Biography of Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495

1420 Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

1422 Death of Henry V

1422 Death of Charles VI

1437 Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

1445 Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

1453 Knighting at Greenwich

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1471 Death of Henry VI

1483 Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1487 Battle of Stoke Field

1495 Death of Jasper Tudor Duke Bedford

Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

On 02 Jun 1420 Henry V (33) and [his mother] Catherine of Valois (18) were married at Troyes Cathedral. They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Death of Henry V

On 31 Aug 1422 King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (36) died at Château de Vincennes, Vincennes possibly from dysentery, possibly from heatstroke. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (21) brought the body back to England. [his half-brother] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (45) was appointed Governor to [his half-brother] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471.

Death of Charles VI

On 21 Oct 1422 [his grandfather] Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422 (53) died at Hôtel Saint Pol. The succession of the French throne was disputed between:

[his half-brother] King Henry VI succeeded II King France: Lancaster

[his uncle] Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (19) succeeded VII King France: Capet Valois. Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France 1404-1463 (18) by marriage Queen Consort France.

Around 1430 [his father] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (30) and Catherine of Valois (28) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Around Nov 1431 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 was born to [his father] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (31) and Catherine of Valois (30) at Bishop's Hatfield.

Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

On 03 Jan 1437 [his mother] Catherine of Valois (35) died at Bermondsey Abbey. She had been married aged eighteen to King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (50) for two years three months. Their son was King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (15).

After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to [his father] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

On 23 Apr 1445 [his half-brother] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (23) and Margaret of Anjou (15) were married at Titchfield Abbey probably by Bishop William Ayscough 1395-1445 (50), Bishop of Salisbury They were third cousins. He a son of King Henry V of England 1386-1422.

On 15 Dec 1449 [his brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (19) was created 1st Earl Richmond 7C 1452 by his brother King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (28).

On 25 Nov 1452 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) was created 1st Earl Pembroke 7C 1452.

Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23), William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (30), brothers [his brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) and Roger Lewknor were knighted by King Henry VI (31) at Greenwich

Around 1454 John Grey 1432-1461 (22) and [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (17) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 01 Nov 1455 [his brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (25) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (12) were married at Bletsoe Castle. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

On 03 Nov 1456 [his brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (26) died of plague at Carmarthen Castle leaving his twelve year old wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) pregnant with their child Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1459 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (27) was appointed 180th Knight of the Garter by his brother [his half-brother] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (37).

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (18), the Duke of Yorke (49) ys sone and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer ys Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the Erle of Penbroke (29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

a. So in MS.

On 02 Feb 1461 following the battle [his father] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2). Somewhat curious that his other son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) didn't contribute although the political situation may have made it difficult to do so.

Memorial to [his father] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) in the Market Place Hereford. Somewhat icongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore the future King Edward IV (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (35), John Savage 1444-1492 (17) and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51).

In the Lancastrian army [his father] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51)) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) and Henry Roos -1504. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 (68) was killed. Watkin Vaughan 1395-1469 (66) and Henry Wogan 1402-1469 (59) were killed.

Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande in that jornay was [his father] Owyn Tetyr (61) take and brought unto Herforde este, an he was be heddyde at the market place, and hys hedde sette a-pone the hygheyste gryce of the market crosse, and a madde woman kembyd hys here and wysche a way the blode of hys face, and she gate candellys and sette a-boute hym brennynge, moo then a C [Note. One hundred]. Thys [his father] Owyne Tytyr (61) was fadyr unto the Erle of Penbroke (29), and hadde weddyd Quene Kateryn (59), Kyng Harry the VI (39). ys modyr, wenyng and trustyng all eway that he shulde not be hedyd tylle he sawe the axe and the blocke, and whenn that he was in hys dobelet he trustyd on pardon and grace tylle the coler of hys redde vellvet dobbelet was ryppyd of. Then he sayde, "That hede shalle ly on the stocke that was wonte to ly on Quene Kateryns (59) lappe," and put hys herte and mynde holy unto God, and fulle mekely toke hys dethe.

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

On 01 May 1464 King Edward IV (22) and [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. The date not certain.

In 1466 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (11) and [his future wife] Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (8) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. [his future wife] She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham.

On 17 Feb 1466 Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (16) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Woodville Countess Arundel 1454-1490 (12) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

In May 1471 Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (61) was captured by Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (39).

Death of Henry VI

On 21 May 1471 [his half-brother] Henry VI (49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London.

Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

On 25 Jun 1483 supporters of the Woodviles were executed at Pontefract Castle ...

Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded. [his future brother-in-law] Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) succeeded 3rd Earl Rivers 1C 1466.

Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26) and Thomas Vaughan (73) were beheaded.

