Hudibras

Hudibras is in General Books.

Hudibras is an English mock-heroic narrative poem from the 17th century written by Samuel Butler Author 1613-1680 first published in 1663.

Hudibras by Samuel Butler Author 1613-1680 with Notes by the Rev Treadway Russel Nash D. D. A new edition in two volumes. Volume 1.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 28 January 1660. 28 Jan 1660. Saturday. I went to Mr Downing (35) and carried him three characters, and then to my office and wrote another, while Mr. Frost staid telling money. And after I had done it Mr. Hawly came into the office and I left him and carried it to Mr Downing (35), who then told me that he was resolved to be gone for Holland this morning. So I to my office again, and dispatch my business there, and came with Mr. Hawly to Mr Downing's (35) lodging, and took Mr. Squib from White Hall in a coach thither with me, and there we waited in his chamber a great while, till he came in; and in the mean time, sent all his things to the barge that lay at Charing-Cross Stairs. Then came he in, and took a very civil leave of me, beyond my expectation, for I was afraid that he would have told me something of removing me from my office; but he did not, but that he would do me any service that lay in his power. So I went down and sent a porter to my house for my best fur cap, but he coming too late with it I did not present it to him. Thence I went to Westminster Hall, and bound up my cap at Mrs. Michell's, who was much taken with my cap, and endeavoured to overtake the coach at the Exchange and to give it him there, but I met with one that told me that he was gone, and so I returned and went to Heaven1, where Luellin and I dined on a breast of mutton all alone, discoursing of the changes that we have seen and the happiness of them that have estates of their own, and so parted, and I went by appointment to my office and paid young Mr. Walton £500; it being very dark he took £300 by content. He gave me half a piece and carried me in his coach to St. Clement's, from whence I went to Mr. Crew's (62) and made even with Mr. Andrews, and took in all my notes and gave him one for all. Then to my Lady Wright and gave her Lord's (34) letter which he bade me give her privately. So home and then to Will's for a little news, then came home again and wrote to Lord, and so to Whitehall and gave them to the post-boy. Back again home and to bed.
Note 1. A place of entertainment within or adjoining Westminster Hall. It is called in "Hudibras", "False Heaven, at the end of the Hall". There were two other alehouses near Westminster Hall, called Hell and Purgatory. "Nor break his fast In Heaven and Hell". Ben Jonson's Alchemist, act V. SC. 2.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 26 December 1662. 26 Dec 1662. Up, my wife to the making of Christmas pies all day, being now pretty well again, and I abroad to several places about some businesses, among others bought a bake-pan in Newgate Market, and sent it home, it cost me 16s.
So to Dr. Williams, but he is out of town, then to the Wardrobe. Hither come Mr. Battersby; and we falling into a discourse of a new book of drollery in verse called Hudebras1, I would needs go find it out, and met with it at the Temple: cost me 2s. 6d. But when I came to read it, it is so silly an abuse of the Presbyter Knight going to the warrs, that I am ashamed of it; and by and by meeting at Mr. Townsend's at dinner, I sold it to him for 18d. Here we dined with many tradesmen that belong to the Wardrobe, but I was weary soon of their company, and broke up dinner as soon as I could, and away, with the greatest reluctancy and dispute (two or three times my reason stopping my sense and I would go back again) within myself, to the Duke's house and saw "The Villaine", which I ought not to do without my wife, but that my time is now out that I did undertake it for. But, Lord! to consider how my natural desire is to pleasure, which God be praised that he has given me the power by my late oaths to curb so well as I have done, and will do again after two or three plays more. Here I was better pleased with the play than I was at first, understanding the design better than I did. Here I saw Gosnell and her sister at a distance, and could have found it in my heart to have accosted them, but thought not prudent. But I watched their going out and found that they came, she, her sister and another woman, alone, without any man, and did go over the fields a foot. I find that I have an inclination to have her come again, though it is most against my interest either of profit or content of mind, other than for their singing.
Home on foot, in my way calling at Mr. Rawlinson's and drinking only a cup of ale there. He tells me my uncle has ended his purchase, which cost him £4,500, and how my uncle do express his trouble that he has with his wife's relations, but I understand his great intentions are for the Wights that hang upon him and by whose advice this estate is bought.
Thence home, and found my wife busy among her pies, but angry for some saucy words that her mayde Jane has given her, which I will not allow of, and therefore will give her warning to be gone. As also we are both displeased for some slight words that Sarah, now at Sir W. Pen's (41), hath spoke of us, but it is no matter. We shall endeavour to joyne the lion's skin to the fox's tail.
So to my office alone a while, and then home to my study and supper and bed. Being also vexed at my boy for his staying playing abroad when he is sent of errands, so that I have sent him to-night to see whether their country carrier be in town or no, for I am resolved to keep him no more.
