Biography of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1511 Birth and Death of Prince Henry

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1534 First Act of Succession

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1553 Death of Edward VI

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Coronation of Mary I

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1554 Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

1556 Dudley Plot against Mary I

1558 Death of Mary I

1559 Coronation of Elizabeth I

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

1560 Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

1561 Creation of Garter Knights

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

1533 Buggery Act

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

1564 Elizabeth I's visit to Cambridge University

1566 Murder of David Rizzio

1566 Elizabeth I's visit to Oxford University

1567 Murder of Lord Darnley

1568 Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England

1571 Ridolphi Plot

1583 Somerville Plot

1586 Babington Plot

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1591 Elizabeth's Royal Progress

1593 Creation of Garter Knights

1596 Sack of Cadiz

1596 Death of Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon

1599 Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

1600 Wedding of Henry Somerset and Anne Russell

1600 East India Company Chartered

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

1603 Funeral of Elizabeth I

On 28 Jun 1491 [her father] Henry VIII was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (34) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (25) at Palace of Placentia. [her father] He was created as Duke Cornwall.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

In 1494 [her father] Henry VIII (2) was created 1st Duke York 3C 1494.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 [her father] Henry VIII (12) was created Prince of Wales and Earl Chester 8C 1504. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (24) was created as Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson 1450-1510 (54) was knighted.

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [her grandfather] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace. Henry VIII (17) succeeded VIII King England.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 23 Jun 1509 [her father] Henry VIII (17) and Catherine of Aragon (23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars. They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

On 01 Jan 1511 [her half-brother] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 was born to Henry VIII (19) and Catherine of Aragon (25) at Richmond Palace. [her half-brother] He was appointed Duke Cornwall at birth.

On 22 Feb 1511 [her half-brother] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 died. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy (6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset by his father Henry VIII (33) at Bridewell Palace.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (47),

Henry Counrtenay (29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter 1C 1525. Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (32) was created 1st Earl Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (33) was created 1st Earl Rutland 3C 1525. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (30) by marriage Countess Rutland.

Henry Brandon (2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln 7C 1525. Given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (85) sister of the previous Earl of Rutland (82). At the same time his arms Manners were augmented with the Manners Augmented

Robert Radclyffe (42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife.

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Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

[her grandfather] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37), Jean Dinteville, Edward Lee Archbishop of York 1482-1544 (50), John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (57) were present.

Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (13) carried [her mother] Anne's (31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (35) who had been banished from Court. [her mother] Anne (31) and Mary (13) were cousins.

Charles Wriotheley Officer of Arms 1508-1562 (24) attended.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539.

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Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 [her father] Henry VIII (41) and [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (51) witnessed.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 07 Sep 1533 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to [her father] Henry VIII (42) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32).

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia.

Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (30), Walter Blount, Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540 carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk 1477-1545 (56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (24), [her grandfather] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent 1495-1562 (38) and George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (30) supported the train of the mantle.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (60), William Howard 1st Baron Howard 1510-1573 (23) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (68) carried the canopy.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572.

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Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) were married. They were third cousins. He a son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl.

In 1534 [her father] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (42), Queen Anne Boleyn of England (33) and Princess Elizabeth visited Chenies Manor House.

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made [her half-sister] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (18) illegitimate and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (46) to the Emperor (35).

The good [her step-mother] Queen (50) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the [her father] King's (44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the [her step-mother] Queen's (50) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the [her step-mother] Queen (50) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

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No words can describe the joy and delight which this [her father] King (44) and the promoters of his concubinate (35) have felt at the demise of the good [her step-mother] Queen (50), especially the earl of Vulcher (59), and his son (33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (19) had not kept her [her step-mother] mother (50) company. The [her father] King (44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the [her father] King (44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the [her father] King (44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (2), carried her (2) in [her father] his (44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the [her step-mother] Queen's (50) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the [her father] King (44). All charge him with being the cause of the [her step-mother] Queen's (50) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the [her father] King (44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

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Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good [her step-mother] Queen (50), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (52); next to her will go the [her aunt] Duchess (39), her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this [her father] King (44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a queen of England.

The [her father] King (44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540. In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.

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Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).

Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:

Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.

To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1562 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of (probably) Catherine Carey 1524-1569.

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Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 [her father] Henry VIII (44) and [her step-mother] Jane Seymour (27) were married at Whitehall Palace by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (53). He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her step-mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (41) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (27).

1537. Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 wearing a pendant with the letters IHS ie the first three letters of Christ's name in Greek.

On 23 Jul 1536 [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (17) died at St James's Palace. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham.

In 1537 Katherine "Kat" Champernowne 1502-1565 (35) became the governess of the future Elizabeth I (3). Sources state that she accustomed the little girl to the "elaborate code of politeness and respect to her elders". In addition, she taught her charge pursuits such as needlework, embroidery, dancing, and riding. By the age of six, Elizabeth was able to sew a beautiful cambric shirt as a gift for her younger half-brother. Evidently, Katherine had been well educated for she effectively taught the precocious princess mathematics, geography, astronomy, history, French, Italian, Flemish, and Spanish. Elizabeth herself praised Katherine's early devotion to her studies by stating that Kat (as the future Queen calle her governess) took "great labour and pain in bringing of me up in learning and honesty".

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 15 Oct 1537 [her half-brother] the future Edward VI was christened by John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace. Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (64) and Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (21) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540 carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long 1494-1546 (43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (52), Philip Boteler 1492-1545 (45), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (66) and John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (57) attended. Mary Scrope 1476-1548 (61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54) carried the canopy.

[her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker Garter King of Arms -1550 proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (48) attended.

[her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (37) was created 1st Earl Hertford 2C 1537, 1st Viscount Beauchamp.

[her half-brother] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 was created as Duke Cornwall, Earl Chester 9C 1537.

Nicholas Carew (41), Francis Bryan, Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire 1510-1547 (27), Edward Neville 1471-1538 (66), [her step-uncle] Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley 1508-1549 (29), Richard Long 1494-1546 (43) and John Wallop 1490-1551 (47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton -1557 and Bishop John Bell -1556 attended.

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Nicholas Carew of Beddington in Surrey KG 1496-1539.

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Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (48) and [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (24) were married by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (50) at Palace of Placentia. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (24) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (45) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (24).

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Anne of Cleves.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (49) and [her step-mother] Catherine Howard (17) were married at Oatlands Palace. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [her step-mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (45) was appointed Lady in Waiting to [her step-mother] Queen Catherine Howard of England 1523-1542 (17).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 [her father] Henry VIII (52) and Catherine Parr (30) were married at Hampton Court Palace some four months after the death of her previous husband They were third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (30) was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage. He would die four years later after which she would marry again. Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 (27) attended.

In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548. Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 [her father] Henry VIII (55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9), Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (30) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (46), Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (57), Anthony Denny 1501-1549 (45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 (45), Edward Montagu Chief Justice 1485-1557 (61), Edward North 1st Baron North 1496-1564 (50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563 (40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 (63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (61), [her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (46), Cuthbert Tunstall Bishop of Durham 1474-1559 (72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550 (41).

Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570. In 1549 Unknown Painter. Flemish. Portrait of William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1535 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550.

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 [her father] Henry VIII (55) died at Whitehall Palace. Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9) succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King’s last will and testament, for which he received £100.

After 1549 Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Before 1596 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. Portrait of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 with the Knollys Arms with Elephant Crest on her right. Around 1592 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1552. 17 Mar 1552. The xvij day of Marche rod thrugh London unto [St.] James in the feld, the kyng('s) plase [Note. palace], the kynges syster my [lady] Elsabeth (18), with a grett compeny of lordes and knyghtes and gentyll men, and after her a grett nombur of lades and gentyllwomen to the nombur of ij C. on horsse-bake, and yomen.

Death of Edward VI

On 06 Jul 1553 [her half-brother] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (15) died at Palace of Placentia. Lady Jane Grey (17) succeeded I King England.

Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (53) attended the King as physician.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane

On 19 Jul 1553 Lady Jane Grey (17) abdicated I King England. [her half-sister] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) succeeded I King England.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 26 Jul 1553. The xxix day of July was a felow s[et in the pillory] for spykyng agaynst the good [her half-sister] qwen Mare (37).

The sam day cam rydyng thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (19) grace, and thrugh Fletstrett, and so to my [lord of] Somersett('s) place that was, and yt ys my lade grasys [place; attended] with ij Ml. horse, with speres and bowes and gunes, and odur .... and spesyall sir John Wylliam, sir John Brygys, master Chamb[urlain,] all in gren gardyd with whytt welvett saten taffaty ...

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre the duke of Suffoke (36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (19) to Algatt, and so to the [her half-sister] qwens (37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

The sam tyme cam to the Flett the yerle of Ruttland (26) and my lord Russell (68), in hold. The [her half-sister] qwen('s) (37) grace mad [sir Thomas] Jarnyngham [Note. Thomas a mistake for Henry] vyce-chamburlayn and captayne of the garde, and ser Edward Hastyngs (32) her grace mad ym the maister of the horsse the sam tym.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the [her half-sister] Queen (37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my lade Elssabeth (19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.

In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580.

Coronation of Mary I

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1553. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the [her half-sister] Qwuyen('s) (37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of Darbe (44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my lade Elisabeth (20) and my lade Anne of Cleyff (38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.

Around 1555. Attributed Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564 of the English School. Portrait of Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556. In 1563 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572. Around 1574 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. Portrait of Charles Somerset 1587-1665. Armorial top left quarterly 1&4 Beaufort Arms with a yellow band top and bottom 2 Herbert Arms 3 Woodville Arms. The attribution here possibly incorrect since Charles Somerset was born in 1587 ie before the 1574 date when painted. A possible subject is William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 who has the same armoiral in another In 1569. Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589.

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Wyatt's Rebellion

Around 26 Jan 1554 Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising against the marriage of [her half-sister] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) and Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (26) led by Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554 (33) with the intention to replace them with Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (27) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20). George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (57) sided with the rebels. John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos 1492-1557 (61) suppressed the rebellion.

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) was interrogated.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554. 19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip.Thus God performed a miracle. At present there is no other occupation than the cutting off of heads and inflicting exemplary punishments Jane of Suffolk (18), who made herself Queen, and her husband (19), have been executed; Courtenay (27) is in the Tower; and this very day we expect the Lady Elizabeth (20) to arrive here, who they say has lived loosely like her mother and is now with child.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 26 Feb 1554. The same tyme and day be-twyne iiij [and v of the] cloke at nyght my lade Elssabeth('s) (20) grase c[ame riding] to London thrught Smythfeld unto West[minster] with a C. welvett cottes a-for her grace. A[nd her] grace rod in a charett opyn of boyth sydes. [And with] her grace rydyng after her a C. in cotes of [scarlet and] fyne red gardyd with velvett, and so thrught Fletstret unto the cowrt thrught the qu[een's] garden, her grace behyng syke.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 Mar 1554. 18 Mar 1554. The xviii of Marche, beinge Palme Sunday, the Ladie Elizabeth (20) was had to the Tower from Westminster by water privelie, after the [her half-sister] Queene (38) had gone a procession, which was about x of the clock in the forenoone.

The same Palme Sunday the old service after the use of Sarum in Latyn was begone agayne and kept in Paules and other parishes, within the Cittie of London, with allso bearinge of Palmes, and creepinge to the Crosse on Good Fridaye, with the Sepulcher lights and the Resurrection on Easter daye.

