Biography of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1605 New Years Honours

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1625 Death of James I

1649 Execution of Charles I

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [her father] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. [her father] He was created Duke Albany 4C 1600.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York 4C 1605 and Knight of the Bath by his father [her grandfather] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (38)
Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset 1579-1651 (26) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter.In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.
James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (11), brothers Robert Howard 1584-1653 (32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley 1601-1658 (15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (41) and John Cavendish -1618 were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 [her grandfather] James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House. His son [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.

On 29 May 1630 [her brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and [her mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. [her brother] He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles IIAround 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

John Evelyn's Diary 1620 1636 Birth and Childhood. 1631. There happened now an extraordinary dearth in England, corn bearing an excessive price; and, in imitation of what I had seen my father do, I began to observe matters more punctually, which I did use to set down in a blank almanac. The Lord of Castlehaven's (38) arraignment for many shameful exorbitances was now all the talk, and the birth of the Princess Mary, afterward Princess of Orange.

On 04 Nov 1631 Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 was born to [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (30) and [her mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (21).

On 14 Oct 1633 [her brother] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was born to [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and [her mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace. [her brother] He was created 1st Duke York 5C 1633 at birth by his father.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 April 1641. 27 Apr 1641, came over out of Holland the young [her future husband] Prince of Orange (14), with a splendid equipage, to make love to his [her father] Majesty's (40) eldest daughter (9), the now Princess Royal.
That evening, was celebrated the pompous funeral of the Duke of Richmond (66), who was carried in effigy, with all the ensigns of that illustrious family, in an open chariot, in great solemnity, through London to Westminster Abbey.

On 02 May 1641 [her husband] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married. She a daughter of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

On 14 Mar 1647 [her father-in-law] Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647 (63) died. His son [her husband] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (20) succeeded II Prince Orange. Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (15) by marriage Princess Orange.

In 1623 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647.Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647.

In 1648 [her brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (17) travelled to where his sister Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (16) and brother in law [her husband] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (21) were living at The Hague.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [her father] Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

On 04 Nov 1650 [her son] William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 was born to [her husband] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (24) and Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (19). He a grandson of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

On 06 Nov 1650 [her husband] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (24) died. His son [her son] William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 succeeded III Prince Orange.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671 (53). Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (24).

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

Around 1658 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671 (55). Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (26).

Around 1658 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

On 13 May 1659 [her brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 4C 1659, 1st Earl Cambridge 5C 1659 by his father [her father] Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (58).

