Biography of Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587

1513 Battle of Flodden

1542 Battle of Solway Moss

1542 Death of King James V of Scotland

1547 Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

1558 Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France

1559 Henry II of France Dies Francis and Mary "Queen of Scots" Succeed

1560 Death of Francis II King France Charles IX Succeeds

1566 Murder of David Rizzio

1567 Murder of Lord Darnley

1567 Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and Lord Bothwell

1568 Mary Queen of Scots escapes from Lochleven Castle

1568 Battle of Langside

1568 Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England

1570 James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Assassinated by Firearm

1571 Ridolphi Plot

1575 Coronation and Marriage of Henry III King France

1582 Raid of Ruthven

1586 Babington Plot

1586 Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

Battle of Flodden

On 09 Sep 1513 at the Battle of Flodden was fought at the Branxton__Northumberland. the English army was commanded by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (70), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (40), Edmund Howard 1478-1539 (35), Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (45), Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (51) and Marmaduke Constable 1457-1518 (56).

The English army included: Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 1454-1523 (59), William Conyers 1st Baron Conyers 1468-1524 (44), Thomas Berkeley 5th Baron Berkeley 1472-1533 (41) and Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (45).

Randall Babington -1513, John Bigod 1475-1513 (38) and Thomas Fitzwilliam 1474-1513 (39) were killed.

Marmaduke Constable 1480-1545 (33), William Constable 1475-1551 (38), George Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Aston 1497-1558 (16), Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (33), Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (25) and Walter Stonor 1477-1551 (36) were knighted by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (40).

Christopher Savage -1513, Thomas Venables 1469-1513 (44) and Brian Tunstall 1480-1513 (33) were killed.

Bryan Stapleton of Wighill 1458-1513 (55) was killed. (Some reports have him dying in 1518).

John Booth 1435-1513 (78) was killed.

The Scottish army suffered heavy casualties.

[her grandfather] James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 (40) was killed. King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (1) succeeded V King Scotland: Stewart.

[her uncle] Alexander Stewart Archbishop St Andrews 1493-1513 (20) was killed.

David Kennedy 1st Earl Cassilis 1470-1513 (43) was killed. Gilbert Kennedy 2nd Earl Cassilis 1494-1527 (18) succeeded 2nd Earl Cassilis. Isabel Campbell Countess Cassilis by marriage Countess Cassilis.

William Sinclair 2nd Earl Caithness 1459-1513 (54) was killed. John Sinclair 3rd Earl Caithness -1529 succeeded 3rd Earl Caithness.

Matthew Stewart 2nd Earl Lennox -1513 was killed. John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 (23) succeeded 3rd Earl Lennox 2C 1488.

William Hay 4th Earl Erroll -1513 was killed. William Hay 5th Earl Erroll 1495-1522 (18) succeeded 5th Earl Erroll.

John Douglas 2nd Earl Morton -1513 was killed. James Douglas 3rd Earl Morton -1553 succeeded 3rd Earl Morton, 6th Lord Dalkeith.

Adam Hepburn 2nd Earl Bothwell -1513 was killed. Patrick Hepburn 3rd Earl Bothwell 1512-1556 (1) succeeded 3rd Earl Bothwell.

Alexander Stewart 4th of Garlies 1481-1513 (32) was killed. Alexander Stewart 5th of Garlies 1507-1581 (6) succeeded 5th Lord Garlies.

Alexander Elphinstone 1st Lord Elphinstone -1513 was killed. Alexander Elphinstone 2nd Lord Elphinstone 1510-1547 (3) succeeded 2nd Lord Elphinstone.

Thomas Hay -1513, George Hepburn Bishop Isles 1454-1513 (59), Adam Hepburn Master 1457-1513 (56), Thomas "Younger of Cushnie" Lumsden -1513,.

William Douglas 6th Lord Drumlanrig -1513 was killed. William "Younger" Douglas 7th Lord Drumlanrig -1572 succeeded 7th Lord Drumlanrig.

George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513 was killed. George Seton 6th Lord Seton -1549 succeeded 6th Lord Seton.

John Hay 2nd Lord Hay of Yester -1513 was killed. John Hay 3rd Lord Hay 1490-1543 (23) succeeded 3rd Lord Hay of Yester. Elizabeth Douglas Lady Hay by marriage Lord Hay of Yester.

Robert Keith Master of Marischal 1483-1525 (30), Guiscard Harbottle 1485-1513 (28), John Erskine -1513, David Home 1491-1513 (22), Andrew Stewart 1st Lord Avondale 1470-1513 (43), Archibald Campbell 2nd Earl Argyll 1449-1513 (64), Robert Douglas of Lochleven 1424-1513 (89) were killed.

Henry Sinclair 3rd Lord Sinclair 1465-1513 (48) was killed. William Sinclair 4th Lord Sinclair -1570 succeeded 4th Lord Sinclair.

James Stewart 1st Lord of Traquair 1480-1513 (33) was killed. William Stewart 2nd Lord Traquair 1506-1548 (7) succeeded 2nd Lord Traquair.

John Maxwell 4th Lord Maxwell 1456-1513 (57) was killed. Robert Maxwell 5th Lord Maxwell 1493-1552 (20) succeeded 5th Lord Maxwell.

William Murray 1470-1513 (43), Colin Oliphant 1487-1513 (26), William Ruthven 1480-1513 (33), George Douglas 1469-1513 (44) and William Douglas 1471-1513 (42) were killed.

George Home 4th Lord Home -1549 and John Stewart 2nd Earl Atholl 1475-1522 (38) fought.

Brothers David Lyon of Cossins -1513, William Lyon -1513 and George Lyon -1513 were killed.

William Graham 1st Earl Montrose 1464-1513 (49) was killed. William Graham 2nd Earl Montrose 1492-1571 (21) succeeded 2nd Earl Montrose.

Robert Erskine 4th Lord Erskine 16th Earl Mar -1513 was killed. John Erskine 17th Earl Mar 1487-1555 (26) de jure 17th Earl Mar 1C 1404, Lord Erskine.

Thomas Stewart 2nd Lord Innermeath 1461-1513 (52) was killed. Richard Stewart 3rd Lord Innermeath 1504-1532 succeeded 3rd Lord Innermeath.

Walter Lindsay of Arden -1513 and Walter Lindsay 1480-1513 (33) were killed.

William Keith of Inverugie 1470-1513 (43) was killed.

David Wemyss of Wemyss 1473-1513 (40) was killed.

John Somerville 1st of Cambusnethan 1458-1513 (55) was killed.

Robert Crichton 2nd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar 1472-1513 (41) was killed. Robert Crichton 3rd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar 1491-1520 (22) succeeded 3rd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar

Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

On 04 Aug 1534 Louis Valois II Duke Longueville 1510-1537 (24) and [her mother] Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 (18) were married. [her mother] She by marriage Duchess Longueville.

On 01 Jan 1537 [her father] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (24) and Madeleine Valois Angoulême 1520-1537 (16) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. They were third cousins once removed. He a grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 09 Jun 1537 Louis Valois II Duke Longueville 1510-1537 (27) died at Rouen. [her half-brother] François Valois III Duke Longueville 1535-1551 (1) succeeded III Duke Longueville.