Allso the Scriptures written on Rood-lofts and about the churches in London, with the armes of England, was washed out againste the feast of Easter in moste parte of all the parishe churches of the diocesse of London. And Dr. Feknama was made Deane of Paules, and Dr. May putt owt, and the sacrament of the aulter hanged or sett on the aulter in everie parishe churche.

a. John Feckenham.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1554. 18 Mar 1554. The xviij day of Marche was kared to the Towre of London my lade Elsabeth('s) (20) grace, the [her half-sister] quen('s) (38) syster, a-for none.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 19 May 1554. 19 May 1554. The xixth of May, beinge Saterday and the eeven of the feast of the Holie Trinitie, Ladye Elizabeth (20) was had out of the Tower and went thorowe London Bridge in her barge at 3 of the clock in the afternoone, lyeinge at Richmond that night; and from thence conveyed to Woodstock, Mr. Benyfield (45)b, Lorde Williams of Tame, and Sir Leonard Chamberlayne, waytinge on her, with iic horsemen, there to remayne at the Queenes pleasure.

b. Sir Henry Bedingfield (45), the recently appointed Constable of the Tower.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

On 22 May 1554 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) was imprisoned at Woodstock Palace.

On 10 Jun 1554 Walter Hungerford 1527-1596 (27) and Anne Bassett 1520-1558 (34) were married. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) attended.

Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

On 25 Jul 1554 Prince Philip of Spain (27) and [her half-sister] Queen Mary (38) were married by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (71) at Winchester Cathedral. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague 1538-1608 (16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1555. 04 Sep 1555. The iiij day of September the [her half-sister] Quen('s) (39) grace and my lady Elsabeth (21), and all the court, dyd fast from flessh, and toke the Popes jubele and pardon grantyd to alle men.

Dudley Plot against Mary I

In early 1556 Henry Dudley 1517-1568 (39) attempted to replace [her half-sister] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (39) on the throne with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (22) to then marry her to Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (29).

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1556. 28 Nov 1556. The xxviij day of November came rydyng thrugh Smythfeld and Old Balee and thrugh Fletstrett unto Somesset place my good lade Elisabeth('s) (23) grace the quen('s) syster, with a grett compene of velvett cottes and cheynes, her graces gentyllmen, and after a grett compene of her men all in red cottes gardyd with a brod gard of blake velvett, and cuttes; and ther her grace dyd loge at her place; ther her grace tared (blank) days till the iij day of Dessember or her grace dyd remowyffe.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1556. 03 Dec 1556. The iij day of Desember cam rydyng from her plasse my lade Elizabeth('s) (23) grace, from Somersett place downe Fletstreet, and thrugh Old Bayle, and thrugh Smyth-field, with a grett compene; and her servandes alle in red gardyd with velvett; and so her grace toke her way toward Bysshope Atfeld plasse.

In 1558 Nicholas Bacon 1st Baronet 1540-1624 (18) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (24) in Norwich.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1558. 25 Feb 1558. The xxv day of Feybruary cam rydyng to London my lade Elsabeth (24) the [her half-sister] quen('s) (42) syster, with a gret compene of lordes and nobull men and nobull women, to here plasse calyd the Somersettplasse beyond Stron-bryge.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 04 Mar 1558. The iiij day of Marche a' for-non my lade Elsabeth('s) (24) grace toke her horss and red to her plasse at, with mony lordes, knyghtes, and lades, and gentyllwomen, with a goodly compene of horsse.

Death of Mary I

On 17 Nov 1558 [her half-sister] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (42) died at St James's Palace. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (25) succeeded I King England. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (31) was deputed with informing Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (31).

Thomas Wendy Physician 1500-1560 (58) attended the Queen as physician; the third monarch's death he attended.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 28 Nov 1558. [The xxviijth day of November the Queen (25) removed to the Tower from the lord North's] plasse, (which) was the Charter Howsse. [All] the stretes unto the towre of London was newe gravelled. Her grace rod thrugh Barbecan and Crepulgat, by [London-wall] unto Bysshope-gate, and up to Leden-halle and thrugh Gracyus strett and Fanchyrchestrett; and a-for rod gentyllmen and [many] knyghtes and lordes, and after cam all the trumpetes blohyng, and then cam all the haroldes in a-ray; and my lord of Penbroke (57) [bare the] the quen('s) sword; then cam here Grace (25) on horsbake, [apparelled] in purpull welvett with a skarpe [scarf] abowt her neke, and [the serg]anttes of armes abowt here grace; and next after rod [sir] Robart Dudley (26) the master of her horse; and so the gard with halbards. [And] ther was shyche shutyng of gunes as never was hard a-for; so to the towre, with all the nobulles. And so here Grace lay in the towre unto the v day of Dessember, that was sant Necolas evyn. And ther was in serten plasses chylderyn with speches and odur places, syngyng and playing with regalles.

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 wearing his Garter Collar.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 05 Dec 1558. The v day here Grace (25) removyd by water undur the bryge unto Somersett plase, with trumpetes playng, and melody and joye and comfortt to all truw Englys-men and women, and to all pepulle.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1558. 09 Dec 1558. The ix day of Desember was creatyd at Somersett plasse, wher the quen('s) (25) grace lys, master Rychmond Norroy, and Rysbanke creatyd Bluw-mantyll.

In 1559 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (31) entertained Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (25) at Cobham Hall.

Coronation of Elizabeth I

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1559. 12 Jan 1559. The xij day the Qwen('s) (25) grace toke her barge at Whytt-halle toward the Towre, and shott the bryge, and my lord mare (50) and the althermen, and all the craftes, in barges with stremars and baners of ther armes.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1559. 14 Jan 1559. [The xiv day of January the Queen (25) came in a chariot from] the Towre, with all the lordes and ladies [in crimson] velvet, and and ther horses trapyd with the sam, and [trumpeters in] red gownes blohyng, and all the haroldes in ther cottes armur, and all the strettes stroyd with gravell; and at Grasyus strett a goodly pagantt of [her father] kyng [Henry] the viij (67) and quen Ane (58) ys wyff and of ther lenege, and in Cornelle a-nodur goodly pagantt of [her father] kyng Henry (67) and kyng Edward the vjth (21); and be-syd Soper lane in [Cheap a]nodur goodly pagantt, and the condyth pentyd; [and] at the lytylle condutt a-nodur goodly pagant of a qwyke tre and a ded, and the quen had a boke gyffyn her ther; and ther the recorder of London and the chamburlayn (38) delevered unto the quen a purse of gold fulle to the waluw of (blank); and so to the Flett strett to the condyt, and ther was a-nodur goodly pagantt of the ij chyrchys; and at Tempylle bare was ij grett gyanttes, the one name was Goott-magott [Gogmagog] a Albaon and the thodur Co(rineus.)

On 15 Jan 1559 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (25) was crowned I King England by Bishop Owen Oglethorpe 1507-1559 (52) at Westminster Abbey.

Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk 1540-1564 (19) carried the train. Archbishop Nicholas Heath 1501-1578 (58) censed. Edward Dymoke 1508-1566 (51) attended as the Queen's Champion. Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (22), Francis Talbot 5th Earl Shrewsbury 5th Earl Waterford 1500-1560 (59), Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (46), Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter 1542-1623 (16) and William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 (58) attended.

In 1562 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk 1540-1564. The Arms top left not Audley. Neither is the motto partially showing. Before 1623. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter 1542-1623.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1559. 15 Jan 1559. The xv day was the crounasyon of quen Elsabeth (25) at Westmynster abbay, and theyr all the trumpettes, and knyghtes, and lordes, and haroldes of armes in ther cotte armurs; and after all they in ther skarlett, and all the bysshopes in skarlett, and the Quen, and all the fottmen waytyng a-pone the quene, to Westmynster hall; ther mett all the byshoppes, and all the chapell with iij crosses, and in ther copes, the byshoppes mytered, and syngyng Salve festa dyes; and all the strett led with gravell, and bluw cloth unto the abbay, and raylled on evere syd, and so to the abbay to masse, and ther her grasse was crounyd; and evere offeser rede against she shuld go to dener to Westmynster hall, and evere offeser to take ys offes at serves a-pone ther landes; and my lord mare (50) and the althermen.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1559. 23 Feb 1559. The xxiij day dyd pryche afor the quen (25) Gryndalle (40).

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1559. 21 Mar 1559. The xxj of Marche the quen('s) master cokes and odur her offesers, and at Mylle-end ther they dynyd, [with] all maner of mett and drynke; and ther was all maner of artelere, as drumes, flutes, trumpetes, gones, mores pykes, halbardes, to the nomber of v C.; the gonners in shurtes of maylle and .... pykes in bryght harnes, and mony swardes and v grett pesses of gones and shot in ... the wyche dyd myche hurt unto glass wy[ndows;] and cam a grett gyant danssyng, and after [that a] mores dansse dansyng, and gones and mor[es pikes]; and after cam a cart with a grett wyth and ij [bears?] with-in the cartt, and be-syd whent a gret .... of grett mastes; and then cam the master cokes rydyng in cottes in brodere, and chynes of gold, and mony of the quen('s) (25) servandes in ther levery, to the cowrt, and ther they shott ther pesses, and with-in the parke was ij C. chamburs gret and smalle shot, and the Quen('s) (25) grace standyn in the galere; and so evere man whent in-to the parke, showhyng them in batell ray, shutyng and playhyng at bowt the parke; and a-for the quen (25) was on of bayres [one of the bears.] was bated, and after the mores dansers whent in-to the cowrt, dansyng in mony offeses.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. 08 Apr 1559. The viij day of Aprell ther was a proclamasion of pesse [peace] betwyne the Quene('s) (25) grace and Hare the French kyng (40), and Dolphyn the kyng of Skottes (15), for ever, boyth by water and land; and ther was vj trumpeters and v haroldes of armes, master Garter and master Clarenshux, proclamyd yt, and Lankoster, Ruge Crosse, and Bluwmantyll, and my lord mayre (50) and all the althermen in skarlett; and Bluw-mantyll dyd proclaymyd that no players shuld play no more tyll a serten tyme of no mans players; but the mare or shreyff, balle [bailiff], constabull, or odur offesers take them, lay them in presun, and the quen('s) commondement layd on them.

1559. Studio of François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Henry II King France 1519-1559. Around 1560 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560. 1572. After François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. 23 Apr 1559. [The xxiij day of April, being saint George's day, the Queen (25) went about the hall, and all the knights of the] Garter that [went singing in proces]syon, and a-bowt the cowrt; the sam day at after [noon were] knyghtes electyd of the Garter the duke of Norfok (23), the [her step-uncle] marques of Northamtun (47) [Note. Restored since he had been degraded in 1553], the erle of Rutland (32), and my lord Robard Dudley (26), the master of the quen('s) horse.

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. 25 Apr 1559. The xxv day of April, was sant Markes day, the Quen('s) (25) grace supt at Beynard castyll at my lord of Penproke('s) (58) P[lace,] and after supper the Quen('s) grace rowed up and downe Temes, and [a] C [100] bottes [boats] at bowte here grace, with trumpettes and drumes and flutes and gones, and sqwybes horlyng on he [high] to and fro, tyll x at nyght, or her grace depertyd, and all the water-syd st ... with a M [1000] pepull lokyng one here grace.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1559. 01 May 1559. The furst day of May ther was ij [4] pennys [pinnaces] was dekyd with stremars, baners, and flages, and trumpetes and drumes and gones, gahyng a Mayng [going a Maying], and a-ganst the Quen('s) plasse at Westmynster, and ther they shott and thruw eges [eggs] and oregns [against] on a-gaynst a-nodur, and with sqwybes, and by chanse on fell on a bage of gune-powdur and sett dyvers men a'fyre, and so the men drue to on syd of the penus [pinnaces], and yt dyd over-swelmed the pennus [pinnaces], and mony fell in the Temes, butt, thanke be God, ther was but on man drownyd, and a C [100] bottes [boats] abowtt here, and the Quen('s) (25) grace and her lordes and lades lokyng out of wyndows; thys was done by ix [4] of the cloke on May evyn last.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1559. 10 May 1559. The x day of May the parlement was endyd, [and the] Quen('s) (25) grace whent to the parliament howsse.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1559. 25 May 1559. The xxv day they wher browt to the cowrt with musyke to dener, for ther was gret cher; and after dener to b[ear] and bull baytyng, and the Quen('s) (25) grace and the embassadurs stod in the galere lokyng of the pastym tyll vj at nyght; and after they whent by water unto Powll wharff, and landyd, and contenent unto ther logyng to the byshope of London('s) to soper, for ther wher gorgyus aparell as has bene sen in thes days.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1559. 11 Jun 1559. The sam nyght abowtt viij of the cloke at nyght the Quen('s) (25) grace toke her barge at Whyt hall, and mony mo barges, and rod a-longe by the banke-syd by my lord of Wynchaster('s) place, and so to Peper alley, and so crost over to London syd with drumes and trumpetes playhyng ard be-syd, and so to Whyt hall agayne to her palles.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1559. 25 Jun 1559. The xxv day of June the sam May-gam whent unto [the palace?] at Grenwyche, playng a-for the Quen (25) and the consell, and the ... thay whent by land, and cam (back by water?)