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1660. 14 May 1660. In the morning when I woke and rose, I saw myself out of the scuttle close by the shore, which afterwards I was told to be the Dutch shore; the Hague was clearly to be seen by us. My Lord went up in his nightgown into the cuddy1, to see how to dispose thereof for himself and us that belong to him, to give order for our removal to-day. Some nasty Dutchmen came on board to proffer their boats to carry things from us on shore, &c., to get money by us. Before noon some gentlemen came on board from the shore to kiss my Lord's hands. And by and by Mr. North (24) and Dr. Clerke went to kiss the Queen of Bohemia's' hands, from my Lord, with twelve attendants from on board to wait on them, among which I sent my boy, who, like myself, is with child to see any strange thing. After noon they came back again after having kissed the [her aunt] Queen of Bohemia's (63) hand, and were sent again by my Lord to do the same to the [her son] Prince of Orange (9)2.
So I got the Captain to ask leave for me to go, which my Lord did give, and I taking my boy and judge Advocate with me, went in company with them. The weather bad; we were sadly washed when we came near the shore, it being very hard to land there. The shore is, as all the country between that and the Hague, all sand. The rest of the company got a coach by themselves; Mr. Creed and I went in the fore part of a coach wherein were two very pretty ladies, very fashionable and with black patches, who very merrily sang all the way and that very well, and were very free to kiss the two blades that were with them. I took out my flageolette and piped, but in piping I dropped my rapier-stick, but when I came to the Hague, I sent my boy back again for it and he found it, for which I did give him 6d., but some horses had gone over it and broke the scabbard. The Hague is a most neat place in all respects. The houses so neat in all places and things as is possible. Here we walked up and down a great while, the town being now very full of Englishmen, for that the Londoners were come on shore today. But going to see the [her son] Prince (9), he was gone forth with his governor, and so we walked up and down the town and court to see the place; and by the help of a stranger, an Englishman, we saw a great many places, and were made to understand many things, as the intention of may-poles, which we saw there standing at every great man's door, of different greatness according to the quality of the person. About 10 at night the Prince comes home, and we found an easy admission. His attendance very inconsiderable as for a prince; but yet handsome, and his tutor a fine man, and himself a very pretty boy. It was bright moonshine to-night. This done we went to a place we had taken to sup in, where a sallet and two or three bones of Mutton were provided for a matter of ten of us which was very strange. After supper the Judge and I to another house, leaving them there, and he and I lay in one press bed, there being two more in the same room, but all very neat and handsome, my boy sleeping upon a bench by me.
Note 1. "A sort of cabin or cook-room, generally in the fore-part, but sometimes near the stern of lighters and barges of burden".—Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book.
Note 2. Son of the [her former husband] Prince of Orange (33) and Mary (28), eldest daughter of Charles I afterwards William III He was then in his tenth year, having been born in 1650.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1660. 16 May 1660. Soon as I was up I went down to be trimmed below in the great cabin, but then come in some with visits, among the rest one from Admiral Opdam1, who spoke Latin well, but not French nor English, to whom my Lord made me to give his answer and to entertain; he brought my Lord a tierce of wine and a barrel of butter, as a present from the Admiral. After that to finish my trimming, and while I was doing of it in comes Mr. North very sea-sick from shore, and to bed he goes. After that to dinner, where Commissioner Pett was come to take care to get all things ready for the King on board. My Lord in his best suit, this the first day, in expectation to wait upon the King. But Mr. Edw. Pickering (42) coming from the King brought word that the King would not put my Lord to the trouble of coming to him; but that he would come to the shore to look upon the fleet to-day, which we expected, and had our guns ready to fire, and our scarlet waistcloathes out and silk pendants, but he did not come. My Lord and we at ninepins this afternoon upon the Quarterdeck, which was very pretty sport. This evening came Mr. John Pickering on board, like an ass, with his feathers and new suit that he had made at the Hague. My Lord very angry for his staying on shore, bidding me a little before to send to him, telling me that he was afraid that for his father's sake he might have some mischief done him, unless he used the General's name. To supper, and after supper to cards. I stood by and looked on till 11 at night and so to bed. This afternoon Mr. Edwd. Pickering (42) told me in what a sad, poor condition for clothes and money the King was, and all his attendants, when he came to him first from my Lord, their clothes not being worth forty shillings the best of them2. And how overjoyed the King was when Sir J. Greenville brought him some money; so joyful, that he called the Princess Royal (28) and [her brother] Duke of York (26) to look upon it as it lay in the portmanteau before it was taken out. My Lord told me, too, that the [her brother] Duke of York (26) is made High Admiral of England.
Note 1. The admiral celebrated in Lord Dorset's ballad,
To all you ladies now at land.
Should foggy Opdam chance to know
Our sad and dismal story;
The Dutch would scorn so weak a foe,
And quit their fort at Goree
For what resistance can they find
From men who've left their hearts behind? B.
Note 2. Andrew Marvell alludes to the poor condition, for clothes and money, in which the King was at this time, in "A Historical Poem":—
At length, by wonderful impulse of fate,
The people call him back to help the State;
And what is more, they send him money, too,
And clothe him all from head to foot anew.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 May 1660. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the [her brother] King's (29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (42), while I and the rest went to see the [her mother] Queen (50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the Princess Dowager's (28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:—"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".
Here I met with Mr. Woodcock of Cambridge, Mr. Hardy and another, and Mr. Woodcock beginning we had two or three fine songs, he and I, and W. Howe to the Echo, which was very pleasant, and the more because in a heaven of pleasure and in a strange country, that I never was taken up more with a sense of pleasure in my life. After that we parted and back to the Hague and took a tour or two about the Forehault3, where the ladies in the evening do as our ladies do in Hide Park. But for my life I could not find one handsome, but their coaches very rich and themselves so too. From thence, taking leave of the Doctor, we took wagon to Scheveling, where we had a fray with the Boatswain of the Richmond, who would not freely carry us on board, but at last he was willing to it, but then it was so late we durst not go. So we returned between 10 and 11 at night in the dark with a wagon with one horse to the Hague, where being come we went to bed as well as we could be accommodated, and so to sleep.
Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, [her brother] Charles II (29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.
Note 2. Mary, Princess Royal (28), eldest daughter of [her father] Charles I (59), and widow of [her former husband] William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (33). She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.
Note 3. The Voorhout is the principal street of the Hague, and it is lined with handsome trees.

