's (75) daughters, grandchild to a natural son of Henry Frederick, Prince of Orange (93)) [Note. Evelyn confused here. [his mother-in-law] Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington 1633-1718 (43) was the daughter of Louis Nassau Beverweert 1602-1665 (75) who was the illegitimate son of Prince Maurice I of Orange 1567-1625. Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647 (93) was the younger brother of Prince Maurice I of Orange 1567-1625.] is a good-natured and obliging woman. They love fine things, and to live easily, pompously, and hospitably; but, with so vast expense, as plunges my [his father-in-law] Lord (59) into debts exceedingly. My [his father-in-law] Lord (59) himself is given into no expensive vice but building, and to have all things rich, polite, and princely. He never plays, but reads much, having the Latin, French, and Spanish tongues in perfection. He has traveled much, and is the best bred and courtly person his [his father] Majesty (47) has about him, so as the public Ministers more frequent him than any of the rest of the nobility. While he was Secretary of State and Prime Minister, he had gotten vastly, but spent it as hastily, even before he had established a fund to maintain his greatness; and now beginning to decline in favor (the Duke being no great friend of his), he knows not how to retrench. He was son of a Doctor of Laws, whom I have seen, and, being sent from Westminster School to Oxford, with intention to be a divine, and parson of Arlington, a village near Brentford, when Master of Arts the Rebellion falling out, he followed the [his father] King's (47) Army, and receiving an HONORABLE WOUND IN THE FACE, grew into favor, and was advanced from a mean fortune, at his [his father] Majesty's (47) Restoration, to be an Earl and Knight of the Garter, Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and first favorite for a long time, during which the [his father] King (47) married his natural son, the Duke of Grafton (13), to his only [his wife] daughter (22) and heiress, as before mentioned, worthy for her beauty and virtue of the greatest prince in Christendom. My Lord is, besides this, a prudent and understanding person in business, and speaks well; unfortunate yet in those he has advanced, most of them proving ungrateful. The many obligations and civilities I have received from this noble gentleman, extracts from me this character, and I am sorry he is in no better circumstances.
Having now passed near three weeks at Euston, to my great satisfaction, with much difficulty he suffered me to look homeward, being very earnest with me to stay longer; and, to engage me, would himself have carried me to Lynn-Regis, a town of important traffic, about twenty miles beyond, which I had never seen; as also the Traveling Sands, about ten miles wide of Euston, that have so damaged the country, rolling from place to place, and, like the Sands in the Deserts of Lybia, quite overwhelmed some gentlemen's whole estates, as the relation extant in print, and brought to our Society, describes at large.

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On 19 Sep 1678 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (21) and Bridget Osborne Countess Plymouth -1718 were married in Wimbledon. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. She by marriage Countess Plymouth.

In 1679 [his illegitimate brother] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (16) and Mary Wood Duchess Southampton 1663- (16) were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. She by marriage Duchess Southampton.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 November 1679. 06 Nov 1679. Dined at the Countess of Sunderland's (33), and was this evening at the remarriage of the [his wife] Duchess of Grafton (24) to the Duke (16) his [his father] Majesty's (49) natural son), she being now twelve years old. The ceremony was performed in my [his father-in-law] Lord Chamberlain's (61) (her father's) lodgings at Whitehall by the Bishop of Rochester (54), his [his father] Majesty (49) being present. A sudden and unexpected thing, when everybody believed the first marriage would have come to nothing; but, the measure being determined, I was privately invited by my [his mother-in-law] Lady (45), her mother, to be present. I confess I could give her little joy, and so I plainly told her, but she said the [his father] King (49) would have it so, and there was no going back. This sweetest, most hopeful, most beautiful, child, and most virtuous, too, was sacrificed to a boy that had been rudely bred, without anything to encourage them but his [his father] Majesty's (49) pleasure. I pray God the sweet child find it to her advantage, who, if my augury deceive me not, will in a few years be such a paragon as were fit to make the wife of the greatest Prince in Europe! I staid supper, where his [his father] Majesty (49) sat between the [his mother] Duchess of Cleveland (38) (the mother of the Duke of Grafton) and the sweet [his wife] Duchess (24) the bride; there were several great persons and ladies, without pomp. My love to my [his father-in-law] Lord Arlington's (61) family, and the sweet child made me behold all this with regret, though as the Duke of Grafton (16) affects the sea, to which I find his father intends to use him, he may emerge a plain, useful and robust officer: and were he polished, a tolerable person; for he is exceedingly handsome, by far surpassing any of the [his father] King's (49) other natural issue.

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In 1680 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (16) was appointed 482nd Knight of the Garter by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (49).

In 1756 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788. Portrait of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 in his Garter Robes.

Siege of Tangier

On 17 Oct 1680 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (23) died of dysentery at Tangier during the Siege of Tangier.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 July 1682. 17 Jul 1682. Came to dine with me, the Duke of Grafton (18) and the young Earl of Ossory (17), son to my most dear deceased friend.

On 06 Apr 1683 [his illegitimate brother] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (17) was created 1st Duke Northumberland 2C 1683 by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (52).