The sam day at afternone was bered, at sant Fayth, Dokeray, docthur of the law, with ij grett whyt branchys, ... grett stayff torchys, and iiij grett tapurs, and a dosen and d' [a half] [of scocheons,] and mony morners; and the morow a grett dener.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1559. 01 Jul 1559. The furst day of July all the craftes of London send owt a (blank) men of armes, as well be-sene as ever was when owt of London, boyth waffelers in cott of velvet and cheynes, with gunes, mores-pykes, and halbardes, and flages, and in-to the duke of Suffoke('s) parke in Sowthwarke, and ther they mustered a-for my lord mayre (50); and ther was a howsse for bred and dryng [drink], to gyffe the sawgyars [soldiers] to ett and drynke, and they then after thay lay and mustered in sant Gorges ffeld tyll x of the cloke. [The next morning they removed towards Greenwich to the court there, and thence into Greenwich park, where they tarried] tyll viij of the cloke, and then thay [marched] to the lawne, and ther thay mustered in harnes, [and the gunners] in shurttes of maylle, and at v of the cloke at nyght the Quen (25) [came] in to the galere of the parke gatt, and the inbassadurs and lordes [and ladies, to a] grett nombur, and my lord marques, and my lord admerall (49), and my [lord Robert Dudley (27), and] dyvers mo lordes and knyghtes, and they rod to and fro [to view them, and] to sett the ij batelles in a-ray; and after cam trumpeters bluwing [on] boyth partes, and the drumes and fluttes; and iij ansettes [onsets] in evere bat[elle]; so thay marchyd forward, and so the gunes shott and the morespykes [en]contered to-gether with gratt larum, and after reculyd bake [again]; after the towne army lost ther pykes and ther gunes and bylle .. rely, and contenent they wher sturyd with a-larum; and so evere man toke to ther weypons agayne; by and by the trumpetes and the drumes and gones playd, and shott, and so they whent to-gether as fast as they could. Al thys wyll the Quen('s) grace and the inbasadurs and the lordes and lades be-held the skymychsyng; and after they reculyd bake agayn; and after master chamburlayn and dyvers of the commenars and the wyffelers cam to the Quen, and ther the Quen('s) grace thankyd them hartely, and all the cette [city]; and contenent ther was the grettest showtt that ever was hard, and hurlyng up of capes [caps], that her grace was so mere [merry], for ther was a-buyff above lyk M [1000] pepull besyd the men that mustered; and after ther was runyng at the tyltt, and after evere [man] home to London and odur plasses.

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Diary of Henry Machyn July 1559. 11 Jul 1559. The xj day of July ther was mad a plasse [for the queen's] pensyoners to rune with-owt a tyltt with spayrers [spears]. [There were three] chalengers, my lord of Urmon (27), and ser John Paratt (30), and master [North], and ther wher (blank) deffenders boyth with spares [spears] and sw[ords.] Abowt v [5] of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (25) grace [came,] and the inbassadurs, and dyver lordes and lades stode [over the] gatt for to se; and after thay rane one chassy[ng the other], and after the Quen('s) grace cam down in-to the parke [and] toke her horse, and rod up to the bankett howse, [with] the inbassadurs and the lordes and lades, and so to soper [and] a maske, and after a grett bankett, and after grett castyng [of fire] and shutyng of gunes tyll xij [12] at nyght.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1559. 17 Jul 1559. The xvij day of July the Quen('s) (25) grace removyd from Grenwyche of her prograsse unto Darford in Kent; so the next day removyd unto Cobham, my lord Cobham('s) (31) plasse, and ther her grace had grett chere.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1559. 05 Aug 1559. The v day of August the Quen('s) (25) grace removyd from Eltham unto Non-shyche, my lord of Arundell('s) (47), and ther her grace had as gret cher evere nyght, and bankettes [banquets]; but the sonday at nyght my lord of Arundell('s) howse mad her a grett bankett [banquet] at ys cost, the wyche [her father] kyng Henry the viij (68) byldyd, as ever was sene, for soper, bankett, and maske, with drumes and flutes, and all the mysyke that cold be, tyll mydnyght; and as for chere has nott bene sene nor hard. [On monday] the Quen('s) grace stod at her standyng [in the further park,] and ther was corse [coursing] after; and at nyght the Quen .... and a play of the chylderyn of Powlles and ther master Se[bastian], master Phelypes, and master Haywod, and after a grett bankett as [ever was s[ene, with drumes and flutes, and the goodly banketts [of dishes] costely as ever was sene and gyldyd, tyll iij in mornyng; and ther was skallyng of yonge lordes and knyghtes of the ....

My lord of Arundell gayffe to the Quen('s) grace a cubard of platt.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1559. 10 Aug 1559. The x day of August, the wyche was sant Laurans day, the Quen('s) (25) grace removyd from Non-shyche unto Hamtun cowrte.

The sam day was browth to the Towre Sthrangwys, the rover of the see, and serten odur.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1559. 15 Aug 1559. The xv day of August the Quen('s) (25) grace returned from Hamtun cowrte unto ( ... ) my lord [admiral's] (49) place; and ther her had grett cher, for my lord [admiral] byldyd a goodly banketthowsse [banquet house] for her grace; [it was] gyldyd rychely and pentyd, for he kept a gret [many] of penters [painters] a grett wylle in the contrey.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1559. 12 Oct 1559. The xij day of October whent by water unto the court the kyng of Sweythen('s) (63) sune (25), and ys gard, and ther he was honorabull reseyvyd with mony honorabull men at the hall-dore, wher the gard stod in ther ryche cottes, unto the quen('s) chambur, and ther he was reseyvyd of the Quen('s) (26) grace, and after he had grett chere as cold be had.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1559. 31 Dec 1559. The sam day at nyght at the quen('s) court ther was a play a-for her grace (26), the wyche the plaers plad shuche matter that they wher commondyd to leyff off, and contenent the maske cam in dansyng.

In 1560 Adolph Oldenburg Duke of Holstein-Gotorp 1526-1586 (33) was appointed 343rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (26). It isn't entirely clear why he was awarded the Garter. He was a thirty-four years old, unmarried younger son of the King of Denark (88). He may have been pursuing a marriage to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (26).

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1560. 21 Jan 1560. The xxj day of January by ix of the cloke my lord mare (64) and the althermen whent by water to the cowrt in skarlett, and ther he was mad knyght by the quen (26).

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1560. 01 Mar 1560. The furst day of Marche was a proclamasyon by the quen('s) (26) grace and the consell that no man nor woman, nor they that kepys tabulles, shuld ett no flese in lentt nor odur tyme in the yere that ys commondyd by the chyrche, nor no bucher kyll no flese, but that they should pay a grett fyne, or elles vj ours [2 hours] on the pelere, and in-presoment x [10] days.... and after taken downe and cared .... knyght marshall('s) servandes unto the nuw pet .... Cornhylle and ther a serten tyme.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1560. 15 Mar 1560. [The xv day preached at court] master (blank) the wyche he mad a nottabull sermon that the quen('s) (26) grace gayff hym th[anks] for hys payne, butt sum men wher offendyd.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1560. 11 Apr 1560. The xj day of Aprell the Quen('s) (26) grace kept her monde [Maundy] in her halle at the cowrt at afternon, and her grace gayff unto xx [20] women so many gownes, and on woman had her best gowne, and ther her grace dyd wosse ther fett [wash their feet], and with a nuw whyt cupe her grace dronke unto evere woman, and they had the cupe, and so her grace dyd leyke-wyse unto all, and evere woman had in money (blank). [The same afternoon she gave unto pore men, wo]men, and chylderyn, both holle [whole] and lame, in sant James('s) parke ij d. a-pese, a [thousand people and upwards.]

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1560. 23 Apr 1560. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, the Quen('s) (26) grace and the knyghtes of the Garter whent a prossessyon with all her chapell in copes of cloth of gold, a xxviij copes, and the Quen and all the knyghtes wore ther robes, rownd a-bowt the hall to the cowrt-y[ard,] and all the haroldes of armes in ther cottes of armes.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1560. 24 Apr 1560. The xxiv day of Aprell was bered at sant Magd[alene's] master Hansley a grocer, and he had a dossen of skochyons of armes, and ther was the masturs of the compene of the Grocers, and prestes and clarkes syngyng, and master Juelle (37) the byshope of Saylbere dyd pryche, and he gayff (blank) gownes unto pore men; and ther was at ys berehyng all the masters of (the) hospetalle with ther gren stayffes in ther handes.... the Queen (26) with the lord Russelle (33) whent downe unto Depford .... shype and her nuw galley, and dynyd in the s[hip] and ther my lord admerall (50) mad her grett ch[eer, and] after wher serten brygendar wher red [ready] with [furniture of] ware [war]; and ther wher iiij lytyll pennys de .... hordenanse, and gayff grett sawtt [assault] unto the breg[antine] and shott grett ordenanse and fowth [fought] were ser .... all maner of artelere, and ther youe shuld [have] sene men sthrone [thrown] in-to the water, and horlyng stones and mores pykes; and ther was grett fythe [fight] be-twyne the bryg dendar [and the] pennys, and as grett shutyng as cold be; ther wher a-boyff iiij thowsand of pepull [on the water] and the land.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1560. May 1560. The sam nyght cam the Quen('s) (26) grace came from Westmynster in her barge, and dyvers odur barges, with drumes and fluttes and trumpettes blohyng, and odur musyke, downe on London syd, and over the water to the thodur syd, and so up and downe to the cowrt with (unfinished)

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1560. 14 May 1560. The xiiij day of May the Quen('s) (26) grace removyd from Westmynster by water unto Grenwyche, and as her grace was gohyng by water not so farre as ..., cam by water to her grace master Henry Perse (28) owt of F[rance,] with serten tydynges.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585.

On 20 May 1560 Bishop William Alley 1510-1570 (50) was elected Bishop of Exeter on the recommendation of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (26). Henry Machyn in his diary of 02_Apr_1560 refers to Bishop William Alley 1510-1570 (50) as being 'bishop elect of Exeter'.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1560. 29 Jul 1560. The xxix day of July the Quen('s) (26) grace removyd from Grenwyche on her grace('s) progresse, and at Lambeth she dynyd with my lord of Canturbere (55) and her consell; and after [took her] gorney towhard Rychmond, and her grace lay ther v [5] days; and after to Ottland, and ther So[nday and] Monday dener, and to Suttun to soper.

Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

On 08 Sep 1560, the day of the Abingdon Fair, Amy Robsart 1532-1560 (28) died from falling down stairs at Cumnor Place Abingdon. She was married to Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (28), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (27), who was with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (27) at Windsor Castle at the time. Foul play was suspected but not proven. The event was regarded as suspicious by many. The Queen's reputation being tarnished she could not risk a marriage with Dudley.

The inquest into her death concluded ...

