Biography of Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1605 New Years Honours

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1625 Death of James I

1649 Execution of Charles I

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [his father] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. [his father] He was created Duke Albany 4C 1600.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York 4C 1605 and Knight of the Bath by his father King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38)

Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset 1579-1651 (26) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.

James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (11), brothers Robert Howard 1584-1653 (32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley 1601-1658 (15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (41) and John Cavendish -1618 were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 [his grandfather] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.

On 29 May 1630 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. [his brother] He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 14 Oct 1633 [his brother] King James II was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace. [his brother] He was created 1st Duke York 5C 1633 at birth by his father.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

On 08 Jul 1640 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 was born to [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (30).

On 02 May 1641 William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married. She a daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. Around 1658 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [his father] Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

On 06 Nov 1650 William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (24) died. [his nephew] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 succeeded III Prince Orange.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

In 1653 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (12) was appointed 454th Knight of the Garter by his brother [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (22).

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671 (53). Portrait of Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (15).

On 13 May 1659 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 4C 1659, 1st Earl Cambridge 5C 1659 by his father [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (58).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 May 1660. 22 May 1660. Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days' observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore. News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the Duke of Gloucester (19)1 in grey and red. My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port. So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it. They seem to be both very fine gentlemen. After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry2, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other. Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the [his brother] King's (29) health, and so likewise to the Duke's health. I took down Monsieur d'Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his. All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes. After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them. After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another. When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day's work. By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome. The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye. Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter's cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the [his brother] King's (29) servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all. This afternoon Mr Downing (35) (who was knighted yesterday by the King') was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants3. By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing (35). My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night. This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord's order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

Note 1. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (19), the youngest child of Charles L, born July 6th, 16—, who, with his sister Elizabeth, was allowed a meeting with his father on the night before the [his brother] King's (29) execution. Burnet says: "He was active, and loved business; was apt to have particular friendships, and had an insinuating temper which was generally very acceptable. The King loved him much better than the Duke of York". He died of smallpox at Whitehall, September 13th, 1660, and was buried in Henry VII's Chapel.

Note 2. William Coventry (32), to whom Pepys became so warmly attached afterwards, was the fourth son of Thomas, first Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper. He was born in 1628, and entered at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1642; after the Restoration he became private secretary to the Duke of York, his commission as Secretary to the Lord High Admiral not being conferred until 1664; elected M.P. for Great Yarmouth in 1661. In 1662 he was appointed an extra Commissioner of the Navy, an office he held until 1667; in 1665, knighted and sworn a Privy Councillor, and, in 1667, constituted a Commissioner of the Treasury; but, having been forbid the court on account of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham, he retired into the country, nor could he subsequently be prevailed upon to accept of any official employment. Burnet calls Sir William Coventry the best speaker in the House of Commons, and "a man of the finest and best temper that belonged to the court", and Pepys never omits an opportunity of paying a tribute to his public and private worth. He died, 1686, of gout in the stomach.

Note 3. "About midnight arrived there Mr Downing (35), who did the affairs of England to the Lords the Estates, in quality of Resident under Oliver Cromwell, and afterward under the pretended Parliament, which having changed the form of the government, after having cast forth the last Protector, had continued him in his imploiment, under the quality of Extraordinary Envoy. He began to have respect for the [his brother] King's (29) person, when he knew that all England declared for a free parliament, and departed from Holland without order, as soon as he understood that there was nothing that could longer oppose the re- establishment of monarchal government, with a design to crave letters of recommendation to General Monk (51). This lord considered him, as well because of the birth of his wife, which is illustrious, as because Downing had expressed some respect for him in a time when that eminent person could not yet discover his intentions. He had his letters when he arrived at midnight at the house of the Spanish Embassador, as we have said. He presented them forthwith to the [his brother] King (29), who arose from table a while after, read the letters, receiv'd the submissions of Downing, and granted him the pardon and grace which he asked for him to whom he could deny nothing. Some daies after the [his brother] King (29) knighted him, and would it should be believed, that the strong aversions which this minister of the Protector had made appear against him on all occasions, and with all sorts of persons indifferently, even a few daies before the publick and general declaration of all England, proceeded not from any evil intention, but only from a deep dissimulation, wherewith he was constrained to cover his true sentiments, for fear to prejudice the affairs of his Majesty".—Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio, pp. 72-73.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 June 1660. 12 Jun 1660. Visited by the two Pierces, Mr. Blackburne, Dr. Clerk and Mr. Creed, and did give them a ham of bacon. So to my Lord and with him to the Duke of Gloucester (19). The two Dukes dined with the Speaker (57), and I saw there a fine entertainment and dined with the pages.

