Biography of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1490 Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

1491 Christening of Henry VIII

1499 Creation of Garter Knights

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1502 Death of Prince Arthur

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1503 Marriage of James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1509 Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1513 New Years Day Gift Giving

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1511 Birth and Death of Prince Henry

1513 Siege of Thérouanne

1513 Battle of Flodden

1514 Creation and Re-creation of Peerages

1514 Marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII of France

1516 Ferdinand II King Aragon Dies Joanna Queen Castile Succeeds

1516 Birth of Princess Mary

1520 Marriage of William Carey and Mary Boleyn

1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1529 Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1533 Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1534 Treasons Act

1534 First Act of Succession

1534 First Act of Supremacy

1535 Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Death of Jane Seymour

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1538 Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

1538 Henry VIII Excommunicated

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Anne of Cleves Annulment

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1541 Executions

1541 Catherine Howard Trial

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1542 Death of King James V of Scotland

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1543 Parr Family Ennobled

1545 Christening of Henry Wriothesley

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1547 Funeral of King Henry VIII

1547 Coronation of Edward VI

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1557 Death of Anne of Cleves

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his grandfather] King Edward of that name the Fourth (40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, [his uncle] Edward the Prince (12), thirteen years of age; [his uncle] Richard Duke of York (9), two years younger; [his mother] Elizabeth (17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto [his father] King Henry the Seventh (26), and mother unto the Eighth; [his aunt] Cecily (14) not so fortunate as fair; [his aunt] Brigette (2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford, a house of cloistered Nuns; [his aunt] Anne (7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and [his aunt] Katherine (3), who long time tossed in either fortune—sometime in wealth, often in adversity—at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

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1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. "The Two Princes". An imagined portrait of the Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-.Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed [his father] Henry Tudor (28) succeeded VII King England.
Those supporting Henry Tudor included:
John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1450-1485 (35).
John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43).
Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35).
Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (21).
Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50).
John Wingfield -1525.
Edward Woodville Lord Scales 1456-1488 (29).
Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26).
Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (36).
Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53).
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (47).
Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (34).
William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (50).
Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (52).
Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (38).
William Brandon 1456-1485 (29) was killed.
James Harrington 1430-1485 (55) was killed.
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (60) was killed. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham. His son Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) succeeded 13th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 14th Baron Segrave 2C 1295. Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (41) by marriage Baroness Mowbray, Baron Segrave 2C 1295.
John Sacheverell 1400-1485 (85) was killed.
Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486,.
William Norreys 1441-1507 (44), Gilbert Talbot 1452-1517 (33), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (42) and John Savage 1444-1492 (41) commanded,.
Robert Poyntz 1450-1520 (35) was knighted.
Those who fought for Richard III included:
John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (47).
John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (74).
Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (17).
William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59).
Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh 1457-1487 (28).
John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (48).
Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham 1459-1493 (26).
Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (50).
Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (68).
Ralph Neville 3rd Earl Westmoreland 1456-1499 (29).
John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23).
Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (59).
George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (17).
Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) was wounded.
Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (29) fought and escaped.
John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1459-1526 (26) was captured.
John Babington 1423-1485 (62), William Alington 1420-1485 (65), Robert Mortimer 1442-1485 (43), Robert Brackenbury -1485, Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 (55) and Richard Bagot 1412-1485 (73) were killed.

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Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) and [his mother] Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (19) were married at Westminster Abbey. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of Edward IV King England 1442-1483. [his mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502.

On 20 Sep 1486 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 was created as Duke Cornwall.

On 29 Nov 1489 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (3) was created as Earl Chester 7C 1489.

Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 27 Feb 1490 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (3) was created Prince of Wales at Westminster Palace.
Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (33) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1491. This yeare, June, King Henrie the Eight was borne at Greenewich, which was second sonne to [his father] King Henry the Vllth (33), named Duke of Yorke. Sir Robert Chamberlayne (53) beheaded. A conduict begon at Christ Churche. Note. Christ Churche is believed to be a typo for Grace Church.

On 28 Jun 1491 Henry VIII was born to [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (34) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (25) at Palace of Placentia. He was created as Duke Cornwall.

Christening of Henry VIII

After 28 Jun 1491 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 was baptised by Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 at the Church of the Observant Friars.

In 1493 Edmund Compton -1493 died. His son William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (11) became as ward of [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (35) who appointed him Page to Prince Henry (1) to whom he became a close friend.

In 1494 Henry VIII (2) was created 1st Duke York 3C 1494.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.
Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.
IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke (83), fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son [his grandfather] King Edward the iiij th (52), the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.
Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the [his father] King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the [his father] Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.
Also I geve and bequeith to the [his mother] Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.
Also I bequeith to my lady the [his grandmother] Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.
Also I geve to my lord [his brother] Prince (8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.
Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.
And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond (83), than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.
Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.
Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.
Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.
Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.
Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.
Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.
Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.
Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50).
Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.
Also I geve to my son Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.
Also I geve to my son William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion (19), a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.
Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.
Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.
Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.
Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.
Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.
Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.
Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.
Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.
Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.
Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.
Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.
Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.
Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.
Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.
Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.
Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.
Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.
Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond (83) and me.
Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.
Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.
Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.
Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.
Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.
Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.
Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.
Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.
Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.
Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.
Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.
Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.
Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.
Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.
Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.
Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.
Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.
Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.
Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.
Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.
Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.
And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.
And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.
And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.
IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

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Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555.Around 1500. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555.

On 20 Oct 1496 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 1478-1506 (18) and [his future sister-in-law] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555 (17) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

1499 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1499 [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (41) created a number of Garter Knights ...
Edward Poynings 1459-1521 (40) was appointed 243rd.
John King Denmark Norway and Sweden 1455-1513 (43) was appointed 244th.
Gilbert Talbot 1452-1517 (47) was appointed 245th.
Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (7) was appointed 246th.
Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (20) was appointed 247th.
Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (20) was appointed 248th
Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (39) was appointed 249th. The date sometimes but given as 1496?
Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (28) was appointed 250th.
Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540 was appointed 251st
Thomas Lovell 1478-1524 (21) was appointed 252nd .
Richard Pole 1462-1504 (37) was appointed 253rd.

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On 21 Feb 1499 [his brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Duke Somerset 1499-1500 was born to [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (33) at the Palace of Placentia being their sixth child. On 24 Feb 1499 he was christened at the Church of the Observant Friars. His godparents were [his grandmother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (55), Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (21) and Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 (51), then Bishop of Durham. [his brother] He is believed to have been created 1st Duke Somerset 3C 1499 on the same day although there is no documentation. On 19 Jun 1500 [his brother] he died at the Royal Palace, Hatfield; possibly of plague of which an outbreak was occuring. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

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In 1500 Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal 1469-1521 (30) and [his future sister-in-law] Maria Trastámara Queen Consort Portugal 1482-1517 (18) were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.Before 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532.Around 1620 based on a work of 1526.Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532.

On 14 Nov 1501 [his brother] Arthur Prince of Wales (15) and [his future wife] Catherine of Aragon (15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral by Henry Deane Archbishop of Canterbury -1503 assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (51) and a further eighteen bishops They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
[his aunt] Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 (32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (24) was Chief Answerer. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (18) and Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (23) attended.
Thomas Englefield Speaker of the House of Commons 1453-1514 was appointed Knight of the Bath.
Immediately after their marriage [his brother] Arthur Prince of Wales (15) and [his future wife] Catherine of Aragon (15) resided at Tickenhill Manor Bewdley for a month.
Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow.

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Death of Prince Arthur

On 02 Apr 1502 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (15) died at Ludlow Castle. See Death of Prince Arthur. The cause of death unknown other than being reported as "a malign vapour which proceeded from the air". [his future wife] Catherine of Aragon (16) had recovered.

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

On 02 Feb 1503 [his sister] Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London. She died eight days later on 10 Feb 1503.
On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) died from childbirth.

Marriage of James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.

On 08 Aug 1503 James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 (30) and [his sister] Margaret Tudor (13) were married at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (60) and James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran 1475-1529 (28) were present.
Cuthbert Cunningham 3rd Earl Glencairn 1476-1541 (27) was restored 3rd Earl Glencairn.

In Feb 1504 Roger Lupton 1456-1540 (48) was appointed Provost of Eton College by King Henry VIII (12) which position he held until 1535.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

Grafton's Chronicle Henry VII. In which yere the xviij. day of February, the [his father] king (47) at his Palace of Westminster, wyth all solemnitie created his onely sonne Henry Prince of Wales (12), Erle of Chester. & c. which noble yonglyng succeded his father, not onely in the inheritaunce and regalitie, but also was to him equall in honour, fame, learnyng and pollicie.

On 18 Feb 1504 Henry VIII (12) was created Prince of Wales and Earl Chester 8C 1504. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (24) was created as Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson 1450-1510 (54) was knighted.

Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504.Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504.

On 26 Nov 1504 Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (53) died. Her daughter [his future sister-in-law] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555 (25) succeeded King Castile. Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 1478-1506 (26) by marriage King Castile.

[his nephew] James Stewart 1st Duke Rothesay 1507-1508 (1) was created 1st Duke Rothesay. A year later on 27 Feb 1508 [his nephew] he died at Stirling Castle.

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1st Year. 1509. The coronation of Kinge Henrie the Eight (17), which was the 24th of June, A.D. 1509.
This yeare, [his son] Prince Henrie, the Kings (19) first sonne, was borne at Richmonde on Newe Yeares daye, and on St. Mathie's day [Note. 23 Feb] after the saide [his son] Prince died, and was buried at Westminster.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1509. This yeare, in Aprill, died [his father] King Henry the Vllth (51) at Richmond; and his Sonne King Henry the VIII (17) was proclaymed Kinge on St. Georges daye, in the same moneth. And in June follwinge the King (17) was married to [his future wife] Queene Katherin (23), late wife of his brother [his brother] Prince Arthure (22), and were both crowned on Mid-sommer day. See Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.

In 1509 Edward Dudley 2nd Baron Dudley 1459-1532 (50) was appointed 266th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17).

In 1509 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst 1467-1537 (42) was appointed 265th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17).

In 1509 William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (27) was appointed Groom of the Stool to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17).

In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII April 1509. Apr 1509. Will of [his father] Henry VII (52):
At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the [his father] King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.
Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.
His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.
His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (31), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.
His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.
Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.
For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.
Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.
To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.
Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.
Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of [his sister] Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".