Buckingham's Rebellion

On 02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (29) was beheaded in Salisbury Marketplace for his part in the rebellion. [his future step-son] Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (5) succeeded 8th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 9th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. [his nephew] Henry Tudor (28) succeeded VII King England.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1450-1485 (35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43).

Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35).

Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50).

John Wingfield -1525.

[his future brother-in-law] Edward Woodville Lord Scales 1456-1488 (29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (34).

William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (38).

William Brandon 1456-1485 (29) was killed.

James Harrington 1430-1485 (55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (60) was killed. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) succeeded 13th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 14th Baron Segrave 2C 1295. Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (41) by marriage Baroness Mowbray, Baron Segrave 2C 1295.

John Sacheverell 1400-1485 (85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486,.

William Norreys 1441-1507 (44), Gilbert Talbot 1452-1517 (33), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (42) and John Savage 1444-1492 (41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz 1450-1520 (35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh 1457-1487 (28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham 1459-1493 (26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl Westmoreland 1456-1499 (29).

John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23).

Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (59).

George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) was wounded.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1459-1526 (26) was captured.

John Babington 1423-1485 (62), William Alington 1420-1485 (65), Robert Mortimer 1442-1485 (43), Robert Brackenbury -1485, Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 (55) and Richard Bagot 1412-1485 (73) were killed.

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Coronation of Henry VII

On 28 Oct 1485 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53) was created 1st Duke Bedford 5C 1485 by [his nephew] Henry VII (28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne. Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (27) by marriage Duchess Bedford.

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50) was created 1st Earl Derby 3C 1485.

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26) was created 1st Earl Devon 3C 1485.

Reginald Bray 1440-1503 (45), John Fitzwalter, Thomas Cokesge, Roger Lewknor, Henry Haydon and John Verney were appointed Knight of the Bath.

On 29 Oct 1485 [his nephew] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) processed from Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (37), almoner Christopher Urswick (37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50), John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53), created the day before, and John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (43).

On 07 Nov 1485 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (54) and [his wife] Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (27) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 [his nephew] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) and Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (19) were married at Westminster Abbey. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of [his nephew] king Henry (29) and queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of [his nephew] king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV (44), who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said [his nephew] king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord [his nephew] Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

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Battle of Stoke Field

On 16 Jun 1487 a Lancastrian army defeated a Yorkist army at the Battle of Stoke Field; considered by many to be the last battle of the Wars of the Roses.

The Lancastrian army of Henry Tudor comprised:

John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (44).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (55).

George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (19).

Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (36).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (45).

John Mordaunt 1455-1504 (31).

Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (19).

William Norreys 1441-1507 (46).

Edward Norreys 1464-1487 (23) wounded.

John Paston 1444-1504 (43).

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 (27).

[his brother-in-law] Edward Woodville Lord Scales 1456-1488 (31).

Thomas Lovell 1478-1524 (9), knighted.

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (40).

William Lyttelton 1450-1507 (37) who was knighted after the battle.

The Yorksists:

John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (25) was killed. Earl Lincoln 6C 1467 extinct.

Thomas Fitzgerald 1458-1487 (29) and Martin Schwartz -1487 were killed.

Lambert Simnel 1477- (10) fought and was captured. Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (31) fought and escaped.

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In Dec 1489 [his step-son] Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (11) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham -1530 were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham. The executors of her father Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (40), who had been hanged by rebels during the Northern Rebellion earlier in the year, having paid Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (32) £4000 for the privilege. His father, Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (35), had been hanged for treason in 1483.

On 06 Mar 1490 [his sister-in-law] Margaret Woodville Countess Arundel 1454-1490 (36) died.

On 06 Mar 1491 [his brother-in-law] Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (38) died.