On 18 Jun 1538 [her father] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (26) and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 (22) were married at St Andrew's Cathedral Priory, St Andrew's They were third cousins. He a grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

On 20 Apr 1541 [her brother] Robert Stewart 1st Earl Albany 1541-1541 died being only eight days old.

Battle of Solway Moss

On 25 Nov 1542 Thomas Wharton 1st Baron Wharton 1495-1568 (47) commanded the English forces at Battle of Solway Moss at Solway Moss. John Thynne 1515-1580 (27) fought. Of the Scottish army Malcolm Fleming 3rd Lord Fleming 1494-1547 (48), Gilbert Kennedy 3rd Earl Cassilis 1515-1558 (27) and Laurence Oliphant 3rd Lord Oliphant -1566 fought.

William Graham 3rd Earl Menteith 1500-1543 (42) was captured. He was ransomed in 1453.

William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn 1493-1548 (49) was captured and committed to the custody of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (69). He was released on payment of a ransom of a thousand pounds and subscribing by his own hand to support Henry VIII's (51) project of a marriage between the young Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (5) and the Mary Queen of Scots.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553.

On 08 Dec 1542 Mary Queen of Scots was born to [her father] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (30) and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 (27) at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Death of King James V of Scotland

On 14 Dec 1542 [her father] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (30) died at Falkland Palace. Mary Queen of Scots succeeded I King Scotland: Stewart. She was six days old.

Around Sep 1543 James Hamilton 2nd Earl Arran 1516-1575 (27) was created 1st Duke Châtellerault. Margaret Douglas Duchess Châtellerault -1579 by marriage Duchess Châtellerault. He was awrded the Duchy for having arranged the marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Dauphin.

On 09 Sep 1543 Mary Queen of Scots was crowned I King Scotland: Stewart.

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

In Jun 1548 a French army took the town of Haddington from the English.

On 07 Jul 1548 a Scottish Parliament held at a nunnery near the town of Haddington agreed to marry Mary Queen of Scots (5) to the [her future husband] Dauphin of France (4).

Around 1560 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560. 1572. After François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

In Aug 1548 James Hamilton 3rd Earl Arran 1532-1609 (16) travelled to with Mary Queen of Scots (5) at France.

In 1551 [her half-brother] François Valois III Duke Longueville 1535-1551 (15) died.

In 1553 Archibald Campbell 5th Earl Argyll 1534-1573 (19) and [her illegitimate half-sister] Jean Stewart Countess Argyll 15333-1588 (20) were married. They were third cousins. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Countess Argyll.

In 1556 Sébastien de Luxembourg Duke of Penthièvre 1530-1569 (26) and Marie de Beaucaire 1535-1613 (21) were married. She a Lady in Waiting to Mary Queen of Scots (13).

In Sep 1556 Patrick Hepburn 3rd Earl Bothwell 1512-1556 (44) died. James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (22) succeeded 4th Earl Bothwell.

Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France

On 24 Apr 1558 [her husband] Dauphin of France (14) and Mary Queen of Scots (15) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her husband] She by marriage King Consort Scotland.

In 1559 Charles "The Great" Lorraine III Duke Lorraine 1543-1608 (15) and [her sister-in-law] Claude Valois Angoulême Duchess Lorraine 1547-1575 (11) were married. They were fourth cousins. [her sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess Lorraine.

Before 1572. François Clouet Painter 1510-1572 or studio of. Portrait of Charles Before 21 Feb 1575. François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Claude Valois Angoulême Duchess Lorraine 1547-1575.

Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572 (49). Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots (16).

Henry II of France Dies Francis and Mary "Queen of Scots" Succeed

On 10 Jul 1559 [her father-in-law] Henry II King France 1519-1559 (40) was killed whilst jousting. Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (15) succeeded II King France: Capet Valois Angoulême. Mary Queen of Scots (16) by marriage Queen Consort France. They would reign for eighteen months only with Francis dying in Dec 1560. Francis and Mary would have no issue.

1559. Studio of François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Henry II King France 1519-1559.

On 20 Jul 1559 Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (32) and [her sister-in-law] Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568 (14) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. [her sister-in-law] She by marriage Queen Consort Spain.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip Around 1563 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568. Around 1599 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568.

On 11 Jun 1560 [her mother] Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 (44) died at Edinburgh Castle.

Death of Francis II King France Charles IX Succeeds

On 05 Dec 1560 [her husband] Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (16) died. Charles IX King France 1550-1574 (10) succeeded IX King France: Capet Valois Angoulême. Mary Queen of Scots (17) no longer Queen of France she returned to Scotland arriving at Leith 19 Aug 1561 after having been in France for thirteen years.

In 1563 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Charles IX King France 1550-1574.

In Aug 1561 Mary Queen of Scots (18) returned to Scotland.

On 14 Dec 1561 [her illegitimate half-brother] Robert Stewart 1st Earl Orkney 1533-1615 (28) and Jean Kennedy Countess Orkney -1598 were married. He a great grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage Countess Orkney.

In 1562 Marie de Luxembourg 1562- was born to Sébastien de Luxembourg Duke of Penthièvre 1530-1569 (32) and Marie de Beaucaire 1535-1613 (27). Mary Queen of Scots (19) was her godmother.

In 1562 [her illegitimate half-brother] James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent 1531-1570 (31) was created 1st Earl Moray 5C 1562.

In 1561 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent 1531-1570. In 1568. Unknown Painter. Portrait of James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent 1531-1570.

On 08 Feb 1562 [her illegitimate half-brother] James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent 1531-1570 (31) and Agnes Keith Countess Moray Countess Argyll 1530-1588 (31) were married at Holyrood. They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage Countess Moray.

On 22 Jul 1565 [her future husband] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (19) was created 1st Duke Albany 3C 1565.

On 29 Jul 1565 [her husband] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (19) and Mary Queen of Scots (22) were married at Holyrood Palace, Holyrood They were half first cousins. He a great grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

In Feb 1566 [her future husband] James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (32) and Jean Gordon Countess Bothwell Countess Sutherland 1546-1629 (20) were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Bothwell.

Murder of David Rizzio

On 09 Mar 1566 at eight o'clock in the evening David Rizzio Courtier 1533-1566 (33) was murdered in the presence of the six months Mary Queen of Scots (23) and her half-sister [her illegitimate half-sister] Jean Stewart Countess Argyll 15333-1588 (33) at Holyrood Palace by rebels led by Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven 1520-1566. Rizzio was dragged through the bed chamber into the adjacent Audience Chamber and stabbed an alleged 57 times. Mary's husband Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (20) was suspected of being one of the murderers.

On 15 Mar 1566 Mary Queen of Scots (23) writes to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (32):

As first hes takin our houss slane our maist [most] speciall servand (33) in our awin [own] presence & thaireftir haldin our propper personis captive tressonneblie, quhairby [whereby] we war constrainit to escaipe straitlie about midnyght out of our palice of halliruidhouss to the place quhair [where] we ar for the present, in the grittest danger feir of our lywis & ewill [ill] estate that evir princes on earth stuid [stood] in.

