Biography of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1509 Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1511 Birth and Death of Prince Henry

1516 Birth of Princess Mary

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1534 First Act of Succession

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Funeral of Jane Seymour

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1545 Christening of Henry Wriothesley

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1533 Buggery Act

1553 Death of Edward VI

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Coronation of Mary I

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

1554 Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

1555 England Re-established as Catholic

1556 Dudley Plot against Mary I

1557 Creation of Garter Knights

1558 Surrender of Calais

1558 Death of Mary I

1558 Funeral of Mary I

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In 1441 London’s Lord Mayor obtained permission of Henry VI (19) to rebuild the Cheapside Cross, being by length of time decayed […] in more beautifull manner for the honor of the citie. This new Cross was completed in 1486. During the first half of the Tudor period, the Cross was freshly gilded nearly every decade for important visitors and occasions: in 1522 for the visit of Charles I of Spain (by then Holy Roman Emperor Charles V); in 1533, for the coronation of Anne Boleyn; for the coronation of Edward VI; and in 1554, for the coronation of [her future husband] Philip, the Spanish consort of Mary.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip

On 28 Jun 1491 [her father] Henry VIII was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (34) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (25) at Palace of Placentia. [her father] He was created as Duke Cornwall.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

In 1494 [her father] Henry VIII (2) was created 1st Duke York 3C 1494.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

On 14 Nov 1501 [her uncle] Arthur Prince of Wales (15) and [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral by Henry Deane Archbishop of Canterbury -1503 assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (51) and a further eighteen bishops They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 (32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (24) was Chief Answerer. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (18) and Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (23) attended.

Thomas Englefield Speaker of the House of Commons 1453-1514 was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Immediately after their marriage [her uncle] Arthur Prince of Wales (15) and [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (15) resided at Tickenhill Manor Bewdley for a month.

Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon. Before 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532. Around 1620 based on a work of 1526.Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife.

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Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 [her father] Henry VIII (12) was created Prince of Wales and Earl Chester 8C 1504. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (24) was created as Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson 1450-1510 (54) was knighted.

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [her grandfather] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace. Henry VIII (17) succeeded VIII King England.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 23 Jun 1509 [her father] Henry VIII (17) and Catherine of Aragon (23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars. They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 24 Jun 1509 [her father] Henry VIII (17) was crowned VIII King England at Westminster Abbey. Catherine of Aragon (23) was created Queen Consort England.

Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (31), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (32) and Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (66) attended. Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (16) was knighted. Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (48) attended as the Kings's Champion. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (26) was created Knight of the Bath and served as Lord Sewer.

Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539.

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

On 01 Jan 1511 [her brother] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 was born to Henry VIII (19) and Catherine of Aragon (25) at Richmond Palace. [her brother] He was appointed Duke Cornwall at birth.

On 22 Feb 1511 [her brother] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 died. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Birth of Princess Mary

On 18 Feb 1516 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 was born to [her father] Henry VIII (24) and Catherine of Aragon (30) at Palace of Placentia. Margaret Bourchier 1st Lady Bryan 1468-1552 (48) was created 1st Baron Bryan and appointed the child's governess. Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (36) was her godmother.

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy (6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset by his father Henry VIII (33) at Bridewell Palace.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (47),

Henry Counrtenay (29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter 1C 1525. Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (32) was created 1st Earl Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (33) was created 1st Earl Rutland 3C 1525. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (30) by marriage Countess Rutland.

Henry Brandon (2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln 7C 1525. Given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (85) sister of the previous Earl of Rutland (82). At the same time his arms Manners were augmented with the Manners Augmented

Robert Radclyffe (42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545.

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Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 [her father] Henry VIII (41) and [her step-mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (51) witnessed.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the [her mother] Queen (47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the [her father] King (41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the [her mother] Queen's (47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (55), the [her mother] Queen's (47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called queen, and that from one month after Easter the [her father] King (41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The [her mother] Queen (47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the [her father] King (41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the [her father] King (41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with [her mother] queen Katharine (47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey (60), whom she did not hate half as much. The [her mother] Queen (47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (17).

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (33).

The name and title which the [her father] King (41) wishes the Queen (47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to princess Mary (17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the Lady (32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) were married. They were third cousins. He a son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl.

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (18) illegitimate and [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

On 07 Jan 1536 [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (50) died at Kimbolton Castle in the arms of her great friend María de Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1490-1539 (46).

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (46) to the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (35).

The good [her mother] Queen (50) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the [her father] King's (44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the [her mother] Queen's (50) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the [her mother] Queen (50) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

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No words can describe the joy and delight which this [her father] King (44) and the promoters of his concubinate (35) have felt at the demise of the good [her mother] Queen (50), especially the earl of Vulcher (59), and his son (33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (19) had not kept her [her mother] mother (50) company. The [her father] King (44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the [her father] King (44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the [her father] King (44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (2), carried her (2) in [her father] his (44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the [her mother] Queen's (50) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the [her father] King (44). All charge him with being the cause of the [her mother] Queen's (50) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the [her father] King (44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

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Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good [her mother] Queen (50), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (52); next to her will go the [her aunt] Duchess (39), her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (51) himself, as I have written to [her future father-in-law] Your Majesty (35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this [her father] King (44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a queen of England.

The [her father] King (44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540. In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.

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Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

On 29 Jan 1536 [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (50) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral at a service for a Princess rather than Queen. Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (17) was Chief Mourner. Henry VIII (44) refused their daughter Mary (19) permission to attend. On the same day Queen Anne Boleyn of England (35) miscarried a child.

William Harvey Officer of Arms 1510-1567 (26) attended; the only officer of arms to do so.

1563. Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of either Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 or her daughter Margaret Clifford Countess Derby 1540-1596.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

His last letter, announcing the death and martyrdom of the [her mother] queen of England (50), was dated the 30th of January.

Since then he (Ortiz) has received one, dated the 19th of January, [from Chapuys?], informing him that the Princess (20) (Mary) was in good health. The Queen before dying showed well what her whole life had been; for not only did she ask for, and receive, all the sacraments ordained by the Church, but answered the questions put by the priest with such ardour and devotion that all present were edified. Some of those who were by her bedside, having suggested that it was not yet time to receive the sacrament of Extreme Unction, she replied that she wished to hear and understand everything that was said, and make fitting answers. She preserved her senses to the last, &c.

They say that when the [her father] king of England (44) heard of the death of his Queen, dressed in mauve silk as he was at the time, and with a white feather in his cap, he went to solace himself with the ladies of the palace. In fact it may well be said of him and of his kingdom what the Prophet Isaias says, cap. lvii., "Justus periet, et non est qui recogitet in corde suo, et viri misericordia colliguntur quia non est qui intelligat."

Her Highness the Queen was buried with the honors of a Princess [dowager], 18 miles from the place where she died, at an abbey called Yperberu (Peterborough), the King having only sent thither some ladies of his Court to attend the funeral. The King and the [her step-mother] concubine (35) were not in London, but at a place on the road called Octinton (Huntingdon).

[her step-mother] Anne Bolans (35) is now in fear of the King deserting her one of these days, in order to marry another lady.

The King having sent his ambassadors into Scotland to persuade the king (23) of that country to separate from, and refuse obedience to, the Apostolic See, it happened that the very day and moment when the English were delivering their embassy a storm arose, and a most tremendous clap of thunder was heard, at which king James (23) horrified rose from his seat, crossed himself, and exclaimed, "I scarcely know which of the two things has caused me most fear and horror, that thunder and lightning we have just heard, or the proposition you have made me." After which, and in the very presence of the English ambassadors, he ordered unconditional obedience to the Church to be proclaimed throughout his dominions.

Here, at Rome, when the news of the good Queen's death arrived, the Papal bull excommunicating king Henry for his iniquitous conduct, and depriving him of his kingdom, was already sealed and closed. Since then nothing further has been done in the matter, but the executory letters (executoriales) in the principal cause have actually been taken out, though with no small trouble.—Rome, 6 March 1536.

Since the above was written I have had a letter from the Imperial ambassador in France, in date of the 15th ultimo, intimating that, according to news received from England, the King wished to marry the Princess to a gentleman of his kingdom, and that king Francis had told the Imperial ambassador that in consequence of a fall from his horse king Henry had been two hours unconscious without speech1; seeing which [her step-mother] Ana Bolans (35) (Boleyn) was so struck that she actually miscarried of a son. Great news these, for which we are bound to thank God, because, were the Princess to be married as reported, she may at once be considered out of danger; for her marriage may hereafter be dissolved and declared null, as it would effectually be owing to the violence used, and the evident fear the Princess has of her life, should she not consent to it. At any rate, it must be owned that though the King himself was not converted like St. Paul after his fall, at least his [her step-mother] adulterous wife (35) has miscarried of a son.

Note 1. Que el Rey de Inglaterra auia caitlo con su cavallo, y estado mas de dos horas sin habla, de lo qual la [her step-mother] Ana (35) tuvo tan grande alteracion que movió un hijo."

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Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.

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Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 [her father] Henry VIII (44) and [her step-mother] Jane Seymour (27) were married at Whitehall Palace by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (53). He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her step-mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (41) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (27).

1537. Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 wearing a pendant with the letters IHS ie the first three letters of Christ's name in Greek.

On 23 Jul 1536 [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (17) died at St James's Palace. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 15 Oct 1537 [her half-brother] the future Edward VI was christened by John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace. Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (64) and Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (21) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540 carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long 1494-1546 (43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (52), Philip Boteler 1492-1545 (45), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (66) and John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (57) attended. Mary Scrope 1476-1548 (61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54) carried the canopy.

[her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker Garter King of Arms -1550 proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (48) attended.

[her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (37) was created 1st Earl Hertford 2C 1537, 1st Viscount Beauchamp.

[her half-brother] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 was created as Duke Cornwall, Earl Chester 9C 1537.