PAINTINGS/LETTERS/Amy_Robart_Inquisition.jpgInquisition as indenture held at Cumnor in the aforesaid county [Oxfordshire] on 9 September in the second year of the reign of the most dread Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God queen of England, France, and Ireland, defend of the faith, etc., before John Pudsey, gent, a coroner of the said lady queen in the aforesaid county, on inspection of the body of Lady Amy Dudley, late wife of Robert Dudley, knight of the most noble order of the garter, there lying dead: by oath of Richard Smith, gent., Humphrey Lewis, gent., Thomas Moulder, gent., Richard Knight, Thomas Spyre, Edward Stevenson, John Stevenson, Richard Hughes, William Cantrell, William Noble, John Buck, John Keene, Henry Lanlgey, Stephen Ruffyn, and John Sire: which certain jurors, sworn to tell the truth at our request, were adjourned from the aforesaid ninth day onwards day by day very often; and finally various several days were given to them by the selfsame coroner to appear both before the justices of the aforesaid lady queen at the assizes assigned to be held in the aforesaid county and before the same coroner in order there to return their verdict truthfully and speedily, until 1 August in the third year of the reign of the said lady queen; on which day the same jurors say under oath that the aforesaid Lady Amy on 8 September in the aforesaid second year of the reign of the said lady queen, being alone in a certain chamber within the home of a certain Anthony Forster, esq., in the aforesaid Cumnor, and intending to descend the aforesaid chamber by way of certain steps (in English called 'steyres') of the aforesaid chamber there and then accidentally fell precipitously down the aforesaid steps to the very bottom of the same steps, through which the same Lady Amy there and then sustained not only two injuries to her head (in English called 'dyntes') – one of which was a quarter of an inch deep and the other two inches deep – but truly also, by reason of the accidental injury or of that fall and of Lady Amy's own body weight falling down the aforesaid stairs, the same Lady Amy there and then broke her own neck, on account of which certain fracture of the neck the same Lady Amy there and then died instantly; and the aforesaid Lady Amy was found there and then without any other mark or wound on her body; and thus the jurors say on their oath that the aforesaid Lady Amy in the manner and form aforesaid by misfortune came to her death and not otherwise, as they are able to agree at present; in testimony of which fact for this inquest both the aforesaid coroner and also the aforesaid jurors have in turn affixed their seals on the day.

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Diary of Henry Machyn December 1560. 10 Dec 1560. The x day of Desember cam tydans to the quen('s) (27) grace and to the consell that the Frenche kyng (16) was ded—the yonge kyng.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1562. 15 Feb 1561. The furst sunday prychyd a-for the quen (27) master Sandys (42), the bysshope of Wossetur.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. 18 Feb 1561. The iij yere of quen Elezabeth (27) the xviij day of [February] was sant Gorge fest; how all the knyghtes of the garter stod that day in order, the furst

On the Quen['s side.]

The Quen('s) grace (27).

The kyng Phelype (33).

The constabulle of France (67).

The yerle of Arundell (48).

Between 1533 and 1536. Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of Anne I Duke of Montmorency 1493-1567.

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Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. 19 Feb 1561. The xix day of Feybruary dyd pryche a-for the quen (27) master Nevell (44), the [dean of Saint Paul's,] and he mad a godly sermon, and gret [audience].

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. 21 Feb 1561. The xxj day of Feybruary dyd pryche a-for the quen (27) and the consell master Skamler (41), the new bishop of Peterborow in ys chymner and ys whyt rochet.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. 26 Feb 1561. The xxvj day of Feybruary dyd pryche at the cowrt master Samsun a-for the quen (27).

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. 28 Feb 1561. The xxviij day of Feybruary dyd pryche at the cowrt master Pylkyngtun (41) electyd pyshope of Durram a-for the quen('s) (27) grace, and made a godly sermon, and grett audyens.... the Marsalsay to be cared into the co[untry ...] men that was cast in Westmynster hall for robere done the last day of terme.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. Mar 1561. The sam day at after-none was a great .... playd a-for the Quen('s) (27) grace with all the masters [of fence;] and serten chalengers dyd chalenge all men, whatsumever they be, with mores pyke, longe sword, and .... and basterd sword, and sword and bokeler, and sword and dager, [and] crosse staffe, and stayffes, and odur wepons; and the next [day] they playd agayne, and the quen('s) grace gayf serten ...

1561 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1561 at a lavish ceremony Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (27) appointed two new Garter Knights ...

344th George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (33).

345th Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (35).

In 1582 Unknown Painter. Portrait of George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1561. 23 Apr 1561. [The xxiij of April, saint George's day, was kept] holy at the quen['s court , . ] her halle in copes to the nombur of XXX, with [O God^ the father of Hewyn, have merce on .. • . and the owtter cowrt to the gatt, and rond abowt st [rewed with rushes ;] and after cam master Garter (51), and master Norres (51), and master dene of the ch[apel, in copes] of cremesun saten, with a crosse of sant Gorge red, and [eleven knights] of the garter in ther robes, and after the Quen('s) (27) grace in [her robes, and] all the garde in ther ryche cottes ; and so bake to the [Chapel,] after serves done, bake thruge the hall to her graces chambur, and that done her grace and the lord(s) wh[ent to dinner,] and her grace wher goodly servyd ; and after the lordes [sitting on one] syd, and servyd in gold and sylver 5 and after dener [there were] knyghtes of the Garter electyd ij, my lord of Shrewsbere (33) [and my] lord of Hunsdon (35) ; and ther wher all the haroldes in ther cote armurs afor the quen('s) grace, master Clarenshux (51), Lanckostur, Rychemond, Wyndsor, Yorke, Chastur, Blumantyl, Ruge-dragon..

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (27) came by water] unto the Towre of London by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (35) had on, and my [her step-uncle] lord marques of [Northampton,] (49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 13 Jun 1561. The sam nyght the Quen('s) (27) grace whent from the Charterhowse by Clarkyne-welle over the feldes unto the Sayvoy unto master secretore Sysselle (40) to soper, and ther was the consell and mony lordes and knyghtes and lades and gentyll-women, and ther was grett chere tyll mydnyght, and after here grace ryd to my lord North('s) (65) to bed at the Charter-howse.

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. After 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His left-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1561. 24 Jun 1561. The xxiiij day of June, was Mydsomer-day, at Grenwyche was grett tryum(ph) of the rever, a-gaynst the cou[rt; there] was a goodly castylle mad a-pone Temes, and men of armes with-in ytt, with gones and spers, for to deffend [the same,] and a-bowt ytt wher serten small pynnes with ... and grett shottyng of gonnes and horlyng of ba[lls of] wyld fyre, and ther was a barke with ij tope [castles ?] for the Quen('s) (27) grace to be in for to se the passe-tyme, the wyche was vere latt or yt was done.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 14 Jul 1561. The xiiij day of July was nuw graveled with sand from the Charterhowse through Smyth feld, and under Nuwgate, and through sant Nycolas shambull, Chepe-syd, and Cornhyll, unto Algatt and to Whyt-chapell, and all thes plases where hangyd with cloth of arres and carpetes and with sylke, and Chepe-syd hangyd with cloth of gold and cloth of sylver and velvett of all colurs and taffatas in all plases, and all the craftes of Londun standyng in ther leverey from sant Myghell unto Algatt, and then cam mony servyng-men rydyng, and then the pensyonars and gentyll men, and then knyghtes, and after lordes, and then the althermen in skarlett, and the serjant(s) of armes, and then the haroldes of armes in ther cottes armurs, and then my lord mare (52) bayryng here septer; [then the lord Hunsdon (35) bearing the sword; and then came the Queen's (27) grace, and her footmen richly habited; and ladies and gentlemen; then] all lordes' men and knyghtes' [men in their masters' liveries; and at] Whytt-chapell my lord mare and the althermen [took their leave of] here grace, and so she toke her way to-ward [her pro]gresse.

On 06 Aug 1561 John Knox Minister 1514-1572 (47) wrote to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (27):

Grace from god the father throught our Lord Jesus with perpetuall Encrease of his holie spiritt.

PAINTINGS/LETTERS/John_Knox_1561.jpgMay it please your majestie that it is heir [here] certainlie spoken that the Quen of Scotland traveleht [travails, or is attempting] earnestlie to have a treatiss intitilled the ferst blast of the trompett [con]futed by the censure of the learned in divers realmes, and father that she lauboreht to inflambe the hartes of princess against the writer And becaus that it may appear that your majestie hath interest, that she myndeht [mindeth] to travall with your grace, your graces counsall, and learned menn for Judgement against such a common enemey to womenn and to thare regiment. It were but foolishnes to me to prescribe unto your majestie what is to be donn in any thing, but especiallie in such thinges as men suppos do tuoch [touch] my self…’

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1561. 09 Aug 1561. The ix day of August the quen('s) (27) grace has commondyd that all chathredalles and coleges and studyans places that they shuld putt ther wyffes from them owt of the serkutt [circuit] of evere [every] colege.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 15 Sep 1561. The sam day the Quen('s) (28) grace removyd from Hatford castyll in Hatford-shyre unto Enfeld within x mylle of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 22 Sep 1561. The xxij day of September the Quen('s) (28) grace cam from Enfeld unto Sant James beyond Charyng crosse, and from Ellyngtun unto Sant James was heges and dyches was cutt done the next way, and ther was a-boyff x M. pepull for to se her grace, butt yt was nyght or her grace cam over beyond Sent Gylles in the feld by Colman('s?) hege.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1561. 10 Oct 1561. The x day of October [the] quen('s) (28) grace dyd gret cost at Westmynster boyth with-in here plase, and pavyng from the end of the Tyltt rond abowt the sydes, and closyd in the tylt.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1561. 23 Oct 1561. The xxviij day of October, the wyche was sant Symon and Jude day, was at Whyt-hall grett baytyng of the bull and bere for the in-bassadurs of Franse that cam owtt of Scottland, the wyche the Quen('s) (28) grace was ther, and her consell and mony nobull men.

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1562 the New Years Gift Giving was held. Those who gave gifts provide an interesting who's who of the Elizabethan Court soon after Elizabeth I's Coronation. Queen Elizabeth (28) was present since a number are described as "With the Qene her Majestie."

For 'dimy' read 'demi' ie half-sovereigns.

Neweeyeur's Gyftes gevon to the Quene her Majestie by those Parsons whose Names hereafter ensue, the first of January, the Yere above wrytten.

By the Lady Margaret Strainge (22), a little round mounte of golde to conteyne a pomaunder in it. With the Qene her Majestie. Note. Lady Margaret Strange married Henry Stanley Lord Strange (30) on 07 Feb 1555. In 1561 he had not succeeded to Earldom of Derby and was known by the courtesy title Lord Strange. She is listed first since she was one of the few remaining direct descendants of [her grandfather] Henry VII, being a great-granddaughter by his daughter Mary Tudor (65). Margaret Clifford (22) was first in line to succeed in 1568 but died in 1596 before Elizabeth I.

Dukes, Marquises and Earls.

By the Duke of Norfolke (25), in a purse of purple silke and golde knit, in sundry coynes of golde £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Winchester (79), High Threasourer of Englande, in a purse of crymsen satten, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the [her step-uncle] Marquis of Northampton (50), in a purse of crymsen silke and gold knit, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Arundell (49), Lord Steward, in a paper, in angels, £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Shrewesburye (34), in a red silke purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Darbye (52), in a purse of crymsen satten, embraudered with golde, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Pembroke (61), in a purse of black silk and silver knit, in new angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Bedforde (35), in a purse of black silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Rutlande (35), in a purse of red silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraigns and angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Huntingdon (48), in a red silk purse, in angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Westmerlande (37), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Oxforde (46), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Northumberlande (34), in a purse of black silke and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d. With the Quene her Highness.

By the Earle of Warwike (32), a smocke wrought with black silk, a peire of slevis, and a partelett wrought with gold, silver, and black silke. Delivered to the Baroness Cobham (23).

By the Viscounte Mountague (33), in a purse of cloth of golde, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Bishops. The list of Bishops ends with "With her said Majestie"; unclear whether this refers to all the Bishops listed.

By the Archbusshop of Caunterbury (57), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £40 0s 0d.