Note 1. The first edition of Butler's "Hudibras" is dated 1663, and it probably had only been published a few days when Pepys bought it and sold it at a loss. He subsequently endeavoured to appreciate the work, but was not successful. The edition in the Pepysian Library is dated 1689.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 06 February 1663. 06 Feb 1663. Up and to my office about business, examining people what they could swear against Field, and the whole is, that he has called us cheating rogues and cheating knaves, for which we hope to be even with him.
Thence to Lincoln's Inn Fields; and it being too soon to go to dinner, I walked up and down, and looked upon the outside of the new theatre, now a-building in Covent Garden, which will be very fine. And so to a bookseller's in the Strand, and there bought Hudibras again, it being certainly some ill humour to be so against that which all the world cries up to be the example of wit; for which I am resolved once again to read him, and see whether I can find it or no.
So to Mr. Povy's (49), and there found them at dinner, and dined there, there being, among others, Mr. Williamson, Latin Secretary, who, I perceive, is a pretty knowing man and a scholler, but, it may be, thinks himself to be too much so.
Thence, after dinner, to the Temple, to my cozen Roger Pepys (45), where met us my uncle Thomas (68) and his son; and, after many high demands, we at last came to a kind of agreement upon very hard terms, which are to be prepared in writing against Tuesday next. But by the way promising them to pay my cozen Mary's' legacys at the time of her marriage, they afterwards told me that she was already married, and married very well, so that I must be forced to pay it in some time. My cozen Roger was so sensible of our coming to agreement that he could not forbear weeping, and, indeed, though it is very hard, yet I am glad to my heart that we are like to end our trouble. So we parted for to-night, and I to my Lord Sandwich (37) and there staid, there being a Committee to sit upon the contract for the Mole, which I dare say none of us that were there understood, but yet they agreed of things as Mr. Cholmely (30) and Sir J. Lawson (48) demanded, who are the undertakers, and so I left them to go on to agree, for I understood it not.
So home, and being called by a coachman who had a fare in him, he carried me beyond the Old Exchange, and there set down his fare, who would not pay him what was his due, because he carried a stranger with him, and so after wrangling he was fain to be content with 6d., and being vexed the coachman would not carry me home a great while, but set me down there for the other 6d., but with fair words he was willing to it, and so I came home and to my office, setting business in order, and so to supper and to bed, my mind being in disorder as to the greatness of this day's business that I have done, but yet glad that my trouble therein is like to be over.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 28 November 1663. 28 Nov 1663. Up and at the office sat all the morning, and at noon by Mr. Coventry's (35) coach to the 'Change, and after a little while there where I met with Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who tells me for good newes that my Lord Sandwich (38) is resolved to go no more to Chelsy, and told me he believed that I had been giving my Lord some counsel, which I neither denied nor affirmed, but seemed glad with him that he went thither no more, and so I home to dinner, and thence abroad to Paul's Church Yard, and there looked upon the second part of Hudibras, which I buy not, but borrow to read, to see if it be as good as the first, which the world cry so mightily up, though it hath not a good liking in me, though I had tried by twice or three times reading to bring myself to think it witty.
Back again home and to my office, and there late doing business and so home to supper and to bed. I have been told two or three times, but to-day for certain I am told how in Holland publickly they have pictured our King with reproach. One way is with his pockets turned the wrong side outward, hanging out empty; another with two courtiers picking of his pockets; and a third, leading of two ladies, while others abuse him; which amounts to great contempt.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 10 December 1663. 10 Dec 1663. Up, pretty well, the weather being become pretty warm again, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and I confess having received so lately a token from Mrs. Russell, I did find myself concerned for our not buying some tallow of her (which she bought on purpose yesterday most unadvisedly to her great losse upon confidence of putting it off to us). So hard it is for a man not to be warped against his duty and master's interest that receives any bribe or present, though not as a bribe, from any body else. But she must be contented, and I to do her a good turn when I can without wrong to the King's service.
Then home to dinner (and did drink a glass of wine and beer, the more for joy that this is the shortest day in the year, [Old Style] which is a pleasant consideration) with my wife. She in bed but pretty well, and having a messenger from my brother, that he is not well nor stirs out of doors, I went forth to see him, and found him below, he has not been well, but is not ill. I found him taking order for the distribution of Mrs. Ramsey's coals, a thing my father for many years did, and now he after him, which I was glad to see, as also to hear that Mr. Wheatly begins to look after him. I hope it is about his daughter.