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On 03 Sep 1660 [her brother] James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married. He a son of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. in secret. She by marriage Duchess York.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671.Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671.

On 13 Sep 1660 [her brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 [her brother] he was buried at South Side Henry VII Chapel Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 September 1660. 27 Sep 1660. The [her brother] King (30) received the merchant's addresses in his closet, giving them assurances of his persisting to keep Jamaica, choosing Sir Edward Massey Governor (41). In the afternoon, the Danish Ambassador's condolences were presented, on the death of the [her brother] Duke of Gloucester (20). This evening, I saw the Princess Royal (28), mother to the Prince of Orange (28), now come out of Holland in a fatal period.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 December 1660. 20 Dec 1660. All day at home with my workmen, that I may get all done before Christmas. This day I hear that the Princess Royal (29) has the small pox.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 December 1660. 21 Dec 1660. By water to Whitehall (leaving my wife at Whitefriars going to my father's (59) to buy her a muff and mantle), there I signed many things at the Privy Seal, and carried £200 from thence to the Exchequer, and laid it up with Mr. Hales, and afterwards took him and W. Bowyer to the Swan and drank with them. They told me that this is St. Thomas's [day], and that by an old custom, this day the Exchequer men had formerly, and do intend this night to have a supper; which if I could I promised to come to, but did not.
To my Lady's, and dined with her: she told me how dangerously ill the Princess Royal (29) is and that this morning she was said to be dead. But she hears that she hath married herself to young Jermyn, which is worse than the [her brother] Duke of York's (27) marrying the Chancellor's daughter, which is now publicly owned.
After dinner to the office all the afternoon. At seven at night I walked through the dirt to Whitehall to see whether my Lord be come to town, and I found him come and at supper, and I supped with him. He tells me that my aunt at Brampton has voided a great stone (the first time that ever I heard she was troubled therewith) and cannot possibly live long, that my uncle is pretty well, but full of pain still. After supper home and to bed.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 December 1660. 21 Dec 1660. This day died the Princess of Orange (29), of the smallpox, which entirely altered the face and gallantry of the whole Court.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 December 1660. 22 Dec 1660. The marriage of the Chancellor's (51) daughter (23) being now newly owned, I went to see her, she being Sir Richard Browne's (55) intimate acquaintance when she waited on the Princess of Orange (29); she was now at her father's, at Worcester House, in the Strand. We all kissed her hand, as did also my Lord Chamberlain (58) (Manchester) and Countess of Northumberland (37). This was a strange change—can it succeed well?—I spent the evening at St. James's, whither the [her sister] Princess Henrietta (16) was retired during the fatal sickness of her sister, the Princess of Orange (29), now come over to salute the [her brother] King (30) her brother. The [her sister] Princess (16) gave my wife (25) an extraordinary compliment and gracious acceptance, for the "Character" she had presented her the day before, and which was afterward printed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 December 1660. 24 Dec 1660. In the morning to the office and Commissioner Pett (50) (who seldom comes there) told me that he had lately presented a piece of plate (being a couple of flaggons) to Mr. Coventry (32), but he did not receive them, which also put me upon doing the same too; and so after dinner I went and chose a payre of candlesticks to be made ready for me at Alderman Backwell's (42).
To the office again in the afternoon till night, and so home, and with the painters till 10 at night, making an end of my house and the arch before my door, and so this night I was rid of them and all other work, and my house was made ready against to-morrow being Christmas day. This day the Princess Royal (29) died at Whitehall.

On 24 Dec 1660 Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (29) died of smallpox.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 December 1660. 25 Dec 1660. Preached at the Abbey, Dr. Earle (59), Clerk of his Majesty's Closet, and my dear friend, now Dean Westminster Abbey, on Luke II 13, 14, condoling the breach made in the public joy by the lamented death of the Princess (29).