By the Archbusshop of York (61), in soveraigns £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Duresme (42), in a purse of crymson silk and gold knytt, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Ely (69), in a red vellat purse, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Wynchester (52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt and set with pearles, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of London (43), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Salisbury (39), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Worcester (43), in a black vellat purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lyncoln (42), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chychester (64), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Norwich (50), in a blew silk purse £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Hereforde (52), in a green silk purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lychfield and Coventry (48), in a red satten purse, in angells £13 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Rochester (48), in a red purse, in gold £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Saint Davies (55), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Bathe, in a purse of red silk, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Exetour, in a blew silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Peterborowe, in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chester, in a red purse, in angells and soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Duchesses and Countesses.

By the Duchess of Norfolke (22), in a prse of crymsen silk and gold knyt, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Duchess of Somerset (65), in a purse of silver and black silk, in royalls and ducketts £14 0s 0d. Probably the Dowager Duchess of Somerset since her husband [her step-uncle] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (62) had been executed in 1552, and their children disinherited as a result.

By the Countess of Surrey, in a purse of tawny silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Dowager since her husband Henry Howard 1516-1547, by courtesy Earl Surrey, had been executed in 1547.

By the Countess of Pembroke (38), in a cherry bag of crymsen satten, in new angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Bedford (36), in a purse of crymsen silk and silver knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Darby (51), in a purse of crymson sattin embrodred with gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Oxford (36), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury, Dowager (62), in a purse of black silk knytt, in dimy soveraignes £12 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury (37), in a red silk purse knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon, Dowager (51), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon (24), in a red purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Northumberland (24), in a purse of black silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Rutland (29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

Viscountesses.

By the Vicountess Hereford, Dowager (42), six hankercheffes edged with gold delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (23).

By the Vicountess Mountague (24), in a purse of cloth of gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Lordes.

By the Lorde Keeper of the Great Seale, Bacon (51), in a purse of silver knytt, in angells £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Pagett (56), in a greene purse in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Clynton, Lord Admyrall (50), in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Riche (65), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde North (66), in a purse of purple silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Lumley (29), in a paper, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Hastings of Loughboro (41), in a red silk purse, in French crowns £13 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Stafford (60), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Windsor (30), in a purse of crymsn silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By Lorde John Graye (38), a haunce pott of allabaster garnished with silver gilt. Delivered in charge to John Asteley, Esq Master and Threasourer of her Highnes Jewels and Plate. Lord John Grey assumed to be a courtesy title his father being Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (84).

By the Lorde Barkeley (27), in a red purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Mountejoye (29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Abergavennye (36), in a purse of red silke, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Scrowpe (28), in a purse of blak silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Caree of Hundesdon (35), in a purse of crymsen silk, in double ducketts £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Strainge (30), in a purse of red silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Lord Strange being the courtesy title for the Earldom of Derby. He wouldn't inherit until 1572.

By the Lorde Darcey of Chichey (30), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes, £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shefild (24), in a red silk purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shandowes (40), in a blak silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Ladyes.

By the Baroness Howarde (47), in a purse of crymsen silk and knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Clinton (35), a peire of sleevis of gold, pulled out with lawne. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (23).

By the Baroness Genevillet, in gold £6 13s 4d.

By the Lady Barkeley (24), Lord Barkeley's wife, in gold £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Mountejoye (30), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Abergavenny, in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Caree of Hundesdon (33), in a blak purse knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Taylboyes, Sir Peter Carewe's (48) wyfe, in a purse of blak silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Cobham (23), a partelett and a peire of sleeves of sypers wrought with silver and blak silke. Re-delivered to herself.

By the Lady Dakers (21), a warming ball of gold, per oz. 3 oz. dim. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shefilde (20), a paire of sleeves wrought with fringe of blak silk and lozeng of gold. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Margaret Baroness Scrope (18), in a purse of blak silk and silver, in angells £7 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shandowes (38), a peire of sleeves and a partlett of gold and silver knytt, cawle fashion. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Lady Knowlles (38), a feyne carpett of needleworke, theverende frienged and buttoned with gold and silk. Delivered to John Torneworth, Groom of the Privy Chamber.

By the Lady Butler, in a little white purse, in French crowns £6 0s 0d. With her said Majestie. Unclear as to who Lady Butler refers to.

By the Lady Raclyef, a peire of sleeves of cameryk, all over sett with purle, and two sweet bags. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

1563. Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of either Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 or her daughter Margaret Clifford Countess Derby 1540-1596. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593. Around 1590 Isaac Oliver Painter 1565-1617. Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593. In 1559 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant. In 1571 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bishop Richard Cox 1493-1581. In 1577 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bishop Richard Cox 1493-1581. Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper 1510-1579. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. In 1583 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 wearing his Garter Collar. Before 1558 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Peter Carew 1514-1575.

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Diary of Henry Machyn January 1562. 15 Jan 1562. The xv day of January the Quen('s) (28) grace cam to Beynard Castyll to the yerle of Penbroke (61) to dener, and mony of here consell, and tared soper, and at nyght there was grett chere and a grett bankett [banquet], and after a maske, and here grace tared all nyght.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1562. 10 Feb 1562. The x day of February, was Shrowse tuwsday, [was a just] at Westmynster agaynst the qwyne('s) (28) grase plase; the chalengers the duke of Northfoke (25) and the yerle of Westmoreland (37).

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1562. 11 Feb 1562. The xj day of February, was Aswednysday, dyd pryche a-for the quen (28) master Nowelle (45) the dene of [saint Paul's.]

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1562. 13 Feb 1562. The fryday after dyd pryche a-for the quen (28) at the cowrt the dene of Westmynster master Goodman (33).

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1562. 01 Mar 1562. The furst day of Marche, the wyche was the iij sonday (in Lent,) dyd pryche at after-none at the cowrte a-for the quen (28) master Allen (52) the byshope of Exsetur.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1562. 08 Mar 1562. The viij day of Marche dyd pryche a-for the quen('s) (28) grace, the iiij sonday in Lentt, called Mydlent sonday, master Horne (52), the byshope of Wynchaster.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1562. 27 Mar 1562. The xxvij day of Marche dyd pryche at after-non a-for the quen (28), that was Good-fryday, the byshope of London (43).

Diary of Henry Machyn Aprile 1562. 23 Apr 1562. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant Gorge's day, a[nd at Whiteh]alle the Quen('s) (28) grase whent from her chapell with xii. knyghtes of the Garter in robes with colars of gold with garters, [and] xx of here chapelle, in copes of cloth of gold, to the of[fering, s]yngyne the Englys presessyon from the chapell rond [about the] halle and bake agayne to the chapelle syngyng; and master [dean of] her chapell bare a boke and a robe, and master Norres (64) [bare the] blake rod in a robe, and master Garter (52), all iij in cremesun saten; [and] the byshope of Wynchester (52) warre ys robe of red (blank); and ser William Peter, master Clarenshux (52), Somersett, Yorke, Lanckaster, Rychemond, and Chaster, Ruge-dragon, and R[ouge-croix, Port-] colles, Blumantyll, Wyndsor.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1562. After 25 May 1562. [The .. day of May was the funeral of lady Cheyne, late wife of ser Thomas Cheyne (77) councillor to] [her half-brother] kyng Edward the vj (24) and unto quen Mary (46) and queen Elesabett (28) tyll he ded, and she was beried at Toddington with mony mornars; master Garter (52) and master Norrey (64) [were] the haroldes, and (the) dene of Powlles (45) dyd pryc[h the sermon,] for ther was grett chere, and a grett dole [as ever] in that contrey sene—iij mylles from Donstabull.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1562. 05 Jun 1562. The v day of June the Quen('s) (28) grace removyd from Westmynster unto Grenwyche by water, and ther was grett shutyng of gones at the Tower as her grace whentt, and in odur places.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1562. 14 Jun 1562. The xiiij day of June whent unto the quen (28) at Greenwich the sam prophett that men calle hym Helyas Hall; and master (blank) dyd pryche - master Pylkyntun (42), and declared of hym and off ys levyng.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1562. 08 Nov 1562. The viij day of November the Quen('s) (29) grace removyd from Hamtun cowrt toward London, and be-twyn iij and [iiij o'clock] cam by Charyng-crosse, and so rod unto Some[rset plac]e with mony nobull men and women, and with har[olds of a]rmes in ther cotte armurs; and my lord Thomas [Howard bare] the sword a-for the quen to Somersett plase, and the [Queen will abide] ther tyll Criustynmas, and then to Whyt-halle.

1533 Buggery Act

In 1563 the 1533 Buggery Act was re-enacted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1563. 12 Jan 1563. [The xij day of January the Queen's second Parliament began to sit at Westminster, and the] lordes and byshopes rod in ther [parliament robes, and] the Quen('s) (29) grase in cremesun welvett, [and the earl of] Northumburland (35) bare the sword a-for the quen; [all the] haroldes of armes in ther cotte armurs, and all the trumpettes [blowing], and lythe at owre lade of Grace chapell, and they [went in]to the abbay, and ther was a sermon (by Nowell (46), dean of Saint Paul's.)

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

On 24 Apr 1563 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29) created two new Garter Knights:

346th Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland 1528-1572 (35).

347th Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick 1530-1590 (33).

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1563. 14 Jun 1563. The xiiij day of June the Quen('s) (29) grace removyd from Whythall by water toward Grenwyche, and a-bowt Ratclyff and Lymhowse capten Stukely dyd shuwe here grace the pleysur that cold be on the water with shuttyng of gones after lyke warle with plahhyng of drumes and trum[pets.]

In 1564 Henry Sidney KG 1529-1586 (35) was appointed 350th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (30).

In 1573 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Sidney KG 1529-1586 wearing his Garter Collar. In 1573 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of Henry Sidney KG 1529-1586.

In 1564 Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford 1527-1585 (37) was appointed 349th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (30).

On 03 Mar 1564 Elizabeth Howard Countess Carrick 1564-1646 was born to Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (28) and Katherine Carey Countess Nottingham 1550-1603 (14) at Effingham. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (30) was her Godmother.

1576. Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Miniature Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624. Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624. In 1590 Robert

On 14 May 1564 Charles IX King France 1550-1574 (13) was appointed 348th Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (30).

In 1563 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Charles IX King France 1550-1574.

Elizabeth I's visit to Cambridge University

In Aug 1564 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (30) visited Cambridge University accompanied by William Howard 1st Baron Howard 1510-1573 (54) and William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (43). William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (43) was created as Master of Arts: Cambridge University.

John Astley Master of the Jewel House 1507-1595 (57) was created as Master of Arts: Cambridge University.

On 10 Aug 1564 Edward Manners 3rd Earl Rutland 1549-1587 (15) was created as Master of Arts: Cambridge University.

On 09 Aug 1564 Anthony Mildmay -1617, whilst being educated at Peterhouse College, delivered an oration to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (30) with much success during her visit to the college.

Around 1585. Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Miniature Portrait of Anthony Mildmay -1617. Hilliard represents Mildmay standing in a luxurious tent filled with beautiful furniture preparing for a tournament surrounded by objects that allow the artist to feature a variety of rich textures including red velvet, blue ostrich feathers, and gleaming metal. Before 11 Sep 1617. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anthony Mildmay -1617 at Emmanuel College which father Anthony Mildmay -1617 founded. Before 11 Sep 1617. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anthony Mildmay -1617 at Emmanuel College which father Anthony Mildmay -1617 founded.

In 1565 Thomas Heneage 1532-1595 (33) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (31).

In 1566 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (32) visited St Mary and All Saints Fotheringhay.

In 1566 John Lyttelton 1519-1590 (46) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I (32) at Kenilworth Castle.

Murder of David Rizzio

On 09 Mar 1566 at eight o'clock in the evening David Rizzio Courtier 1533-1566 (33) was murdered in the presence of the six months Mary Queen of Scots (23) and her half-sister Jean Stewart Countess Argyll 15333-1588 (33) at Holyrood Palace by rebels led by Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven 1520-1566. Rizzio was dragged through the bed chamber into the adjacent Audience Chamber and stabbed an alleged 57 times. Mary's husband Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (20) was suspected of being one of the murderers.