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Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace. His son Henry VIII (17) succeeded VIII King England.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms 1488-1534, who wasn't present, made a drawing of the death of Henry VII. The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:<BR>Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528.<BR>Two tonsured clerics.<BR>George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544.<BR>Richard Weston of Sutton Place 1465-1541.<BR>Richard Clement of Ingham Mote 1482-1538.<BR>Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey -1513.<BR>John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518.<BR>Physician holding urine bottle.<BR>William Tyler.<BR>Hugh Denys.<BR>William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 closing the King's eyes. There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.<BR>The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy argent & gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagenet with white border ie Holland 2&3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville 1468-1534 daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471. It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 was the childhood companion of Henry VIII.<BR>Physician holding urine bottle.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms 1488-1534, who wasn't present, made a drawing of the death of [his father] Henry VII. The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:
Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528.
Two tonsured clerics.
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544.
Richard Weston of Sutton Place 1465-1541.
Richard Clement of Ingham Mote 1482-1538.
Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey -1513.
John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518.
Physician holding urine bottle.
William Tyler.
Hugh Denys.
William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 closing the King's eyes. There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.
The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy argent & gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagenet with white border ie Holland 2&3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville 1468-1534 daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471. It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 was the childhood companion of Henry VIII.
Physician holding urine bottle.

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Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539.

On 23 Jun 1509 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17) created Knigts of the Bath ...
Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (26)
Henry Scrope 7th Baron Scrope Bolton 1482-1533 (27)
George Fitzhugh 7th Baron Fitzhugh 1486-1512 (23)
William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (31)
Henry Daubeney 1st Earl Bridgewater 1493-1548 (15)
Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (39)
Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (16)
Maurice Berkeley 4th Baron Berkeley 1467-1523 (42)
Thomas Knyvet 1485-1512 (24)
Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (42)
Thomas Parr 1483-1517 (26)
[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (32)
Richard Wentworth de jure 5th Baron Despencer 1480-1528 (29)
Henry Ughtred 6th Baron Ughtred -1510
Francis Cheney 1481-1513 (28)
Henry Wyatt 1460-1537 (49)
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (22)
Sir Thomas Metham of Metham, Yorkshire
Sir Thomas Bedingfield
John Shelton 1477-1539 (32)
Either Giles Alington 1483-1522 (26) or his son Giles Alington 1499-1586 (10).
Sir John Trevanion
Sir William Crowmer
Sir John Heydon of Baconsthorpe in Norfolk
Goddard Oxenbridge -1531
Henry Sacheverell 1475-1558 (34).

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On 23 Jun 1509 Henry VIII (17) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars. They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 24 Jun 1509 Henry VIII (17) was crowned VIII King England at Westminster Abbey. [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (23) was created Queen Consort England.
Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (31), [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (32) and Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (66) attended. Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (16) was knighted. Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (48) attended as the Kings's Champion. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (26) was created Knight of the Bath and served as Lord Sewer.

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Before Oct 1509 Richard Empson 1450-1510 was imprisoned by Henry VIII for constructive treason.

1513 New Years Day Gift Giving

1535. Ambrosius Benson Painter 1495-1550. Portrait of Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544.

In 1510 William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (28) was involved in a public row with Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (31) over his affair with the Duke's married sister Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (27). Some speculate that she, Anne (27), was having an affair with King Henry VIII's (18) with Compton (28) acting as go-between. Her husband George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (23) sent her to convent. William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (28) took the sacrament to prove that he had not committed adultery. Some have speculated that her affair with Henry VIII (18) continued after 1510 and that he, Henry, may be the father of her son Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1560 especially in view her being second in the list of gifts given in the 1513 New Years Day Gift Giving (see Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII January 1513) with a gift of a cup with a gilt cover weighing 30¾ oz (only second to the Archbishop of Canterbury).

In 1510 Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal 1469-1521 (40) was appointed 267th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

In 1510 Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (63) was appointed 269th Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Lord Privy Seal, Vice-Chamberlain of the Household, Warden of the Stannaries and Captain of the Yeoman of the Guard by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

Around 1510 John Gostwick 1480-1545 (30) was appointed Gentleman Usher to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

In 1510 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (37) was appointed 268th Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

On 11 May 1510 Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (53) was appointed 270th Knight of the Garter by his half fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

On 14 Jul 1510 [his nephew] Arthur Stewart 1st Duke Rothesay 1509-1510 died at Edinburgh Castle.

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley 1462-1510 (48) and Richard Empson 1450-1510 (60) were beheaded at Tower Hill for constructive treason for having carried out [his father] King Henry VII's (53) rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

On 01 Jan 1511 [his son] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 was born to Henry VIII (19) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (25) at Richmond Palace. [his son] He was appointed Duke Cornwall at birth.
On 22 Feb 1511 [his son] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 died. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 wearing the Garter and Inter twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford's arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter's dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office.In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 when she was thirty-two commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Baroness Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545.

In Feb 1511 Henry VIII (19) celebrated the birth of his son by holding a magnificent tournament at Westminster. The challengers included Henry VIII (19) who fought as Cuere Loyall, Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (15) as Bon Vouloir, Edward Neville 1471-1538 (40) as Joyeulx Penser, Thomas Knyvet 1485-1512 (26) as Valiant Desyr and Thomas Tyrrell -1551.
On Day 1 of the tournament the Answerers included: William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (28), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent 1495-1562 (16), Thomas Cheney Treasurer 1485-1558 (26), Richard Blount and Robert Morton.
On Day 2 of the tournament the Answerers included: Richard Tempest of Bracewell 1480-1537 (31), Thomas Lucy, Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (22), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (27), [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (34), Richard Grey, Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 (32), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (38), Edmund Howard 1478-1539 (33) and Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1479-1523 (32).

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Battle of Flodden

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1st Year. 1513. This yeare, on the Assension Even, Edmonde de la Pole (42) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
This yeare allso, on the day of th' Exaltation of the Crosse, Te Deum was sungen in Paules Churche for the victorie of the Scottishe feild, where King Jamys of Scotland (39) was slayne. The King of England (21) that tjrme lyenge at seege before Turney in France, and wan it and Turwjm also.
A Parlement kept at Westminster, where was graunted to the King (21) of all men's goodes 6d. in the pownde. A peace betwene the King (21) and French King (52) duringe both their lives; and the [his sister] Ladie Marie (18), sister to the King, married to the French King, at Abireld, in Picardye, in October.

In 1513 Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (29) was appointed 273rd Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (21).

In 1513 George Neville 5th Baron Bergavenny 1469-1535 (44) was appointed 271st Knight of the Garter by his second cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (21).

1513 New Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1513 King Henry VIII (21) made New Years gifts as described in the Calendar Rolls.

Before 25 Apr 1513 Edward Howard 1476-1513 was appointed 272nd Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Siege of Thérouanne

On 16 Aug 1513 Henry VIII (22) fought at Thérouanne during the Battle of the Spurs. Henry's army included George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (45) (commanded), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (36), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (43), Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540, John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (42) and Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (26). John "Tilbury Jack" Arundell 1495-1561 (18), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (31), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (48) and William Hussey 1472-1531 (41) was knighted by [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (56). Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (56) and Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (46) was created as Knight Banneret.

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Battle of Flodden

On 09 Sep 1513 at the Battle of Flodden was fought at the Branxton__Northumberland. the English army was commanded by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (70), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (40), Edmund Howard 1478-1539 (35), Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (45), Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (51) and Marmaduke Constable 1457-1518 (56).
The English army included: Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 1454-1523 (59), William Conyers 1st Baron Conyers 1468-1524 (44), Thomas Berkeley 5th Baron Berkeley 1472-1533 (41) and Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (45).
Randall Babington -1513, John Bigod 1475-1513 (38) and Thomas Fitzwilliam 1474-1513 (39) were killed.
Marmaduke Constable 1480-1545 (33), William Constable 1475-1551 (38), George Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Aston 1497-1558 (16), Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (33), Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (25) and Walter Stonor 1477-1551 (36) were knighted by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (40).
Christopher Savage -1513, Thomas Venables 1469-1513 (44) and Brian Tunstall 1480-1513 (33) were killed.
Bryan Stapleton of Wighill 1458-1513 (55) was killed. (Some reports have him dying in 1518).
John Booth 1435-1513 (78) was killed.
The Scottish army suffered heavy casualties.
James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 (40) was killed. His son [his nephew] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (1) succeeded V King Scotland: Stewart.
Alexander Stewart Archbishop St Andrews 1493-1513 (20) was killed.
David Kennedy 1st Earl Cassilis 1470-1513 (43) was killed. His son Gilbert Kennedy 2nd Earl Cassilis 1494-1527 (18) succeeded 2nd Earl Cassilis. Isabel Campbell Countess Cassilis by marriage Countess Cassilis.
William Sinclair 2nd Earl Caithness 1459-1513 (54) was killed. His son John Sinclair 3rd Earl Caithness -1529 succeeded 3rd Earl Caithness.
Matthew Stewart 2nd Earl Lennox -1513 was killed. His son John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 (23) succeeded 3rd Earl Lennox 2C 1488.
William Hay 4th Earl Erroll -1513 was killed. His son William Hay 5th Earl Erroll 1495-1522 (18) succeeded 5th Earl Erroll.
John Douglas 2nd Earl Morton -1513 was killed. His son James Douglas 3rd Earl Morton -1553 succeeded 3rd Earl Morton, 6th Lord Dalkeith.
Adam Hepburn 2nd Earl Bothwell -1513 was killed. His son Patrick Hepburn 3rd Earl Bothwell 1512-1556 (1) succeeded 3rd Earl Bothwell.
Alexander Stewart 4th of Garlies 1481-1513 (32) was killed. His son Alexander Stewart 5th of Garlies 1507-1581 (6) succeeded 5th Lord Garlies.
Alexander Elphinstone 1st Lord Elphinstone -1513 was killed. His son Alexander Elphinstone 2nd Lord Elphinstone 1510-1547 (3) succeeded 2nd Lord Elphinstone.
Thomas Hay -1513, George Hepburn Bishop Isles 1454-1513 (59), Adam Hepburn Master 1457-1513 (56), Thomas "Younger of Cushnie" Lumsden -1513,.
William Douglas 6th Lord Drumlanrig -1513 was killed. William "Younger" Douglas 7th Lord Drumlanrig -1572 succeeded 7th Lord Drumlanrig.
George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513 was killed. His son George Seton 6th Lord Seton -1549 succeeded 6th Lord Seton.
John Hay 2nd Lord Hay of Yester -1513 was killed. His son John Hay 3rd Lord Hay 1490-1543 (23) succeeded 3rd Lord Hay of Yester. Elizabeth Douglas Lady Hay by marriage Lord Hay of Yester.
Robert Keith Master of Marischal 1483-1525 (30), Guiscard Harbottle 1485-1513 (28), John Erskine -1513, David Home 1491-1513 (22), Andrew Stewart 1st Lord Avondale 1470-1513 (43), Archibald Campbell 2nd Earl Argyll 1449-1513 (64), Robert Douglas of Lochleven 1424-1513 (89) were killed.
Henry Sinclair 3rd Lord Sinclair 1465-1513 (48) was killed. His son William Sinclair 4th Lord Sinclair -1570 succeeded 4th Lord Sinclair.
James Stewart 1st Lord of Traquair 1480-1513 (33) was killed. His son William Stewart 2nd Lord Traquair 1506-1548 (7) succeeded 2nd Lord Traquair.
John Maxwell 4th Lord Maxwell 1456-1513 (57) was killed. His son Robert Maxwell 5th Lord Maxwell 1493-1552 (20) succeeded 5th Lord Maxwell.
William Murray 1470-1513 (43), Colin Oliphant 1487-1513 (26), William Ruthven 1480-1513 (33), George Douglas 1469-1513 (44) and William Douglas 1471-1513 (42) were killed.
George Home 4th Lord Home -1549 and John Stewart 2nd Earl Atholl 1475-1522 (38) fought.
Brothers David Lyon of Cossins -1513, William Lyon -1513 and George Lyon -1513 were killed.
William Graham 1st Earl Montrose 1464-1513 (49) was killed. His son William Graham 2nd Earl Montrose 1492-1571 (21) succeeded 2nd Earl Montrose.
Robert Erskine 4th Lord Erskine 16th Earl Mar -1513 was killed. His son John Erskine 17th Earl Mar 1487-1555 (26) de jure 17th Earl Mar 1C 1404, Lord Erskine.
Thomas Stewart 2nd Lord Innermeath 1461-1513 (52) was killed. His son Richard Stewart 3rd Lord Innermeath 1504-1532 succeeded 3rd Lord Innermeath.
Walter Lindsay of Arden -1513 and Walter Lindsay 1480-1513 (33) were killed.
William Keith of Inverugie 1470-1513 (43) was killed.
David Wemyss of Wemyss 1473-1513 (40) was killed.
John Somerville 1st of Cambusnethan 1458-1513 (55) was killed.
Robert Crichton 2nd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar 1472-1513 (41) was killed. His son Robert Crichton 3rd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar 1491-1520 (22) succeeded 3rd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar

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Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

On 25 Sep 1513 John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (42) was knighted by Henry VIII (22) at Tournai.

On 25 Dec 1513 John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518 was knighted by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22).

In 1514 Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (30) was created 1st Duke Suffolk 2C 1514 by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22). Elizabeth Grey Countess Devon 1505-1519 (8) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

In 1514 Giuliano Medici Duke Nemours 1479-1516 (34) was appointed 274th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22)..

Creation and Re-creation of Peerages

On 01 Feb 1514 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22) created and re-created two peerages ....
Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (54) was created 1st Earl Worcester 5C 1514.
Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (71) was restored 2nd Duke Norfolk 3C 1483. Some documentation describes this as a creation rather than restoration although he is always referred to as 2nd. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk 1477-1545 (37) by marriage Duchess Norfolk probably for having secured victory at the Battle of Flodden after which his arms were augmented with an inescutcheon bearing the lion of Scotland pierced through the mouth with an arrow.

On 08 May 1514 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (52) was appointed 275th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22).

On 06 Aug 1514 Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 (25) and [his sister] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (24) were married at Kinoul. She a daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Angus.

Marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII of France

On 09 Oct 1514 Louis XII King France 1462-1515 (52) and [his sister] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (18) were married at Abbeville, Somme They were second cousins twice removed. She a daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [his sister] She by marriage Queen Consort France. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (37), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (57), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (44) and his son George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (17), and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (27) attended.

Around 1515 Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys 1498-1540 (17) became the mistress of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (23). Their relationship continued until around 1520, possibly longer, when she was replaced by [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (16).

In 1515 William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (20) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (23).

In May 1515 Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (31) and [his sister] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (19) were married. She a daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [his sister] She by marriage Duchess Suffolk. Around this time he surrendered the title Viscount Lisle 3C 1513 which he had been created in anticipation of this marrige to Viscount Lisle 3C 1513 which never took place.

On 18 Dec 1515 [his nephew] Alexander Stewart 1st Duke Ross 1514-1515 (1) died at Stirling Castle.

In 1516 Edward Neville 1471-1538 (45) was appointed Master of the Hounds to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (24).

In 1516 Edward Neville 1471-1538 (45) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (24).

In 1516 Philip Boteler 1492-1545 (24) was appointed Knight of the Body to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (24).

Ferdinand II King Aragon Dies Joanna Queen Castile Succeeds

On 23 Jan 1516 [his father-in-law] Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (63) died. His daughter [his sister-in-law] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555 (37) succeeded King Aragon.

Birth of Princess Mary

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

On 18 Feb 1516 [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 was born to Henry VIII (24) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (30) at Palace of Placentia. Margaret Bourchier 1st Lady Bryan 1468-1552 (48) was created 1st Baron Bryan and appointed the child's governess. [his aunt] Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (36) was her godmother.

In 1517 [his sister-in-law] Maria Trastámara Queen Consort Portugal 1482-1517 (35) died.

In 1518 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (48) was appointed 277th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (26).

In 1518 Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (50) was appointed 276th Knight of the Garter by his half second cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (26).

On 15 Jun 1519 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 was born illegitimately to Henry VIII (27) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys 1498-1540 (21) at Augustinian Priory of St Lawrence Ingatestone Blackmore.

Marriage of William Carey and Mary Boleyn

On 04 Feb 1520 William Carey 1500-1528 (20) and [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (21) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. Around the time, possibly shortly after, [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (21) became mistress to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (28) leading to speculation one or both of her children were fathered by Henry (28).

Field of the Cloth of Gold

In Jun 1520 Henry VIII (28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem.
Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (42) carried the Sword of State.
John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.
Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye 1484-1539 (36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1478-1521 (42), Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (40), William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (25), William "Great" Courtenay 1477-1535 (43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (37), William Paston 1479-1554 (41), William Denys 1470-1533 (50), Richard Cecil 1495-1553 (25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (40), Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (31), Marmaduke Constable 1480-1545 (40), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (42), Thomas Cheney Treasurer 1485-1558 (35), Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (69), John Rodney 1461-1528 (59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (36), William Sidney 1482-1554 (38), John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 (20), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (49), Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (40), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (63), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby Broke 10th Baron Latimer 1472-1521 (48), Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (33), William Scott 1459-1524 (61) and Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (50) attended.
William Carey 1500-1528 (20) jousted. Margaret Dymoke 1500-1545 (20) attended.
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (50) organised.
Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 (15) attended.
Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms 1488-1534 (32) was present.
Edward Chamberlayne 1484-1543 (36) attended.

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In 1521 Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (25) was appointed 278th Knight of the Garter by his first cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (29).

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was executed at Tower Hill for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church Britford. Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444 extinct.

In 1522 Richard Wingfield 1469-1525 (53) was appointed 280th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (30).

Around 1550. Hans Bocksberger der Ältere Painter 1510-1561. Portrait of Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor 1503-1564.

In 1522 Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor 1503-1564 (18) was appointed 279th Knight of the Garter by his half fourth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (30).

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In May 1522 Henry VIII (30) met with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (22) at Dover. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (44), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (38), William Scott 1459-1524 (63) and John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

On 18 Jun 1522 Gilbert Tailboys 1st Baron Tailboys 1498-1530 (24) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys 1498-1540 (24) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She the former mistress of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (30) had given given birth to Henry's illegitimate son [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 in Jun 1519.

In 1523 Walter Devereux 1st Viscount Hereford 1488-1558 (35) was appointed 282nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (31).

In 1523 [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (46) was appointed 281st Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (31).

In 1524 [his uncle] Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (59) was appointed 283rd Knight of the Garter by his nephew Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (32).

In 1524 William Brereton -1536 was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (32).

On 07 May 1524 Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (41) was appointed 284th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (32).

In 1525 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (5) was appointed 287th Knight of the Garter by his father Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542.

In 1525 William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (35) was appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

In 1525 William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (49) was appointed 285th Knight of the Garter by his first cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

On 24 Apr 1525 Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (33) was appointed 286th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1563. Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of either Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 or her daughter Margaret Clifford Countess Derby 1540-1596.

Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl Cumberland 1517-1570 (8) and [his niece] Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (6) were married at Bridewell Palace. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33) was present.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

On 18 Jun 1525 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy (6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset by his father Henry VIII (33) at Bridewell Palace.
Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (47),
Henry Counrtenay (29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter 1C 1525. Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.
Henry Clifford (32) was created 1st Earl Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.
Thomas Manners (33) was created 1st Earl Rutland 3C 1525. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (30) by marriage Countess Rutland.
[his nephew] Henry Brandon (2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln 7C 1525.
Robert Radclyffe (42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

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On 25 Jun 1525 Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (27) was appointed 288th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

By 1526 John Carey 1491-1552 (35) was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

Before 1526 Richard Jerningham -1526 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

In 1526 Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (37) was appointed 291st Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (36) was appointed 290th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (56) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (48) was appointed 289th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 Francis I King France 1494-1547 (31) was appointed 292nd Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

On 04 Mar 1526 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 was born to William Carey 1500-1528 (26) and [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (27). There is speculation among historians that his father may actually have been Henry VIII (34) who was known to have had an affair with [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (27) although the precise dates are unknown.

On 19 Oct 1526 William Willoughby 11th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1482-1526 (44) died at Parham. He was buried at All Saints Church Mettingham Bungay. His daughter Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk 1519-1580 (7) succeeded 12th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk 1519-1580 (7) became a ward of Henry VIII (35).

In 1527 [his future brother-in-law] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (27) and Catherine Filliol 1507-1535 (20) were married.