To Mr. Crew's (62), whither came Mr. Greatorex (35), and with him to the Faithornes (44), and so to the Devils tavern. To my Lord's and staid till 12 at night about business. So to my father's (59), my father and mother in bed, who had been with my uncle Fenner, &c., and my wife all day and expected me. But I found Mr. Cook there, and so to bed.

Before 1685. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Harbottle Grimston 2nd Baronet of Bradfield 1603-1685. Before 12 Aug 1809. Silvester Harding Painter of Pall Mall 1745-1809. Portrait of Harbottle Grimston 2nd Baronet of Bradfield 1603-1685.

On 03 Sep 1660 [his brother] King James II (26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married in secret He a son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. She by marriage Duchess York.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 September 1660. 05 Sep 1660. To the office. From thence by coach upon the desire of the principal officers to a Master of Chancery to give Mr. Stowell his oath, whereby he do answer that he did hear Phineas Pett say very high words against the King a great while ago. Coming back our coach broke, and so Stowell and I to Mr. Rawlinson's, and after a glass of wine parted, and I to the office, home to dinner, where (having put away my boy in the morning) his father brought him again, but I did so clear up my boy's roguery to his father, that he could not speak against my putting him away, and so I did give him 10s. for the boy's clothes that I made him, and so parted and tore his indenture. All the afternoon with the principal officers at Sir W. Batten's (59) about Pett's business (where I first saw Col. Slingsby (49), who has now his appointment for Comptroller), but did bring it to no issue. This day I saw our Dedimus to be sworn in the peace by, which will be shortly. In the evening my wife being a little impatient I went along with her to buy her a necklace of pearl, which will cost £4 10s., which I am willing to comply with her in for her encouragement, and because I have lately got money, having now above £200 in cash beforehand in the world. Home, and having in our way bought a rabbit and two little lobsters, my wife and I did sup late, and so to bed. Great news now-a-day of the Duke d'Anjou's (19)1 desire to marry the [his sister] Princesse Henrietta (16).

Hugh Peters (62)2 is said to be taken, and the Duke of Gloucester (20) is ill, and it is said it will prove the small-pox.

Note 1. Philip, Duke of Anjou (19), afterwards Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. (born 1640, died 1701), married the [his sister] Princess Henrietta (16), youngest daughter of Charles I., who was born June 16th, 1644, at Exeter. She was known as "La belle Henriette". In May, 1670, she came to Dover on a political mission from Louis XIV. to her brother Charles II., but the visit was undertaken much against the wish of her husband. Her death occurred on her return to France, and was attributed to poison. It was the occasion of one of the finest of Bossuet's "Oraisons Funebres".

Note 2. Hugh Peters (62), born at Fowey, Cornwall, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1622. He was tried as one of the regicides, and executed. A broadside, entitled "The Welsh Hubub, or the Unkennelling and earthing of Hugh Peters that crafty Fox", was printed October 3rd, 1660.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 September 1660. 11 Sep 1660. At Sir W. Batten's (59) with Sir W. Pen (39) we drank our morning draft, and from thence for an hour in the office and dispatch a little business. Dined at Sir W. Batten's (59), and by this time I see that we are like to have a very good correspondence and neighbourhood, but chargeable. All the afternoon at home looking over my carpenters. At night I called Thos. Hater out of the office to my house to sit and talk with me. After he was gone I caused the girl to wash the wainscot of our parlour, which she did very well, which caused my wife and I good sport. Up to my chamber to read a little, and wrote my Diary for three or four days past. The Duke of York did go to-day by break of day to the Downs. The Duke of Gloucester (20) ill. The House of Parliament was to adjourn to-day. I know not yet whether it be done or no. To bed.

On 13 Sep 1660 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 he was buried at south side of the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 September 1660. 13 Sep 1660. Old East comes to me in the morning with letters, and I did give him a bottle of Northdown ale, which made the poor man almost drunk. In the afternoon my wife went to the burial of a child of my cozen Scott's, and it is observable that within this month my Aunt Wight was brought to bed of two girls, my cozen Stradwick of a girl and a boy, and my cozen Scott of a boy, and all died. In the afternoon to Westminster, where Mr. Dalton was ready with his money to pay me for my house, but our writings not being drawn it could not be done to-day. I met with Mr. Hawly, who was removing his things from Mr. Bowyer's, where he has lodged a great while, and I took him and W. Bowyer to the Swan and drank, and Mr. Hawly did give me a little black rattoon1, painted and gilt. Home by water. This day the Duke of Gloucester (20) died of the small-pox, by the great negligence of the doctors.