On 15 Mar 1566 Mary Queen of Scots (23) writes to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (32):

As first hes takin our houss slane our maist [most] speciall servand (33) in our awin [own] presence & thaireftir haldin our propper personis captive tressonneblie, quhairby [whereby] we war constrainit to escaipe straitlie about midnyght out of our palice of halliruidhouss to the place quhair [where] we ar for the present, in the grittest danger feir of our lywis & ewill [ill] estate that evir princes on earth stuid [stood] in.

We thotht to have writtin to you this letter with oure awin [own] hand, that therby ye myght have better onestand all our meaning & takin mair [more] familliarlie therewit. Bot of trewt [truth] we ar so tyrit [tired] & ewill [ill] at eass [ease], quhat [what] throw rydding of twenty millis [miles] in v [5] horis [hours] of the nyght as wit the frequent seikness & weill dispositioun be th’occasioun of our child/that we could not at this tyme as we was willing to have done…

PAINTINGS/LETTERS/Rizzio.jpgYour richt [right] gud sister and cusignes [cousin] Marie R.

Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

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Elizabeth I's visit to Oxford University

Around Aug 1566 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (32) visited Oxford University. William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (45) was created Master of Arts: Oxford University.

On 12 Aug 1566 Edmund Brudenell 1521-1585 (45) received Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (32) at Deene Park.

Before 1585. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edmund Brudenell 1521-1585.

In Sep 1566 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote 1525-1601 (41) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (32) at Rycote.

In 1567 Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor 1527-1576 (39) was appointed 351st Knight of the Garter by his half fifth cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (33).

Around 1544. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor 1527-1576. Around 1566. Nicolas Neufchatel Painter 1527-1590. Portrait of Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor 1527-1576.

Around 1567 Bess of Hardwick Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1527-1608 (40) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (33).

1592. Rowland Lockey Painter 1565-1616. Portrait of Bess of Hardwick Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1527-1608.

Murder of Lord Darnley

On 24 Feb 1567 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (33) wrote to her cousin Mary Queen of Scots (24) regarding the murder of Mary's husband Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (21) as follows:

Madam (24),

PAINTINGS/LETTERS/Murder_of_Lord_Darnley.jpgMy ears have been so astounded and my heart so frightened to hear of the horrible and abominable murder of your husband (21) and my own cousin that I have scarcely spirit to write: yet I cannot conceal that I grieve more for you than him. I should not do the office of a faithful cousin and friend, if I did not urge you to preserve your honour, rather than look through your fingers at revenge on those who have done you that pleasure as most people say. I counsel you so to take this matter to heart, that you may show the world what a noble Princess and loyal woman you are. I write thus vehemently not that I doubt, but for affection. [Translated from the French; extract – lines 1-12]

In 1568 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote 1525-1601 (43) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (34) at Rycote.

Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England

On 16 May 1568 Mary Queen of Scots (25) escaped across the Solway Firth into England. The following day, 17 May 1568 she wrote to her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (34) from Workington Hall. The letter states ...

describes the treasonable actions of her enemies, who ‘have robbed me of everything I had in the world’ and expresses her confidence in Elizabeth ‘not only for the safety of my life, but also to aid and assist me in my just quarrel’. Describing herself as Elizabeth’s ‘very faithful and affectionate good sister, cousin and escaped prisoner, Mary begs for an audience; ‘I entreat you to send to fetch me as soon as you possibly can’, for ‘I am’, she bemoans, ‘in a pitiable condition, not only for a queen, but for a gentlewoman, for I have nothing in the world but what I had on my person when I made my escape, travelling sixty miles across the country the first day, and not having since ever ventured to proceed except by night, as I hope to declare before you if it pleases you to have pity, as I trust you will, upon my extreme misfortune.’'

In 1569 William Sandys 3rd Baron Sandys Vyne 1542-1623 (27) was visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (35) at The Vyne.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1570 William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 (44) was appointed 353rd Knight of the Garter by his third cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1570 Henry Hastings 3rd Earl Huntingdon 1535-1595 (35) was appointed 352nd Knight of the Garter by his third cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1570 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote 1525-1601 (45) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36) at Rycote.

In Jan 1570 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl Cumberland 1517-1570 (53) died. George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Cumberland, 13th Baron Clifford, 13th Lord Skipton. Being underage his wardship went to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36) who gave it to Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford 1527-1585 (43) whose daughter George subsequently married.

Around 1590 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605. Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Unknown Man. Possibly George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605.

Ridolphi Plot

Around Mar 1571 the Ridolphi Plot was a Catholic plan to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (37) and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots (28) would would marry Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (34). Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (37) and Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (34) were cousins through their Great Grandmother Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497.

On 28 Oct 1571 [her step-uncle] William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571 (59) died at Warwick Priory. He was buried in the Chancel of St Mary's Church Warwick. His funeral was paid for by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38).

Before 1572 Katherine Carey Countess Nottingham 1550-1603 was appointed First Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

In 1572 Edmund Brydges 2nd Baron Chandos 1522-1573 (50) was appointed 358th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).

The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity. Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.

Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress. The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.

PAINTINGS/HILLIARD/Queen_Elizabeth_I.jpgResearch in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Francis Montmorency 1530-1579 (41) was appointed 354th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38).

In 1572 Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey Wilton 1536-1593 (36) was appointed 357th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38).

In 1572 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote 1525-1601 (47) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38) at Rycote.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).

PAINTINGS/HILLIARD/Phoenix.jpgResearch in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) became portrait painter to Elizabeth I (38).

In 1572 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (51) was appointed 356th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38).

On 17 Jun 1572 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576 (30) was appointed 355th Knight of the Garter by his half second cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (38).

Around 1575 based on a work of 1572.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576.

In 1574 Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1538-1601 (35) was appointed 360th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (40).

In 1574 Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (42) was appointed 359th Knight of the Garter by his half first cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (40).

In 1575 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (41) stayed at the White Hart Inn.

In 1575 Richard Knightley 1533-1615 (42) entertained Queen Elizabeth I (41) at Fawsley Hall. The Queen stayed in the Jane Skenard Room at Fawsley Hall.

In 1567 attrbuted to Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Richard Knightley 1533-1615.

In 1575 Henry III King France 1551-1589 (23) was appointed 361st Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (41).

In 1575 Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (39) was appointed 362nd Knight of the Garter by his half first cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (41).

In 1576 Elizabeth Howard Countess Carrick 1564-1646 (11) was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (49) which position she held until 1583.

In 1577 George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (18) and Margaret Russell Countess Cumberland 1560-1616 (16) were married, she being the daughter of Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford 1527-1585 (50) who had been given George's wardship by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (43). They were third cousins. She by marriage Countess Cumberland.

In 1583 Mid-Seventeeth Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Margaret Russell Countess Cumberland 1560-1616.

In 1577 Mary Grey 1545-1578 (32) was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (43).

In 1577 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (30) was provided with a stipend of 200 livres by Francis Valois Angoulême Duke Anjou 1555-1584 (21), a suitor of Elizabeth I (43).

Around 1555 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis Valois Angoulême Duke Anjou 1555-1584.

In 1578 Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor 1552-1612 (25) was appointed 363rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (44).

Around 1567 Alonso Sánchez Coello Painter 1531-1588. Portrait of Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor 1552-1612.

In 1578 Frederick II King Denmark 1534-1588 (43) was appointed 364th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (44)..

On 21 Sep 1578 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (46) and Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 (34) were married secretly much to the anguish of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (45) who developed a deep hatred of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 (34). She by marriage Countess of Leicester. Roger North 2nd Baron North 1530-1600 (48) was present.

In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596 (39). The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (45).

In 1579 John Casimir Palatinate Simmern 1543-1592 (35) was appointed 365th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (45).

In 1580 Thomas St Paul -1582 was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (46) at Richmond.

Around 1580 Elizabeth Trentham Maid of Honour Countess Oxford -1612 was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (46).

In 1580 Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (20) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth (46).

Before 1619 Robert Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Anne Vavasour 1560-1650.

In 1581 George Gower Painter 1540-1596 (41) was appointed Serjeant Painter to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (47).

On 23 Mar 1581 Edward Vere 1581- was born illegitimately to Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) and Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (21). Both parents were imprisoned in Tower of London the by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (47) as a consequence. Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) was released several months later but banished from court until 1583.

Around 1650 based on a work of 1575.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604.

On 22 May 1582 Edward Hoby 1560-1617 (22) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (48).

On 16 Dec 1582 Robert Bertie 1582 1642 was born to Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1555-1601 (27) and Mary Vere Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1624. His Godmother was Queen Elizabeth I (49).

Before 27 Jun 1641 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Bertie 1582 1642. Around 1597 Robert

1583 Somerville Plot

In Dec 1583 John Somerville 1560-1583 (23) committed suicide by hanging himself in his cell in which he was imprisoned for plotting the assassination of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50).

On 20 Dec 1583 Edward Arden 1533-1583 (50) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield for having plotted against Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50) with his son-in-law John Somerville 1560-1583 (23) who had implicated him during torture. He was tried by Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592 (59).

In 1582 Seventtenth Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592.

In 1584 Edward Manners 3rd Earl Rutland 1549-1587 (34) was appointed 366th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50).

In 1584 Richard Drake 1535-1603 (49) was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50).

In 1584 Henry Scrope 9th Baron Scrope Bolton 1534-1592 (50) was appointed 368th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50).

On 23 Sep 1584 Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester 1563-1626 (20) and Barbara Gamage Countess Leicester 1563-1621 (21) were married. She her father's heir to his considerable fortune. He, the father, had died some twenty-five days before. The marriage took place apparently against the wishes of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (51).

Around 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester 1563-1626.

Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663 (31). Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (51).

After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (51).

On 14 Apr 1585 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (57) was appointed 367th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (51).

In Jul 1585 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (59) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (51).

In 1586 Thomas Heneage 1532-1595 (54) sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (52) at Low Countries.

Babington Plot

On 06 Jul 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24) wrote to Mary Queen of Scots (43), telling her that he and a group of friends were planning to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (52).

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 01 Feb 1587 Queen Elizabeth I (53) signed the Death Warrant of Mary Queen of Scot's (44) (her first cousin once-removed). Elizabeth gave orders of Mary's jailor Amyas Paulett 1457-1538 to complete the task. He refused.

Around 1577 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Amyas Paulett 1457-1538.

Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy.

A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the great hall at Fotheringhay, with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution..

THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.

First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Hall, at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.

Then she turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do.".

Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted.".

"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion.".

Then the Earl of Kent (46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-removed], and descended from the blood of [her grandfather] Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (43)], and the anointed Queen of Scotland.".

Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.

After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall, with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.

Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.

Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), perceiving her (44) so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion.".

Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She confessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins.".

Her (44) prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.".

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr. Dean (42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.".

Then one of the executioners pulling off her (44) garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

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Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 4 1587 1603. 28 Feb 1587. Paris. Bernardino De Mendoza Ambassador 1540-1604 (47) to the King (59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.

The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to confess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the queen of Scotland (44). It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (54), Lord Hunsdon (60), Lord Admiral Howard (51) and Walsingham (55), had represented to the Queen (53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the queen of Scotland (44). Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland (44) conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (53) for her signature by Davison (46), and after she had signed it she ordered him (46) not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison (46), who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the queen of Scotland (44), like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the queen of Scotland (44) was. The moment the justice received it, on the 08th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the queen of Scotland's (44) chamber with Paulet (54) and Lord Grey (46), who had charge of her (44), and there they had her (44) head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most advisable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. See Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

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In 1588 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (22) was appointed 369th Knight of the Garter by his first cousin twice removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (54).

In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601.

Around 1588 Christopher Hatton Lord Chancellor 1540-1591 (48) was appointed 371st Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (54).