On 09 Feb 1527 [his future brother-in-law] William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571 (15) and Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier 1517-1571 (10) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. They lived apart for the first twelve years of their marriage.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. Aug 1527. Love Letters II. 3326. Henry VIII (36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (26).
The time seems so long since I heard of your good health and of you, that I send the bearer to be better ascertained of your health and your purpose; for since my last parting from you I have been told you have quite given up the intention of coming to court, either with your mother or otherwise. If so, I cannot wonder sufficiently; for I have committed no offence against you, and it is very little return for the great love I bear you to deny me the presence of the woman I esteem most of all the world. If you love me as I hope you do, our separation should be painful to you. I trust your absence is not wilful on your part; for if so, I can but lament my ill fortune, and by degrees abate my great folly.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. Aug 1527. Love Letters V. 3325. Henry VIII (36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (26).
For a present so beautiful that nothing could be more so I thank you most heartily, not only for the splendid diamond and the ship in which the solitary damsel is tossed about, but also for the pretty interpretation and too humble submission made by your benignity. I should have found it difficult to merit this but for your humanity and favor, which I have sought and will seek to preserve by every kindness possible to me; and this is my firm intention and hope, according to the motto, Aut illic aut nullibi. Your letter, and the demonstrations of your affection, are so cordial that they bind me to honor, love and serve you. I desire also, if at any time I have offended you, that you will give me the same absolution that you ask, assuring you that henceforth my heart shall be devoted to you only. I wish my body also could be. God can do it if he pleases, to whom I pray once a day that it may be, and hope at length to be heard. "Escripte de la main du secretaire qui en ceur, corps et volonte est vostre loiall et plus assure serviteure.

On 21 Oct 1527 John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (56) was appointed 293rd Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (36).

Before 1528 Thomas Morgan 1482-1538 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570. Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of [possibly] Anne Parr Countess Pembroke 1515-1552.

In 1528 William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 (27) and [his future sister-in-law] Anne Parr Countess Pembroke 1515-1552 (12) were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

In 1528 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton 1506-1534 (22) held a private meeting with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (54) and with Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (36) thereafter. She also subsequently met with Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (49). Thereafter, with the advent of Henry's having his marriage annulled and his supporting religious reform Barton prophesised that if Henry remarried, he would die within a few months.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. Feb 1528. Love Letters XIV. 3990. Henry VIII (36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
The bearer and his fellow are dispatched with as many things to compass our matter and bring it to pass as wit could imagine; which being accomplished by their diligence, I trust you and I will shortly have our desired end. This would be more to my heart's ease and quietness of my mind than anything in the world. I assure you no time shall be lost, for ultra posse non est esse. "Keep him not too long with you, but desire him, for your sake, to make the more speed; for the sooner we shall have word from him, the sooner shall our matter come to pass. And thus, upon trust of your short repair to London, I make an end of my letter, mine own sweetheart. Written with the hand of him which desireth as much to be yours as you do to have him."

On 18 Feb 1528 Piers "Red" Butler 8th Earl Ormonde 1st Earl Ossory 1467-1539 (61) resigned their claim to the Ormonde inheritance since Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (36) wanted the titles for [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (51) to whom they were subsequently granted.

On 01 Mar 1528 Henry VIII (36) sold the wardship of Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk 1519-1580 (8) to Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (44) who subsequently married her.

On 03 Mar 1528 Henry Stewart 1st Lord Methven 1495-1552 (33) and [his sister] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (38) were married. She a daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Brian Tuke Secretary -1545.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 11 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. VII. 77. 4355. Gardiner (45) to Henry VIII (36).
Has at last conduced to the setting forward of Campeggio, as will appear by the Cardinal's letters sent to Fox. Thinks the King will be satisfied with their services. It is a great heaviness to them to be accused of want of diligence and sincerity. After many altercations and promises made to the Pope, he has consented at last to send the commission by Campeggio. We urged the Pope to express the matter in special terms, but could not prevail with him in consequence of the difficulty. He said you would understand his meaning by the words, "inventuri sumus aliquam formam." I may be deceived, but I think the Pope means well. If I thought otherwise I would certainly tell the truth, for your Majesty is templum fidei et veritatis unicum in orbe relictum. Your Majesty will now understand how much the words spoken by you to Tuke do prick me. Apologises for his rude writing. Viterbo, 11 June.

1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 16 Jun 1528. Love Letters XII. 4383. Henry VIII (36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
There came to me in the night the most afflicting news possible. I have to grieve for three causes: first, to hear of my [his future wife] mistress's (27) sickness, whose health I desire as my own, and would willingly bear the half of yours to cure you; secondly, because I fear to suffer yet longer that absence which has already given me so much pain, God deliver me from such an importunate rebel!; thirdly, because the physician I trust most is at present absent when he could do me the greatest pleasure. However, in his absence, I send you the second, praying God he may soon make you well, and I shall love him the better. I beseech you to be governed by his advice, and then I hope to see you soon again!

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. Henry VIII (36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham, two ushers, two valets de chambre, your [his future brother-in-law] brother (25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:—few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 23 Jun 1528. Love Letters IX. 4410. Henry VIII (36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your [his future sister-in-law] sister's (29) matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, what soever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that he must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours, &c.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 30 Jun 1528. Le Grand, III. 143. 1440. Du Bellay to Montmorency.
Such conversations as he has had with Wolsey (55) he has pretty well foreseen. Will not presume to say things are going wrong, but if they go on, you will not gain much. I protest, if I have not my recall, I will go without it; and whoever would whip me, not being my master, shall find I fear less 100 deaths than one dishonor. Job would have lost patiencc in my place. Whatever you have done, I hear from Richard d'Albene that he has not a crown, and I am sure if my man had one, he has given it him. He would have spent 1,000 crowns in nine months in that stupid way;—a good thing to resolve me, seeing I had assigned all my property to bankers and bull-brokers before my departure.
News has arrived that Campeggio is coming. Dr. Stephen will be soon at Lyons, who is coming to prepare his lodging; "et puis en dancera qui pourra." The [his future wife] young lady (27) is still with her father. The King (37) keeps moving about for fear of the plague. Many of his people have died of it in three or four hours. Of those you know there are only Poowits, Carey and Cotton (Compton) (46) dead; but Feuguillem, the marquis [Dorset] (51), my lord William, Bron (Brown), Careu, Bryan [Tuke], who is now of the Chamber, Nourriz (Norris), Walop, Chesney, Quinston (Kingston), Paget, and those of the Chamber generally, all but one, have been or are attacked. Yesterday some of them were said to be dead. The King (37) shuts himself up quite alone. It is the same with Wolsey (55). After all, those who are not exposed to the air do not die. Of 40,000 attacked in London, only 2,000 are dead; but if a man only put his hand out of bed during twenty-four hours, it becomes as stiff as a pane of glass. So they do need patience; but I would sooner endure that than what is inflicted on me, for it does not last so long. But, with your aid, or even without it, I mean to be off. After my protests for the last four months, no one will be able to blame me. Let those who have the charge look to it. Moreover, in choosing the persons, you had better not send an Italian, for Wolsey (55) will not have one. Some days ago he told me he would not trust them for their partiality; besides, a man who speaks Latin is required, and he has often been in terrible difficulty for want of it; but you have plenty of bishops and others who will do. In any case, don't send a man who will not spend money, else matters will not mend. I do not speak without reason.
As Wolsey told me he would cause the money of the contribution to be paid to me for you, I spoke to a merchant that it might be paid you at Lyons. Let me know how much is due to you at the end of July, if, as I suppose, it begins on the first day of this month.
Wolsey is informed of great overtures made by the Emperor to the Venetians and duke of Bari, which he thinks they will accept, and that the Duke's ambassador had yielded to the Emperor the investiture of Milan, pretending he had been forced to do so.
The King and Wolsey wish a confirmation by France of the privileges of the isles of Grenesay (Guernsey),—a sort of neutrality which they obtained long ago from the Pope. Such a confirmation was made by Louis XI. London, 30 June.
P.S.—There have died at Wolsey's house the brother of the earl of Derby and a nephew of the duke of Norfolk; and the Cardinal has stolen away with a very few people, letting no one know whither he has gone. The King has at last stopped twenty miles from here, at a house built by Wolsey, finding removals useless. I hear he has made his will, and taken the sacraments, for fear of sudden death. However, he is not ill. I have not written this with my own hand, as you do not read it easily when I write hastily.