Nicholas Carew (41), Francis Bryan, Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire 1510-1547 (27), Edward Neville 1471-1538 (66), [her step-uncle] Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley 1508-1549 (29), Richard Long 1494-1546 (43) and John Wallop 1490-1551 (47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton -1557 and Bishop John Bell -1556 attended.

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Nicholas Carew of Beddington in Surrey KG 1496-1539.

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Funeral of Jane Seymour

On 12 Nov 1537 [her step-mother] Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (28) was buried in the Henry VIII Vault in St George's Chapel in Windsor.

Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (21) was Chief Mourner.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (60), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (53), John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (58), Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (20), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (64), Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (45), Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (39), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (66), Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton -1557 and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (41) attended.

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (57) carried the banner.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (48) and [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (24) were married by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (50) at Palace of Placentia. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (24) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (45) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (24).

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Anne of Cleves.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (49) and [her step-mother] Catherine Howard (17) were married at Oatlands Palace. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her step-mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (45) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Queen Catherine Howard of England 1523-1542 (17).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 [her father] Henry VIII (52) and Catherine Parr (30) were married at Hampton Court Palace some four months after the death of her previous husband They were third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (30) was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage. He would die four years later after which she would marry again. Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 (27) attended.

In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548. Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548.

On 12 Nov 1543 [her future husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (16) and Maria Aviz Queen Consort Spain 1527-1545 (16) were married at Salamanca. They were first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 08 Feb 1544. The viij day of Feybruarij was commondyd by the quene (27) and the bysshope of London (44) that Powlles and evere parryche that thay shuld syng Te Deum Laudamus, and ryngyng for the good vyctory that the quen('s) (27) grace had aganst Wyatt (23) and the rebellyous of Kent, the wyche wher over-come, thankes be unto God, with lytyll blud-shed, and the reseduw taken and had to presun, and after wher dyvers of them putt to deth in dyvers places in Londun and Kent, and prossessyon evere wher that day for joy.

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 02 Apr 1554. 02 Apr 1544. Munday the 2 of Aprill, 1554, the Parlement began at Westminster, which should haue bene kept at Oxforde, the Queens Majestie (28) ridinge in her Parlement robes from her pallace of Whitehall to St. Peters churche with all her Lordes spirituall and temporall in their robes, and there heard masse of the Holie Ghoete and a sermon. And that aftemoone the Common Howse did chuse Mr. Robert Brooke, esquier, and sergiant at lawe and Recorder of London, for their speaker in this Parlement.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 25 May 1554. 25 May 1544. Frydaye 25 Maii Sir Edward Courtney, Earle of Devonshire (17), was had out of the Tower at 3 of the clock in the morninge, Mr. Chamberlayne of Suffolke and Sir Tho. Tresham, knights, ridinge with him, with certeyne of the Queens garde and others, to Fodringay Castle in Northamptonshire, and he there to remayne under theyr custodie at the Queens pleasure.

This moneth allso divers persons both men and weomen were sett on the pillorie in Cheape for slaunderouse and seditiouse wordes speakinge against the Queene (28) and her Councell and had their eares nayled to the pillorie.

Around 1555. Attributed Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564 of the English School. Portrait of Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1554. 28 Sep 1544. The xxviij day of September the [her future husband] Kyng (17) and the Quen (28) removyd from Hamtun court unto Westmynster tho her grace('s) plasse.

Christening of Henry Wriothesley

On 24 Apr 1545 Henry Wriothesley, the future 2nd Earl Southamption, was christened at St Andrew's Church Holborn. His godparents were [her father] Henry VIII (53), Henry's daughter Mary Tudor (29) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk (61).

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 [her father] Henry VIII (55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9), Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (30) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (46), Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (57), Anthony Denny 1501-1549 (45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 (45), Edward Montagu Chief Justice 1485-1557 (61), Edward North 1st Baron North 1496-1564 (50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563 (40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 (63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (61), [her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (46), Cuthbert Tunstall Bishop of Durham 1474-1559 (72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550 (41).

Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570. In 1549 Unknown Painter. Flemish. Portrait of William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1535 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550.

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 [her father] Henry VIII (55) died at Whitehall Palace. Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9) succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King’s last will and testament, for which he received £100.

On 13 Sep 1548 Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor 1527-1576 (21) and [her future sister-in-law] Maria Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empress 1528-1603 (20) were married. They were first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Around 1544. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor 1527-1576. Around 1566. Nicolas Neufchatel Painter 1527-1590. Portrait of Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor 1527-1576. 1557. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Maria Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empress 1528-1603.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1551. 15 May 1551. The xv day the Lady Mary (35) rode through London unto St. John's, her place, with fifty knights and gentlemen in velvet coats and chains of gold afore] her, and after her iiij [score gentlemen and ladies, every] one havyng a peyre of bedes [of black. She rode through] Chepe-syde and thrugh Smythfeld, —the v. K. E. vj.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1551. 17 May 1551. The xvij day my lade Marie (35) rod thrugh from Saynt [John's through] Flettstrett unto the court to Westmynster [with many] nobull men of lordes and knyghtes and gentyllmen and ladies and gentyllwomen, and at the court gatte she a-lyttyd, and M. [Wingfield] (64), the comtroller of the kynges howse, and mony lordes and [knights], and so she was browth thrught the halle unto the cham[ber of] pressens; and so she tared there and ade a goodly ba[nquet] ij owrs, and sone after she toke her horse and rod unto Sy[nt John's;] and ther she laie alle nyght, and on the morowe her [Grace] rod to Nuw Hall in Exsex, and ther byd yn grasse with honor, thanke be God and the kyng her brodur.

In Sep 1551 Edward Waldegrave 1517-1561 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London for refusing to carry out the Privy Council's ban on Princess Mary (35) her having mass said in her house.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1552. 11 Jun 1552. The xj day of Juin cam rydyng to London my lade Mare (36) grase through London unto Saynt Johns with a goodly compeny of gentyll men and gentyll women.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1552. 13 Jun 1552. The xiij day of Juin rod thrugh London unto the Towre warffe my lade Mare (36) grase, the kynges syster, and toke her barge to Grenwyche the kynges courte, and so cam agayn at vj a-cloke at nyght, and so landyd at the Towre, and so unto Saynt Johns beyond Smyth-feld.

1533 Buggery Act

In 1553 the 1533 Buggery Act was repealed by Catholic Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (36) who preferred such matters to be dealt with by Ecclesiastical Courts.

In 1553 Thomas White Mayor 1492-1567 (61) was elected Lord Mayor of London. He was knighted the same year by Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (36).

In 1553 Edward Hastings 1st Baron Hastings of Loughborough 1521-1571 (32) was appointed Master of the Horse by his second cousin once removed Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (36).

In 1553 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (80) was knighted by Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (36).

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1553. 06 Feb 1553. The vj day of Feybruary cam to London and rod thrughe London my lade Mare('s) (36) grasse, the kynges syster, with a grett nombur of lordes and knyghtes, and her grace a grett [number] of lades and jentyll women and jentyll men to the [number] of ij honderd horsse, and thrug Chepe unto Saynt J[ohn's].

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1553. 10 Feb 1553. The x day of January [Note. Probably February] rod my lade Mare('s) (36) grasse from Saynt [John's] and thrugh Flettstrett unto the kyng at Westmynster, with a grett nombur of lords and knyghtes, and alle the [great] women lades, the duches of Suffoke (35) and Northumberland (44), my lade marqwes of Northamptun (26), and lade marqwes of Wynchester, and the contes of Bedfford (74), and the contes of Shrowsbere (53), and the contes of Arundelle, my lade Clynton (26), my lade Browne (24) and Browne [sic in manuscript], and many mo lades and gentyllwomen; and at the oter gatt ther mett her my lord of Suffoke (36) and my lord of Northumberland (49), my lord of Wynchester (70), my lord of Bedfford (68), and therle of Shrusbery (53), the therle of Arundell (40), my lord Chamburlayn, my lord Admerolle, and a gret nomber of knyghtes and gentyllmen, and so up unto the chambur of pressens, and ther the [her half-brother] Kynges (15) grace mett her and salutyd her.... owyn a-pon payne of presunmentt and a grett [penalty, as ye] shalle fynd in the actes in secund yere of kyng ... the perlementt tyme of the sayd yere, and nott to be ... plasse as taverns, alle-howses, ines, or wher ... for cummers and gestes, and has commandyd unto alle shreyffes and baylles, constabulls, justes of pesse, or any .. thay shall se truthe (and) justys as thay shalle [inform the] kyng and ys consell, and bryng them to pressun of ... sun or poyssuns as be the offenders ther off for ... her of odur.

The sam day was sett on the pelere [pillory] a man that dyd [set on a] man for to kylle a honest man that he myghtt have ys [wife,] and yett dyd he kepe her and spend ys goodes a-ffore, and [could not] be contentt with that, and so ys ere was nayled to the pelore.

In 1559 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant. In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580.

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Death of Edward VI

06 Jul 1553. [her half-brother] KING EDWARD (15) died at Greenwich, on the 6th July 1553, "towards night."a The event was kept perfectly secret during the next day;b but measures were taken to occupy and fortify the Tower of London.c On "the 8. of July the lord maior of London was sent for to the court then at Greenwich, to bring with him sixe aldermen, as many merchants of the staple, and as many merchant adventurers, unto whom by the Councell was secretly declared the death of king Edward, and also how hee did ordaine for the succession of the Crowne by his letters pattents, to the which they were sworne, and charged to keep it secret."d

a. Letter of the council to sir Philip Hoby (48), ambassador with the emperor, printed in Strype's Memorials, 1721, ii. 430. It was not written until the 8th of the month, and is silent regarding the successor to the throne. Mary (37), in her letter to the lords of the council, dated from Kenynghall on the 9th of July (printed in Foxe's Actes and Monuments), also states that she had learned from some advertisement that the king her brother had died on Thursday (the 6th) at night last past.

b. Northumberland's (49) intention was to keep the death of the [her half-brother] king (15) a secret, until he should have obtained possession of the person of the lady Mary (37), who had been summoned to visit her brother, and was at no further distance from London than the royal manor of Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But there were not wanting about the court those who from attachment to Mary, or from self-interest, ventured to incur the hazard of conveying to her this momentous intelligence ; whereupon she immediately took alarm, and rode off towards the eastern coast, from which she might have escaped to the continent, had such a step become necessary. Many writers assert that it was the earl of Arundel (41) who made a private communication to her. I have not found any contemporary authority for this statement ; but sir Nicholas Throckmorton (38), in his poetical autobiography (MS. Cole, vol xl. p. 272, verses 111, 112, 113, 114), claims the credit of having been the officious person. He had been a favourite servant of king Edward ; and on his royal master's death,

" Mourning, from Greenwich I didd strayt departe

To London, to an house which bore our name.