Note 1. Probably an Indian rattan cane.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 September 1660. 15 Sep 1660. Met very early at our office this morning to pick out the twenty-five ships which are to be first paid off: After that to Westminster and dined with Mr. Dalton at his office, where we had one great court dish, but our papers not being done we could [not] make an end of our business till Monday next. Mr. Dalton and I over the water to our landlord Vanly, with whom we agree as to Dalton becoming a tenant. Back to Westminster, where I met with Dr. Castles, who chidd me for some errors in our Privy-Seal business; among the rest, for letting the fees of the six judges pass unpaid, which I know not what to say to, till I speak to Mr. Moore. I was much troubled, for fear of being forced to pay the money myself. Called at my father's (59) going home, and bespoke mourning for myself, for the death of the Duke of Gloucester (20). I found my mother pretty well. So home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 September 1660. 18 Sep 1660. At home all the morning looking over my workmen in my house. After dinner Sir W. Batten (59), Pen, and myself by coach to Westminster Hall, where we met Mr. Wayte the lawyer to the Treasurer, and so we went up to the Committee of Parliament, which are to consider of the debts of the Army and Navy, and did give in our account of the twenty-five ships. Col. Birch (45) was very impertinent and troublesome. But at last we did agree to fit the accounts of our ships more perfectly for their view within a few days, that they might see what a trouble it is to do what they desire. From thence Sir Williams both going by water home, I took Mr. Wayte to the Rhenish Winehouse, and drank with him and so parted. Thence to Mr. Crew's (62) and spoke with Mr. Moore about the business of paying off Baron our share of the dividend. So on foot home, by the way buying a hat band and other things for my mourning to-morrow. So home and to bed. This day I heard that the Duke of York, upon the news of the death of his brother (20) yesterday, came hither by post last night.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 September 1660. 21 Sep 1660. Office Day. There all the morning and afternoon till 4 o'clock. Hence to Whitehall, thinking to have put up my books at my Lord's, but am disappointed from want of a chest which I had at Mr. Bowyer's. Back by water about 8 o'clock, and upon the water saw the corpse of the Duke of Gloucester (20) brought down Somerset House stairs, to go by water to Westminster, to be buried to-night. I landed at the old Swan and went to the Hoop Tavern, and (by a former agreement) sent for Mr. Chaplin (33), who with Nicholas Osborne and one Daniel came to us and we drank off two or three quarts of wine, which was very good; the drawing of our wine causing a great quarrel in the house between the two drawers which should draw us the best, which caused a great deal of noise and falling out till the master parted them, and came up to us and did give us a large account of the liberty that he gives his servants, all alike, to draw what wine they will to please his customers; and we did eat above 200 walnuts. About to o'clock we broke up and so home, and in my way I called in with them at Mr. Chaplin's (33), where Nicholas Osborne did give me a barrel of samphire1, and showed me the keys of Mardyke Fort2, which he that was commander of the fort sent him as a token when the fort was demolished, which I was mightily pleased to see, and will get them of him if I can. Home, where I found my boy (my maid's brother) come out of the country to-day, but was gone to bed and so I could not see him to-night. To bed.

Note 1. Samphire was formerly a favourite pickle; hence the "dangerous trade" of the samphire gatherer ("King Lear", act iv. sc. 6) who supplied the demand. It was sold in the streets, and one of the old London cries was "I ha' Rock Samphier, Rock Samphier!"

Note 2. A fort four miles east of Dunkirk, probably dismantled when that town was sold to Louis XIV.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 September 1660. 22 Sep 1660. This morning I called up my boy, and found him a pretty, well-looked boy, and one that I think will please me. I went this morning by land to Westminster along with Luellin, who came to my house this morning to get me to go with him to Capt. Allen (48) to speak with him for his brother to go with him to Constantinople, but could not find him. We walked on to Fleet street, where at Mr. Standing's in Salsbury Court we drank our morning draft and had a pickled herring. Among other discourse here he told me how the pretty woman that I always loved at the beginning of Cheapside that sells child's coats was served by the Lady Bennett (a famous strumpet), who by counterfeiting to fall into a swoon upon the sight of her in her shop, became acquainted with her, and at last got her ends of her to lie with a gentleman that had hired her to procure this poor soul for him. To Westminster to my Lord's, and there in the house of office vomited up all my breakfast, my stomach being ill all this day by reason of the last night's debauch. Here I sent to Mr. Bowyer's for my chest and put up my books and sent them home. I staid here all day in my Lord's chamber and upon the leads gazing upon Diana, who looked out of a window upon me. At last I went out to Mr. Harper's, and she standing over the way at the gate, I went over to her and appointed to meet to-morrow in the afternoon at my Lord's. Here I bought a hanging jack. From thence by coach home by the way at the New Exchange1 I bought a pair of short black stockings, to wear over a pair of silk ones for mourning; and here I met with The. Turner (8) and Joyce, buying of things to go into mourning too for the Duke (20), (which is now the mode of all the ladies in town), where I wrote some letters by the post to Hinchinbroke to let them know that this day Mr. Edw. Pickering (42) is come from my Lord, and says that he left him well in Holland, and that he will be here within three or four days. To-day not well of my last night's drinking yet. I had the boy up to-night for his sister to teach him to put me to bed, and I heard him read, which he did pretty well.