John Evelyn's Diary 28 July 1664. 28 Jul 1664. Came to see me Monsieur Zuylichen (67), Secretary to the Prince of Orange (32), an excellent Latin poet, a rare lutinist, with Monsieur Oudart.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 November 1670. 04 Nov 1670. Saw the [her son] Prince of Orange (20), newly come to see the [her brother] King (40), his uncle; he has a manly, courageous, wise countenance, resembling his mother (39) and the [her brother] Duke of Gloucester (30), both deceased.
I now also saw that famous beauty, but in my opinion of a childish, simple, and baby face, Mademoiselle Querouaille (21), lately Maid of Honor to [her sister] Madame (26), and now to be so to the Queen (31).

Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.
Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The [her brother] king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; [her brother] he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: [her brother] his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.
The character of the [her brother] Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.
[her brother] His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

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Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.

Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. The necessity of affairs had exposed [her brother] Charles II from his earliest youth to the toils and perils of a bloody war. The fate of the [her father] king his father had left him for inheritance nothing but his misfortunes and disgraces. They overtook him everywhere; but it was not until he had struggled with his ill-fortune to the last extremity that he submitted to the decrees of Providence.
All those who were either great on account of their birth or their loyalty had followed him into exile; and all the young persons of the greatest distinction having afterwards joined him, composed a court worthy of a better fate.
Plenty and prosperity, which are thought to tend only to corrupt manners, found nothing to spoil in an indigent and wandering court. Necessity, on the contrary, which produces a thousand advantages whether we will or no, served them for education; and nothing was to be seen among them but an emulation in glory, politeness, and virtue.
With this little court, in such high esteem for merit, the [her brother] King of England returned two years prior to the period we mention, to ascend a throne which, to all appearances, he was to fill as worthily as the most glorious of his predecessors. The magnificence displayed on thus occasion was renewed at his coronation.
The death of the [her brother] Duke of Gloucester, and of the Princess Royal, which followed soon after, had interrupted the course of this splendour by a tedious mourning, which they quitted at last to prepare for the reception of the Infanta of Portugal.

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Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. The queen's court was always very numerous; that of the duchess was less so, but more select. This princess had a majestic air, a pretty good shape, not much beauty, a great deal of wit, and so just a discernment of merit, that, whoever of either sex were possessed of it, were sure to be distinguished by her: an air of grandeur in all her actions made her be considered as if born to support the rank which placed her so near the throne. The [her mother] queen dowager returned after the marriage of the Princess Royal, and it was in her court that the two others met.

Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. The beau Sydney, less dangerous than he appeared to be, had not sufficient vivacity to support the impression which his figure made; but little Jermyn was on all sides successful in his intrigues.
The old Earl of St. Albans, his uncle, had for a long time adopted him, though the youngest of all his nephews. It is well known what a table the good man kept at Paris, while the King his master was starving at Brussels, and the [her mother] Queen Dowager, his mistress, lived not over well in France.
Jermyn, supported by his uncle's wealth, found it no difficult matter to make a considerable figure upon his arrival at the court of the Princess of Orange: the poor courtiers of the king her brother could not vie with him in point of equipage and magnificence; and these two articles often produce as much success in love as real merit: there is no necessity for any other example than the present; for though Jermyn was brave, and certainly a gentleman, yet he had neither brilliant actions, nor distinguished rank, to set him off; and as for his figure, there was nothing advantageous in it. He was little; his head was large and his legs small; his features were not disagreeable, but he was affected in his carriage and behaviour. All his wit consisted in expressions learnt by rote, which he occasionally employed either in raillery or in love. This was the whole foundation of the merit of a man so formidable in amours.

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Memoirs of Count Grammont by Anthony Hamilton Chapter 6. The Princess Royal was the first who was taken with him: Miss Hyde seemed to be following the steps of her mistress: this immediately brought him into credit, and his reputation was established in England before his arrival. Prepossession in the minds of women is sufficient to find access to their hearts: Jermyn found them in dispositions so favourable for him, that he had nothing to do but to speak.
It was in vain they perceived that a reputation so lightly established, was still more weakly sustained: the prejudice remained: the Countess of Castlemaine, a woman lively and discerning, followed the delusive shadow; and though undeceived in a reputation which promised so much, and performed so little, she nevertheless continued in her infatuation: she even persisted in it, until she was upon the point of embroiling herself with the king; so great was this first instance of her constancy.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne "The Elder" Engraver 1616-1691. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 November 1666.Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.