My bretheren guessed by my heavie hearte

The King was dead, and I confess'd the same:

The hushing of his death I didd unfolde,

Their meaninge to proclaime queene Jane I tolde.

And, though I lik'd not the religion

Which all her life queene Marye hadd profest,

Yett in my mind that wicked motion

Right heires for to displace I did detest.

Causeless to proffer any injurie,

I meant it not, but sought for remedie.

Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,

How that her brother hee was dead and gone;

In post her goldsmith then from London went,

By whome the message was dispatcht anon.

Shee asked, ' If wee knewe it certainlie ? '

Whoe said, ' Sir Nicholas knew it verilie.'

The author bred the errand's greate mistrust:

Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.

Shee saide, ' If Robert had beene there shee durst

Have gag'd her life, and hazarded the happ.'

Her letters made, shee knewe not what to doe:

Shee sent them oute, butt nott subscrib'd thereto."

By "Robert" the lady Mary meant sir Robert Throckmorton, one of the four brothers.

c. See the Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 35. for 07 July 1553.

d. It appears most probable that this was the first intimation which the citizens had received of the existence of the letters patent : and that it was on this occasion that, being " sworn to them," they affixed their signatures, although the document had been previously executed on the 21st of June. No fewer than thirty-two signatures follow that of the lord mayor, but the parties were perhaps not all citizens, and from the arrangement of their names in the existing transcript (mentioned in the following note b ) it would be difficult to distinguish which were the aldermen, which the merchants of the staple, and which the merchant adventurers.

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Ambassador Philip Hoby 1505-1558. Around 1562 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Nicholas Throckmorton 1515-1571.

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On 06 Jul 1553 [her half-brother] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (15) died at Palace of Placentia. Lady Jane Grey (17) succeeded I King England.

Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (53) attended the King as physician.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 10 Jul 1553. The x day of July was reseyvyd in to the Towre [the Queen Jane (17)] with a grett compeny of lords and nobulls of .... after the qwen, and the duches of Suffoke (35) her mother, bering her trayn, with mony lades, and ther was a shot of gunnes and chamburs has nott be sene oft be-tweyn iiij and v of [the clock]; by vj of the cloke be-gane the proclamasyon the same [after-]non (of) qwen Jane with ij harold(s) and a trompet blohyng, [declaring] that my lade Mare (37) was unlafully be-gotten, and so [went through] Chepe to Fletstrett, proclamyng qwen Jane; and ther was a yong man taken that tym for spykyng of serten wordes of qwen Mare (37), that she had the ryght tytle.

12 Jul 1553. The xij th dale the lady Mary (37) sent to Norwich to be proclaymed, but they wolde not, because they were not certeyn of the kinges death ; but within a daye after they dyd not only proclayme hir, but also sent men and weapons to ayde hir.

13 Jul 1553. About this tyme or therabouts the vj. shippes that were sent to lie befor Yarmothe, that if she had fled to have taken hir, was by force of wether dreven into the haven, w(h)er about that quarters one maister Gerningham was ray sing power on quene Maryes (37) behalfe, and hering therof came thether. Wherupon the captaynes toke a bote and went to their shipes. Then the marynours axed maister Gernyngham what he wolde have, and wether he wolde have their captaynes or no ; and he said, " Yea, mary." Saide they, " Ye shall have theym, or els we shall throwe theym to the bottom of the sea." The captaynes, seing this perplexity, saide furthwith they wolde serve quene Mary gladlie ; and so cam fourthe with their men, and convayed certeyn great ordenaunce ; of the which comyng in of the shipes the lady Mary and hir company were wonderfull joyous, and then afterwarde doubted smaly the duke's puisance. And as the comyng of the shipes moche rejoyced quene Mary's party, even so was it as great a hart-sore to the duke (49), and all his campe, whose hartes wer all-redy bent agaynst him. But after once the submyssyon of the shipes was knowne in the Towera eche man then began to pluck in his homes ; and, over that, worde of a greater mischief was brought to the Tower the noblemen's tenauntes refused to serve their lordes agaynst quene Mary. The duke he thought long for his succours, and writ somewhat sharplie to the counsayll here in that behalfe, aswell for lacke of men as munytion : but a slender answer he had agayn.

a. This passage, together with those that follow, shows that the Chronicler was still writing in the Tower of London.

. By this tyme worde was broughte to the quene (17) at the Tower that sir Edmonde Peckham (58), sir Edward Hastings (32), and the lorde Windsore (54), with others, were upp proclayming quene Mary (37) in Buckinghamshire.a

a. See the commissions addressed to several commanders to suppress the rebellion in Buckinghamshire, in the Catalogue of State Papers of the reign of queen Jane in the Appendix.

13 Jul 1553. The xiij th daie ther cam dyverse gentyllmen with ther powers to quene Maries (37) suckour.

On 18 Jul 1553 Thomas Tresham 1500-1559 (53) proclaimed as queen Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) and accompanied her to London at Northampton.

On 19 Jul 1553 Lady Jane Grey (17) abdicated I King England. Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) succeeded I King England.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 19 Jul 1553. The xix day of July was qwene Mare (37) proclamyd qwene of England, France, and Yrland, and alle domy(ni)ons, [as the] syster of the late kyng Edward the vj. and doythur unto the nobull kyng Henry the viij. be-twyn v and vj of the cloke at nyght, and ther wher at proclamasyon iiij trumpeters and ij harold(s) of armes, and the erle of Arundell (41), the erle of Shrossbery (53), th'erle Penbroke (52), my lord Tressorer (70), my lord of Preveselle, my lord Cobham (56), my lord Warden, master Masun, and my lord Mare, and dyvers odur nobull men; and thys was done at the crosse in Chepe, and from that plasse thay whent unto Powlls and ther was Te Deum Laudamus, with song, and the organes playhyng, and all the belles ryngyng thrugh London, and bone-fyres, and tabuls in evere strett, and wyne and bere and alle, and evere strett full of bonfyres, and ther was money cast a-way.

Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 21 Jul 1553. The xxj day of July was taken in Cambryg the duke of Northumberland (49), with dyvers lordes and knyghts; and that day qwen Mare (37) was proclamyd in Cambryg, and [in-]contenent thrugh England.

On 24 Jul 1553 Robert Wingfield 1513-1561 (40) hosted Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) during her journey to London to claim the throne from Lady Jane Grey (17) at Ipswich.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 26 Jul 1553. The xxix day of July was a felow s[et in the pillory] for spykyng agaynst the good qwen Mare (37).

The sam day cam rydyng thrugh London my [her half-sister] lade Elssabeth (19) grace, and thrugh Fletstrett, and so to my [lord of] Somersett('s) place that was, and yt ys my lade grasys [place; attended] with ij Ml. horse, with speres and bowes and gunes, and odur .... and spesyall sir John Wylliam, sir John Brygys, master Chamb[urlain,] all in gren gardyd with whytt welvett saten taffaty ...

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre the duke of Suffoke (36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my [her half-sister] lade Elssabeth (19) to Algatt, and so to the qwens (37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

The sam tyme cam to the Flett the yerle of Ruttland (26) and my lord Russell (68), in hold. The qwen('s) (37) grace mad [sir Thomas] Jarnyngham [Note. Thomas a mistake for Henry] vyce-chamburlayn and captayne of the garde, and ser Edward Hastyngs (32) her grace mad ym the maister of the horsse the sam tym.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal entrance into London.

Strype's Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:

There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (80) was put to death by [her father] King Henry the (62); Edward Courtenay (26), son of the Marquis of Exeter (57) who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen's mother and had written in defense of King Henry's proceedings.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the Queen (37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my [her half-sister] lade Elssabeth (19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.

Exeter Conspiracy

On 03 Aug 1553 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (26) was finally released from imprisonment after fifteen years by Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) who was a close friend of his mother Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (50).

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 03 Aug 1553. The iij day of August, at Rychemond, was my lord Cortnay (26) created the yerle of Denshyre of owre nobulle qwene Mare (37).

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 05 Aug 1553. The v day of August cam in to the Towre my lord Ferrys by .... at ix of the cloke, and so whent he a-for the consell, and so with-in a nowre he was delevered unto ser John Gage (73), constabull of the Towre, and so he had the custody of my lord for that tyme.

[The Queen (37) released from prison the lord Courtenay (26), soon after created earl] of Denshyre, and odur moo.

And the Qwene (37) grace mad ser Edward Hastyngs (32) master of the horse, and ser Thomas Jernyngham [Note. Mistake for Henry made before.] vysse-chamburlayne and captayn of the gard, and master Rochastur (59) master controller; my lord marqwes of Wynchaster (70) lord tresorer of England, and dyvers odur offeserse, and dyvers odur.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 28 Sep 1553. The xxviij day of September the Qwen('s) (37) grace removed from Sant James, and so to Whyt Hall, and ther her grace took her barge unto the Towre, and ther all the craftes and the mare and the aldermen in bargurs with stremars and mynstrells, as trum pets, wettes, shames, and regalls, and with a gret [shooting] of gunes tyll her grace cam in-to the Towr, and ...