In 1589 17th Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Christopher Hatton Lord Chancellor 1540-1591.

In 1588 Thomas "Black Tom" Butler 10th Earl Ormonde 3rd Earl Ossory 1532-1614 (56) was appointed 370th Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (54).

After 09 Sep 1588 Thomas "The Navigator" Cavendish 1560-1592 paraded his treasure laden ship up the River Thames on his return from his two years and fort nine days trip around the world. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland who was invited to dine aboard.

In Nov 1588 Mary Dudley 1530-1586 (58) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (55).

In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Dudley 1530-1586.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 17 Nov 1588. The sam day, at after-non, all the chyrches in London dyd ryng, and at nyght dyd make bonefyres and set tabulls in the strett, and ded ett and drynke and mad mere [merry] for the newe quen Elsabeth (55), [her half-sister] quen Mare('s) (72) syster.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 17 Nov 1588. [The same] day, be-twyne a xj and xij a' fornoon, the lady Elizabeth was proclamyd quen Elsabeth (55), quen of England, France and Yrland, and deffender of the feyth, by dyvers haroldes of armes and trumpetors, and dukes, lordes [and knights,] the wyche was ther present, the duke of Norfoke (52), [the] lord tresorer, the yerle of Shrousbere (88), and the yerele of Bedford (61), and the lord mayre (79) and the althermen, and dyver odur lordes and knyghtes.'

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 23 Nov 1588. The xxiij day of November the quen Elsabeth('s) (55) grace toke here gorney from Hadley be-yond Barnett toward London, unto my lord North('s) plase, with a M. and mor of lordes, knyghtes, and gentyllmen, lades and gentyllwomen; and ther lay v days.... cote armur and pennon of armes and .... with ij whytt branchys and xij torchys and iiij gret tapurs.

In 1589 Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (53) was appointed 373rd Knight of the Garter by his second cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (55).

Before 1591. Hieronimo Custodis Painter -1593. Portrait of Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608.

Around 1589 Margaret Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall 1573-1599 (16) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (55). Elizabeth (55) had become enamoured of her when she and her twin brother Alexander Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall 1573-1599 (16) were arrived at Court. The arrival of the two young Person so wondrously alike in their striking physical beauty created something of a mild sensation. She soon became chief among Elizabeth's ladies.

In 1589 Henry Radclyffe 4th Earl of Sussex 1532-1593 (57) was appointed 372nd Knight of the Garter by his half first cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (55).

In 1590 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (23) was appointed 375th Knight of the Garter by his first cousin twice removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (56).

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1590 Henry IV King France 1553-1610 (36) was appointed 374th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (56).

Around 1610. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Henry IV King France 1553-1610.

In 1591 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (37) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (25) were married in secret she probably being pregnant with their first child. When Queen Eizabeth (57) found out they had married without permission she placed them underhouse arrest then sent them to Tower of London.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1595 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647.

1591 Elizabeth's Royal Progress

On 02 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) left at Nonsuch Palace to commence her Royal Progress. She travelled south to Mansion House Leatherhead; the home of Edmund Tilney 1536-1610 (55).

After 02 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland arrived at East Horsley where she stayed with Thomas Cornwallis 1518-1604.

On 15 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) arrived at Cowdray House the home of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (62) and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague 1538-1608 (53). She was welcomed by a breakfast for some 300 guests. George Browne 1555-1615 (36) was knighted. Henry Browne organised the hunting. Elizabeth stayed until the 21 Aug 1591.

On 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) arrived in Chichester as a guest of John Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1533-1609 (58).

After 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland arrived in Titchfield as a guest of Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl of Southampton 1545-1581.

On 22 Oct 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58) arrived in Elvetham Hall Harley Wintney where she was entertained in magnificent style by Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (52).

On 26 Oct 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58) arrived in Oatlands Palace.

Before 1592 Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet 1545-1622 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

In 1592 Gilbert Talbot 7th Earl Shrewsbury 7th Earl Waterford 1552-1616 (39) was appointed 376th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

In 1592 George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (33) was appointed 377th Knight of the Garter by his half third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636 (30). The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

In 1592 Giles Brydges 3rd Baron Chandos 1548-1594 (44) entertained Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

1589. Hieronimo Custodis Painter -1593. Portrait of Giles Brydges 3rd Baron Chandos 1548-1594.

In Sep 1592 Henry Lee of Ditchley Champion 1533-1611 (59) and Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (32) were visisted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58) at their home in Ditchley Park.

Around 1562 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Henry Lee of Ditchley Champion 1533-1611. Around 1583 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Henry Lee of Ditchley Champion 1533-1611. Around 1567 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Lee of Ditchley Champion 1533-1611.

In Sep 1592 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote 1525-1601 (67) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58) at Rycote.

In 1593 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (45) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (59).

In 1593 Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (43) was appointed 379th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (59).

In 1621 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628.

1593 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1593 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (59) created three new Garter Knights ...

380th Thomas Burgh 9th Baron Cobham Sternborough 7th Baron Strabolgi 3rd Baron Burgh 1558-1597 (35).

381st Edmund Sheffield 1st Earl Mulgrave 1565-1646 (27).

382nd Francis Knollys 1512-1596 (81).

On 26 Jun 1593 Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl of Northumberland 1564-1632 (29) was appointed 378th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (59).

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry

Around 1595 Mary Fitton 1578-1647 (16) was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (61). Her father Edward Fitton 1548-1606 (47) recommended her to the care of the married William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 (51) who developed a crush on her to the amusement of the court. In Jan 1599 she left court.

Around 1595. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Fitton 1578-1647. 1592. Unknown Painter. Portrait of sisters Anne Fitton 1574-1587 aged eighteen and Mary Fitton 1578-1647 aged fifteen. In 1619 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

Sack of Cadiz

On 13 Jun 1596 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30) departed from Plymouth with a fleet of 150 English and Dutch ships divided into four squads with 6,360 private soldiers, 1,000 English volunteers, and 6,772 sailors.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (60) was admiral in command. Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30) commanded the land forces. Edward Conway 1st Viscount Conway 1564-1631 (32) commanded a foot Regiment.

Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (34), Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (42),Francis Vere 1561-1609 (35) each commanded a squadron.

Anthony Ashley 1st Baronet St Giles Wimborne St Giles 1561-1628 (35) represented Queen Elizabeth (62).

Toby Caulfeild 1st Baron Caulfeild 1565-1627 (30) was present.

In 1598 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626.

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Death of Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon

On 23 Jul 1596 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (70) died at Somerset House. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (62) was present. She, apparently, proposed he be made Earl Wiltshire. He refused saying ... "Madam, as you did not count me worthy of this honour in life, then I shall account myself not worthy of it in death". George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon 1547-1603 (49) succeeded 2nd Baron Hunsdon 1C 1559. Elizabeth Spencer Baroness Hunsdon Baroness Eure 1552-1618 (44) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon.

In 1597 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (35) was appointed 384th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63).

In 1597 Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (34) was appointed 386th Knight of the Garter by his half second cousin twice removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63).

In 1597 Frederick Württemberg I Duke Württemberg 1557-1608 (39) was appointed 383rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63).

In 1597 Henry Lee of Ditchley Champion 1533-1611 (63) was appointed 387th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63).

On 23 Apr 1597 George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon 1547-1603 (50) was appointed 385th Knight of the Garter by his first cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63).

Around 03 Jul 1597 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote 1525-1601 (72) received a letter from Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63) offering condolences on the death of his son John.

On 02 Sep 1597 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (63) granted licence to the executors of Sir Rowland Hayward (77) to sell King's Place in the Hackney in north London to Elizabeth Trentham, her brother Francis Trentham of Rocester 1564-1614 (33), her uncle Ralph Sneyd (70), and her cousin, Giles Yonge (43). The acquisition of King's Place by Elizabeth Trentham and her relatives placed it 'beyond the reach of Oxford's creditors'.

In 1599 Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (34) was appointed 389th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (65).

In 1599 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (52) secured an annual allowance from Elizabeth I (65) of £40.

In 1599 Thomas Scrope 10th Baron Scrope Bolton 1567-1609 (32) was appointed 390th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (65).

In 1599 Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (25) was appointed 388th Knight of the Garter by his half second cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (65).

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1599 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (65) created Garter Knights:

340th Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (63).

341st Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 (72).

342nd Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (66).

[her step-uncle] William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571 (87) was restored 312th. He had been degraded in 1553.

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On 05 Aug 1599 Alexander Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall 1573-1599 (26) died of wounds and fever in Ulster while campaigning with the Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) during the unsuccessful attempt to bring Ireland under English control. The Queen (65) herself informed his twin sister of her brother's death.

In Sep 1599 when the Queen (65) moved her Court to Nonsuch Palace. Margaret Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall 1573-1599 (26) returned to her childhood home of Ordsall Hall where her condition continued to deteriorate.

Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

On 28 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) presented himself to Elizabeth (66) in her bedchamber at Nonsuch Palace where he found the queen newly up, the hair about her face. Elizabeth had just a simple robe over her nightdress, her wrinkled skin was free of cosmetics and, without her wig. Essex saw her bald head with just wisps of thinning grey hair 'hanging about her ears'. The Queen confined the Earl to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender.".

On 10 Nov 1599 Margaret Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall 1573-1599 (26) died at Richmond Palace. She had never recovered from the news of her twin brother Alexander's (26) death earlier in the year. Margaret was buried in St Margaret's Church with all the ceremonies of a great lady's obsequies. Elizabeth I (66) ordered the Court into mourning. A magnificent monument was erected over her grave at the Queen's expense, and Ben Jonson wrote the inscription for it:

Marble weep, for thou dost cover.

A dead beauty underneath thee,.

Rich as nature could bequeath thee:

Grant, then, no rude hand remove her.

All the gazers on the skies.

Read not in fair heaven's story.

Expresser truth or truer glory,.

Than they might in her bright eyes.

.

Rare as wonder was her wit;.

And like nectar ever flowing:

Till time, strong by her bestowing,.

Conquered have both life and it.

Life whose grief was out of fashion.

In these times. Few have so rued.

Fate in a brother. To conclude,.

For wit, feature, and true passion.

Earth, thou hast not such another.

The Monument is no longer extant.

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In 1600 Samuel Backhouse 1554-1626 (45) was Sheriff of Berkshire during which time he was visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (66).

Letters from Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew Section 8 XVII. 05 Feb 1600. Court. To George Carew 1st Earl Totnes 1555-1629 (44).

We have no news but that there is a misfortune befallen Mistris Fitton (21) for she is proved with child, and the E. of Pembroke (19) being examyned confesseth a ffact, but utterly renounceth all marriage. I fear they will both dwell in the Tower awhyle, for the Queen (66) have vowed to send them thether.

When you thing fit you may send over 1076 [Desmond] but retain his patent with yourself. You shall not need to send to know her Ma'ties further pleasure. In many wayes lett not Cashell come over. The more excpectation which 1076 leaveth behynd him o returne the better construction wilbe made of his departure.

Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (36)

Before 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630. Around 1602 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612.

Wedding of Henry Somerset and Anne Russell

On 16 Jun 1600 Henry Somerset 1st Marquess Worcester 1577-1646 (23) and Anne Russell 2nd Marchioness Worcester 1578-1639 (22) were married.

Mary Fitton 1578-1647 (21) led a Masque in celebration at the Blackfriars residence of Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (35) with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (66) and William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630 (20) attending. She, Mary soon afterwards became the mistress of William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630 (20) and soon became pregnant.

On 30 Oct 1600 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (34) was refused the renewal of his lucrative monopoly on Sweet Wine by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (67) effectively bankrupting him.

East India Company Chartered

On 31 Dec 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (67) granted a Royal Charter to the Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies aka the East India Company led by George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (42) by which they received a monopoloy on trade with the East Indies. Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (42) was appointed first Governor of the East India Company.

In 1601 Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter 1542-1623 (58) was appointed 392nd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (67).