Thence to St. Paul's Church Yard, to my bookseller's, and having gained this day in the office by my stationer's bill to the King (33) about 40s. or £3, I did here sit two or three hours calling for twenty books to lay this money out upon, and found myself at a great losse where to choose, and do see how my nature would gladly return to laying out money in this trade. I could not tell whether to lay out my money for books of pleasure, as plays, which my nature was most earnest in; but at last, after seeing Chaucer, Dugdale's History of Paul's, Stows London, Gesner, History of Trent, besides Shakespeare, Jonson, and Beaumont's plays, I at last chose Dr. Fuller's (55) Worthys, the Cabbala or Collections of Letters of State, and a little book, Delices de Hollande, with another little book or two, all of good use or serious pleasure: and Hudibras, both parts, the book now in greatest fashion for drollery, though I cannot, I confess, see enough where the wit lies.
My mind being thus settled, I went by linke home, and so to my office, and to read in Rushworth; and so home to supper and to bed.
Calling at Wotton's, my shoemaker's, today, he tells me that Sir H. Wright (26) is dying; and that Harris is come to the Duke's house again; and of a rare play to be acted this week of Sir William Davenant's (57): the story of Henry the Eighth with all his wives.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 27 January 1664. 27 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, and at noon to the Coffeehouse, where I sat with Sir G. Ascue (48)1 and Sir William Petty (40), who in discourse is, methinks, one of the most rational men that ever I heard speak with a tongue, having all his notions the most distinct and clear, and, among other things (saying, that in all his life these three books were the most esteemed and generally cried up for wit in the world "Religio Medici", "Osborne's Advice to a Son2", and "Hudibras"), did say that in these—in the two first principally—the wit lies, and confirming some pretty sayings, which are generally like paradoxes, by some argument smartly and pleasantly urged, which takes with people who do not trouble themselves to examine the force of an argument, which pleases them in the delivery, upon a subject which they like; whereas, as by many particular instances of mine, and others, out of Osborne, he did really find fault and weaken the strength of many of Osborne's arguments, so as that in downright disputation they would not bear weight; at least, so far, but that they might be weakened, and better found in their rooms to confirm what is there said. He shewed finely whence it happens that good writers are not admired by the present age; because there are but few in any age that do mind anything that is abstruse and curious; and so longer before any body do put the true praise, and set it on foot in the world, the generality of mankind pleasing themselves in the easy delights of the world, as eating, drinking, dancing, hunting, fencing, which we see the meanest men do the best, those that profess it. A gentleman never dances so well as the dancing master, and an ordinary fiddler makes better musique for a shilling than a gentleman will do after spending forty, and so in all the delights of the world almost.
Thence to the 'Change, and after doing much business, home, taking Commissioner Pett (53) with me, and all alone dined together. He told me many stories of the yard, but I do know him so well, and had his character given me this morning by Hempson, as well as my own too of him before, that I shall know how to value any thing he says either of friendship or other business. He was mighty serious with me in discourse about the consequence of Sir W. Petty's (40) boat, as the most dangerous thing in the world, if it should be practised by endangering our losse of the command of the seas and our trade, while the Turkes and others shall get the use of them, which, without doubt, by bearing more sayle will go faster than any other ships, and, not being of burden, our merchants cannot have the use of them and so will be at the mercy of their enemies. So that I perceive he is afeard that the honour of his trade will down, though (which is a truth) he pretends this consideration to hinder the growth of this invention.
He being gone my wife and I took coach and to Covent Garden, to buy a maske at the French House, Madame Charett's, for my wife; in the way observing the streete full of coaches at the new play, "The Indian Queene" which for show, they say, exceeds "Henry the Eighth".
Thence back to Mrs. Turner's (41) and sat a while with them talking of plays and I know not what, and so called to see Tom, but not at home, though they say he is in a deep consumption, and Mrs. Turner (41) and Dike and they say he will not live two months to an end.
So home and to the office, and then to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Sir George Ayscue or Askew (48). After his return from his imprisonment he declined to go to sea again, although he was twice afterwards formally appointed. He sat on the court-martial on the loss of the "Defiance" in 1668.
Note 2. Francis Osborne, an English writer of considerable abilities and popularity, was the author of "Advice to a Son", in two parts, Oxford, 1656-8, 8vo. He died in 1659. He is the same person mentioned as "My Father Osborne", October 19th, 1661. B.