We thotht to have writtin to you this letter with oure awin [own] hand, that therby ye myght have better onestand all our meaning & takin mair [more] familliarlie therewit. Bot of trewt [truth] we ar so tyrit [tired] & ewill [ill] at eass [ease], quhat [what] throw rydding of twenty millis [miles] in v [5] horis [hours] of the nyght as wit the frequent seikness & weill dispositioun be th’occasioun of our child/that we could not at this tyme as we was willing to have done…

PAINTINGS/LETTERS/Rizzio.jpgYour richt [right] gud sister and cusignes [cousin] Marie R.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

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On 19 Jun 1566 [her son] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 was born to Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (20) and Mary Queen of Scots (23) at Edinburgh Castle. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.67%.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Murder of Lord Darnley

On 10 Feb 1567 [her husband] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (21) was murdered at Kirk O Field. Around two in the morning two barrels of gunpowder exploded beneath his room. His body and that of his valet William Taylor were found outside, surrounded by a cloak, a dagger, a chair, and a coat. Darnley was dressed only in his nightshirt. There were no visible marks on the body. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood.

On 24 Feb 1567 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (33) wrote to her cousin Mary Queen of Scots (24) regarding the murder of Mary's husband [her former husband] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (21) as follows:

Madam (24),

PAINTINGS/LETTERS/Murder_of_Lord_Darnley.jpgMy ears have been so astounded and my heart so frightened to hear of the horrible and abominable murder of your [her former husband] husband (21) and my own cousin that I have scarcely spirit to write: yet I cannot conceal that I grieve more for you than him. I should not do the office of a faithful cousin and friend, if I did not urge you to preserve your honour, rather than look through your fingers at revenge on those who have done you that pleasure as most people say. I counsel you so to take this matter to heart, that you may show the world what a noble Princess and loyal woman you are. I write thus vehemently not that I doubt, but for affection. [Translated from the French; extract – lines 1-12]

On 07 May 1567 [her future husband] James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (33) and Jean Gordon Countess Bothwell Countess Sutherland 1546-1629 (21) were divorced.

On 12 May 1567 [her future husband] James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (33) was created 1st Duke Orkney, 1st Marquess Fife.

Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and Lord Bothwell

On 15 May 1567 [her husband] James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (33) and Mary Queen of Scots (24) were married in the Great Hall Holyrood House They were half third cousins once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

In 1568 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (31) attended to hear evidence against Mary Queen of Scots (25) at York.

In 1563 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572.

In 1568 Richard Devereux 1513-1547 (55) was entrusted with the custody of Mary Queen of Scots (25).

Mary Queen of Scots escapes from Lochleven Castle

On 02 May 1568 Mary Queen of Scots (25) escaped from Lochleven Castle, Kinross with the help of George Douglas of Helenhill (brother of William Douglas 6th Earl Morton 1540-1606 (28), the castle's owner) and Claud Hamilton 1st Lord Paisley 1546-1621 (21).

Battle of Langside

On 13 May 1568 the army of Mary Queen of Scots (25) commanded by Archibald Campbell 5th Earl Argyll 1534-1573 (34) was defeated by the army of the Regent her illegitimate half-brother [her illegitimate half-brother] James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent 1531-1570 (37).

John Campbell -1568 was killed.

William "Younger" Douglas 7th Lord Drumlanrig -1572 and Robert Seton 1st Earl Winton 1553-1603 (15) fought.

Claud Hamilton 1st Lord Paisley 1546-1621 (21) and George Seton 7th Lord Seton 1531-1586 (37) fought for the Queen.

John Graham 6th Earl Menteith 1574-1598 fought for the Earl of Moray.

Before 19 Sep 1581. Frans Pourbus the Elder Painter 1545-1581. Portrait of George Seton 7th Lord Seton 1531-1586 and his children Robert Seton 1st Earl Winton 1553-1603, John Seton, Alexander Seton 1st Earl Dunfermline 1555-1622, William Seton Master of Seton 1390-1424 and Margaret Seton Lady Paisley 1557-1616. Before 19 Sep 1581. Frans Pourbus the Elder Painter 1545-1581. Portrait of George Seton 7th Lord Seton 1531-1586 and his children Robert Seton 1st Earl Winton 1553-1603, John Seton, Alexander Seton 1st Earl Dunfermline 1555-1622, William Seton Master of Seton 1390-1424 and Margaret Seton Lady Paisley 1557-1616.

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Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England

On 16 May 1568 Mary Queen of Scots (25) escaped across the Solway Firth into England. The following day, 17 May 1568 she wrote to her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (34) from Workington Hall. The letter states ...

describes the treasonable actions of her enemies, who ‘have robbed me of everything I had in the world’ and expresses her confidence in Elizabeth ‘not only for the safety of my life, but also to aid and assist me in my just quarrel’. Describing herself as Elizabeth’s ‘very faithful and affectionate good sister, cousin and escaped prisoner, Mary begs for an audience; ‘I entreat you to send to fetch me as soon as you possibly can’, for ‘I am’, she bemoans, ‘in a pitiable condition, not only for a queen, but for a gentlewoman, for I have nothing in the world but what I had on my person when I made my escape, travelling sixty miles across the country the first day, and not having since ever ventured to proceed except by night, as I hope to declare before you if it pleases you to have pity, as I trust you will, upon my extreme misfortune.’'

The following day, 18 May 1568 Mary Queen of Scots (25) was escorted to Carlisle Castle.

On 03 Oct 1568 [her former sister-in-law] Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568 (23) died.

On 26 Jan 1569 Mary Queen of Scots (26) was moved to the custody of George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (41) and his wife Bess of Hardwick Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1527-1608 (42) at Tutbury Castle.

In 1582 Unknown Painter. Portrait of George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590. 1592. Rowland Lockey Painter 1565-1616. Portrait of Bess of Hardwick Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1527-1608.

On 02 Feb 1569 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (41) was Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots (26) at Tutbury Castle.

In Jun 1569 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (41) was Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots (26) at Wingfield Manor.

In Sep 1569 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (41) was Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots (26) at Tutbury Castle.

James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Assassinated by Firearm

On 23 Jan 1570 [her illegitimate half-brother] James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent 1531-1570 (39) was assassinated at Linlithgow by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, a supporter of Mary Queen of Scots (27). Elizabeth Stewart 2nd Countess Moray 1565-1591 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Moray 5C 1562. As he was passing in a cavalcade in the main street below, Hamilton fatally wounded him with a carbine shot from a window of his uncle Archbishop Hamilton's (57) house. He was the first head of government to be assassinated by a firearm.

On 26 Nov 1570 [her former brother-in-law] Charles IX King France 1550-1574 (20) and Elisabeth of Austria Queen Consort France 1554-1592 (16) were married. They were fourth cousins. She by marriage Queen_Consort_France.

In 1571 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Elisabeth of Austria Queen Consort France 1554-1592.

In 1571 [her former brother-in-law] Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox 1557-1576 (13) was created 1st Earl Lennox 3C 1571 by older brother King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (4) who had inherited the Earl Lennox 2C 1488 when he became King.

Ridolphi Plot

Around Mar 1571 the Ridolphi Plot was a Catholic plan to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (37) and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots (28) would would marry Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (34). Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (37) and Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (34) were cousins through their Great Grandmother Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497.

On 04 Sep 1571 Alexander Stewart 1532-1571 (39) was killed by supporters of Mary Queen of Scots (28) in Stirling.

On 04 Sep 1571 [her former father-in-law] Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 1516-1571 (54) died at Stirling Castle. On 04 Sep 1571 Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox 1557-1576 (14) succeeded 5th Earl Lennox 2C 1488.