Note 1. In the Strand; built, under the auspices of James I., in 1608, out of the stables of Durham House, the site of the present Adelphi. The New Exchange stood where Coutts's banking-house now is. "It was built somewhat on the model of the Royal Exchange, with cellars beneath, a walk above, and rows of shops over that, filled chiefly with milliners, sempstresses, and the like". It was also called "Britain's Burse". "He has a lodging in the Strand... to watch when ladies are gone to the china houses, or to the Exchange, that he may meet them by chance and give them presents, some two or three hundred pounds worth of toys, to be laughed at"—Ben Jonson, The Silent Woman, act i. sc. 1.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 September 1660. 23 Sep 1660. Lord's Day. my wife got up to put on her mourning to-day and to go to Church this morning. I up and set down my journall for these 5 days past. This morning came one from my father's (59) with a black cloth coat, made of my short cloak, to walk up and down in. To church my wife and I, with Sir W. Batten (59), where we heard of Mr. Mills a very good sermon upon these words, "So run that ye may obtain". After dinner all alone to Westminster. At Whitehall I met with Mr. Pierce and his wife (she newly come forth after childbirth) both in mourning for the Duke of Gloucester (20). She went with Mr. Child to Whitehall chapel and Mr. Pierce with me to the Abbey, where I expected to hear Mr. Baxter or Mr. Rowe preach their farewell sermon, and in Mr. Symons's pew I sat and heard Mr. Rowe. Before sermon I laughed at the reader, who in his prayer desires of God that He would imprint his word on the thumbs of our right hands and on the right great toes of our right feet. In the midst of the sermon some plaster fell from the top of the Abbey, that made me and all the rest in our pew afeard, and I wished myself out. After sermon with Mr. Pierce to Whitehall, and from thence to my Lord, but Diana did not come according to our agreement. So calling at my father's (59) (where my wife had been this afternoon but was gone home) I went home. This afternoon, the King having news of the Princess being come to Margate, he and the Duke of York went down thither in barges to her.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 September 1660. 23 Sep 1660. In the midst of all this joy and jubilee, the Duke of Gloucester (20) died of the smallpox, in the prime of youth, and a prince of extraordinary hopes.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 September 1660. 27 Sep 1660. The [his brother] King (30) received the merchant's addresses in his closet, giving them assurances of his persisting to keep Jamaica, choosing Sir Edward Massey Governor (41). In the afternoon, the Danish Ambassador's condolences were presented, on the death of the Duke of Gloucester (20). This evening, I saw the Princess Royal (28), mother to the Prince of Orange (28), now come out of Holland in a fatal period.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 November 1670. 04 Nov 1670. Saw the [his nephew] Prince of Orange (20), newly come to see the King (40), his uncle; he has a manly, courageous, wise countenance, resembling his mother (39) and the Duke of Gloucester (30), both deceased.

I now also saw that famous beauty, but in my opinion of a childish, simple, and baby face, Mademoiselle Querouaille (21), lately Maid of Honor to [his sister] Madame (26), and now to be so to the Queen (31).

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. The necessity of affairs had exposed [his brother] Charles II from his earliest youth to the toils and perils of a bloody war. The fate of the king his father had left him for inheritance nothing but his misfortunes and disgraces. They overtook him everywhere; but it was not until he had struggled with his ill-fortune to the last extremity that he submitted to the decrees of Providence.

All those who were either great on account of their birth or their loyalty had followed him into exile; and all the young persons of the greatest distinction having afterwards joined him, composed a court worthy of a better fate.

Plenty and prosperity, which are thought to tend only to corrupt manners, found nothing to spoil in an indigent and wandering court. Necessity, on the contrary, which produces a thousand advantages whether we will or no, served them for education; and nothing was to be seen among them but an emulation in glory, politeness, and virtue.

With this little court, in such high esteem for merit, the [his brother] King of England returned two years prior to the period we mention, to ascend a throne which, to all appearances, he was to fill as worthily as the most glorious of his predecessors. The magnificence displayed on thus occasion was renewed at his coronation.

The death of the Duke of Gloucester, and of the [his sister] Princess Royal, which followed soon after, had interrupted the course of this splendour by a tedious mourning, which they quitted at last to prepare for the reception of the Infanta of Portugal.

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