Hudibras On Samuel Butler Author of Hudibras

The life of a retired scholar can furnish but little matter to the biographer : such was the character of Mr. Samuel Butler, author of Hudibras. His father, whose name likewise was Samuel, had an estate of his own of about ten pounds yearly, which still goes by the name of Butler's tenement, a Vignette of which may be seen in the title-page of the first volume : he held, likewise, an estate of three hundred pounds a year under sir William Russell, lord of the manor of Strensham, in Worcestershire1. He was not an ignorant farmer, but wrote a very clerk-like hand, kept the register, and managed all the business of the parish under the direction of his landlord, near whose house he lived, and from whom, very probably, he and his family received instruction and assistance. From his landlord they imbibed their principles of loy- alty, as sir William was a most zealous royalist,and spent great part of his fortune in the cause, being the only person exempted from the benefit of the treaty, when Worcester surrendered to the parlia- ment in the year 1646. Our poet's father was churchwarden of the parish the year before his son Samuel was born, and has entered his bap- tism, dated February 8, 1612, with his own hand, in the parish register. He had four sons and three daughters, born at Strensham; the three daughters, and one son, older than our poet, and two sons younger : none of his descendants remain in the parish though some of them are said to be in the neighbouring villages.
Note 1. This information came from Mr. Gresley, rector of Strensbam, from tbe year 1706 to the year 1773> when he died, a^ed 100: to that he was bom seven years before the poet died.

Our author received his first rudiments of learning at home; he was afterwards sent to the college school at Worcester, then taught by Mr. Henry Bright,* prebendary of that cathedral, a celebrated scholar and many years the famous master of the King's school there ; one who made his business his delight ; and though in very easy circumstances continued to teach for the sake of doing good, by benefiting the families of the neighbouring gentlemen, who thought themselves happy in having their sons instructed by him.
Note 2. Mr. Bright is buried in the cathedral church of Worcester near the north pillar at the foot of the steps which lead to the choir. He was bom 1562, appointed schoolmaster 1586 made prebendary 1619, died 1626. The inscription in capitals, on a mural stone, now placed in what is called the Bishop's Chapel, is as follows:
Mane hospes et lege,
Magister HENRICUS BRIGHT,
Celeberrimus gymnasiarcha.
Qui Bcholse regi» istic fimdatae per totos 40 annos
summa cum laude praefuit.
Continues.

How long Mr. Butler continued under his care is not known but, probably, till he was fourteen years old. Whether he was ever entered at any university is uncertain. His biographer says he went to Cambridge, but was never matriculated : Wood, on the authority of Butler's brother, says, the poet spent six or seven years there ;» but as other things are quoted from the same authority, which I believe to be false, I should very much suspect the truth of this article. Some expressions, in his works, look as if he were acquainted with the customs of Oxford. Coursing was a term peculiar to that university ; see Part iii. c. ii. V. 1244.

Returning to his native country, he entered into the service of Thomas Jefferies, Esq. of Earls Croombe, who, being a very active justice of the peace, and a leading man in the business of the province; his clerk was in no mean office, but one that required a knowledge of the law and constitution of his country, and a proper behaviour to men of every rank and occupation: be- sides, in those times, before the roads were made good, and short visits so much in fashion, every large family was a community within itself : the upper servants or retainers being often the younger sons of gentlemen were treated as friends and the whole family dined in one com- mon hall, and had a lecturer or clerk, who, during meal times, read to them some useful or entertaining book.

Mr. Jefferies's family was of this sort, situated in a retired part of the country, surrounded by bad roads, the master of it residing constantly in Worcestershire. Here Mr. Butler had the advan- tage of living some time in the neighbourhood of his own family and friends: and having leisure for indulging his inclinations for learning, he probably improved himself very much, not only in the abstruser branches of it, but in the polite arts : here he studied painting, in the practice of which indeed his proficiency was but moderate; for I recollect seeing at Earls Croombe in my youth, some portraits said to be painted by him, which did him no great honour as an artist. I have heard lately of a portrait of Oliver Cromwell, said to be painted by our author.

After continuing, some time in this service, he was recommended to Elizabeth Countess of Kent^ who lived at Wrest, in Bedfordshire. Here he enjoyed a literary retreat during great part of the civil wars, and here probably laid the groundwork of his Hudibras, as he had the benefit of a good colection of books, and the society of that living library, the learned Selden. His biographers say, he lived also in the service of Sir Samuel Luke1, of Cople Hoo Farm, or Wood End, in that county, and that from him he drew the character of Hudi- bras : but such a prototype was not rare in those times. We bear little more of Mr. Butler till after the Restoration : perhaps^ as Mr. Selden was left executor to the Countess^ his employment in her affairs might not cease at her death, though one might suspect by Butler's MSS. and Remains, that his friendship with that great man was not without interruption, for his satirical wit could not be restrained from displaying itself on some particularities in the character of that eminent scholar.
Note 1. The Lukes were an ancient family at Cople, three miles south of Bedford : in the church are many monuments to the family : an old one to the memory of sir Walter Luke, knight, one of the justices of the pleas, holden before the most excellent prince King Henry the Eighth, and dame Anne his wife : another in remembrance of Nicholas Luke, and his wife, with five sons and four daughters.
On a flat stone in the chancel is written.
Here lieth the body of George Luke, Esq. he departed this life Feb. 10, 1732, aged 74 years, the last Luke of Wood End.
Sir Samuel Luke was a rigid presbyterian, and not an eminent commander under Oliver Cromwell ; probably did not approve of the king's trial and execution, and therefore, with other presbyte- rians, both he and his father sir Oliver were among the secluded members. See Rushworth's collections.