On 18 Aug 1572 Henry IV King France 1553-1610 (18) and [her former sister-in-law] Margaret Valois Angoulême Queen Consort France 1553-1615 (19) were married. They were second cousins. [her former sister-in-law] She by marriage Queen_Consort_France.

Around 1610. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Henry IV King France 1553-1610.

In 1574 [her former brother-in-law] Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox 1557-1576 (16) and Elizabeth Cavendish Countess Lennox 1555-1582 (18) were married. He a great grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage Countess Lennox.

On 30 May 1574 [her former brother-in-law] Charles IX King France 1550-1574 (23) died. Henry III King France 1551-1589 (22) succeeded III King France: Capet Valois Angoulême.

Coronation and Marriage of Henry III King France

On 14 Feb 1575 [her former brother-in-law] Henry III King France 1551-1589 (23) and Louise Lorraine Queen Consort France 1553-1601 (21) were married at Reims Cathedral; the day after his coronation They were fourth cousins. She by marriage Queen Consort France.

Around 21 Feb 1575 Claude of Lorraine 1575-1576 was born to Charles "The Great" Lorraine III Duke Lorraine 1543-1608 (32) and [her former sister-in-law] Claude Valois Angoulême Duchess Lorraine 1547-1575 (27). She died a year later. Her [her former sister-in-law] mother (27) died in childbirth. She had given birth to nine children during the course of her sixteen year marriage; she was married aged twelve.

In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (29). Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots (33).

Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots (33).

In Apr 1576 [her former brother-in-law] Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox 1557-1576 (18) died.

In Oct 1577 Walter Mildmay 1521-1589 (56) and William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (57) visited Mary Queen of Scots (34) at Chatsworth House after she had announced that she had important secrets to reveal to Elizabeth.

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. After 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His left-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

In Apr 1578 [her husband] James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (44) died at Dragsholm Castle. Francis Stewart 5th Earl Bothwell 1562-1612 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Bothwell at Great Hall Stirling Castle.

On 23 Jan 1581 James "The Bonnie Earl" Stewart 2nd Earl Moray 1565-1592 (16) and [her illegitimate niece] Elizabeth Stewart 2nd Countess Moray 1565-1591 (15) were married. They were third cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her illegitimate niece] She by marriage Lord Doune. She by marriage 2nd Earl Moray 5C 1562.

Raid of Ruthven

22 Aug 1582. The Raid of Ruthven was a plot by several nobles led by William Ruthven 1st Earl Gowrie 1541-1584 (39) to kidnap the fifteen years old [her son] King James VI of Scotland (16), son of Mary Queen of Scots (39), (before he became King of England) to reform the government of Scotland.

The nobles included John Erskine 19th Earl Mar 1562-1634 (20), Thomas Lyon Master of Glamis -1608, Robert Boyd 5th Lord Boyd 1517-1590 (65), Patrick Lindsay 6th Lord Lindsay of the Byres 1521-1589 (61), and David Erskine Commendator of Dryburgh.

They were opposed by Esme Stewart 1st Duke Lennox 1542-1583 (40) and James Stewart 1st Earl Arran -1595 who controlled the government.

[her son] King James VI of Scotland (16) was captured whilst hunting near Ruthven Castle.

The rebels were joined by Francis Stewart 5th Earl Bothwell 1562-1612 (19) and James Cunningham 7th Earl Glencairn 1552-1630 (30).

Esme Stewart 1st Duke Lennox 1542-1583 (40) was exiled; he died a year later in Paris. James Stewart 1st Earl Arran -1595 was imprisoned.

1626. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of John Erskine 19th Earl Mar 1562-1634.

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On 10 Jun 1584 [her former brother-in-law] Francis Valois Angoulême Duke Anjou 1555-1584 (29) died of malaria unmarried.

Around 1555 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis Valois Angoulême Duke Anjou 1555-1584.

On 27 Jun 1584 Francis Hay 9th Earl Erroll 1564-1631 (20) and [her illegitimate niece] Margaret Stewart Countess Erroll 1569-1586 (15) were married. They were fourth cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her illegitimate niece] She by marriage Countess Erroll.

In Jan 1585 John St John 2nd Baron St John Bletso 1535-1596 (50) made keeper of Mary Queen of Scots (42) at Tutbury Castle.

In 1586 [her illegitimate niece] Margaret Stewart Countess Erroll 1569-1586 (16) died.

In 1586 Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (50) conveyed to Mary Queen of Scots (43) the sentence of death confirmed by the English Parliament.

Before 1591. Hieronimo Custodis Painter -1593. Portrait of Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608.

Babington Plot

On 06 Jul 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24) wrote to Mary Queen of Scots (43), telling her that he and a group of friends were planning to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (52).

Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

Before 14 Oct 1586 Walter Mildmay 1521-1589 went to Fotheringay Castle to inform Mary Queen of Scots of her forthcoming trial in which he subsequently took part as one of the special commissioners.

On 14 Oct 1586 Henry Compton 1st Baron Compton 1544-1589 (42), Lewis Mordaunt 3rd Baron Mordaunt 1538-1601 (48), Henry Wentworth 3rd Baron Wentworth 1558-1593 (28), Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592 (62), John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 (33) and Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1556-1625 (30) sat in judgement on Mary Queen of Scots (43) in the Presence Chamber of Fotheringay Castle.

Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (57), George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (28), Henry Clinton 2nd Earl Lincoln 1539-1616 (47), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (45), Edward Manners 3rd Earl Rutland 1549-1587 (37), Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (55), Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick 1530-1590 (56), George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (58), Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (36), William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 (60), William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (66), Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1538-1601 (48) and Thomas Bromley Lord Chancellor 1530-1587 (56) were present on the side of the Presence Chamber of Fotheringay Castle.

John St John 2nd Baron St John Bletso 1535-1596 (51) was present on the left side of the Presence Chamber of Fotheringay Castle.

John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 (33) was a juror.

Edward Manners 3rd Earl Rutland 1549-1587 (37) was a commissioner.

In 1582 Seventtenth Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592. In 1559 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant. Around 1590 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605. Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Unknown Man. Possibly George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593. Around 1590 Isaac Oliver Painter 1565-1617. Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593. Around 1650 based on a work of 1575.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604. Around 1574 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. Portrait of Charles Somerset 1587-1665. Armorial top left quarterly 1&4 Beaufort Arms with a yellow band top and bottom 2 Herbert Arms 3 Woodville Arms. The attribution here possibly incorrect since Charles Somerset was born in 1587 ie before the 1574 date when painted. A possible subject is William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 who has the same armoiral in another In 1569. Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589.

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On 25 Oct 1586 Mary Queen of Scots (43) was convicted and sentenced to death. Only Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1556-1625 (30) offered any dissent against the judgement.

In Nov 1586 Robert Beale Clerk Painter 1541-1601 (45) was sent with Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (50) to Fotheringay Castle to notify Mary Queen of Scots (43) that sentence of death had been passed upon her.

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 01 Feb 1587 Queen Elizabeth I (53) signed the Death Warrant of Mary Queen of Scot's (44) (her first cousin once-removed). Elizabeth gave orders of Mary's jailor Amyas Paulett 1457-1538 to complete the task. He refused.

Around 1577 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Amyas Paulett 1457-1538.

On 07 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was informed she was to be executed the following day. During the course of the night she wrote to her former brother-in-law [her former brother-in-law] Henry III King France 1551-1589 (35) ...