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Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 303. 4438. Hennege to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (55).
The King (37) begs you to be of good comfort, and do as he does. He is sorry that you are so far off, and thinks that if you were at St. Alban's you might every hour hear the one of the other, and his physicians attend upon you, should anything happen. News is come of the death of Sir Wm. Compton (46). Suits are made for his offices, and the King wishes to have a bill of them. All are in good health at the Court, and they that sickened on Sunday night are recovered. The King (37) is merry, and pleased with your "mynone house" here. Tuesday.
P.S.—I will not ask for any of those offices for myself, considering the little time I have been in the King's service. The King sent for Mr. Herytage today, to make a new window in your closet, because it is so little.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of John Bourchier 2nd Baron Berners 1467-1533.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. 4442. Sir William Compton (46).
Will of Sir William Compton, made on 8 March 1522, 14 Hen. VIII. Desires to be buried at Compton Wynyates in Warwickshire, beside his ancestors:—That if his wife die before he return home from his journey, she be afterwards brought to Compton and buried there. Bequeaths to his wife (31) movables at Bettyschorne, and at the great park of Windsor, and the plate which belonged to Francis Cheyny, "my predecessor." If his wife be delivered of a son, bequeaths to him all his household stuff at Compton, with the plate which was given him by the French king in a schedule. His wife to have the control of it till the child be of age. If he have a son, bequeaths to each of his daughters 1,000 marks for their marriages, and 100 marks in plate. Wills that 40 pair of vestments be made of one suit, to be distributed to the parish churches in the counties of Warwick and Worcester, adjoining to Compton. All his apparel to be used in making vestments and other works of charity. Bequeaths to the abbey of Winchcomb his wedding gown of tynsen satin, to make a vestment that they may pray for the souls of his ancestors. Wills his executors to release to the monastery of Denny all the debts they owe him, and bequeaths to them 10l. for an obit. Bequeaths goods to the value of 200 marks to be distributed to poor householders, and to the marriages of poor maids in the counties of Warwick and Worcester. Wills that a tomb of alabaster be prepared for his father, with his arms graven upon it. Bequeaths to the King (37) his little chest of ivory with gilt lock, "and a chest bourde under the same, and a pair of tables upon it," with all the jewels and treasure enclosed, now in his wife's custody; also "certain specialties to the sum of 1,000 marks, which I have of [his future father-in-law] Sir Thos. Bullen (51), knight," for money lent to him. Wills that his children have their plate on coming to their full ages; i.e., on the males coming to the age of twenty-one, and the females to the age of eighteen.
Bequests to his sister [Elizabeth] Rudney, and his cousin John Rudney, her son. Wills that his mother's body be taken up and buried at Compton Wynyates. Bequest to the daughter of his aunt Appulby. 20l. to be put in a box at the abbey of Winchecombe, to make defence for all such actions as may be wrongfully taken against his wife or his executors. Two chantries to be founded in his name at Compton Wynyates, to do daily service for the souls of the King, the Queen, my lady Anne Hastings (45), himself, his wife and ancestors. The priests to be appointed by the abbot of Winchecombe, or, failing him, the abbot of Evesham. 5 marks a year to be paid to the parson of Compton to keep a free grammar school. 100l. a year to be paid to his wife during her life, for her jointure, besides her inheritance in Barkeley's lands. Bequests to the monasteries of Evesham, Hayles, Winchecombe, Worcester, Croxton, the charterhouses of Henton and Coventry, for obits; to Sir William Tyler, Sir Thos. Lynne, Thos. Baskett and George Lynde; to his servants who happen to be with him this journey; to John Draper, his servant, and Robt. Bencare, his solicitor; to Griffin Gynne, now with Humphrey Brown, serjeant-at-law, for his learning; and to lady Anne Hastings (45). Executors appointed: Dame Warburgh my wife (31), the bishop of Exeter (66), Sir Henry Marney, lord privy-seal (81), Sir Henry Guildford (39), Sir Ric. Broke, Sir John Dantsy, Dr. Chomber, Humphrey Brown, serjeant-at-law, Thos. Leson, clk., Jas. Clarell and Thos. Unton. Appoints my lord bishop of Canterbury (78) supervisor of his will. Gifts to the executors.
3. Bargain and sale by Sir Henry Guildford (39), Humphrey Brown, Thos. Hunton and Thos. Leeson, as executors of Sir William Compton, to Sir Thomas Arundell, of certain tenements in St Swithin's Lane, [London,] lately in the possession of Lewis... and Humphrey... as executors of Sir Richard Wingfield (59).
4. Inventory of the goods of Sir Wm. Compton in his house in London.
Ready money, gold and silver, 1,338l. 7s. 0½d. Jewels of gold and silver, 898l. 6s. 2d. Gilt plate, 85l. 5s. 3d. Parcel gilt plate, 31l. 12s. 2d. White plate, 90l. 0s. 3½d. Silks, 210l. 13s. 6d.=2,654l. 4s. 5d.
5. Names of the officers upon the lands late Sir Wm. Compton's.
[Note. Lots of names of Steward and Bailiffs and values.].
6. Inquisition taken in Middlesex on the death of Sir Will. Compton, 20 Hen. VIII.
Found that Ric. Broke, serjeant-at-law, [Walter Rodney] [Names in brackets crossed out], Will. Dyngley and John Dyngley, now surviving, with [Sir Rob. Throgmerton and Will. Tracy,]* deceased, were seized of the manors of Totenham, Pembrokes, Bruses, Daubeneys and Mokkyngs, with lands in Tottenham, Edelmeton and Enfeld, to Compton's use; and that Geo. earl of Shrewsbury (60), Henry earl of Essex, John Bourchier lord Bernes (61), [Sir Rob. Ratclyf,]* Rob. Brudenell (67), justice of the King's Bench, Ric. Sacheverell (61) [and Thos. Brokesby],* now surviving, with [Sir Ralph Shyrley,]* deceased, were seized of the manor of Fyncheley and lands in Fyncheley and Hendon to his use. His son, Peter Compton (5), is his heir, and is six years old and over.
7. Citation by Wolsey (55), as legate, of Sir Wm. Compton, for having lived in adultery with the wife (45) of Lord Hastings (41), while his own wife, dame Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (45), was alive, and for having taken the sacrament to disprove it.
4443. SIR WILL. COMPTON.
Inventory of the goods of Sir Will. Compton at his places in London, Compton, Bittisthorne, the Great Park of Windsor, Sir Walter Stoner's place. Total of moveables, 4,485l. 2s. 3½d. "Sperat dettes," estimated at 3,511l. 13s. 4d. "Chatell Royall," 666l. 13s. 4d.
Wards.—One ward that cost 466l. 13s. 4d.; another of 500 marks land; the third, "Sir Geo. Salynger's son and his heir." There is at Windsor Great Park plate embezzled to the value of 579l. 2s. 6d., as appears by a bill found in Sir William's place at London. Desperate debts estimated at 1,908l. 6s. 8d. Debts owing by him estimated at 1,000l.

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Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 304. 4439. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (55) to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (37).
Is glad the King has escaped the plague. Has just heard of the death of Sir Wm. Compton (46), and advises the King to stay the distribution of his offices for a time. Is sorry to be so far away from the King, but will at any time attend him with one servant and a page to do service in the King's chamber. Hampton Court, 30 June. Signed.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters IV. 3218. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
I have been in great agony about the contents of your letters, not knowing whether to construe them to my disadvantage "comme en des aucunes autres," or to my advantage. I beg to know expressly your intention touching the love between us. Necessity compels me to obtain this answer, having been more than a year wounded by the dart of love, and not yet sure whether I shall fail or find a place in your affection. This has prevented me naming you my mistress; for if you love me with no more than ordinary love, the name is not appropriate to you, for it denotes a singularity far from the common. But if it please you to do the office of a true, loyal mistress, and give yourself, body and heart, to me, who have been and mean to be your loyal servant, I promise you not only the name, but that I shall make you my sole mistress, remove all others from my affection, and serve you only. Give me a full answer on which I can rely; and if you do not like to answer by letter, appoint some place where I can have it by word of mouth.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters X. 3220. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
Although, my mistress, you have not been pleased to remember your promise when I was last with you, to let me hear news of you and have an answer to my last, I think it the part of a true servant to inquire after his mistress's health and send you this, desiring to hear of your prosperity. I also send by the bearer a buck killed by me late last night, hoping when you eat of it you will think of the hunter. Written by the hand of your servant, who often wishes you in the place of your brother.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters VIII. 3219. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
Though it is not for a gentleman to take his lady in the place of a servant, nevertheless, according to your desire, I shall willingly grant it if thereby I may find you less ungrateful in the place chosen by yourself than you have been in the place given you by me; thanking you most heartily that you are pleased still to have some remembrance of me.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters I. 3221. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
I and my heart put ourselves in your hands. Let not absence lessen your affection; for it causes us more pain than I should ever have thought, reminding us of a point of astronomy that the longer the days are, the further off is the sun, and yet the heat is all the greater. So it is with our love, which keeps its fervour in absence, at least on our side. Prolonged absence would be intolerable, but for my firm hope in your indissoluble affection. As I cannot be with you in person, I send you my picture set in bracelets.

1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 07 Jul 1528. Love Letters XIII. 4477. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
Since her last, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thos. Care, Yrion of Brearton, John Coke the potecary, are fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thank God, have all recovered, so the plague has not yet quite ceased here. The rest of us are well, and I hope will pass it. As for the matter of Wylton, my lord Cardinal has had the nuns before him, and examined them in presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different priests, and has since been kept, not long ago, by a servant of lord Broke that was. "Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, cloak your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor I trust you would not that neither for brother nor sister I should so distayne mine honor or conscience. And as touching the prioress or dame Ellenor's eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and the prioress is so old that of many years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that nother of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed, whereof I ensure you it hath much need, and God much the better served. As touching your abode at Hever, do therein as best shall like you, for you know best what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto, if it pleased God, that nother of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche (Zouch) is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do in likewise from you.".

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Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XI. 4537. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
The approach of the time which has been delayed so long delights me so much that it seems almost already come. Nevertheless, the entire accomplishment cannot be till the two persons meet; which meeting is more desired on my part than anything in the world, for what joy can be so great as to have the company of her who is my most dear friend, knowing likewise that she does the same. Judge then what will that personage do whose absence has given me the greatest pain in my heart, which neither tongue nor writing can express, and nothing but that can remedy. Tell your [his future father-in-law] father (51) on my part that I beg him to abridge by two days the time appointed that he may be in court before the old term, or at least upon the day prefixed; otherwise I shall think he will not do the lover's turn as he said he would, nor answer my expectation. No more, for want of time. I hope soon to tell you by mouth the rest of the pains I have suffered in your absence. Written by the hand of the secretary, who hopes to be privately with you, &c.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XV. 4539. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
Is perplexed with such things as her [his future brother-in-law] brother (25) will declare to her. Wrote in his last that he trusted shortly to see her, "which is better known at London than with any that is about me; whereof I not a little marvel, but lack of discreet handling must be the cause thereof." I hope soon "our meeting shall not depend upon other men's lyght handylleness but upon your own. Written with the hand of hys that longeth to be yours.".

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 21 Jul 1528. R.O. St. P.I. 321. 4536. [his illegitimate son] Duke of Richmond (9) to Henry VIII (37).
I have received two of your letters, dated Tittenhanger, the 10th, desiring the preferment of Sir Giles Strangwisshe (42) and Sir Edw. Seymer, master of my horse, to rooms vacant by the death of Sir Wm. Compton (46). I send a list of the offices and the fees appertaining. I presume you mean that one of the said gentlemen is to be preferred to the stewardship of Canforde.
It was signified to me by the Cardinal that it was your pleasure, when any office fell vacant, that I should dispose of it, considering the great number of my servants who have no other reward. Hearing, then, that the stewardship of my lands in Dorset and Somerset shires was void, I have disposed of one of them to Sir Wm. Parre, and the other to Geo. Coton, who attends upon me. Sheriffhutton, 21 July. Signed.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 01 Aug 1528. Love Letters XVI. 4597. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
Writes to tell her of the great "elengenes" he finds since her departure, "for, I ensure you, me thinketh the time lenger since your departing now last than I was wont to do a whole fortnight." Could not have thought so short an absence would have so grieved him, but is comforted now he is coming towards her; "insomuch that my book maketh substantially for my matter; in token whereof I have spent above four hours this day, which caused me to write the shorter letter to you at this time by cause of some pain in my head. Wishing myself specially an evening in my sweetheart's arms, whose pretty dubbys I trust shortly to cusse.".

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 20 Aug 1528. Love Letters VII. 4648. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
Has got her a lodging by my lord Cardinal's means, such as could not have been found hereabouts "for all causes," as the bearer will explain. Nothing more can be done in our other affairs, nor can all dangers be better provided against, so that I trust it will be hereafter to both our comforts; but I defer particulars, which would be too long to write, and not fit to trust to a messenger till your repair hither. I trust it will not be long "to-fore" I have caused my lord your [his future father-in-law] father (51) to make his provisions with speed.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 16 Sep 1528. Love Letters VI. 4742. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
"The reasonable request of your last letter, with the pleasure also that I take to know them true, causeth me to send you now these news. The Legate which we most desire arrived at Paris on Sunday or Monday last past, so that I trust by the next Monday to hear of his arrival at Calais, and then I trust within a while after to enjoy that which I have so longed for to God's pleasure and our both comfort. No more to you at this present, mine own darling, for lack of time, but that I would you were in mine arms or I in yours, for I think it long since I kissed you. Written after the killing of an hart, at 11 of the clock, minding with God's grace tomorrow mytely tymely to kill another, by the hand of him which I trust shortly shall be yours.—HENRY R.".