Coronation of Mary I

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 29 Sep 1553. The xxix day of September the Qwuen('s) (37) grace mad knyghts of the Bathe xv; the furst was the yerle of Devonshyre (26), the yonge yerle of Surray (17), the iijde lord of Borgane, and lord Barkley, the lord Monjoye (20), lord Sowche (27), ser Wylliam Pallet, my lord Cardyff (52), the lord Wyndsore('s) (54) sune (21), sir Ryche('s) sune, sir Clynton, ser Pagett, ser Robart Rochaster, ser Hare Jernyngham (41), ser Edward Dormer.

In 1563 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572.

On 30 Sep 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal journey from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. She was accompanied by Mary Roper 1523-1572 (30).

Bishop George Day 1501-1556 (52) preached.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the Qwuyen('s) (37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of Darbe (44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my [her half-sister] lade Elisabeth (20) and my lade Anne of Cleyff (38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572. Around 1574 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. Portrait of Charles Somerset 1587-1665. Armorial top left quarterly 1&4 Beaufort Arms with a yellow band top and bottom 2 Herbert Arms 3 Woodville Arms. The attribution here possibly incorrect since Charles Somerset was born in 1587 ie before the 1574 date when painted. A possible subject is William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 who has the same armoiral in another In 1569. Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589.

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On 01 Oct 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) was crowned I Queen of England and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (26) carried the Sword of State.

John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (73) bore the queen's train. Edward Dymoke 1508-1566 (45) attended as the Queen's Champion. James Blount 6th Baron Mountjoy 1533-1582 (20) and Henry Parker 12th Baron Marshal 11th Baron Morley 1533-1577 (20) were created Knight of the Bath. Thomas Hastings 1515- (38) and [her step-uncle] John Leigh 1502-1564 (51) were knighted. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (80) and Henry Neville 5th Earl Westmoreland 1525-1563 (28) attended.

[her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (38) took part in the procession.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1553. 02 Oct 1553. The ij day her grace (37) mayd lxxiiij knyghts, the morowe after her crownnasyon, the wyche her be ther names folowyng: (not inserted by the Diarist)

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1553. 05 Oct 1553. The v day of October the Qwuen('s) (37) grace rod unto Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse of the Holy-gost, and ther wher ij bysshopes; on delevered her the shepter and odur thyng. Her grace rod in her parlement robes, and all the trumpeters blohyng a-for them all; and so, after her grace had hard masse, they whent to the Parlement howsse all to-geyther, and the yerle of Devonshyre (26) bare the sworde, and the yerle of Westmorland (28) bare the cape of mayntenans.

On 15 Oct 1553 Thomas Saunders -1528 preached at Northampton warning the congregation that 'the errors of the popish religion' would be restored to the church by Queen Mary (37).

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577 (37). Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37).

Around 1554 Jane Dormer Duchess Feria 1538-1612 (15) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37).

Around 1563 Alonso Sánchez Coello Painter 1531-1588. Portrait of Jane Dormer Duchess Feria 1538-1612. Around 1558 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of (probably) Jane Dormer Duchess Feria 1538-1612.

In 1554 Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (53) was appointed physician to Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37).

In 1554 Emmanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy 1528-1580 (25) was appointed 333rd Knight of the Garter by his first cousin once removed Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37).

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 15 Jan 1554. [The xv day of January, the lord mayor, and the] aldermen whent to Westmynster [to the court, and] my lord chanseler mad a protestacyon [to them, and to] othur pepyll, that the quen('s) (37) grace ys myndyd [to marry] with the [her future husband] prynche of Spayne (26), and the reme [realm] for to have [great] benefett commyng in to the rayme [realm]; and that he not [to meddle with the public affairs of the State] thyngs, butt her consell of thys reame sh ....

Wyatt's Rebellion

Around 26 Jan 1554 Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising against the marriage of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) and [her future husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (26) led by Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554 (33) with the intention to replace them with Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (27) and [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20). George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (57) sided with the rebels. John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos 1492-1557 (61) suppressed the rebellion.

[her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) was interrogated.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 28 Jan 1554. The xxviij day of January the Quen('s) (37) grace dyd send to master Wyatt (33) [and his company the] master of the horsse (33) and master Cornwales, to know their intentt; and thay send word that they wold have the Quen and the Towre in kepyng, and odur thynges.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 01 Feb 1554. The furst day of Feybruary cam nuw tydyngs that all craftes shuld fynd the dobull [number of men]; non butt hossholders unto the bryge and the gattes, and the drae-bryge, and ther lay grett gones; and the bryge was broken done after; and that evere man to make whyt cotes for evere howsse.

The sam day at after-non was a proclamasyon in Chepesyde, Ledyn-hall, and at sant Magnus corner, with harold of armes and on of the quen['s] trumpeters blohyng, and my lord mare, and my lord admerall (44) Haward, and the ij shreyffs, that ser Thomas Wyatt (33) was proclamyd traytur and rebellyous, and all ys fellowes, agaynst the Quen('s) mageste and her consell, and that he wold have the Quen in costody, and the Towre of London in kepyng; and thay convayd unto evere gatt gonnes and the bryge; and so evere gatt with men in harnes nyght and days. And a-bowt iij of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (37) grace cam rydyng from Westmynster unto yeld-hall with mony lordes, knyghts and lades, and bysshopes and haroldes of armes, and trompeturs blohynge and all the gard in harnes. [Then she declared, in an oration to the mayor and the city, and to her council, her mind concerning her marriage, that she never intended to marry out of her realm but by her council's consent and advice; and that she would never marry but all her true] sogettes [subjects] shall be content, [or else she would live] as her grace has don hederto. [But that her gr]ace wyll call a parlement [as] shortely as [may be, and] as thay shall fynd, and that [the earl of] Penbroke (53) shall be cheyffe capten and generall agaynst ser Thomas Wyatt (33) and ys felous in the [field,] that my lord admerall (44) for to be sosyatt with the [lord mayor] to kepe the cete from all commars therto. [After this] the Quen('s) grace came from yeld-hall and rod to the iij cranes in the vyntre, and toke her barge [to] Westmynster to her own place the sam day.

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Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Mary I (37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 22 Feb 1554. 22 Feb 1554. The 22 of February certeyne of the rebells which lay in Newgate, both the Counters, the Kings Benche, the Marshallsie, and Westminster, to the number of iiii C. and more, were ledd to Westminster to the Cowrte, coupled together with collers and halters abowte their neckes, and there in the Tylt-yeard kneeled afore the Queen (38) lookinge owt at the gallerie by the gate, and cried for meroye, who most gratiouslye gave to them their pardon.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 22 Feb 1554. The sam day alle the Kent men whent to the cowrt with halters a-bowt ther nekes, and bone with cordes, ij and ij to-gether, through London to Westmynster, and be-twyn the ij tyltes the powr presonars knelyd downe in the myre, and ther the Quen('s) (38) grace lokyd owt over the gatt and gayff them all pardon, and thay cryd owt 'God save quen Mare!' and so to Westmynster hall, and ther thay cast ther alters a-bowt the hall, and capes, and in the stretes, and cryd owt 'God save quen Mare!' as thay whent.

.... of the qwen('s) garde att .... the man that was kyld was sir John Pr....

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 24 Feb 1554. The sam day the qwyn('s) (38) grace gaff pardon unto serten of mo men of Kentt, in Sowthwarke; ther they cryd "God save quen Mare!" and cast ther alters on hed in the stretes and a-bowt, that sum had iiij or v halters.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 Mar 1554. 18 Mar 1554. The xviii of Marche, beinge Palme Sunday, the [her half-sister] Ladie Elizabeth (20) was had to the Tower from Westminster by water privelie, after the Queene (38) had gone a procession, which was about x of the clock in the forenoone.

The same Palme Sunday the old service after the use of Sarum in Latyn was begone agayne and kept in Paules and other parishes, within the Cittie of London, with allso bearinge of Palmes, and creepinge to the Crosse on Good Fridaye, with the Sepulcher lights and the Resurrection on Easter daye.

Allso the Scriptures written on Rood-lofts and about the churches in London, with the armes of England, was washed out againste the feast of Easter in moste parte of all the parishe churches of the diocesse of London. And Dr. Feknama was made Deane of Paules, and Dr. May putt owt, and the sacrament of the aulter hanged or sett on the aulter in everie parishe churche.

a. John Feckenham.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 02 Apr 1554. The ijday of Aprell began the parlemente, and the Quen('s) (38) grace rod thedur in her robes, and bysshopes and lordes in parlement robes, and ther was a goody masse of the Holy-gost; and [so] to the parlement howsse.

On 08 Apr 1554 John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos 1492-1557 (62) was given Sudeley Castle by Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (38).

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 23 Apr 1554. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, her grace (38) whent unto the chapell and whent a prossessyon with all the kynghtes of the garter that was ther pressent [to St.] James in the Feld; ther wher creatyd the sam day knights of the garter, the [her future husband] prynsse of Spayne (26) one, and the yerle of Sussex (47).

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 03 May 1554. The iij day of May, at the cowrt of sant James, the quen('s) (38) grace whent a prossessyon within sant James with harolds and serjants of armes, and iiij bysshopes mytred, and all iij days thay whent her chapell a-bowt the feldes, first day to sant Gylles and ther song masse; the next day tuwyse-day to sant Martens in the feldes, [and there] a sermon and song masse, and so thay dronke ther; and the iij day to Westmynster, and ther a sermon and then masse, and mad good chere; and after a-bowt the Parke, and so to sant James cowrt ther.

[The same Rogation Week went out of the Tower, on procession, priests and clerks, and the lieutenant with all his waiters; and the ax of the Tower borne in procession: the waits attended. There joined in this procession the inhabitants of] sant Katheryns, Radclyff, Limehouse, Popular, Sthracfford, Sordyche, with all them [that belonged to] the Towre, with ther halbards, a-bowt the feldes of sant Katheryns and the prevelegys.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 29 May 1554. The xxix day of May the Queen (38) removed from St. James's, passing through the park, and took her barge at Whitehall, and so to Rychmond, on her progress.

Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 23 Jul 1554. 23 Jul 1554. The 23 of Julie the [her future husband] Prince of Spayne (27) came to Winchesterd about vi of the clock at night, accompanied with noblemen as well of England as of his owne countriea, with trumpetts blowinge and bells ringinge, and came to the Cathedrall churche, where he alighted. And there the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chauncellor (71), with 4 bishops more, with the priests, singinge-men, and children, receaved him with procession in riche copes and with iii crosses up into the quiere, where was a riche traves richlye hanged for him; and there he kneeled downe before the sacrament; and then the Lord Chauncellor began Te Deum, the organs playinge and the quier singinge the rest. This done he was brought out with torche light to his lodginge throughe the cloyster to the Deanes howsse, all the Queens garde standinge in their riche cotes all the waye. He was apparelled in a riche cote richlie imbroydered with goulde, and an hatt much like the same with a feather in it. The same night afler he had supped, which was about x of the clock, certeyne of the Councell brought him to the Queen (38) by a secrett waye, where she receaved him right lovinglye and kissed him, and after halfe an howre they tooke their leave, eche kissinge the other, and so departed that night to his lodginge.

d. Philip lingered a few days at Southampton, where he disembarked, as if in order to ascertain the humour of the nation, as one of his ambassadors, the Count of Egmont (31), had been recently violently assaulted by the populace, who mistook him for his master.

a. He came well attended with a bodyguard and troops.

1579. Frans Pourbus the Elder Painter 1545-1581. Portrait of Lamoral Count of Egmont and Prince of Gaverre 1522-1568

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 24 Jul 1554. 24 Jul 1554. The 24 of Julie, aboute 3 of the clock in the afternoone, [her future husband] he came from his lodginge on foote, the Lord Steward, the Earle of Darbie (45), the Earle of Pembrooke (53), and divers other lordes and gentlemen, both Englishe and Spanishe, goeinge afore him to the Courte, where everie bodye might see [her future husband] him (27), and so was brought up into the hall where the Queene (38) was standinge upon a skaffold richelye hanged, she meetinge him halfe waye, receivinge him, and kissinge him in the presence of all the peopleb. And then she tooke [her future husband] him (27) by the hand, she goeinge on his right hand out of the hall in her great chamber of presence. And there in the presence of all the lordes and ladies they stoode a quarter of an hower under the clothe of estate talkiuge together; and then after a while he toke his leave of her Grace and came forthe into the open cowrte, where all the pentioners stood in araye and the garde all alonge on both sides the waye in theyr riche cotes to the Court gates; and from thence the lords brought him to the Cathedrall churche to evensonge, and after to his loginge agayne.

The same night, about 12 of the clock, the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (54) sent a message to the Queen (38), declaringe to her that his sonne which should marrie with her was not then a Prince onelye but a Kinge; and that he was Kinge of Naples and Jerusalem before the marriage, and so did send his writings of the same under his great seale.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

b. Mary took no pains to conceal her impatience, being enabled in her conscience to plead her anxiety for a legitimate Roman Catholic succession, as the only means of securing the faith in England.

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Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 25 Jul 1554. 25 JUl 1554. The 25 of Julie, beinge Weddensdaye and St. James dayea, about xi of the clocke the [her husband] Kinge (27) and Queene (38) came from their lodgings towardes the churche all the way on foote, verie richelye apparelled in gownes of cloth of golde sett with riche stones, he with his gentle-men and garde and she with hers, eche of them havinge a sworde borne before them, the Earle of Darbye (45) bearinge the sworde before her Maiestie, and the Earle of Pembroke (53) before the Kinge; and when they were come into the churche he went into one traveys and the Queen to another richlye hunge, where they were shriven. This done they came forth of their traveys to the place appoynted for the marriage, where the Lord Chauncellor (71), beinge before with 5 other bishops assistinge him, used all thinges, both in the banes-byddinge and otherwise, as hath bene in all marriages of olde tyme, and spake it both in Latin and in Englishe, her Grace on the right syde standinge and the King on the left syde. Her marriage ringe was a rownd hoope of gould without anye stone, which was her desire, for she sayde she would be married as maydens were in the olde tyme, and so she was.

After the marriage knott thus knitt the King and Queen came hand in hand under a riche canopie, beinge borne over them with 6 knightes and 2 swordes before them, all the lordes both Englishe and strangers richelye apparelled goeinge afore them, the trumpetts then blowinge tyll they came into the quier, where all the priestes and singinge men all in riche copes began to singe a psalme used in marriages, the King and Queen kneelinge awhile before the aulter, eche of them havinge a taper afore them; then after her Majestic went into her traveys on the right syde, and the King into another on the left syde; after the gospell they came owt and kneeled before the alter openlye all the masse tyme, and the care-cloth was holden ouer them; and he kissed the bishopp at the Agnus and then her Majestie. The masse done the Kinge of Herroldes openlye in the churche, and in presence of the King, the Queen, the lordes and ladies, and all the people, solemnlye proclay'med their Maiesties Kinge and Queene, with their title and style, in manner as followeth:

Philippe and Marie, by the grace of God Kinge and Queene of The Kinge and Englande, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Irelande, Defenders of the Faythe, Princes of Spayne and Sicilie, Archdukes of Austriche, Dukes of Mylane, Burgundye, and Brabant, Countes of Aspurge,b Flaunders, and Tyrrole. Which proclamation ended, the trumpetts blue and other noyses playde. And then the Kinge and Queene came furthe hand in hand, with their lordes, ladies, and gentlemen way tinge on them, and 2 swordes borne afore them in manner aforesayde; and so went on foote to the courte, and there dined openlye in the hall, both together at one table.

a. The feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

b. Haspurgi, Hapsburg.

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On 25 Jul 1554 [her husband] Prince Philip of Spain (27) and Queen Mary (38) were married by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (71) at Winchester Cathedral. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague 1538-1608 (16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 11 Aug 1554. 11 Aug 1554. The 11 of August the [her husband] King (27) and Queen (38) removed to Richmond.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 17 Aug 1554. 17 Aug 1554. The 17 of Augusta the [her husband] King (27) and Queen (38) came by water from Richmond in the after noone, and landed at my Lord Chancellors stayers in St. Marye Overies, and there had a banquett in the Lord Chauncellors (71) howsse, and then passed throughe the parke to the howse at St. Georges, of which Sir John Gage, Lord Chamberlayne to the Queene (74), had the keepinge, and there lay that night and dyned there the next daye.

a. The authorities differ widely as to this date. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 91 ) says: "They came not unto London tyll it was the 18th day of Angnst, and then came hothe unto the place in Sothwarke, and lay there that nyght, and the 19th day came into London." And Stow (p. 625): "The 11 of August, the King and Queene remooued to Richmond, from thence by water to Southwarke, &c. And the next day, heing the 12 of August, they rode through Southwarke oner the bridge, and so through London, &c." While Baker's Chronicle reads: "The eleventh of August they remoued to Richmond, the seven-and-twentieth to Suffolk Place in Southwark, and the next day to London," &c. (p. 342).

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 18 Aug 1554. 18 Aug 1554. Saterdaye the 18 of August, in the after-noone, the [her husband] King (27) and Queenes (38) Majesties rode throughe Sowthwerke, over the bridge, and so throughe London; where they were with great provision receaved of the citizens, pageants in places accustomed, the crosse in Cheape new gilte, &c.

Memorandum: In the moneth of September the Duke of Norfolke (81) died at Framlingham in Norfolke, and there was honorablye buried amongst his auncestors.

Allso this moneth the Bishop of London (54) visited all his dioces, and had sermons in everie parishe and place where he satt, and sett owt divers goodlye articles in print for the true religion.

Allso he commaunded that the feast of everie saynte that was patrone of the churche, called Festum loci in everie parishe, should be kept holiedaye in everie parishe throughe his diocesse as a principall feast used in olde tyme, after the custome of the churche.

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Aug 1554 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (38) created her new [her husband] husband (27) and the Earl of Sussex Garter Knights:

331st [her husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (27).

332nd Henry Radclyffe 2nd Earl of Sussex 1507-1557 (47).

On 09 Oct 1554 William Howard 1st Baron Howard 1510-1573 (44) was appointed 334th Knight of the Garter by Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (38).

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1554. 12 Nov 1554. The xij day of November the [her husband] Kyng (27) and the Quen (38) rod unto Westmynster chyrche to the masse of the Holy-gost, and after masse to the parlement-howsse; and all the bysshopes and the lordes in ther parlement robes, with trompeters blohyng, and all the harolds in ther cote armurs, and the juges in ther robes; the yerle of Penbroke (53) bare the kyng('s) sword, and the yerle of Comberland (41) bare the quen('s) sword, and the yerle of Shrowsbery (54) bare the kyng('s) cape of mantenance, and the yerle of Arundell (42) bare the quen('s) cape of mantenance; and a-for them rod to-gether my lord chansheler (71) and my lord tressorer (71) in ther parlement robes.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1554. 24 Nov 1554. [The same day cardinal Pole (54) came from Gravesend by water, with the earl of Shrewsbury (54), the lord Montagu (25), the bishops of Durham (80) and Ely (48), the lord Paget (48), sir Edward Hastings (33), the lord Cobham (57), and diverse] knyghts and gentyllmen, in barges, and thay all [did shoot the] bryge be-twyn xij and on of the cloke, and a-g[ainst] the steleard of Temes my lord chanseler (71) mett [them in his] barge, and my lord of Shrousbury (54) [had his] barge with the [talbot, all] ys men in bluw cotes, red-hosse, skarlett capes, [and white] fethers; and so to the cort gatt, and ther the [her husband] Kyng('s) (27) grace [met him] and inbrasyd hym, and so lad ym thrughe the kyng('s) hall;] and he had borne a-for hym a sylver crosse, and [he was arrayed in] a skarlet gowne and a sqware skarlett cape; and my lord [North] bare the swarde a-for the Kyng; and so they whent up unto the Quens chambur, and ther her grace (38) salutyd hym; and after he toke ys leyffe, and toke ys barge to ys plase at Lambeth, that was the bysshope of Cantorberys, Crenmer (65), and so to dener.