Lord Dorset (40) is said to have first introduced Hudibras to court. November 11, 1662, the author obtained an imprimatur, signed J. Berkenhead, for printing his poem ; accordingly in the following year he published the first part, containing 125 pages. Sir Roger L'Estrange granted an imprimatur for the second part of Hudibras, by the author of the first, November 5, 1663, and it was printed by T. R. for John Martin, 1664.

In the Mercurius aulicus, a ministerial newspaper, from January 1, to January 8, 1662, quarto, is an advertisement saying, that "there is stolen abroad a most false and imperfect copy of a poem called Hudibras, without name either of printer or bookseller, the true and perfect edition, printed by the author's original, is sold by Richard Marriott, near St. Dnnstan's church, in Fleet-street, that other nameless impression is a cheat, and will but abuse the buyer, as well as the author, whose poem deserves to have fallen into better hands." Probably many other editions were soon after printed: but the first and second parts, with notes to both parts, were printed for J. Martin and H. Herringham, octavo, 1674. The last edition of the third part, before the author's death, was printed by the same persons in 1678: this I take to be the last copy corrected by himself, and is that from which this edition is in general printed : the third part had no notes put to it during the author's life, and who furnished them after his death is not known.

In the British Museum is the original injunction by authority, signed John Berkenhead, forbidding any printer, or other person whatsoever to print Hudibras, or any part thereof, without the consent or approbation of Samuel Butler (or Boteler), Esq.* or his assignees, given at White-hall, 10th September, 1677 ; copy of this injunction may be seen in the note1.
Note 1. CHARLES R.
Our will and pleasure is and we do hereby strictly charge and command that no printer, bookseller, stationer, or other person whatsoever within our kingdom of England or Ireland, do print, reprint, utter or sell, or cause to be printed, re-printed, uttered or sold, a book or poem called Hudibras, or any part thereof, without the consent and approbation of Samuel Boteler, Esq. or his assignees, as they and every of them will answer the contrary at their perils. Given at our Court at Whitehall, the tenth day of September, in the year of our Lord God 1677 and in the 29th year of our reign.
By His Majesty's command,
J. BERKENHEAD.
Miscel. Papers, Mus. Brit. Bibl. Birch, No. 4293.

It was natural to suppose, that after the restoration, and the publication of his Hudibras, our poet should have appeared in public life, and have been rewarded for the eminent service his poem did to the royal cause ; but his innate modesty, and studious turn of mind, prevented solicitations : never having tasted the idle luxuries of life, he did not make to himself needless wants, or pine after imaginary pleasures : his fortune, indeed, was small, and so was his ambition ; his integrity of life, and modest temper, rendered him contented. However, there is good authority for believing that at one time he was gratified with an order on the treasury for 300l. which is said to have passed all the offices without payment of fees, and this gave him an opportunity of displaying his disinterested integrity, by conveying the entire sum immediately to a friend, in trust for the use of his creditors. Dr. Zachary Pearce on the authority of Mr. Lowndes of the Treasury, asserts, that Mr. Butler received from Charles the second an annual pension of 100l. : add to this, he was appointed secretary to the lord president of the principality of Wales, and, about the year 1667, steward of Ludlow castle. With all this, the court was thought to have been guilty of a glaring neglect in his case, and the public were scandalized at the ingratitude. The indigent poets, who have always claimed a prescriptive right to live on the munificence of their contem- poraries, were the loudest in their remonstrances. Dryden, Oldham, and Otway, while in appearance they complained of the unrewarded merits of our author, obliquely lamented their private and particular grievances ; [Greek Text] or, as Sallust says, nulli n]iortalium injuriee suae parvae videntur. Mr. Butler's own sense of the disappointment and the impression it made on his spirits are sufficiently marked by the cireamstance of his having twice transcribed the following distich with some variation in his MS. common-place book : To think how Spenser died, how Cowley moum'd. How Butler's faith and service were returned.1
Note 1. I am aware of a difficulty that may be started, that the Tragedy of Constantine the Great, to which Otway wrote the prologue, according to Giles Jacob in his poetical Register, was not acted at the Theatre Royal till 1684, four years after our poet's death, but probably he had seen the MS. or heard the thought, as both his MSS. differ somewhat from the printed copy.