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 31 Oct 1528. Love Letters XVII. 4894. Henry VIII (37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (27).
"To inform you what joy it is to me to understand of your conformableness to reason, and of the suppressing of your inutile vain thoughts and fantasies with the bridle of reason, I ensure you all the good in this world could not counterpoise for my satisfaction the knowledge and certainty hereof. Wherefore, good sweetheart, continue in the same, not only in this but in all your doings hereafter; for thereby shall come, both to you and me, the greatest quietness that may be in this world. The cause why this bearer tarryeth so long is the business that I have had to dress up yer (geer?) for you, which I trust or long to see you occupy, and then I trust to occupy yours, which shall be recompense enough to me for all my pains and labors. The unfeigned sickness of this well-willing legate doth somewhat retard his access to your presence; but I trust verily, when God shall send him health, he will with diligence recompense his demowre, for I know well whereby he hath said (lamenting the saying and bruit that he should be Imperial) that it should be well known in this matter that he is not Imperial. And thus for lack of time," &c.

In 1529 John Mundy Lord Mayor -1537 was knighted by Henry VIII (37).

In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548.Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548.

In 1529 Edward Burgh -1533 and [his future wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (16) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In Oct 1529 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (51) was appointed Lord Chancellor by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38).

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Card. Wolsey (56).
Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (56) and Suffolk (45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam (39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (38) at Windsor, on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Hen. Norris (47), Thos. Heneage (49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thos. Hall, of the Hanaper.
On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thos. More (51), in the presence of Hen. Norres (47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (56) and Suffolk (45), Th. marquis of Dorset (52), Hen. marquis of Exeter (33), John earl of Oxford (58), Hen. earl of Northumberland (27), Geo. earl of Shrewsbury (61), Ralph earl of Westmoreland (31), John bishop of Lincoln, Cuthbert bishop of London (55), John bishop of Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, viscount Fitzwater (46), [his future father-in-law] Sir Tho. Boleyn, viscount Rocheforde (52), [his future father-in-law] Sir Wm.Sandys, Lord (52) and others.
Close Roll, 21 Hen. VIII. m. 19d.

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Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 08 Dec 1529 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38) created three Earldoms ...
[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire 6C 1529, 1st Earl Ormonde 2C 1529, 1st Viscount Rochford. [his future mother-in-law] Elizabeth Howard Countess Wiltshire Countess Ormonde 1480-1538 (49) by marriage Countess Wiltshire, Earl Ormonde 2C 1529. His mother (75) was the daughter of the last Earl Ormonde Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde 1426-1515.
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 7C 1529. Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (46) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.
Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (46) was created 1st Earl of Sussex by his third cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38). Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex 1479-1532 (50) by marriage Countess of Sussex.

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In 1530 the Prior of Llanthony Priory sent cheese, carp and baked lamphreys to Henry VIII (38) at Windsor.

Around 1530 Walter Walsh Groom of the Privy Chamber was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38).

On 11 Nov 1530 Giles Alington 1499-1586 (31) was knighted by Henry VIII (39) at Whitehall Palace.

In 1531 Henry Percy 6th Earl of Northumberland 1502-1537 (29) was appointed 294th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (39).

In 1531 Walter Walsh Groom of the Privy Chamber was granted Abberley by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (39).

In Dec 1531 Rhys ap Gruffydd Deheubarth 1508-1531 (23) was executed by Henry VIII (40) for treason for purportedly for inscribing the name Fitz Uryan on his armourin London.

In 1532 Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 (20) was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (40).

In 1532 Philippe Chabot 1492-1543 (40) was appointed 296th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (40).

Between 1533 and 1536. Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of Anne I Duke of Montmorency 1493-1567.

In 1532 Anne I Duke of Montmorency 1493-1567 (38) was appointed 295th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (40).

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 [his future wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.
[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37), Jean Dinteville, Edward Lee Archbishop of York 1482-1544 (50), John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (57) were present.
Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (49) read the Patent of Creation.
[his future daughter-in-law] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (13) carried [his future wife] Anne's (31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (35) who had been banished from Court. [his future wife] Anne (31) and [his future daughter-in-law] Mary (13) were cousins.
Charles Wriotheley Officer of Arms 1508-1562 (24) attended.

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Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms.

Around Nov 1532 Henry VIII (41) and [his future wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (31) met with Francis I King France 1494-1547 (38) at Calais. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (16) was present.
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37) accompanied them.

In 1533 Henry VIII (41) granted William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (43) to inpark 600 acres of meadow, pasture and wood and build fortifications at Cowdray House.

In 1533 Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) and [his niece] Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk 1517-1559 (15) were married. They were half second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [his niece] She by marriage Marchioness Dorset.

In 1533 William Holles Lord Mayor 1471-1542 (62) was knighted by Henry VIII (41).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (41) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (51) witnessed.
Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Statute in Restraint of Appeals

In Mar 1533 Parliament enacted the Statute in Restraint of Appeals by which Henry VIII (41) forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. Considered to be a cornerstone of the English Reformation.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet at Greenwich Palace. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton -1555.
The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33). See Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen.
On Saturday, the eve of Easter, [his wife] Lady Anne (32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the [his future daughter-in-law] daughter (14) of the duke of Norfolk (60), betrothed to the [his illegitimate son] duke of Richmond (13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the [his wife] Queen (47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

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Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
The name and title which the King (41) wishes the [his wife] Queen (47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to [his daughter] princess Mary (17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the [his wife] Lady (32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
On Wednesday the said Duke (60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the [his wife] Queen (47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the [his wife] Queen's (47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (55), the [his wife] Queen's (47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The [his wife] Queen (47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.
Though the King (41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the [his wife] Lady (32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with [his wife] queen Katharine (47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey (60), whom she did not hate half as much. The [his wife] Queen (47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the [his daughter] Princess (17).

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
After this we came to speak about the [his wife] Queen (47) and to argue whether she had or had not been known by [his brother] prince Arthur (46), and after responding victoriously to the suppositions and conjectures which he alleged in support of his opinion, I produced such arguments in proof of the contrary that he really knew not what to answer. Which arguments having been brought forward on more than one occasion I will not trouble Your Majesty with a reproduction of them, and will only say "que venant a reprendre le dit seigneur roy ce que plusieurs fois il auoit confesse, que la royne demeura pucelle du dit prince Arthus, et voyant quil ne le pouvoit nyer, il dit quil lauoit plusieurs fois dit mais que ce nauoit este que en ieu, et que lhome en iouant et banquetant dit souvent pluseures (sic) choses que ne sont veritables." Having said as much as if he had obtained a great success, or found some subtle point towards the gaining of his cause, he began to recover his self-possession and said confidently to me: "Now I think I have given you full satisfaction on all points; what else do you want?" Whatever the King (41) might say the satisfaction was not all-sufficing, but it served me admirably, much more than he himself could imagine, to dispute certain premises he had laid down. I told him that I flattered myself that I was the ambassador of the prince who desired most his welfare, profit, and honour, as well as the tranquillity of his kingdom. I had brought with me Master Hesdin, there present, who was, and acknowledged himself to be, his affectionate servant— as did also all Your Majesty's officers—that he might be present at the conference and hear what his answer was; but I would promise most solemnly that nothing that might be said at that audience should be reported to you unless he himself wished, for I consented to the said Hesdin giving me the lie if I ever attempted to write to Your Majesty anything he (the King) did dislike. This I said to the King (41) that I might inspire greater confidence and make him open his heart more fully (lui fere deslier le sac). The better to gain his confidence I told him how happy I had once considered myself at being chosen by Your Majesty to represent your person near so great and magnanimous a king, hoping that his Privy Council, taking due cognizance of the affairs pending between the two crowns, everything should go on smoothly. Now, on the contrary, affairs had taken such a disorderly turn, and were in such confusion that I considered myself unhappy in having to represent Your Majesty, inasmuch as I had continually assured you in my despatches that whatever countenance the King (41) put on, and whatever he did his heart and the affection he bore Your Majesty were not affected, and that he would never think of doing anything that might give occasion to suspect that he intended living otherwise than in peace and amity with Your Imperial Majesty. At these words, and without waiting to hear the rest, as if he wished to avoid alt further conversation on this delicate subject, the King (41) frowned, and moving his head to and fro, said rather abruptly: "Before I listen to such representations, I must know from whom they proceed, whether from the Emperor, your master, or from yourself; for if they be private remarks of your own I shall know how to answer them." And upon my answering that it was superfluous to ask whether I could have received commission to complain of facts and things which had only taken place a week ago, the intelligence of which would require a full month to be transmitted, and perhaps, too, four successive despatches of mine before it was believed—my general charge and instructions being to maintain by all best means the peace and friendship between Your Majesty and him, and especially to watch over the [his wife] Queen's (47) affairs, since from them depended in a great measure that very friendship—the King (41) replied that you yourself had nothing to do with the laws, statutes, and constitutions of his kingdom, and that in spite of all opposition he would pass such laws and ordinances in his dominions as he thought proper, adding many other things in the same strain. My reply was that Your Majesty neither could nor would hinder any such legislative measures, but on the contrary would, if necessary, help him in them unless they personally affected the [his wife] Queen (47), whom he wanted to compel to renounce her appeal [to Rome] and submit entirely to the judgment of the prelates of his kingdom who, either won by promises or threatened with that punishment which had already attained those who upheld the [his wife] Queen's (47) right, could not fail to decide in his favour and against her. After this I repeated what I had told him on previous occasions in Your Majesty's name, that is to say: that the fact of the case being determined here, in England, as he wished, would in nowise remove hereafter the doubts about the succession for the reasons above explained, He, himself, considering how unreasonable and illegal it would be to have the case tried and decided in England, when the authority of the Holy Apostolic See was concerned, had from the beginning of the suit asked the Papal permission for the two cardinals (Campeggio and York) to take cognizance of the case here. Even after that he had allowed the [his wife] Queen (47) to appeal to Rome, and in the course of time not satisfied with that had himself, and through others, solicited the [his wife] Queen (47) to consent to the case being tried out of Rome, not here in England, for he knew that to be a most unreasonable demand, but in a neutral place. For these reasons I said the [his wife] Queen (47) cannot and ought not to be tied by laws and statutes to which no one hardly had consented, and which had been carried by compulsion. To this remark of mine the King (41) replied half in a passion (demy appassione): "All persuasions and remonstrances are absolutely in vain. Had I known that the audience you applied for had no other object than to speak to me of these things I certainly should have found some excuse to break through the established rule, and escape from such objurgations." But on my representing to him the object of my calling, and telling him that he was positively bound to listen not only to what an ambassador of Your Majesty, but the commonest mortal, had to say to him in a case of this sort, and the courteous and humane manner in which you had always treated his ambassadors, he was obliged to retract, and said that as regarded the commission granted to the two cardinals he could not deny that he himself had applied for it, but that was, he said, under a promise made by the Pope that the cause should never be revoked [from England]; but since His Holiness withdrew all the commissions he had previously given, he (the King) did likewise reject the offer to have the case tried and sentenced in a neutral place, for he wished it to be determined here and not elsewhere. As to his consent to the [his wife] Queen's (47) appeal he had only given it conditionally, and provided the statutes and constitutions of the kingdom allowed of it, not otherwise, and said that lately a prohibitive one had been made in Parliament which the [his wife] Queen (47) herself, as an English subject, was bound to obey. Hearing this I could not help observing that laws and constitutions had no retroactive power, and that they could only be enforced in the future. As to the [his wife] Queen (47) being an English subject I owned that she being his legitimate wife was really and truly such, and that consequently all debate about constitutions and appeals was not only superfluous but out of the question; but that if the [his wife] Queen (47), however, was, as he asserted, not his wife, she could not be called an English subject, for she only resided in this country in virtue of her marriage, not otherwise, and Common Law establishes that the claimant is to bring his action before the tribunal of the country whereof the defendant is a native. The [his wife] Queen (47) might as well ask to have her case tried in Spain, but this she had never attempted, contenting herself that the court to which he himself had firstly applied as claimant should take cognizance of the affair, that being the only true and irrefragable tribunal in her case. And upon his replying that he had not sent for her, and that his brother, the prince of Wales, had first taken her to wife and consummated marriage, I remarked that if he himself had not sent for her he had after his brother's demise kept her by him, and prevented her from going away at the request of her father, the Catholic king of Spain, through his ambassador at this court, Hernand Duque de Estrada, as I could prove by his letters. These, however, the King (41) refused to peruse, and again repeated: "She must have patience and obey the laws of this kingdom." Then he added that Your Majesty in return for so many services and favours had done him the greatest possible injury by hindering his new marriage, and preventing his having male succession. That the [his wife] Queen (47) was no more his wife than she was mine, and that he would act in this business just as he pleased, in spite of all opposition and grumbling, and that if Your Majesty capriciously attempted to cause him annoyance he would try to defend himself with the help of his friends.