To the most Christian king, my brother and old ally,.

Royal brother, having by God's will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates. I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honor to be queen, your sister and old ally.

Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning. I have not had time to give you a full account of everything that has happened, but if you will listen to my doctor and my other unfortunate servants, you will learn the truth, and how, thanks be to God, I scorn death and vow that I meet it innocent of any crime, even if I were their subject. The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs. The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose. The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them – this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve: further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions. As for my son, I commend him to you in so far as he deserves, for I cannot answer for him. I have taken the liberty of sending you two precious stones, talismans against illness, trusting that you will enjoy good health and a long and happy life. Accept them from your loving sister-in-law, who, as she dies, bears witness of her warm feeling for you. Again I commend my servants to you. Give instructions, if it please you, that for my soul's sake part of what you owe me should be paid, and that for the sake of Jesus Christ, to whom I shall pray for you tomorrow as I die, I be left enough to found a memorial mass and give the customary alms.

Wednesday, at two in the morning.

Your most loving and most true sister.

Mary R.

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On 07 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) having been informed that she was to be executed the next day wrote her will ...

From The Last Days of Mary Stuart, Samuel Cowan, 1907 ...

In the name of the Father, son, and Holy Ghost, I, Mary, by the grace of God, Queen of Scotland and Dowager of France, being on the point of death and not having any means of making my will, have myself committed these articles in writing, and I will and desire that they have the same force as if they were made in due form:-.

In the first place, I declare that I die in the Catholic Apostolic and Romish faith. First, I desire that a complete service be performed for my soul in the Church of St. Denis in France, and another in St. Peter's at Rheims, where all my servants are to attend in such manner as they may be ordered to do by those to whom I have given directions and who are named therein.

Further, that an annual obit be founded for prayers for my soul in perpetuity in such place and after such manner as shall be deemed most convenient. To furnish funds for this I will that my houses at Fontainebleau be sold, hoping that the King will render me assistance, as I have requested him to do in my memorandum.

I will that my estate of Trespagny be kept by my cousin de Guise for one of his daughters, if she should come to be married. In these quarters I relinquish half of the arrears due to me, or a part, on condition that the others be paid, in order to be expended by my executors in perpetual alms. To carry this into effect the better, the documents shall be looked out and delivered according to the assignment for accomplishing this.

I will also that the money which may arise from my lawsuit with Secondat, be distributed as follows:- First, in the discharge of my debts and orders first place mentioned and which are not yet paid; in the first place, the 2000 crowns to Curle, which I desire to be paid without any hesitation, they being a marriage portion, upon which neither Nau nor any other person has any claim, whatever obligation he may hold, inasmuch as it is only fictitious, and the money is mine, not borrowed, which since I did but show him, and afterwards withdrew it; and it was taken from me with the rest at Chartley; the which I give him, provided he can recover it agreeably to my promise in payment of the four thousand francs as promised at my death, one thousand as a marriage portion for an own sister, and he having asked me for the rest for his expenses in prison.

As to the payment of a similar sum to Nau it is not obligatory, and therefore it has always been my intention that it should be paid last, and then only in case he should make it appear that he has not acted contrary to the conditions upon which I gave it him, and to which my servants were witnesses. As regards the 1200 crowns which he has placed to my account as having been borrowed by him for my use – 600 of Beauregard, 300 from Jervis, and the remainder from I know not whom, he must repay them out of his own money, and I must be quit and my order annulled, as I have not received any part of it, consequently it must be still in his possession, unless he has paid it away. Be this as it may, it is necessary that this sum should revert to me, I having received nothing; and in case it has not been paid away, I must have recourse to his property.

I further direct that Pasquier shall account for the moneys that he has expended and received by order of Nau, from the hands of the servants of Mons. de Chateauneuf, the French Ambassador.

Further, I will that my accounts be audited and my treasure paid.

Further, that the wages and sums due to my household, as well for the last as for the present year, be paid them before all other things, both wages and pensions, excepting the pensions of Nau and Curle, until it is ascertained what there is remaining, or whether they merited any pensioning from me, unless the wife of Curle be in necessity or be ill-treated on my account; the wages of Nau after the same manner.

I will that the 2400 francs which I have given to Jane Kennedy (afterwards married to Sir Andrew Melville; and was drowned by the upsetting of a boat, the year of the marriage of James VI,) be paid to her in money, as it was stated in my first deed of gift, which done, the pension of Willie Douglas shall revert to me, which I give to Fontenay (Nau's brother) for services and expenses for which he has had no compensation.

I will that the 4000 francs of that banker's be applied for and repaid; I have forgotten his name, but the Bishop of Glasgow will readily recollect it; and if the first order be not honoured, I desire that another may be given in the first money from Secondat.

The 10,000 francs which the ambassador has received for me, I will that they be distributed among my servants who are now going away, viz-.

First, 2000 francs to my physician; 2000 francs to Elizabeth Curle; 2000 to Sebastian Page; 2000 to Mary Page, my goddaughter; 1000 to Beauregard; 1000 to Gourgon; 1000 to Jervis.

Further, that out of the rest of my revenue with the remainder of Secondats and all other casualties, I will that:

5000 francs be given to the Foundling Hospital at Rheims; to my scholars 2000 francs. To four mendicants such sum as my executors may think fit, according to the means in their hands; 500 francs to the hospitals; to Martin escuyer de cuisine, 1000 francs; 1000 francs to Annibal, whom I recommend to my cousin de Guise, his godfather, to place in some situation for his life, in his service. I leave 500 francs to Nicholas, and 500 francs to his daughters when they marry. I leave 500 francs to Robert Hamilton, and beg my son to take him and Monsieur de Glasgow, or the Bishop of Ross. I leave to Didier his registership, subject to the approbation of the King. I give 500 francs to Jean Lauder, and beg my cousin of Guise, or of Mayne, to take him into their service, and Messieurs de Glasgow and de Ross to see him provided for. I will that his father be paid his wages and leave him 500 francs; 1000 francs to be paid to Gourgon for money and other things with which he supplied me in my necessity.

I will that if Bourgoyne should perform the journey agreeably to the vow which he made for me to St. Nicholas, that 1500 francs be paid to him for this purpose.

I leave according to my slender means, 6000 francs to the Bishop of Glasgow, and 3000 to the Bishop of Ross.

And I leave the gift of casualties and reserved seigneurial rights to my godson the son of Monsieur de Ruissieu.

I give 300 francs to Laurenz, and 300 to Suzanne; and I leave 10,000 francs among the four persons who have been m y sureties and to Varmy the solicitor.

I will that the money arising from the furniture which I have ordered to be sold in London shall go to defray the travelling expenses of my servants to France.

My coach I leave to carry my ladies, and the horses, which they can sell or do what they like with.

There remain about 300 crowns due to Bourgoyne for the wages of past years, which I desire may be paid him,.

I leave 2000 francs to Sir Andrew Melville, my steward.

I appoint my cousin the Duke of Guise (36), principal executor of my will; after him, the Archbishop of Glasgow, the Bishop of Ross, and Monsieur de Ruissieu, my chancellor.

I desire that Le Preau may without obstacle hold his two prebends.

I recommend Mary Page, my goddaughter, to my cousin, Madame de Guise, and beg her to take her into her service, and my aunt de Saint Pierre to get Mowbray some good situation or retain her in her service for the honour of God.