On 25 Oct 1683 [his son] Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton 1683-1757 was born to Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (20) and [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (28). He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

In 1684 [his illegitimate half-sister] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth 1650-1684 (34) died.

On 05 Jan 1684 [his illegitimate half-brother] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 (13) was created 1st Duke St Albans 1C 1684 by his father [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53).

Death and Burial of Charles II

On 06 Feb 1685 [his father] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace attended by Charles Scarburgh Physician 1615-1694 (69). His brother [his uncle] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother [his uncle] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718.Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

Coronation James II and Mary

On 23 Apr 1685 [his uncle] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland by William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68). Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) crowned Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland.
Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) preached the sermon.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (29) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at Westminster Abbey.
Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (21) was appointed Lord High Constable.

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

On 15 Jul 1685 [his illegitimate half-brother] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) acted a Chaplain.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 July 1685. 20 Jul 1685. The Trinity House met this day, which should have ben on ye Monday after Trinity, but was put off by reason of the Royal Charter being so large that it could not be ready before. Some immunities were super-added. Mr. Pepys (52), Secretary to ye Admiralty, was a second time chosen Master. There were present the Duke of Grafton (21), Lord Dartmouth (12), Master of ye Ordnance, the Commissioners of ye Navy, and brethren of the Corporation. We went to Church according to costome, and then took barge to the Trinity House, in London, where we had a great dinner, above 80 at one table.

On 28 Jul 1685 [his father-in-law] Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 (67) died. His daughter [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (30) succeeded 2nd Earl Arlington, 2nd Viscount Thetford, 2nd Baron Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex 1C 1665 and 2nd Baron Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex 1C 1672.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685.

In 1686 John Talbot 1665-1686 (21) was killed in a duel by Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 19 February 1686. 19 Feb 1686. Many bloody and notorious duels were fought about this time. The Duke of Grafton (22) kill'd Mr. Stanley (21), brother to the Earle of Shrewsbury (25), indeede upon an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be hop'd his [his uncle] Ma* (52) will at last severely remedy this unchristian custome. Lord Sunderland (44) was now Secretary of State, President of the Council, and Premier Minister.

In Mar 1686 [his illegitimate brother] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (20) and Catherine Wheatley -1714 were married. He a son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.. Soon after the marriage Northumberland and his brother, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (22), allegedly attempted to privately convey her abroad to an English convent in Ghent, Belgium.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 March 1686. 29 Mar 1686. The [his illegitimate brother] Duke of Northumberland (20) (a natural son of the [his father] late King (55) by the [his mother] Dutchess of Cleaveland (45)) marrying very meanly, with the helpe of his brother Grafton (22), attempted to spirit away his wife. A Briefe was read in all Churches for relieving the French Protestants who came here for protection from the unheard-of cruelties of their King (47).

John Evelyn's Diary 01 August 1690. 01 Aug 1690. The Duke of Grafton (26) came to visit me, going to his ship at the mouth of the river, in his way to Ireland (where he was slain).

Storming of Cork

On 09 Oct 1690 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (27) was killed at Cork during the Storming of Cork. His son [his son] Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton 1683-1757 (6) succeeded 2nd Duke Grafton 1C 1675, 2nd Earl Euston, 2nd Viscount Ipswich, 2nd Baron Sudbury.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 October 1690. 12 Oct 1690. The French General, with Tyrconnel (60) and their forces, gone back to France, beaten out by King William. Cork delivered on discretion. The Duke of Grafton (27) was there mortally wounded and dies. Very great storms of wind. The 8th of this month Lord Spencer (49) wrote me word from Althorpe, that there happened an Earthquake the day before in the morning, which, though short, sensibly shook the house. The "Gazette" acquainted us that the like happened at the same time, half-past seven, at Barnstaple, Holyhead, and Dublin. We were not sensible of it here.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 December 1693. 03 Dec 1693. Mr. Bentley preached at the Tabernacle, near Golden Square. I gave my voice for him to proceed on his former subject the following year in Mr. Boyle's lecture, in which he had been interrupted by the importunity of Sir J. Rotheram that the Bishop of Chichester (59) might be chosen the year before, to the great dissatisfaction of the Bishop of Lincoln (57) and myself. We chose Mr. Bentley again. The [his wife] Duchess of Grafton's (38) appeal to the House of Lords for the Prothonotary's place given to the late Duke (30) and to her son by King Charles II, now challenged by the Lord Chief Justice. The judges were severely reproved on something they said.

In 1698 Thomas Hanmer 4th Baronet Hamner 1677-1746 (20) and [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (42) were married.

On 25 Nov 1705 [his step-father] Robert "Beau Handsome" Fielding 1650-1712 (55) and [his mother] Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (64) were married bigamously.

On 07 Feb 1723 [his wife] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton 1655-1723 (67) died. Her son [his son] Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton 1683-1757 (39) succeeded 3rd Earl Arlington, 3rd Viscount Thetford, 3rd Baron Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex 1C 1665 and 3rd Baron Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex 1C 1672.

In 1756 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788 (32). Portrait of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (92) in his Garter Robes.

In 1756 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788. Portrait of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 in his Garter Robes.