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
Every day numbers of people come to my hotel and inquire from my servants and neighbours how long I intend remaining here in London, for until the hour of my departure many will go on thinking that Your Majesty consents to this marriage, without which condition no one thinks that this King (41) would have dared to proceed to such extremities. For this cause I think I ought to be immediately recalled, and most humbly beseech Your Majesty to send the order; not so much to avoid the dangers and troubles that may supervene, for I should consider myself happy to sacrifice my life for the Imperial service, but merely for the above-named considerations, &c.—London, 15th April 1533.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
The King (41) has this very day dispatched a courier to Rome. I fancy it is for the purpose of telling the Pope that whatever has been attempted in this Parliament against him and his authority has been done at the solicitation of his people, not at his own, and that should his new marriage be ratified and sanctioned he is ready to revoke everything. He has forbidden the courier to carry any other letters but his, that the truth may not be found out. Your Majesty, however, might tell His Holiness how matters stand, and urge him to sentence the case and make all other necessary provisions.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
About a week ago the [his brother-in-law] sieur de Rochefort (30) (George Boleyn) returned from France with the sieur de Beauvoes (Beauvoir), who started yesterday for Scotland for the purpose of inducing king James to place his differences with this King (41) into his master's hand, and making him judge and arbiter of their differences. I have been told by a very worthy man that the duke of Albany's secretary returning from a visit to the said Beaulvoys (sic) had assured him that the said ambassador would be unable to accomplish his mission in Scotland, and that war would go on fiercer than ever. Indeed it would seem as if the Scots at this moment more prosperous than ever, for instead of being as before on the defensive, they are continually making raids on the borders. For this purpose did [his brother-in-law] Mr. de Rocchefort (30) go to France as it is now ascertained. These people, as I am told, wish immensely for peace with Scotland, but God, as I said above, has taken away their senses, and they cannot see how to bring it about. The said [his brother-in-law] Mr. de Rocchefort (30), as his own servants assert, has been presented in France with 2,000 crs., no doubt for the good tidings of his [his wife] sister's (32) marriage, to whom the Most Christian King has now written a letter addressing her as queen. I fancy, moreover, that the French consider this good news, firstly: because it is likely to be the means of breaking off the friendship between Your Majesty and this king, and also, because it might ultimately be the cause of freeing the French from their debt and payment of pensions, either through sheer necessity, or for fear these people may have of their ultimately joining you, should the Pope proceed to sentence the case and have the censures executed—a thing which, in my opinion, Your Majesty ought to urge in every possible way—the French would be released from all their bonds and pecuniary obligations to this king.

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Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
A deputation of English merchants trading with Flanders went on Friday last to see the King (41) for the purpose of ascertaining whether they could in future ship goods for that country. They were told that the King (41) was not at war with Your Majesty, and that they might trade or not just as they pleased; those who had any scruple might remain at home; those who chose to go on with their trade might do so. Not-withstanding which answer there is hardly any English or foreign merchants having goods in Flanders who has not sent for them, or had them put under another name (les couvrir), for there is hardly one who does not consider himself lost and ruined, and would not wish himself far off with his goods and substance. Indeed this fear is not confined to the merchants, but pervades all classes of society, and I have been told that Cramuel (48) (Cromwell), who is perhaps the man who has most influence with the King (41) just now, has had all his treasure and valuables removed to the Tower of London. And I do really believe that neither the King (41) himself nor any of his courtiers is exempt from fear, both of the people and of Your Majesty; yet it would seem as if God Almighty has blinded them, and taken away their senses, for they are perfectly bewildered and know not what to be at, nor how to mend their affairs. Indeed this is so much the case, that should the least mishap overtake them they would be so disconcerted that neither the King (41) nor his counsellors would think of aught else than flight, knowing very well the people's will in these matters.

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
Lastly, upon my urging upon him that his marriage had been pre-arranged by the King, his father [Henry VII.], and by the Catholic king of Spain [Ferdinand], both of whom were the wisest of their age, and would have never consented to it had there been the least shade of scruple respecting [his brother] prince Arthur (46) — which after all was the principal ground of complaint — he again insisted on his determination to act as he pleased in the matter without attending to considerations of any sort whatever, adding that you yourself had shewn him the way to disobey the Pope's injunctions by your appealing four years ago to a future Council. Upon which I told him that he himself could not do better than follow your example and appeal to that very Council, and since he alleged that he was ready to imitate you in this respect, I must warn him that no prince in the world had more respect than you had for His Holiness, or deeper fear of his excommunications, for upon one occasion you had been one whole Holy Week without attending Divine service.
These last words of mine had great effect upon the King (41), who no doubt thought that I meant to reproach him for not having obeyed the Papal excommunication and interdict once fulminated against him; he, therefore, was a little hurt and said to me in rather an angry tone of voice: "If you go on like that you will make me lose my temper." I begged him to tell me how I could have offended him, warmly protesting that I had no such intention; then he lowered his voice a little and spoke less harshly, though, notwithstanding all my entreaties, he would never say how or in what I had offended him, and I must say that the rest of our conference passed without any visible signs of ill-humour on his part.
Thus encouraged I asked him whether in the event of Spaniards and Flemings, as good Christians, refusing for fear of the Papal interdict to hold communication, or carry on trade with his subjects, they would be amenable to the penalties described in the statute, and what sort of crime could be imputed to them. He remained for a while thoughtful and startled, not knowing what to answer, which being observed by me I preferred asking leave to retire to remaining where I was and waiting for his answer. I, therefore, said to him: "If such be the state of things I will not trouble Your Highness any more and lose my time; I will withdraw." He then said "adieu" to me in a gracious manner, but retained Hesdin, to whom he addressed the following words; "You have heard what the Emperor's ambassador has just said respecting the Papal excommunication and the stopping of trade between my subjects and the Spaniards and Flemings; but I can tell you that the ecclesiastical censures do not on this occasion fall upon me, but upon the Emperor himself who has so long opposed me, and prevented my new marriage, thus making me live in sin and against the prescriptions of Mother Church. The excommunication, moreover, is of such a nature that the Pope himself could not raise it without my consent; but, pray, do not mention this to the ambassador." This will give Your Majesty an idea of the King's blindness in these matters. Hesdin only replied that the affair was of too much importance for him to mix himself up with it.