In the same MS. he says, "wit is very chargeable, and not to be maintained in its necessary expences at an ordinary rate: it is the worst trade in the world to live upon, and a commodity that no man thinks he has need of, for those who have least believe they have most."
Ingenuity and wit
Do only make the owners fit
For nothing, but to be undone
Much easier than if th' had none.

Mr. Butler spent some time in France, probably when Lewis XIV. was in the height of his glory and vanity: however, neither the language nor manners of Paris were pleasing to our modest poet ; some of his observations may be amusing; I shall therefore insert them in a note1. He married Mrs. Herbert, whether she was a widow, or not is uncertain ; with her he expected a considerable fortune but, through various losses and knavery he found himself disappointed : to this some have attributed his severe strictures upon the professors of the law ; but if his censures be properly considered they will be found to bear hard only upon the disgraceful part of each profession and upon false learning in general : this was a favourite subject with him, but no man had a greater regard for, or was a better judge of the worthy part of the three learned professions, or learning in general, than Mr. Butler.
Note 1. " The French use so many words, upon all occasions, that if they did not cut them short in pronunciation, they would grow tedious, and insufferable.
They infinitely affect rhyme, though it becomes their language the worst in the world, and spoils the little sense they have to make room for it, and make the same syllable rhyme to itself, which is worse than metal upon metal in heraldry : they find it much easier to write plays in verse than in prose, for it is much harder to imitate nature, than any deviation from her; and prose requires a more proper and natural sense and expression than verse, that has some- thing in the stamp and coin to answer for the alloy and want of intrinsic value. I never came among them, but the following line was in my mind:
Raucaq; garnditas, studiumq; inane loquendi ; for they talk so much, they have not time to think ; and if they had all the wit in the world, their tongues would run before it.
The present king of France is building a most stately triumphal arch in memory of his victories, and the great actions which he has performed : but, if I am not mistaken, those edifices which bear that name at Rome, were not raised by the emperors whose names they bear (such as Trajan, Titus, &c.) but were decreed by the Senate, and built at the expence of the public ; for that glory is lost, which any man designs to consecrate to himself.
The king takes a very good course to weaken the city of Paris by adorning of it, and to- render it less, by making it appear greater and more glorious ; for he pulls dow^n whole streets to make room for his palaces and public structures.
There is nothing great or magnificent in all the country, that I have seen, but the buildings and furniture of the king's houses and the churches ; all the rest is mean and paltry.
The king is necessitated to lay heavy taxes upon his subjects in his own defence, and to keep them poor, in order to keep them quiet ; for if they arc suffered to enjoy any plenty, they are naturally 80 insolent, that they would become ungovernable, and use him as they have done his predecessors : but he has rendered himself so strong, that they have no thoughts of attempting any thing in his time.
The churchmen overlook all other people as haughtily as the churches and steeples do private houses.
The French do nothing without ostentation, and the king him- self is not belund with his triumphal arches consecrated to himself, and his impress of the sun, nee pluribus impar.
The French king having copies of the best pictures from Rome, is as a great prince wearing clothes at second hand : the king in his prodigious charge of buildings and furniture does the same thing to himself that he means to do by Paris, renders himself weaker, by endeavouring to appear the more magnificent : lets go the substance for shadow.'

How long he continued in office, as steward of Ludlow Castle, is not known ; but he lived the latter part of his life in Rose-street, Covent Garden in a studious retired manner, and died there in the year 1680. — He is said to have been buried at the expence of Mr. William Longueville, though he did not die in debt.

Some of his friends wished to have interred him in Westminster Abbey with proper solemnity; but not finding others willing to contribute to the expence, his corpse was deposited privately in the yard belonging to the church of Saint Paul's Covent Garden, at the west end of the said yard, on the north side, under the wall of the said church, and under that wall which parts the yard from the common highway1." I have been thus particular, because, in the year 1786, when the church was repaired, a marble monument was placed on the south side of the church on the in- side, by some of the parishioners, which might tend to mislead posterity as to the place of his interment: their zeal for the memory of the learned poet does them honour; but the writer of the verses seems to have mistaken the character of Mr. Butler. The inscription runs thus:
"This little monument was erected in the year 1786, by some of the parishioners of Covent Garden in memory of the celebrated Samuel Butler, who was buried in this church, A. D. « 1680.
A few plain men, to pomp and state unknown,
O'er a poor hard have rais'd this humble stone,
Whose wants alone his genius could surpass,
Victim of zeal ! the matchless Hudibras!
What though fair freedom suffer'd in his page,
Reader, forgive the author for the age!
How few, alas ! disdain to cringe and cant.
When tis the mode to play the sycophant.
But, oh! let all be taught, from Butler's fate.
Who hope to make their fortunes by the great.
That wit and pride are always dangerous things,
And little faith is due to courts and kings.
Note 1. See Butler's Life, printed before the small edition of Hudibras, in 1710, and reprinted by Dr. Grey.
Continues.