Done this day 7th February, 1587. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

Around 1554. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry 1st Duke Guise 1550-1588.

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Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy.

A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the great hall at Fotheringhay, with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution..

THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.

First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Hall, at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.

Then she turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do.".

Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted.".

"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion.".

Then the Earl of Kent (46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-removed], and descended from the blood of Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married [her former husband] Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (43)], and the anointed Queen of Scotland.".

Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.

After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall, with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.

Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.

Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), perceiving her (44) so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion.".

Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She confessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins.".

Her (44) prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.".

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr. Dean (42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.".

Then one of the executioners pulling off her (44) garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

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The Letter Books of Amias Paulet Keeper of Mary queen of Scots Published 1874 Marys Execution. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. The inventory of the property of the Queen of Scots (44), alluded to in the foregoing letter, is printed in Prince Labanoff's collection, in which it occupies more than twenty pages. Poulet (54) compiled it by summoning Mary's servants before him, and requesting each of them to give him a written note of all that the Queen (44) had given them. A comparison of this inventory, made after Mary's death, with a former one, dated June 13, 1586, which Prince Labanoff found amongst M. de Chateauneuf's papers enables us to see that Mr. Froude has been led into a curious error respecting Mary Stuart's dress at the scaffold by the anonymous writer whose account he follows in preference to the narratives drawn up by responsible witnesses. It may seem to be of little importance, but as Mr. Froude has chosen to represent the last moments of Mary's life as "brilliant acting throughout," he should at least have been accurate in his details. He even goes so far as to say that she was deprived of the assistance of her chaplain for "fear of some religious melodrame." As to her dress, he says, "She stood on the black scaffold with the black figures all around her, blood-red from head to foot. Her reasons for adopting so extraordinary a costume must be left to conjecture. It is only certain that it must have been carefully studied, and that the pictorial effect must have been appalling." And he quotes from the Vray Rapport the words, "Ainsy fut executee toute en rouge. [Translation: So was executed all in red.]".

The rouge was not " blood-red," but a dark red brown. Blackwood says that she wore, with a pourpoint or bodice of black satin, "une Juppe de vellours cramoisi brun," and the narrative called La Mort de la Royne d'Escosse says the same. There it is in the June inventory, "Une juppe de velloux cramoisy brun, bandee de passement noir, doublee de taffetas de couleur brune." In the inventory taken after her death it is wanting. As it happens, if she had wished to be "blood-red," she might have been so, for in the wardrobe there was "satin figure incarnat," " escarlate," and " satin incarnate." These figure both in the June and February inventories. When she was dressed "le plus proprement qu'elle put et mieux que de coutume," she said to her maids of honour, "Mes amies, je vous eusse laisse plustost cet accoustrement que celui d'hier, sinon qu'il faut que j'aille a la mort un peu honnorablement, et que j'aye quelque chose plus que le commun." "La tragedie finie," continues Blackwood, " les pauvres damoiselles, soigneuses de rhonneur de leur maistresse s'adresserent a Paulet son gardien, et le prierent que le bourreau ne touchast plus au corps de sa Majeste, et qu'il leur fust permis de la despouiller, apres que le monde seroit retire, afin qu'aucune indignite ne fust faitte au corps, promettant de luy rendre la despouille, et tout ce qu'il pourroit demander. Mais ce maudict et espou- ventable Cerbere les renvoya fort lourdement, leur commandant de sortir de la salle. Cependant le bourreau la dechausse, et la manie a sa discretion. Apres qu'il eust fait tout ce qu'il voulust, le corps fut porte en une chambre joignante celle de ces serviteurs, bien fermee de peur qu'ils n'y entrassent pour luy rendre leurs debvoirs. Ce qui augmenta grandement leur ennuy, ils la voyoient par le trou de la serrure demy couverte d'un morceau de drop de bure qu'on avoit arrache de la table du billard, dont nous avous parle cy dessus, et prioyent Dieu a la porte, dont Paulet (54) s'appercevant fist boucher le trou.".

The executioner snatched from her hand the little gold cross that she took from her neck. "Sa Majeste osta hors de son col line croix d'or, qu'elle vouloit bailler a mie de ses filles, disant au maistre d'oeuvres, Mon amy, cecy n'est pas k vostre usage, laissez la a cette damoiselle elle vous baillera en Argent plus qu'elle ne vaut; il luy arracha d'entre les mains fort rudement, disant, C'est mon droit. C'eust este merveille qu'elle eust trouve courtoisie en un bourreau Anglois, qui ne I'avoit jamais sceu trouver entre les plus honestes du pais, sinon tant qu'ils en pouvoient tirer de profit." It was worthy of Poulet (54) to insist that, even though everything Mary wore was to be burnt and the headsman was to lose his perquisites lest he should sell them for relics, it was to be by his hands that they should be taken from the person of his victim.

Several narratives of the execution exist. The most complete, attributed to Bourgoin, is printed in Jebb. Sir H. Ellis and Robertson print the official report of the Commissioners. Then there is Chateauneuf's Report to Henry III., February 27, 1587, N.S., in Teulet, and a narrative drawn up for Burghley by R. W. (Richard Wigmore). Blackwood also furnishes an interesting and trustworthy description. The anonymous Vray Rapport will be found in Teulet. Mr. Froude appears to have selected it, partly because it was possible to expand the Realistic description of the dissevered head, and in particular the inevitable contraction of the features, into the gross and pitiless caricature which he permits himself of the poor wreck of humanity; partly too, because the Vray Rapport, in direct contradiction to the other accounts, supports his assertion that Mary was "dreadfully agitated" on receiving the message of death from the two Earls. To convey the impression that the writer was bodily present on that occasion, Mr. Froude introduces him as "evidently an eye-witness, one of the Queen of Scots' (44) own attendants, probably her surgeon." But the narrative shows us that the writer, whoever he was, could not have been one of Mary's attendants, nor even acquainted with them, for he designates the two ladies who assisted their mistress at the scaffold as "deux damoiselles, I'une Francoise nommee damoiselle Ramete, et l'autre Escossoise, qui avait nom Ersex." There were no such names in Mary's household. The two ladies were both Scottish, Jane Kennedy and Elspeth Curie, Gilbert Curle's sister. Mr. Froude says, "Barbara Mowbray bound her eyes with a handkerchief." It was Jane Kennedy who performed for her this last service.

Poulet's (54) inventory, amongst other things, contains the following entry: "Memorandum that the Priest claimeth as of the said late Queen's gift, a silver chalice with a cover, two silver cruets, four images, the one of our Lady in red coral, with divers other vestments and necessaries belonging to a Massing Priest." When the scaffold had been taken away, the Priest was allowed to leave his room and join the rest of the household. On the morning after the execution he said Mass for Mary's soul; but on the afternoon of that day Melville and Bourgoin were sent for by Poulet, who gave orders that the altar should be taken down, and demanded an oath that Mass should not be said again. Melville excused himself as he was a Protestant and not concerned; the physician stoutly refused. Poulet (54) sent for the Priest, and required the coffer in which the vestments were kept to be brought to him. Du Preau, who was evidently a timid man, took the oath that Poulet (54) insisted on, little thinking that he was pledging himself for six months. "II jura sur la bible de ne faire aucune office de religion, craignant d'estre resserre en prison.".