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
After this, coming to the principal object of my visit, I told him (41) plainly that, although for several days past I had heard of the attempt made both at the convocation of the prelates and in Parliament to impugn the [his wife] Queen's (47) rights, and greatly injure her just cause, I had taken no notice of the facts, inasmuch as I could not be persuaded that so wise, virtuous, and Catholic a prince could possibly authorize or sanction such things, and also because I thought and believed that such practices (menees) could in no wise impair the [his wife] Queen's (47) right or cause her harm. Yet that having lately been apprized from various quarters that such an attempt was really being made, I considered that I could not acquit myself of my duty towards God, towards Your Imperial Majesty, and towards himself if I did not remonstrate at once against such behaviour, and entreat him by his virtue, wisdom, and humanity patiently to listen to my observations as proceeding from my desire for his service, for that though he might disregard and despise man, he would at least respect God. To which the King (41) answered that so he had done, and that God and his conscience were perfectly agreed on that point.
Hearing the King (41) express himself in this manner and wishing to bring him back to the subject as gently as possible, I observed that my colleague and I could not but be very much flattered at the familiar way in which he had expressed his sentiments, as if we were his own servants, which sentiments, I added, proceeded no doubt from his heart not from his mouth. He assured me, however, that such was not the case, and that what he had just said had been said without dissimulation. Upon which I again said to him that I could not believe that Christianity, being so agitated and troubled by heresies, he could possibly set so bad an example and contravene the treaties of peace and amity which, as he himself, who had been the principal promoter and mediator in them ought to know best, had cost so much time and trouble to make. He ought to know that even supposing no inconvenience arose therefrom in his lifetime there would be most serious ones after his death with regard to the succession. There had never been such a case, I continued, nor did we read of it in history, as for a prince to divorce his legitimate wife after five and twenty years, and marry another woman. Not knowing what to answer to my observations, the King (41) gladly seized the opportunity which I gave him by this last statement to contradict me, and said: "Not so long, if you please; and if the world finds this new marriage of mine strange, I find it still more so that the Pope [Julius] should have granted a dispensation for the former." I then mentioned to him five popes who had dispensed in similar cases, and declared that I was unwilling to dispute that matter with him, but that there was no doctor in his kingdom, who after such a debate would not confess that pope Julius was authorized to dispense in the case. After this, coming to speak about the manner in which his solicitors had procured the votes of the university of Paris, on which he founds his principal argument, I offered to produce the letters I had received relating the whole affair, as well as the names of those who had held for the [his wife] Queen (47), but he said there was no necessity at all for that. I, moreover, told him that neither in Spain, nor in Naples, nor in any other country could one single prelate or doctor be found to assert the contrary, and that even in his own kingdom every canonist and lawyer was of the same opinion, with the exception of the few who had been gained over to the other side, and I proposed, in confirmation of my statement, to exhibit other letters, which he likewise refused to see.
At last, wishing to turn the conversation, the King (41) said that he wished to ensure the succession to his kingdom by having children, which he had not at present, and upon my remarking to him that he had one daughter, the most virtuous and accomplished that could be thought of, just of suitable age to be married and get children, and that it seemed as if Nature had decided that the succession to the English throne should be through the female line, as he himself had obtained it, and therefore, that he could by marrying the Princess to some one secure the succession he was so anxious for, he replied that he knew better than that; and would marry again in order to have children himself. And upon my observing to him that he could not be sure of that he asked me three times running: "Am I not a man like others?" and he afterwards added: "I need not give proofs of the contrary, or let you into my secrets," no doubt implying thereby that his beloved [his wife] Lady (32) is already in the family way.

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).
On Tuesday the 7th inst., having been informed of the strange and outrageous conduct and proceedings of this king (41) against the [his wife] Queen (47), whereof I have written to Your Majesty, I went to Court at the hour appointed for the King's audience, that I might there duly remonstrate against the Queen's treatment. I took with me Mr. Hesdin, who by the consent of the queen [of Hungary] is now here to claim the arrears of his pension, in order that he might be present, and hear the remonstrances I had to address the King (41), hoping also that if I had to use threatening language the King (41) might not be so much offended if uttered in the presence of the said Hesdin. On my arrival at Greenwich the [his father-in-law] earl of Vulchier (56) (Wiltshire) came to meet me, and leading me to the apartments of the duke of Norfolk (60), who had just gone to see the [his wife] Queen (47), said to me that the King (41) being very much engaged at that hour had deputed him to listen to what I had to say, and report thereupon. My answer was that my communication was of such a nature and so important that I could not possibly make it to anyone but to the King (41) in person. Until now he had never refused me audience, or put me off, and I could not think that he would now break through the custom without my having given him any occasion for it, especially as the King (41) knew that Your Majesty most willingly received the English ambassadors at all hours, whatever might be their errand or business. The [his father-in-law] Earl (56) repeated his excuses, and seemed at first disinclined to take my answer back to the King (41), until at last, perceiving my firm determination, he went in and came back saying the King (41) would see me immediately, though he still tried to ascertain what my business was, and advised me to put off my communication until after the festivals. It was settled at last that I should see the King (41) on Thursday in Holy Week, on which day having about me a copy of my last despatch [to Your Majesty], I took again the road to Court, accompanied as before by the said Master Hesdin, and was introduced to the Royal presence by the same [his father-in-law] earl of Wiltshire (56). The King (41) received us graciously enough. After the usual salutations and inquiries about Your Majesty's health, the King (41) asked me what news I had of your movements. I answered that the letters I had received last were rather old, but that I had reason to believe you had already embarked to return to Spain at the beginning of this present month. This statement the King (41) easily believed, and was rejoiced to hear (such is his wish to see you fairly out of Italy). I added that the weather for the last days could not have been more favourable, and therefore that it was to be hoped Your Majesty had reached Spain in safety. Having then asked me whether I had other news to communicate, I told him (41) that your brother, the king of the Romans (30), had made his peace with the Turk, and that the latter had sent an embassy, at which piece of intelligence the King (41) remained for some time in silent astonishment as if he did not know what to answer.

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Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (43) declared the marriage of Henry VIII (41) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (47) invalid.

On 25 Jun 1533 [his sister] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (37) died at Westhorpe.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 07 Sep 1533 [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (42) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32).

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father.Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (14) and [his daughter-in-law] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) were married. They were third cousins. He a son of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547. [his daughter-in-law] She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl.

1534 Treasons Act

After 1534 Parliament enacted the Treason Act made it treason, punishable by death, to not swear an oath recognising the King Henry VIII as the "... Only Head of the Church of England ...".

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (18) illegitimate and [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

On 01 Mar 1534 [his nephew] Henry Brandon 1523-1534 (11) died at Southwark.

Around Jul 1534 John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer of Snape 1493-1543 (40) and [his future wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (21) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his future wife] She by marriage Baroness Latimer of Snape.

First Act of Supremacy

On 03 Nov 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Supremacy by which Henry VIII (43) and his heirs were declared to be Supreme Head of the Church of England. Henry had now abandoned Rome completely.

In 1535 [his nephew] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (22) was appointed 297th Knight of the Garter by his uncle Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (43).

From Feb 1535 Margaret "Madge" Shelton -1555 was believed to have been a mistress of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (43). Eustace Chapuys Ambassador 1490-1556 (45) refers to "Mistress Shelton" so it could plausibly be her sister Mary Shelton 1510-1571 (25).

Before 09 Mar 1535 [his future brother-in-law] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 and Anne Stanhope Duchess Somerset 1497-1587 were married. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544.Around 1575 based on a work of 1536.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Richard Southwell 1503-1564.

Before 22 Jun 1535 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544 presided over the trial of John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 and Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 both of whom refused to take the Oath Of Supremacy. The judges including Anne Boleyn's father William Boleyn 1451-1505 and brother [his father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 brought Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich 1497-1567 as a witness who testified that Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 had denied that the King was the legitimate head of the Church. However, Richard Southwell 1503-1564 to the contrary.
The jury took, somewhat unsurprisingly, only fifteen minutes to conclude Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 was guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; the King commuted this to beheading.

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Around 1550 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Nicholas Poyntz 1510-1556.

On 21 Aug 1535 Nicholas Poyntz 1510-1556 (25) visited by Henry VIII (44) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (34) at Acton Court Iron Acton.

Pilgrimage of Grace

In 1536 the North rose against religious policies of Henry VIII (44). Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544 (48) condemned the traitors. John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer of Snape 1493-1543 (42) was implicated. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63), Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) and Edmund Knyvet 1508-1551 (28) undertook the suppression of the rebels.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (39). Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44).

In 1536 Ralph Warren Lord Mayor London 1486-1553 (50) was elected Lord Mayor of London. He was knighted by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44) the same year.

In 1536 Nicholas Carew of Beddington in Surrey KG 1496-1539 (40) was appointed 298th Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44).

Death of Catherine of Aragon

On 07 Jan 1536 [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (50) died at Kimbolton Castle in the arms of her great friend María de Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1490-1539 (46).

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. This yeare, the morrowe after twelve daie being Fridaie and the 7th daie of Januarie, 1536 the honorable and noble [his wife] Princes, Queene Katherin (50), former wife to King Henrie the VIII (44), departed a.d. 1536. from her worldlie lief at Bugden, [Note. Bugden three miles from Kimbolton Castle] in Huntingdon shire, about tenne of the clocke at night [Note. This would appear to be an error for 2 o'clock in the afternoon], and she was buried at Peterborowe the 29th daie of Januarie, being Saturdaie.
See Death of Catherine of Aragon.
Note. Stow and Hall, with other authorities, state that Queen Katharine died on the 8th Jannarj, but the correctness of our text as to the day is placed beyond a doubt by the original letter of Sir Edward Chamberleyn and Sir Edmund Bedyngfeld transmitting this intelligence to Cromwell, still extant in the Public Record Office, and which runs thus: "Pleaseth yt yower honorable Maystershipp to be adrertysed, that this 7th day of January, abowt 10 of the clock before none, the Lady Dowager was aneled with the Holy Oyntment, Mayster Chamberlein and I called to the same; and before 2 of the clock at aftemone she departed to God. Besechyng yow that the Kyng may be advertyscd of the same, and furder to know yower pleasonr yn erciy thyng aperteynyng to that purpose; and, furder, in all other causes concemyng the hows, the serrantes, and all other thynges, as shall stand wyth the Kynge's pleasour and yowers.".

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Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 10 January-June 1536. 37. Sir Edw. Chamberleyn (52) and Sir Edm. Bedyngfeld (57) to Cromwell (51).
This 7th Jan., about 10 a.m., the [his wife] Lady Dowager (50) was annealed with the Holy ointment, Chamberleyn and Bedyngfeld being summoned, and before 2 p.m. she died. Wishes to know the King's (44) pleasure concerning the house, servants, and other things. The groom of the Chamber here can cere her. Will send for a plumber to close the body in lead.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (46) to the Emperor (35).
The good [his former wife] Queen (50) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the [his former wife] Queen's (50) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the [his former wife] Queen (50) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.
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No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (44) and the promoters of his [his wife] concubinate (35) have felt at the demise of the good [his former wife] Queen (50), especially the [his father-in-law] earl of Vulcher (59), and his [his brother-in-law] son (33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the [his daughter] Princess (19) had not kept her [his former wife] mother (50) company. The King (44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His [his daughter] bastard daughter (2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little [his daughter] bastard (2), carried [his daughter] her (2) in his (44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the [his former wife] Queen's (50) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (44). All charge him with being the cause of the [his former wife] Queen's (50) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.
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Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good [his former wife] Queen (50), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the [his niece] King's own niece (18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (52); next to her will go the [his sister] Duchess (39), her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a queen of England.

The King (44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

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Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

On 24 Jan 1536 Henry VIII (44) held a tournament at the Palace of Placentia some two weeks after [his former wife] Catherine of Aragon's (50) death.