Hudibras Part 1

Hudibras Part 1 The Argument

Sir HUDIBRAS1 his passing worth.
The manner how he sally'd forth;
His arms and equipage are shewn;
His horse's virtues and his own.
Th' adventure of the bear and fiddle Is sung, but breaks off in the middle2.
Note 1. HUDIBRAS. Butler probably took this name from Spencer's Fairy Queen, B. ii. C. ii. St. 17. He that made love unto the eldest dame. Was hight Sir Hudibras, an hardy man ; Yet not so good of deeds, as great of name. Which he by many rash adventures wan. Since errant arms to sew he first began.
Geoffrey of Monmouth mentions a British king of this name, though some have supposed it derived from the French, Hugo, Hu de Bras, signifying Hugh the powerful, or with the strong arm : thus Fortinbras, Firebras.
In the Grub-street Journal, Col. Rolls, a Devonshire gentleman is said to be satirized under the character of Hudibras ; and it is asserted, that Hugh de Bras was the name of the old tutelar sunt of that county ; but it is idle to look for personal reflexions in a poem designed for a general satire on hypocrisy, enthusiasm, and false learning.
Note 2.breaks off in the middle. Bishop Warburton observes very justly, that this is a ridicule on Ronsard's Franciade, and Sir William Davenant's Gondibert.