In 1555 Edward Hastings 1st Baron Hastings of Loughborough 1521-1571 (34) was appointed 335th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin once removed Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (38).

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1555. 04 Apr 1555. The iiij day of Aprell the [her husband] Kyng('s) (27) grace and the Quen (39) removyd unto Hamtun cowrte to kepe Ester ther, and so her grace to her chambur ther.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1555. 23 Apr 1555. [The xxiijd day of April, being saint George's day, at Hampton Court, the [her husband] King (27), with other lords and knights of the garter, went in their robes on procession, with three] crosses, and clarkes and prestes, and my lord chancellor, the cheyff menyster, metered [mitred ie wearing his mitre], and all thay in copes of cloth of tyssue and gold, syngyng Salva fasta dyes as thay whent a-bowt; the Quen('s) (39) grace lokyd owt of a cassement, that hundereds dyd se her grace after she had taken her chambur; and arolds gohyng a-bowt the Kyng('s) grace.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1555. 30 Apr 1555. The xxx day of Aprell and the last day of Aprell thydynges cam to London that the Quen('s) (39) grace was delevered of a prynce, and so ther was grett ryngyng thrugh London, and dyvers plases Te Deum laudamus songe; and the morow after yt was tornyd odurways to the plesur of God! But yt shall be when yt plesse God, for I trust God that he wyll remembur ys tru servands that putt ther trust in hym, when that they calle on hym.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 03 Aug 1555. The iij day of August the Quen (39) and [her husband] Kynges (28) grace removyd from Hamtun Court unto Hotland, a iiij mylles of: has her grace whent thrugh the parke for to take her barge, ther mett her grace by the way a powre man with ij chruches, and when that he saw her grace, for joy he thruw hys stayffes a-way, and rane after her grace, and sche commondyd that one shuld gyff ym a reward.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 26 Aug 1555. The xxvj day of August cam from Westmynster, rydyng thrugh London unto Towrs-warff, the [her husband] Kyng (28) and the Quen (39), and ther thay toke ther barge unto Grenwyche, and landyd at the long bryge, and reseyvyd by my lord chanseler (72), and my lord of Ely (49), and my lord vycont Montyguw (26), master comtroller, master Sowthwell (52), and dyvers mo, and the gard, and dyvers holdyn torchys bornynge, and up to the Frers, and ther thare graces mad ther praers, and at her grace('s) landyng received ix or x suplycasyon(s), and so bake agayn to the court with a c. torchys bornyng.

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Richard Southwell 1503-1564. Around 1575 based on a work of 1536.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Richard Southwell 1503-1564.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1555. 04 Sep 1555. The iiij day of September the Quen('s) (39) grace and my [her half-sister] lady Elsabeth (21), and all the court, dyd fast from flessh, and toke the Popes jubele and pardon grantyd to alle men.

On 17 Oct 1555 Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (26) was appointed 336th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (39).

England Re-established as Catholic

On 12 Nov 1555 Queen Mary (39) re-established England as a Catholic country.

Dudley Plot against Mary I

In early 1556 Henry Dudley 1517-1568 (39) attempted to replace Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (39) on the throne with [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (22) to then marry her to Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (29).

Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574 (36). Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (39).

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1556. 21 Jul 1556. The xxj day of July the Quen('s) (40) grace removyd from sant James in the ffelds unto Heltem thrugh the parke and thrugh Whyt-alle, and toke her barge, and so to Lambeth unto my lord cardenoll('s) place; and there here grace toke here charett, and so thrugh sant Gorge('s) ffeld unto Nuhyngton, so over the feldes to-wherd Eltem at v of the cloke at after-none; and ther wher of pepull a-boyff x m. pepull to se her grace; and my lord cardinoll (56) rod with her, and my lord of Penbroke (55) and my lord Montyguu (27) and dyvers lordes and knyghtes and mony lades and gentyll women a grett nombur rod with her grace.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1556. 19 Sep 1556. The xix day of September dyd the Quene('s) (40) grace remove from Croydun the bysshope of Canthurbere('s) plasse unto sant James in the feld be-yond Charyng-crosse, her own plasse, with my lord cardenall (56) and (unfinished).

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1556. 20 Dec 1556. [The xx day of December the Queen (40) rode in her chariot through the park from] Santt James unto the galere, and so [took] her barge unto Westmynster, and landyd [at the palace,] and so in-to the abbay, and ther her grace hard [even song], and my lord cardenalle (56) and my lord Montyguw (28), [and my] lord Darse of Essex (59) dyd bere the sword a-for [her grace], and my lade Montyguw (18) bare up the quen ['s train].

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1556. 22 Dec 1556. The xxij day of Desember the Quen('s) (40) grace [removed] from Sant James thrugh the parke, and toke [her barge] unto Lambyth unto my lord cardenalles (56) place, [where] her grace dynyd with hym and dyvers of the [council]; and after dener her grace toke her gornay to Grenwyche, to kepe her Cryustynmus ther.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1557. 20 Jan 1557. The xx day of January at Grenwyche parke the quen (40) grace('s) pensyonars dyd mustur in bryth [bright] [harness] and mony barbe horsses; and evere pensyonar had iij men in grene cottes gardyd with whytt; so thay rod a-bowt [the park,] iij in ranke apone grett horssys with spers in ther handes pentyd whyt and grene, and a-for rod trumpeters blohyng; and next a man of armes bayryng a standard of red and yelowe, in the standard a whytt hart, and on the thodur syd a blake eygyll with goldyd leges; and be-twyn ij and iij of the cloke thay cam downe and mustered a-for the Quen('s) (40) grace a-for the parke gatt, for ther stod the Quen('s) grace on he, and my lord cardenall (56), and my lord admerall (47), and my lord Montyguw (28), and dyvers odur lordes and lades; and so a-for the pensyoners rod many gentyll-men on genetes and lyght horsses, butt spesyalle ther rod on gentyll-man, ys nam ys master (blank), apon the lest mulle thatt evere I say; and so thay rod to and fro a-for the Quyne; and ther cam a tumbeler, and playd mony prate fettes a-for the Quen and my lord cardenalle, that her grace dyd layke hartely; and so her grace dyd thanke them alle for ther peyne; and so after they partyd, for ther wher of the pensyonars 1. and mo, besyd ther men of armes; and ther wher of pepulle of men and vomen a-boyff x m. pepulle and mo.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1557. 07 Feb 1557. [The vijth day of February master Offley (57), the lord mayor, and divers aldermen, taking their barge, went to Greenwich to the Queen's (40)] grace, and ther she mad ym [knight, he] behyng mayre, and master William Chester (48), altherman, mayd hym knyght the sam tyme and day.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1557. 17 Mar 1557. The xvij day of Marche cam rydyng from [her husband] kyng Phelype (29) from be-yond the see unto the court at Grenwyche, to owre quen (41), with letters in post, my lord Robart Dudley (24), and after master Kemp of the preve chambur, that the [her husband] kyng (29) wold com to Cales the xvij day of Marche; and the sam day dyd pryche a-for the quen the nuwe bysshope of Lynckolne doctur Watsun (42).

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 wearing his Garter Collar.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1557. 21 Mar 1557. The xxj day of Marche the [her husband] Kyng (29) and the Quen (41) [went] thrugh the galere unto ther closett, and ther thay [heard mass]; and ther was ij swordes borne a-for them, on by lord Cobham (60), and the thodur (by) my lord admerall (47); [and from] ther closett bake to dener, boyth the Kyng and the Quen together, and ther my lord chanseler (56) was ther and dyvers [other lords.]

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1557. 23 Mar 1557. The xxiij day of Marche was a commondement cam that the [her husband] Kyng (29) and the Quen (41) wold ryd from the Towre-warff thrugh London with the nobuls of the rayme, boyth lordes and lades; and at the Towre-warff my lord mayre (57) mett ther gracys boyth, and thrugh London my masters the althermen and the shreyffes and alle the crafftes of London in ther leveres, and ther standynges set up of evere craft of tymbur, and the strett and the trumpettes blohyng with odur enstrementtes with grett joye and plesur, and grett shutyng of gones at the Towre, and the waytes plahyng on sant Peter's ledes [leads ie roofs] in Chepe; and my lord mayre (57) bare the septer a-for the Kyng and the Quen.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 22 Apr 1557. The sam day the [her husband] Kyng (29) and the Quen (41) removyd from Grenwyche unto Westmynster, a-ganst sant [George's day.]

1557 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1557 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (41) appointed three new Garter Knights:

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 23 Apr 1557. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant George('s) day [the [her husband] King's (29)] grace whent a pressessyon at Whyt-halle [through the hall] and rond abowt the court hard by the halle; and so [certain of] the knyghts of the garter as they whent in ther [robes] of the garter; the bysshope of Wynchaster (47) dyd exsecute the masse with ys myter; the furst as they whe[nt the lord] Montyguw (28), my lord admerall (47), ser Antony Sely[ger, the] lord Cobham (60), the lord Darce (60), ser Thomas Chenne, [the lord] Pagett (51), the lord of Penbroke (56), the lord of Arundel (45), [the] lord tressorer (74), and secretore Peter in a robe of cremesun velvett with the garter brodered on ys shuder, and [one bare] a rod of blake, and a docthur bare a boke; and [then went all] the harodes, and then my lord Talbott (29) bare the sword, then sergant(s) of armes, and the Kyng('s) grace [came next], and Quen('s) (41) grace lokyng owt of a wyndow [beside] the cowrt on the garden syde.