The household of the late Queen (44) were not allowed to depart as soon as Poulet (54) expected. They were detained at Fotheringay, from motives of policy, till the 3rd of August, when the funeral of their mistress having been at last performed, they were set free. Some of them were taken to Peterborough to accompany the corpse and to be present at the funeral ceremonies on the 1st of August. Amongst them, in the order of the procession, it is surprising to find Mary's chaplain, "Monsieur du Preau, aumosnier, en long manteau, portant une croix d'Argent en main." The account of the funeral from which this is taken, written by one of the late Queen's (44) household, takes care to mention that when they reached the choir of Peterborough Minster, and the choristers began "a chanter a leur fagon en langage Anglois," they all, with the exception of Andrew Melville and Barbara Mowbray, left the church and walked in the cloisters till the service was finished. "Si les Anglois," he says, "et principalement le Roy des heraux ... estoit en extreme cholere, d'autant estoient joieux et contents les Catholiques.".

Poulet left for London, and as long as Mary's servants were detained at Fotheringay, he seems to have retained jurisdiction over them. It was to him, therefore, that Melville and Bourgoin applied in March for leave to sell their horses and to write into France respecting the bequests made to them by the Queen of Scots; and to him that Darrell forwarded in June "the petition of the whole household and servants of the late Queen of Scotland remaining at Fotheringay," begging to be released from their prison and to be allowed to leave the country.

Poulet (54), as has already been said, was made Chancellor of the Garter in April, 1587, but he did not retain this preferment for a whole year. He continued in the Captaincy of Jersey up to his death, but he appears to have resided in and near London. In the British Museum are two letters from him of small importance. One, addressed to the Lord High Admiral, is dated, "From my poor lodging in Fleet Street, the 14th of January, 1587," about "right of tenths in Jersey, belonging to the Government." The other, "From my little lodge at Twickenham, the 24th of April, 1588," "on behalf of Berry," whose divorce was referred by the Justices of the Common Pleas to four Doctors of the Civil Law, of whom Mr. Doctor Caesar, Judge of the Admiralty, to whom the letter was written, was one.

His name also occurs in a letter, from Walsingham to Burghley, dated May 23, 1587, while Elizabeth still kept up the farce of Burghley's disgrace for despatching Mary Stuart's death-warrant. "Touching the Chancellorship of the Duchy, she told Sir Amias Poulet that in respect of her promise made unto me, she would not dispose of it otherwise. But yet hath he no power to deliver the seals unto me, though for that purpose the Attorney is commanded to attend him, who I suppose will be dismissed hence this day with- out any resolution." And on the 4th of January following, together with the other lords of the Council, he signed a letter addressed by the Privy Council to the Lord Admiral and to Lord Buckhurst, the Lieutenants of Sussex, against such Catholics as "most obstinately have refused to come to the church to prayers and divine service," requiring them to " cause the most obstinate and noted persons to be committed to such prisons as are fittest for their safe keeping: the rest that are of value, and not so obstinate, are to be referred to the custody of some -ecclesiastical persons and other gentlemen well affected, to remain at the charges of the recusant, to be restrained in such sort as they may be forthcoming, and kept from intelligence with one another." On the 26th of September, in the year in which this letter was written, 1588, Sir Amias Poulet died.

Poulet was buried in St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London.When that church was pulled down to be rebuilt, his remains, with the handsome. Monument erected over them, were removed to the parish church of Hinton St. George. After various panegyrics in Latin, French, and English inscribed on his. Monument, a quatrain, expressive apparently of royal favour, pays the following tribute to the service rendered by him to the State as Keeper of the Queen of Scots: Never shall cease to spread wise Poulet's fame; These will speak, and men shall blush for shame: Without offence to speak what I do know, Great is the debt England to him doth owe.

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On 08 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall at Fotheringay Castle.

George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1533-1615 (54) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.

There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

In 1567 attrbuted to Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Richard Knightley 1533-1615. Around 1603 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624. The Latin inscription 'In vinculis invictus' ( In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624.

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 4 1587 1603. 28 Feb 1587. Paris. Bernardino De Mendoza Ambassador 1540-1604 (47) to the King (59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.

The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to confess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the queen of Scotland (44). It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (54), Lord Hunsdon (60), Lord Admiral Howard (51) and Walsingham (55), had represented to the Queen (53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the queen of Scotland (44). Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland (44) conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (53) for her signature by Davison (46), and after she had signed it she ordered him (46) not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison (46), who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the queen of Scotland (44), like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the queen of Scotland (44) was. The moment the justice received it, on the 08th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the queen of Scotland's (44) chamber with Paulet (54) and Lord Grey (46), who had charge of her (44), and there they had her (44) head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most advisable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. See Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 wearing his Garter Collar. 1576. Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Miniature Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624. Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624.

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In Jul 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral.

Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (69) died at Richmond Palace around three in the morning.

[her son] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of Mary Queen of Scots (60) who was the daughter of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform [her son] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.

In 1612 the remains of Mary Queen of Scots (69) were moved to Westminster Abbey on the orders of her son [her son] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (45).

John Evelyn's Diary 30 August 1654. 30 Aug 1654. Taking leave of my friends, who had now feasted me more than a month, I, with my wife (19), etc., set our faces toward home, and got this evening to Peterborough, passing by a stately palace (Thorpe) of St. John's (one deep in the blood of our good king), built out of the ruins of the Bishop's palace and cloister. The church is exceeding fair, full of. Monuments of great antiquity. Here lies Queen Catherine, the unhappy wife of Henry VIII, and the no less unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On the steeple, we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much inclosed and drained with infinite expense, and by many sluices, cuts, mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like inventions; at which the city and country about it consisting of a poor and very lazy sort of people, were much displeased.

Peterborough is a handsome town, and hath another well-built church.

Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 November 1665. 24 Nov 1665. Up, and after doing some business at the office, I to London, and there, in my way, at my old oyster shop in Gracious Streete, bought two barrels of my fine woman of the shop, who is alive after all the plague, which now is the first observation or inquiry we make at London concerning everybody we knew before it.

So to the 'Change, where very busy with several people, and mightily glad to see the 'Change so full, and hopes of another abatement still the next week. Off the 'Change I went home with Sir G. Smith (50) to dinner, sending for one of my barrels of oysters, which were good, though come from Colchester, where the plague hath been so much. Here a very brave dinner, though no invitation; and, Lord! to see how I am treated, that come from so mean a beginning, is matter of wonder to me. But it is God's great mercy to me, and His blessing upon my taking pains, and being punctual in my dealings.

After dinner Captain Cocke (48) and I about some business, and then with my other barrel of oysters home to Greenwich, sent them by water to Mrs. Penington, while he and I landed, and visited Mr. Evelyn (45), where most excellent discourse with him; among other things he showed me a ledger of a Treasurer of the Navy, his great grandfather, just 100 years old; which I seemed mighty fond of, and he did present me with it, which I take as a great rarity; and he hopes to find me more, older than it. He also shewed us several letters of the old Lord of Leicester's, in Queen Elizabeth's time, under the very hand-writing of Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Mary, Queen of Scotts; and others, very venerable names.

But, Lord! how poorly, methinks, they wrote in those days, and in what plain uncut paper.