Hudibras Part 1 Canto 1

When civil fury first grew high1,
And men fell out, they knew not why;2
When hard words, jealousies, and fears
Set folks together by the ears,3.
And made them fight, like mad or drunk, (5)
For dame Religion as for Punk4;
Whose honesty they all durst swear for,
Tho' not a man of them knew wherefore :
When Gospel-Trumpeter, surrounded
With long-ear'd rout, to battle sounded5, (10)
And pulpit, drum ecclesiastick,
Was beat with fist, instead of a stick5;
Then did Sir Knight abandon dwelling,
And out he rode a Colonelling6.
Note 1. When civil fury first grew high. In the first edition of the first part of this poem, printed separately, we read dudgeon. Bat on the publication of the second part, when the first was re-printed with several additions and alterations, the word dndgeon was changed to fury ; as appears in a copy corrected by the author's own hand. The publisher in 1704 and the subsequent ones, have taken the liberty of correcting the author's copy, restored the word dudgeon, and many other readings : changing them, I think I may say, for the worse, in several passages. Indeed, while the Editor of 1704 replaces this word, and contends for it, he seems to shew its impropriety. "To take in dudgeon," says he, "is inwardly to resent, a sort of grumbling in the gizzard, and what was previous to actual fury." Yet in the next lines we have men falling out, set together by the ears, and fighting. I doubt not but the inconsistency of these expressions occurred to the author, and induced him to change the word, that his sense might be clear, and the sera of his poem certain and uni- iform. — Dudgeon, in its primitive sense, signifies a dagger; and figuratively, such hatred and sullenness as occasion men to employ short concealed weapons. Some readers may be fond of the word dudgeon, as a burlesque terih, and suitable, as they think, to the nature of the poem : but the judicious critic will observe, that the poet is not always in a drolling humour, and might not think fit to fall into it in the first line : he chooses his words not by the oddness or uncouthness of the sound, but by the propriety of their significa- tion. Besides, the word dudgeon, in the figfurative sense, though not in its primitive one^ is generally taken for a monoptote in the ablative case, to take in dudgeon which might be another reason why the poet changed it into fury. See line 379.
Note 2. "And men fell out, they knew not why". Dr. Perrincheif 's Life of Charles I. says, "There will never be wanting, in any country, some" discontented spirits, and some designing craftsmen ; but when "these confusions began, the more part knew not wherefore they were come together."
Note 3. "When hard words, jealousies, and fears. Set folks together by the ears, Hard words. — Probably the jargon and cant-words used by the Presbyterians, and other sectaries. They called themselves the elect, the saints, tlie predestinated : and their opponents they called Papists, Prelatists, ill-designing, reprobate, profligate, &c. &c.
In the body politic, when the spiritual and windy power moveth the members of a commonwealth, and by strange and hard words suffocates their understanding, it must needs thereby distract th^ f people, and either overwhelm the commonwealth with oppression, *' or cast it into the fire of a civil war." Hobbes.
Jealousies. Bishop Burnet, in the house of lords, on the first article of the impeachment of Sacheverel, says, "The true occasion of the war was a jesJousy, that a conduct of fifteen years had given too much ground for ; and that was still kept up by a fatal train of errors in every step." See also the king's speech Dec. 2, 1641.
And fears, — Of superstition and Popery in the church, and of arbitrary power and tyranny in the state : and so prepossessed were many persons with these fears, that, like the hero of this poem, they would imagine a bear-baiting to be a deep design against the religion and liberty of the country. Lord Clarendon tells us, that the English were the happiest people under the sun, while the king was undisturbed in the administration of justice ; but a top much felicity had made them unmanageable by moderate government; a long peace having softened almost all the noblesse into court pleasures, and made the commoners insolent by great plenty.
King Charles, in the fourth year of his reign, tells the lords, "We have been willing so far to descend to the desires of our good subjects, as fully to satisfie all moderate minds, and free them from all just fears and jealousies." The words jealousies and fears, were bandied between the king and parliament in all their papers, before the absolute breaking put of the war. They, were used by the parliament to the king, in their petition for the militia March 1, 1641-2; and by the king in his answer, "You speak of jealousies and fears, lay your hands to your hearts and ask yourselves, whether I may not be disturbed with jealousies and fears." And the parliament, in their declaration to the king at Newmarket, March 9, say, "Those fears and jealousies of ours which your majesty" thinks to be causeless, and without just ground, do necessarily and clearly arise from those dangers and distempers into which your evil councils have brought us : but those other fears and jealousies of yours, have no foundation or subsistance in any "action, intention, or miscarriage of ours, but are merely grounded on falsehood and malice."
The terms had been used before by the Earl of Carlisle to James I. 14 Feb. 1623. "Nothing will more dishearten the envious maligners of your majesty's felicity, and encourage your true hearted friends and servants, than the removing those false fears and jealousies, which are mere imaginary phantasms, and bodies of air easily dissipated, whensoever it shall please the sun of your majesty to shew itself clearly in its native brightness, lustre, and goodness."
Note 4. Far dame Religion as for Punk; From the Anglo-Saxon pung, it signifies a bawd. Anus instar corii ad ignem siccati. (Skinner.) Sometimes scortum, scortillum. Sir John Suckling says.
Religion now is a young mistress here.
For which each man will fight and die at least :
Let it alone awhile, and 'twill become
A kind of married wife ; people will be
Content to live with it in quietness.
Note 5. When Gospel-Trumpeter, surrounded
With long-ear'd rout, to battle sounded; Mr. Butler told Thomas Veal esquire, of Simons-hall, Gloucestershire, that the Puritans had a custom of putting their hands behind their ears at sermons, and bending them forward, under pretence of hearing the better. He had seen five hundred or a thousand large ears pricked up as soon as the text was named. Besides, they wore their hair very short, which shewed their ears the more. See Godwin's notes in Bodley library. Dr. Bulwer in his Anthropometamorphosis, or Artificial Changeling, tells us wonderful stories of the size of men's ears in some countries. — Pliny lib. 7. c. 2. speaks of a people on the borders of India, who covered themselves with their ears. And Purchas, in his Pilgrim, saith, that in the island Arucetto, there are men and women having ears of such bigness, that they lie upon one as a bed, and cover themselves with the other.
I here mention the idle tales of these authors, because their works, together vnth Brown's Vulgar Errors, are the frequent object of our poet's satire.
Note 5. And pulpit, drum ecclesiastick, Was beat with fist, instead of a stick; It is sufficiently known from the history of those times, that the seeds of rebellion were first sown, and afterwards cultivated, by the factious preachers in conventicles, and the seditious and schismatical lecturers, who had crept into many churches, especially about London. "These men," says Lord Clarendon, "had, from the beginning of the parliament, infused seditious inclinations into the hearts of all men, against the government in church and state : but after the raising an army, and rejecting the king's overtures for peace, they contained themselves within no bounds, but filled all the pulpits with alarms of ruin and destruction, if a peace were ofiered or accepted." These preachers used violent action, and made the pulpit an instrument of sedition, as the drum was of war. Dr. South, in one of his sermons, says, " The pulpit supplied the field with sword-men, and the parliament-house with incendiaries."
Note 6. And out he rode a Colonelling. Some have imagined from hence, that by Hudibras, was intended Sir Samuel Luke of Bedfordshire (38). Sir Samuel (38) was an active justice of the peace, chairman of the quarter sessions, colonel of a regiment of foot in the parliament army and a committee-man of that county : but the poet's satire is general, not personal.
Continues.