In 1582 Unknown Painter. Portrait of George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 04 May 1557. The iiij day of May dyd ryd a-for the [her husband] Kyng (29) and Quen (41) in her grace('s) preve garden ser James Garnado, and so the bridle bytt dyd breke, and so the horsse rane aganst the wall, and so he brake ys neke, for ys horsse thruw ym agane the wall and hys brauns rane owtt.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 28 May 1557. The xxvij day of May, the wyche was the Assensyon day, the [her husband] Kynges (30) and the Quen('s) (41) grace rod unto Westmynster with all the lords and knyghtes and gentyllmen, and ther ther graces whent a prossessyon abowt the clowster, and so thay hard masse.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1557. 07 Jun 1557. The vij day of Juin was a proclamassyon in London by the quen('s) (41) grace, of the latt duke of Northumberland (53) was supported and furdered by Henry the Frenche kyng (38) and ys menysters, and by the heddes of Dudley, Asheton, and by the consperacy of Wyatt (36) and ys trayturs band; and the sayd kynges mynysters dyd secretly practysse and gyff, and they favorabulle; with trumpeters blohyng, and a x harroldes of armes, and with my lord mayre (57) and the althermen; and by the lat Stafford (24) and with odur rebelles whom he had interteynyd in ys rayme, and dyver odur mo, the wyche be ther yett on-taken.

1559. Studio of François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Henry II King France 1519-1559.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1557. 10 Jun 1557. The x day of Junij the [her husband] Kyng (30) and the Quen (41) toke ther jorney toward Hamtun courte for to hunt and to kyll a grett hartt, with serten of the consell; and so the howswold tared at the Whytthalle, tylle the Saterday folowhyng they cam a-gayne to Whytthalle.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1557. 17 Jun 1557. [The xvij day of June, being Corpus Christi day, the [her husband] King (30) and Queen (41) went in procession at Whitehall] thrughe the halle and the grett cowrtt-gate; [attended with as goodly] synging as ever was hard; and my (unfinished)

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. 03 Jul 1557. The iij day of July the [her husband] Kyng (30) and the Quen (41) toke ther gornay [journey] toward Dover, and lay all nyghtt at Syttyngborne.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. 15 Jul 1557. The xv day of July the Quen('s) (41) grace dynyd at Lambeth with my lord cardenall Polle (57), and after dener removyd to Rychmond, and ther (her) grace tares ther her plesur.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1557. 21 Nov 1557. The Sonday, the xxj day at November, the quen('s) (41) grase [did] sett a crowne of master Norrey('s) (47) hed kyng at armes, [and] created hym Clarenshus, with a cup of [wine], at Sant James, her grace('s) place.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1557. 30 Nov 1557. The sam day the Quen('s) (41) grace and my lord cardenell (57) cam from Sant James unto Whytt-halle, and ther they hard masse; and after masse done, and ther wher all the byshopes and the juges and sergantes of the lawe, and ther wer creatyd ser Thomas Tressam (57) lord of sant John's of England, and iiij knyghtes of the Rodes made; and the sam tyme my lord abbot whent a prossessyon in ys myter, and all the monkes and clarkes syngyng Salve festa dies; and rond abowt the abbay, and my lord abbott (42) sange the masse.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1558. 02 Jan 1558. [The iij day of January came tidings to the Queen (41)] that the Frenche kyng (38) was [come to] Nuwnam bryge with a grett host of men [of war], and layd batheryng pessys unto ytt, and unto Rysse-banke by water, and to Cales, [and] led grett batheryng peses to hytt, for ther wher [great shooting].

Surrender of Calais

On 07 Jan 1558 the English surrendered Calais to the French following a one week siege. It had been in English hands since 1347. At 6am Thomas Wentworth (33), Governor of Calais, surrendered Calais to François de Lorraine-Guise, 2nd Duke of Guise (38), after a seven-day siege. Calais was the last English owned territory in France. The loss was a huge blow for Queen Mary I (41) and it is said that upon hearing the news she stated "When I am dead and opened, you shall find ‘Philip’ and ‘Calais’ lying in my heart" although the source for this is unknown.

Edward Grimston 1508-1559 (50) was captured and imprisoned at the Bastille.

1568. Formerly attributed to Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 2nd Baron Wentworth 1525-1584. Around 1555 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II Duke Guise 1519-1563. Around 1555 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II Duke Guise 1519-1563.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 10 Mar 1558. The x day of Marche the Quen('s) (42) grace removyd unto Grenwyche, in lentt, for to kepe ester.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 16 Mar 1558. The xvj day of Marche my lord mare and the althermen wher commondyd unto Yeld-halle, for thay had a commondement by the qwyen (42) that thay shuld lend the quen a (blank) of H.; for ther sat my lord stresorer (75), my lord preve-saylle (52), and the bysshope of Elly (52) as commyssyonars, and my lord chanseler (57), with odur of the conselle.... with ij whyt branchys and xij torchys .... great tapurs, and after a grett dener within the ....

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 19 Mar 1558. The xix day of Marche my lord mayre and the althermen whent unto Yeld-halle, and ther all the craftes in London browth in the bylles what ther compene wold lend unto the quen('s) (42) grace for to helpe her in her fa ... toward the wars.

On 21 Sep 1558 [her father-in-law] Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (58) died at the Monastery of Yuste. Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (31) succeeded II King Spain.

Death of Mary I

On 17 Nov 1558 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (42) died at St James's Palace. [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (25) succeeded I King England. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (31) was deputed with informing Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (31).

Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (58) attended the Queen as physician; the third monarch's death he attended.

After 17 Nov 1558 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 10 Dec 1558. The x day of Desember was browth do[wn from] her chambur in-to her chapel quen Mare (42), [with all the heralds,] and lordes and lades and gentyllmen and gentyllwomen, [hir] offesers and servands, all in blake, with (unfinished)

Funeral of Mary I

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 13 Dec 1558. [The xiij day of December, the corpse of the late Queen (42) was brought from St. James's, in a cha]rett, with the pyctur of emages [images] lyke [her person], adorned with cremesun velvett and her crowne on her hed, her septer on her hand, and mony goodly rynges on her fyngers; up the he-way [went] formett [foremost] [the] standard with the Faucon and [the Hart]; then cam a grett compene of morners; and after anodur godly standard of the Lyon and the Faucon; and then her houshold servandes, ij and ij together, in blake gownes, [the] haroldes rydyng to and fro to se them go in order; and after cam the iij standard with the Whyt Grahond and the Faucon; and then cam gentyllmen in gownes, morners; and then cam rydyng sqwyrs, bayryng of baners of armes; and then cam my lord marques of Wynchester (75) on hors-bake, bayryng the baner of the armes of England in-brodered with gold; and then cam after Chester the harold (60), baryng the helm and the crest and mantyll; then cam master Norroy (48), bayryng the targett with the garter and the crowne; and then cam master Clarenshus (48) bayreng the sword and after cam Garter (48), bayryng her cot-armur, on hors-bake they all; and baners borne abowt her, with knyghts, lords, and baners a-bowt the corse; with iiij harolds bayryng on horss-bake iiij whyt baners of santes wroth with fyne gold, master Samersett, master Lanckostur, master Wyndsor, and master Yorke; and then cam the corse, with her pyctur lyung over her, and the corse covered with cloth of gold, the crosse sylver, and then cam iij (blank) with the cheyff morners; and then lades rydyn, alle in blake, trapyd to the grond; and the charett that the quen was in rode the pages of honor with baners in ther handes; and a-for the corse her chapell, and after all the monkes, and after the bysshopes in order; and so by Charyng-crosse to Westmynster abay; and at the grett dore of the chyrche evere body dyd a-lykt of ther horse; and then was gentyll-men rede [ready] to take the quen owt of her charett, and so erles and lordes whent afor her grace to the herse ward, with her pyctur borne betwyn men of worshype; and at the cherche dore met her iiij byshopes, and the abbott (43), mytered, in copes, and sensyng the body; and so she lay all nyght under the herse, and her grace was wachyd. [And there were an hundred poor men in good black gowns] bayryng longe torchys, with [hoods on their heads, and arms] on them; and a-bowt her the gard bayryng [staff-torches] in blake cottes; and all the way chandlers [having] torchys, to gyffe them that had ther torchys [burnt out].

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Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 14 Dec 1558. The xiiij day of Desember [was] the quen('s) (42) masse; and [all the lords] and lades, knyghtes and gentyll women, dyd offer. [And there was] a man of armes and horse offered; and her cotarmur, and sword, and targett, and baner of armes, and iij [standards]; and all the haroldes abowt her; and ther my lord bysshope of Wynchester (48) mad the sermon; and ther was offered cloth of gold and welvet, holle pesses, and odur thynges. [After the] masse all done, her grace was cared up [to the chapel] the kyng Henry the vij byldyd, with bysshopes [mitred;] and all the offesers whent to the grayffe [grave], and after [they] brake ther stayffes, and cast them in-to the grayffe; in the mayn tyme the pepull pluckt [down] the cloth, evere man a pesse that cold caycth [catch] [it,] rond a-bowt the cherche, and the armes. And after[wards,] my lord bysshope of Yorke (57), after her grace was [buried,] he declaryd an colasyon [collation], and as sone as he had made an end, all the trumpetes bluw a blast, and so the cheyff morners and the lords and knyghtes, and the bysshopes, with [the] abbott (43), whent in-to the abbay to dener, and all the offesers of the quen('s) cott [court].

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 23 Dec 1558. The xxiij day of Desember was the obseque at Westmynster[with the] sam herse that was for quen Mare (42), was for [her father-in-law] Charles the V., Emporowre of Rome (58), was durge, and the morow masse with .. mornars and (blank) was the cheyff morner.

On 01 Jan 1559 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (42) ordered her officers to collect arms and armour from Cawarden's house to counter Wyatt's rebellion.