Thence, Cocke (48) having sent for his coach, we to Mrs. Penington, and there sat and talked and eat our oysters with great pleasure, and so home to my lodging late and to bed.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 January 1667. 23 Jan 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (45) to White Hall, and there to the Duke of York (33), and did our usual business. Having done there, I to St. James's, to see the organ Mrs. Turner (44) told me of the other night, of my late Lord Aubigney's (47); and I took my Lord Bruncker (47) with me, he being acquainted with my present Lord Almoner, Mr. Howard (38), brother to the Duke of Norfolke (38); so he and I thither and did see the organ, but I do not like it, it being but a bauble, with a virginal! joining to it: so I shall not meddle with it.

Here we sat and talked with him a good while, and he seems a good-natured gentleman: here I observed the deske which he hath, [made] to remove, and is fastened to one of the armes of his chayre. I do also observe the counterfeit windows there was, in the form of doors with looking-glasses instead of windows, which makes the room seem both bigger and lighter, I think; and I have some thoughts to have the like in one of my rooms. He discoursed much of the goodness of the musique in Rome, but could not tell me how long musique had been in any perfection in that church, which I would be glad to know. He speaks much of the great buildings that this Pope1, whom, in mirth to us, he calls Antichrist, hath done in his time.

Having done with the discourse, we away, and my Lord and I walking into the Park back again, I did observe the new buildings: and my Lord, seeing I had a desire to see them, they being the place for the priests and Fryers, he took me back to my Lord Almoner (38); and he took us quite through the whole house and chapel, and the new monastery, showing me most excellent pieces in wax-worke: a crucifix given by a Pope to Mary Queen of Scotts, where a piece of the Cross is2 two bits set in the manner of a cross in the foot of the crucifix: several fine pictures, but especially very good prints of holy pictures. I saw the dortoire [dormitory] and the cells of the priests, and we went into one; a very pretty little room, very clean, hung with pictures, set with books. The Priest was in his cell, with his hair clothes to his skin, bare-legged, with a sandal! only on, and his little bed without sheets, and no feather bed; but yet, I thought, soft enough. His cord about his middle; but in so good company, living with ease, I thought it a very good life. A pretty library they have. And I was in the refectoire, where every man his napkin, knife, cup of earth, and basin of the same; and a place for one to sit and read while the rest are at meals. And into the kitchen I went, where a good neck of mutton at the fire, and other victuals boiling. I do not think they fared very hard. Their windows all looking into a fine garden and the Park; and mighty pretty rooms all. I wished myself one of the Capuchins. !Having seen what we could here, and all with mighty pleasure, so away with the Almoner (38) in his coach, talking merrily about the difference in our religions, to White Hall, and there we left him. I in my Lord Bruncker's (47) coach, he carried me to the Savoy, and there we parted. I to the Castle Tavern, where was and did come all our company, Sir W. Batten (66), Sir W. Pen (45), Sir R. Ford (53), and our Counsel Sir Ellis Layton, Walt Walker, Dr. Budd, Mr. Holder, and several others, and here we had a bad dinner of our preparing, and did discourse something of our business of our prizes, which was the work of the day.

I staid till dinner was over, and there being no use of me I away after dinner without taking leave, and to the New Exchange, there to take up my wife and Mercer, and to Temple Bar to the Ordinary, and had a dish of meat for them, they having not dined, and thence to the King's house, and there saw "The Numerous Lieutenant", a silly play, I think; only the Spirit in it that grows very tall, and then sinks again to nothing, having two heads breeding upon one, and then Knipp's singing, did please us. Here, in a box above, we spied Mrs. Pierce; and, going out, they called us, and so we staid for them; and Knipp took us all in, and brought to us Nelly (16); a most pretty woman, who acted the great part of Coelia to-day very fine, and did it pretty well: I kissed her, and so did my wife; and a mighty pretty soul she is. We also saw Mrs. Halls which is my little Roman-nose black girl, that is mighty pretty: she is usually called Betty. Knipp made us stay in a box and see the dancing preparatory to to-morrow for "The Goblins", a play of Suckling's (58), not acted these twenty-five years; which was pretty; and so away thence, pleased with this sight also, and specially kissing of Nell (16).

We away, Mr. Pierce and I, on foot to his house, the women by coach. In our way we find the Guards of horse in the street, and hear the occasion to be news that the seamen are in a mutiny, which put me into a great fright; so away with my wife and Mercer home preparing against to-morrow night to have Mrs. Pierce and Knipp and a great deal more company to dance; and, when I come home, hear of no disturbance there of the seamen, but that one of them, being arrested to-day, others do go and rescue him.

So to the office a little, and then home to supper, and to my chamber awhile, and then to bed.

Note 1. Fabio Chigi, of Siena, succeeded Innocent X. in 1655 as Alexander VII He died May, 1667, and was succeeded by Clement IX.

Note 2. Pieces of "the Cross" were formerly held in such veneration, and were so common, that it has been often said enough existed to build a ship. Most readers will remember the distinction which Sir W. Scott represents Louis XI (with great appreciation of that monarch's character), as drawing between an oath taken on a false piece and one taken on a piece of the true cross. Sir Thomas More, a very devout believer in relics, says ("Works", p. 119), that Luther wished, in a sermon of his, that he had in his hand all the pieces of the Holy Cross; and said that if he so had, he would throw them there as never sun should shine on them:—and for what worshipful reason would the wretch do such villainy to the cross of Christ? Because, as he saith, that there is so much gold now bestowed about the garnishing of the pieces of the Cross, that there is none left for poore folke. Is not this a high reason? As though all the gold that is now bestowed about the pieces of the Holy Cross would not have failed to have been given to poor men, if they had not been bestowed about the garnishing of the Cross! and as though there were nothing lost, but what is bestowed about Christ's Cross!" "Wolsey, says Cavendish, on his fall, gave to Norris, who brought him a ring of gold as a token of good will from Henry, "a little chaine of gold, made like a bottle chain, with a cross of gold, wherein was a piece of the Holy Cross, which he continually wore about his neck, next his body; and said, furthermore, 'Master Norris, I assure you, when I was in prosperity, although it seem but small in value, yet I would not gladly have departed with the same for a thousand pounds.'" Life, ed. 1852, p. 167. Evelyn mentions, "Diary", November 17th, 1664, that he saw in one of the chapels in St. Peter's a crucifix with a piece of the true cross in it. Amongst the jewels of Mary Queen (28) of Scots was a cross of gold, which had been pledged to Hume of Blackadder for £1000 (Chalmers's "Life", vol. i., p. 31 ). B.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1672 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684. Around 1669 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684. Before 08 Oct 1699 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Around1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Before 14 Nov 1687 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

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Around 1841. Ford Madox Brown Painter 1821-1893 (19). "The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots". The moment the Mary tells Richard Fletcher Bishop 1545-1596 to stop praying for her in the Protestant faith. His first wife Elizabeth (22) modelled for one of the figures

[her illegitimate half-brother] Robert Stewart 1st Earl Orkney 1533-1615 was created 1st Earl Orkney.

[her illegitimate nephew] John Stewart 1st Earl Carrick 1566-1615 was created 1st Earl Carrick. Elizabeth Howard Countess Carrick 1564-1646 by marriage Countess Carrick.

[her illegitimate nephew] John Stewart 1st Earl Carrick 1566-1615 and Elizabeth Howard Countess Carrick 1564-1646 were married. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.