On 08 Jun 1492 [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (55) died at Bermondsey. She was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. After that, all this army was arrayed and euen readie to set forward wherof were cheuetaynes and leaders, Jasper duke of Bedford (61), & Iho erle of Oxforde (50) beside other the [his nephew] kynge (35) sent Christopher Vrswikehys (44) aulmoner, and syr Ihon Ryseley knyght to Maximilia (33), to certefie him that the [his nephew] kyng (35) was all in a redines, and woulde shortely arryue in the continent land, assoneas he were aduertised that Maximilian (33) and hys men, were ready and prepared to ioyne with hym. The Ambassadours sayled into Flaunders, and after their message done, they sent. ii. letters in all hast to [his nephew] kyng Henry (35), the whiche not onely sore vnquyeted & vexed hym, but also caused him to take more thought, care and study on hym then he did before: for they declared that no prince coulde be more vnprouided or more destitute of men and armure, no more lackynge all thynges, apperteignynge to warre then was Maximilian (33), and that he lave lackynge in a corner, sore sicke of the fluxe of y pursse, so that he had neyther men, horsses, municions, armure nor money, neuer the lesse his mynd & will was good, if his power and habilite had been correspodet & therfore there was no trust to be put in his aide or puissaunce. Their letters bothe appalled, and made sorowful the [his nephew] kyng of Englad (35), which like a prudent prince did well consider & ponder, y it were both ieopardous and costly, for him alone to enterprice so great a warre. And on y other parte, if he should desist and leaue of his pretensed purpose, all me might call hym cowarde and recreant prynce. Beside this, he thoughte that his awne nacion woulde not take his tarijng at home in good nor favourable part, cosideryng y syth they had geuen so large money for the preparacio of all thinges necessary and conueniet for the same, they might conceaue in their heddes & ymagin, that vnder coloure & pretece of a dissimuled warre he had exacted of the notable summes of money, & now the treasure was once payed, then y warre was done, & his cofers well enryched, & the commos enpouerisshed. So that at thys tyme he doubted & cast perels on euery side & parte, & beside this he was not a litle sory y Maximilia (33) authour of this warre did absent him selfe, & defraude him of his societe & assistece. And while he studied & mused what counsaill he shoulde best take in suche a doubtfull and sodeyne case, he like a graue prince, remembring the saiyng of the wise man, woorke by counsayll & thou shall not repet the, assembled together all his lordes and other of his priuate counsayl, by whose myndes it was concluded and determined, that he shoulde manfully and couragiously perceauer and precede in thys broched and begonne enterprice, recordynge well with them selfes, and affirming playnely that all cheualry and marsial prowesses, the more difficile and heard that it is to attayne to, the more renoumed is the glory, and the fame more immortall of the vanquisher and obteyner. Therfore by this counsayl of his frendes and senate, he made Proclamacion that euery man should set forward into Fraunce, and yet not openynge howe ludasly Maximilian had deceaued hym, least that they knowynge the whole fact, shoulde not be so courageous to go towarde that battaile and precede forward on their iorney. And therfore to prouide and forse all perels and daungiers that might accidentally ensue, he so strengthened, multeplied and augmented his army in such numbre before he toke ship, that he with his awne powre might discourage and ouercomethe whole puihsauce of his aduersaries.

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Death of Jasper Tudor Duke Bedford

On 21 Dec 1495 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (64) died at Thornbury Manor without legitimate issue. Duke Bedford 5C 1485 extinct.

On 24 Jan 1496 Richard Wingfield 1469-1525 (27) and [his wife] Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (38) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 18 May 1497 [his wife] Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (39) died.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. And that same nyght the kynge remevyde unto London a-gayne hys wylle, to the byschoppe ys palys of London, and the Duke of Yorke com unto hym that same nyght by the torchelyght and toke a-pon hym as kyng, and sayde in many placys that thys ys owrys by very ryght. Ande thenn the quene hyrynge thys she voydyde unto Walys, but she was met with be-syde the Castelle of Malepas, and a servand of hyr owne that she hadde made bothe yeman and gentylman, and aftyr a-poyntyd for to be in offysce with hyr sone the prynce, spoylyde hyr and robbyde hyr, and put hyr soo in dowt of hyr lyffe and sonys lyffe also. And thenn she com to the Castelle of Hardelowe [Probably Denbigh Castle, Possibly Hawarden] in Walys, and she hadde many grete gyftys and gretely comfortyd, for she hadde nede there of, for she hadde a fulle esy many a-boute hyr, the nombyr of iiij personnys. And moste comynly she rode by-hynde a yonge poore gentylle-man of xiiij yere age, hys name was Jon Combe, i-borne at Amysbery in Wyltschyre. And there hens she remevyd fulle prevely unto the Lorde Jesper, Lorde and Erle of Penbroke, for she durste not a byde in noo place that [was] a opyn but in pryvatt. The cause was that conter fete tokyns were sende unto hyr as thoughe that they hadde come from hyr moste dradde lorde the Kyng Harry the VI; but hyt was not of hys sendyng, nothyr of [his] a doynge, but forgyd thyngys, for they that brought the tokyns were of the kyngys howse, and sum of the pryncys howse, and sum of hyr owne howse, and bade hyr beware of the tokyns, that she gave noo credans there too; for at the kyngys departynge fro Covyntre towarde the fylde of Northehampton, he kyste hyr and blessyd the prynce, and commaundyd hyr that she shulde not com unto hym tylle that [he] a sende a specyalle tokyn unto hyr that no man knewe but the kynge and she. For the lordys wolde fayne hadde hyr unto Lundon, for they knewe welle that alle the workyngys that were done growe by hyr, for she was more wyttyer then the kynge, and that apperythe by hys dedys, &c.

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