On 20 Jul 1559 [her husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (32) and Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568 (14) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain.

Around 1563 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568. Around 1599 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Elizabeth Valois Angoulême Queen Consort Spain 1545-1568.

In 1570 [her husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (42) and Anna of Austria Queen Consort Spain 1549-1580 (20) were married. They were uncle and niece. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Anna of Austria Queen Consort Spain 1549-1580. Around 1570 Alonso Sánchez Coello Painter 1531-1588. Portrait of Anna of Austria Queen Consort Spain 1549-1580. Around 1571 Alonso Sánchez Coello Painter 1531-1588. Portrait of Anna of Austria Queen Consort Spain 1549-1580.

Death of Mary I

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 17 Nov 1588. The xvij day of November be-twyn v and vj in the mornyng ded quen Mare (72), the vj yere of here grace('s) rayne, the wyche Jhesu have mercy on her solle! Amen.

On 13 Sep 1598 [her husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (71) died. Philip III King Spain 1578-1621 (20) succeeded III King Spain.

Around 1580 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621. 1606. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621. Around 1617. Andrés López Polanco Painter -1641. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 November 1665. 24 Nov 1665. Up, and after doing some business at the office, I to London, and there, in my way, at my old oyster shop in Gracious Streete, bought two barrels of my fine woman of the shop, who is alive after all the plague, which now is the first observation or inquiry we make at London concerning everybody we knew before it.

So to the 'Change, where very busy with several people, and mightily glad to see the 'Change so full, and hopes of another abatement still the next week. Off the 'Change I went home with Sir G. Smith (50) to dinner, sending for one of my barrels of oysters, which were good, though come from Colchester, where the plague hath been so much. Here a very brave dinner, though no invitation; and, Lord! to see how I am treated, that come from so mean a beginning, is matter of wonder to me. But it is God's great mercy to me, and His blessing upon my taking pains, and being punctual in my dealings.

After dinner Captain Cocke (48) and I about some business, and then with my other barrel of oysters home to Greenwich, sent them by water to Mrs. Penington, while he and I landed, and visited Mr. Evelyn (45), where most excellent discourse with him; among other things he showed me a ledger of a Treasurer of the Navy, his great grandfather, just 100 years old; which I seemed mighty fond of, and he did present me with it, which I take as a great rarity; and he hopes to find me more, older than it. He also shewed us several letters of the old Lord of Leicester's, in [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth's time, under the very hand-writing of [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Mary, Queen of Scotts; and others, very venerable names.

But, Lord! how poorly, methinks, they wrote in those days, and in what plain uncut paper.

Thence, Cocke (48) having sent for his coach, we to Mrs. Penington, and there sat and talked and eat our oysters with great pleasure, and so home to my lodging late and to bed.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 December 1666. 01 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At home to dinner, and then abroad walking to the Old Swan, and in my way I did see a cellar in Tower Streete in a very fresh fire, the late great winds having blown it up1. It seemed to be only of log-wood, that Hath kept the fire all this while in it. Going further, I met my late Lord Mayor Bludworth (46), under whom the City was burned, and went with him by water to White Hall. But, Lord! the silly talk that this fellow had, only how ready he would be to part with all his estate in these difficult times to advance the King's service, and complaining that now, as every body did lately in the fire, every body endeavours to save himself, and let the whole perish: but a very weak man he seems to be. I left him at White Hall, he giving 6d. towards the boat, and I to Westminster Hall, where I was again defeated in my expectation of Burroughs.

However, I was not much sorry for it, but by coach home, in the evening, calling at Faythorne's (50), buying three of my Baroness Castlemayne's (26) heads, printed this day, which indeed is, as to the head, I think, a very fine picture, and like her.

I did this afternoon get Mrs. Michell to let me only have a sight of a pamphlet lately printed, but suppressed and much called after, called "The Catholique's Apology"; lamenting the severity of the Parliament against them, and comparing it with the lenity of other princes to Protestants; giving old and late instances of their loyalty to their princes, whatever is objected against them; and excusing their disquiets in [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth's time, for that it was impossible for them to think her a lawfull Queen, if Queen Mary, who had been owned as such, were so; one being the daughter of the true, and the other of a false wife: and that of the Gunpowder Treason, by saying that it was only the practice of some of us, if not the King (36), to trepan some of their religion into it, it never being defended by the generality of their Church, nor indeed known by them; and ends with a large Catalogue, in red letters, of the Catholiques which have lost their lives in the quarrel of the late King and this. The thing is very well writ indeed.

So home to my letters, and then to my supper and to bed.

Note 1. The fire continued burning in some cellars of the ruins of the city for four months, though it rained in the month of October ten days without ceasing (Rugge's "Diurnal"). B.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 March 1667. 03 Mar 1667. Lord's Day. Lay long, merrily talking with my wife, and then up and to church, where a dull sermon of Mr. Mills touching Original Sin, and then home, and there find little Michell and his wife, whom I love mightily. Mightily contented I was in their company, for I love her much; and so after dinner I left them and by water from the Old Swan to White Hall, where, walking in the galleries, I in the first place met Mr. Pierce, who tells me the story of Tom Woodall, the surgeon, killed in a drunken quarrel, and how the Duke of York (33) hath a mind to get him [Pierce] one of his places in St. Thomas's Hospitall. Then comes Mr. Hayward, the Duke of York's (33) servant, and tells us that the Swede's Embassador hath been here to-day with news that it is believed that the Dutch will yield to have the treaty at London or Dover, neither of which will get our King any credit, we having already consented to have it at The Hague; which, it seems, De Witt opposed, as a thing wherein the King (36) of England must needs have some profound design, which in my conscience he hath not. They do also tell me that newes is this day come to the King (36), that the King of France (28) is come with his army to the frontiers of Flanders, demanding leave to pass through their country towards Poland, but is denied, and thereupon that he is gone into the country. How true this is I dare not believe till I hear more.

From them I walked into the Parke, it being a fine but very cold day; and there took two or three turns the length of the Pell Mell: and there I met Serjeant Bearcroft, who was sent for the Duke of Buckingham (39), to have brought him prisoner to the Tower. He come to towne this day, and brings word that, being overtaken and outrid by the Duchesse of Buckingham (28) within a few miles of the Duke's house of Westhorp, he believes she got thither about a quarter of an hour before him, and so had time to consider; so that, when he come, the doors were kept shut against him. The next day, coming with officers of the neighbour market-town to force open the doors, they were open for him, but the Duke (39) gone; so he took horse presently, and heard upon the road that the Duke of Buckingham (39) was gone before him for London: so that he believes he is this day also come to towne before him; but no newes is yet heard of him. This is all he brings.

Thence to my Chancellor's (58), and there, meeting Sir H. Cholmly (34), he and I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked; among other things, of the treaty: and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (39) his crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a caball with some discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing the desires of the King (36) in all his matters in that House; and endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons' House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords. And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity calculated; which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower about it; which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held treason, and people died for it; but by the Statute of Treasons, in Queen Mary's times and since, it hath been left out. He tells me that this silly Lord hath provoked, by his ill-carriage, the Duke of York (33), my Chancellor (58), and all the great persons; and therefore, most likely, will die. He tells me, too, many practices of treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils; which the King (36) knows very well, and hath yet pardoned him1.

Here I passed away a little time more talking with him and Creed, whom I met there, and so away, Creed walking with me to White Hall, and there I took water and stayed at Michell's to drink. I home, and there to read very good things in Fuller's "Church History", and "Worthies", and so to supper, and after supper had much good discourse with W. Hewer (25), who supped with us, about the ticket office and the knaveries and extortions every day used there, and particularly of the business of Mr. Carcasse, whom I fear I shall find a very rogue. So parted with him, and then to bed.

Note 1. Two of our greatest poets have drawn the character of the Duke of Buckingham (39) in brilliant verse, and both have condemned him to infamy. There is enough in Pepys's reports to corroborate the main features of Dryden's (35) magnificent portrait of Zimri in "Absolom and Achitophel": "In the first rank of these did Zimri stand; A man so various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's epitome; Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong; Was everything by starts, and nothing long, But, in the course of one revolving moon, Was chymist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon; Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking, Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking, * * * * * * * He laughed himself from Court, then sought relief By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief". Pope's facts are not correct, and hence the effect of his picture is impaired. In spite of the duke's constant visits to the Tower, Charles II still continued his friend; but on the death of the King (36), expecting little from James, he retired to his estate at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, to nurse his property and to restore his constitution. He died on April 16th, 1687, at Kirkby Moorside, after a few days' illness, caused by sitting on the damp grass when heated from a fox chase. The scene of his death was the house of a tenant, not "the worst inn's worst room" ("Moral Essays", epist. iii.). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. After 1659. After John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720. Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1693. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1697. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1665 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700.

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Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. The Princess, thanks to God, is doing well. She changed her lodgings last Saturday, and on her journey to her new residence was better attended and provided with money and every necessary than she has been for a long time past. That came very apropos, for she was thus enabled to distribute alms on the road, the King, her father, having sent her one hundred crs. or thereabouts to expend as she pleased. There is a rumour, as Master Cromwell sent me word immediately after the Queen's demise, that the King intends increasing the Princess' household and estate. May it be so, and may God, forbid that tit ere should be a snake in the grass, or any other danger to her. It seems to me as if the King had only been waiting for his mistress' confinement. Had she been delivered of a son, as both were almost sure would be the case, he would, certainly have summoned, the Princess to swear to the statutes. I do not know what he may do now. I have warned the Princess to consider whether, in case of her being much pressed to take the oath and thereby reduced to extremities, it would not be expedient for her to offer, the very moment the King, her father, had a son, to accede to his wishes, and in the meanwhile begin from this day to flatter and, make herself agreeable to the governess. As soon as I get an answer to my message I shall not fail to apprize Your Majesty.