In 1601 William Stanley 6th Earl Derby 1561-1642 (40) was appointed 391st Knight of the Garter by his half second cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (67).

East India Company Chartered

After 08 Feb 1601 Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 was sentenced to death during the Essex Rebellion. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland on the advice of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 commuted the punishment to life imprisonment.

Around 1603 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624. The Latin inscription 'In vinculis invictus' ( In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624.

Before 1603 Michael Stanhope 1549-1621 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (69) died at Richmond Palace around three in the morning.

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of Mary Queen of Scots (60) who was the daughter of [her aunt] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.

Funeral of Elizabeth I

On 28 Apr 1603 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (69) was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton 1549-1635 (54) was Chief Mourner in the procession since Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (28) refused to take part. She was supported by Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter 1542-1623 (60) and Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (67).

George Bourchier 1535-1605 (68) carried the Standard of the Dragon.

Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (18) carried the Standard of the Greyhound.

Thomas Somerset -1648 carried the Standard of the Lyon.

William Segar Painter 1554-1663 (49) carried the Sword of State as Norrey King of Arms.

PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Funeral_of_Elizabeth_I.jpgAdmiral_Richard_Leveson_1570_1605 was one of the six knights who carried the canopy.

In 1605 Robert Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650. In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 wearing his Leg Garter and Garter Collar. Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650. Around 1615 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 wearing his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

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Before 22 Sep 1604 Dorothy Stafford 1526-1604 was appointed Mistress of the Robes to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

On 04 Mar 1605 Maximilian Colt Sculptor 1575-1641 (30) signed an agreement with the lord treasurer, Sir Robert Cecil (41), to carve a monument above the grave of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (71) in the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey for 600l. The work was completed at the end of 1606.

In 1617 Elizabeth I (83) gave Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (70) £400 for having made a second Great Seal.

On 18 Apr 1621 Bridget Chaworth 1542-1621 (79) died. Monument in St Andrew's Church Ufford. Marble with Corinthian Columns and reclining effigy. Corinthian Columns. Jacobean Hooded Monument.

The inscription reads "Dame Bridget, Lady Carr, widow, daughter of Sir John Chaworth of Wiverton, Nottingham, late wife to Sir William Carr of Old Sleaford in the county of Lincoln, who served the late Queen Elizabeth (87) of most famous memory, being one of the gentlewomen of her Majesty's Privy Chamber for the space of five and twenty years, and afterwards served the most renowned Queen Anne (46), wife to our most gracious sovereign, King James, for the space of 14 years, being the residue of her life, and died the 18th day of April being of the age of 79 years, the which said Lady Carr, out of her love to her dear sister Katherine, the wife of George Quarles of this town of Ufford, esquire, hath caused her body to be here interred 1612". The date a mistake given she died in 1621.

Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Anne of Denmark. 1595. Circle of Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of Anne of Denmark.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 August 1652. 01 Aug 1652. Came old Jerome Lennier, of Greenwich, a man skilled in painting and music, and another rare musician, called Mell. I went to see his collection of pictures, especially those of Julio Romano, which surely had been the King's (22), and an Egyptian figure, etc. There were also excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, and Tintoretto. Lennier had been a domestic of Queen Elizabeth, and showed me her head, an intaglio in a rare sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me was exceedingly like her.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 October 1663. 11 Oct 1663. Lord's Day. And was mightily pleased to see my house clean and in good condition, but something coming into my wife's head, and mine, to be done more about bringing the green bed into our chamber, which is handsomer than the red one, though not of the colour of our hangings, my wife forebore to make herself clean to-day, but continued in a sluttish condition till to-morrow. I after the old passe, all the day within doors,.... The effect of my electuary last night, and the greatest of my pain I find to come by my straining.... For all this I eat with a very good stomach, and as much as I use to do, and so I did this noon, and staid at home discoursing and doing things in my chamber, altering chairs in my chamber, and set them above in the red room, they being Turkey work, and so put their green covers upon those that were above, not so handsome. At night fell to reading in the Church History of Fuller's, and particularly Cranmer's letter1 to Queen Elizabeth, which pleases me mightily for his zeal, obedience, and boldness in a cause of religion. After supper to bed as I use to be, in pain....

Note 1. TT. It isn't clear what letter Pepys is referring to here since there is not a letter from Cranmer to Queen Elizabeth?

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 November 1665. 24 Nov 1665. Up, and after doing some business at the office, I to London, and there, in my way, at my old oyster shop in Gracious Streete, bought two barrels of my fine woman of the shop, who is alive after all the plague, which now is the first observation or inquiry we make at London concerning everybody we knew before it.

So to the 'Change, where very busy with several people, and mightily glad to see the 'Change so full, and hopes of another abatement still the next week. Off the 'Change I went home with Sir G. Smith (50) to dinner, sending for one of my barrels of oysters, which were good, though come from Colchester, where the plague hath been so much. Here a very brave dinner, though no invitation; and, Lord! to see how I am treated, that come from so mean a beginning, is matter of wonder to me. But it is God's great mercy to me, and His blessing upon my taking pains, and being punctual in my dealings.

After dinner Captain Cocke (48) and I about some business, and then with my other barrel of oysters home to Greenwich, sent them by water to Mrs. Penington, while he and I landed, and visited Mr. Evelyn (45), where most excellent discourse with him; among other things he showed me a ledger of a Treasurer of the Navy, his great grandfather, just 100 years old; which I seemed mighty fond of, and he did present me with it, which I take as a great rarity; and he hopes to find me more, older than it. He also shewed us several letters of the old Lord of Leicester's, in Queen Elizabeth's time, under the very hand-writing of Queen Elizabeth, and [her half-sister] Queen Mary, Queen of Scotts; and others, very venerable names.

But, Lord! how poorly, methinks, they wrote in those days, and in what plain uncut paper.

Thence, Cocke (48) having sent for his coach, we to Mrs. Penington, and there sat and talked and eat our oysters with great pleasure, and so home to my lodging late and to bed.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 December 1666. 01 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At home to dinner, and then abroad walking to the Old Swan, and in my way I did see a cellar in Tower Streete in a very fresh fire, the late great winds having blown it up1. It seemed to be only of log-wood, that Hath kept the fire all this while in it. Going further, I met my late Lord Mayor Bludworth (46), under whom the City was burned, and went with him by water to White Hall. But, Lord! the silly talk that this fellow had, only how ready he would be to part with all his estate in these difficult times to advance the King's service, and complaining that now, as every body did lately in the fire, every body endeavours to save himself, and let the whole perish: but a very weak man he seems to be. I left him at White Hall, he giving 6d. towards the boat, and I to Westminster Hall, where I was again defeated in my expectation of Burroughs.

However, I was not much sorry for it, but by coach home, in the evening, calling at Faythorne's (50), buying three of my Baroness Castlemayne's (26) heads, printed this day, which indeed is, as to the head, I think, a very fine picture, and like her.

I did this afternoon get Mrs. Michell to let me only have a sight of a pamphlet lately printed, but suppressed and much called after, called "The Catholique's Apology"; lamenting the severity of the Parliament against them, and comparing it with the lenity of other princes to Protestants; giving old and late instances of their loyalty to their princes, whatever is objected against them; and excusing their disquiets in Queen Elizabeth's time, for that it was impossible for them to think her a lawfull Queen, if [her half-sister] Queen Mary, who had been owned as such, were so; one being the daughter of the true, and the other of a false wife: and that of the Gunpowder Treason, by saying that it was only the practice of some of us, if not the King (36), to trepan some of their religion into it, it never being defended by the generality of their Church, nor indeed known by them; and ends with a large Catalogue, in red letters, of the Catholiques which have lost their lives in the quarrel of the late King and this. The thing is very well writ indeed.

So home to my letters, and then to my supper and to bed.

Note 1. The fire continued burning in some cellars of the ruins of the city for four months, though it rained in the month of October ten days without ceasing (Rugge's "Diurnal"). B.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 February 1667. 27 Feb 1667. Up by candle-light, about six o'clock, it being bitter cold weather again, after all our warm weather, and by water down to Woolwich Rope-yard, I being this day at a leisure, the King (36) and Duke of York (33) being gone down to Sheerenesse this morning to lay out the design for a fortification there to the river Medway; and so we do not attend the Duke of York (33) as we should otherwise have done, and there to the Dock Yard to enquire of the state of things, and went into Mr. Pett's (56); and there, beyond expectation, he did present me with a Japan cane, with a silver head, and his wife sent me by him a ring, with a Woolwich stone1 now much in request; which I accepted, the values not being great, and knowing that I had done them courtesies, which he did own in very high terms; and then, at my asking, did give me an old draught of an ancient-built ship, given him by his father, of the Beare, in Queen Elizabeth's time. This did much please me, it being a thing I much desired to have, to shew the difference in the build of ships now and heretofore.

Being much taken with this kindness, I away to Blackwall and Deptford, to satisfy myself there about the King's business, and then walked to Redriffe, and so home about noon; there find Mr. Hunt, newly come out of the country, who tells me the country is much impoverished by the greatness of taxes: the farmers do break every day almost, and £1000 a-year become not worth £500. He dined with us, and we had good discourse of the general ill state of things, and, by the way, he told me some ridiculous pieces of thrift of Sir G. Downing's (42), who is his countryman, in inviting some poor people, at Christmas last, to charm the country people's mouths; but did give them nothing but beef, porridge, pudding, and pork, and nothing said all dinner, but only his mother would say, "It's good broth, son". He would answer, "Yes, it is good broth". Then, says his lady, Confirm all, and say, "Yes, very good broth". By and by she would begin and say, "Good pork:"—"Yes", says the mother, "good pork". Then he cries, "Yes, very good pork". And so they said of all things; to which nobody made any answer, they going there not out of love or esteem of them, but to eat his victuals, knowing him to be a niggardly fellow; and with this he is jeered now all over the country.

This day just before dinner comes Captain Story, of Cambridge, to me to the office, about a bill for prest money2, for men sent out of the country and the countries about him to the fleete the last year; but, Lord! to see the natures of men; how this man, hearing of my name, did ask me of my country, and told me of my cozen Roger (49), that he was not so wise a man as his father (84); for that he do not agree in Parliament with his fellow burgesses and knights of the shire, whereas I know very well the reason; for he is not so high a flyer as Mr. Chichley (52) and others, but loves the King (36) better than any of them, and to better purpose. But yet, he says that he is a very honest gentleman, and thence runs into a hundred stories of his own services to the King (36), and how he at this day brings in the taxes before anybody here thinks they are collected: discourse very absurd to entertain a stranger with. He being gone, and I glad of it, I home then to dinner.

After dinner with my wife by coach abroad, and set Mr. Hunt down at the Temple and her at her brother's (27), and I to White Hall to meet Sir W. Coventry (39), but found him not, but met Mr. Cooling, who tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham's (39) being sent for last night, by a Serjeant at Armes, to the Tower, for treasonable practices, and that the King (36) is infinitely angry with him, and declared him no longer one of his Council. I know not the reason of it, or occasion.

To Westminster Hall, and there paid what I owed for books, and so by coach, took up my wife to the Exchange, and there bought things for Mrs. Pierce's little daughter, my Valentine, and so to their house, where we find Knipp, who also challengeth me for her Valentine. She looks well, sang well, and very merry we were for half an hour. Tells me Harris (33) is well again, having been very ill, and so we home, and I to the office; then, at night, to Sir W. Pen's (45), and sat with my Lady, and the young couple (Sir William out of town) talking merrily; but they make a very sorry couple, methinks, though rich. So late home and to bed.

Note 1. Woolwich stones, still collected in that locality, are simply waterworn pebbles of flint, which, when broken with a hammer, exhibit on the smooth surface some resemblance to the human face; and their possessors are thus enabled to trace likenesses of friends, or eminent public characters. The late Mr. Tennant, the geologist, of the Strand, had a collection of such stones. In the British Museum is a nodule of globular or Egyptian jasper, which, in its fracture, bears a striking resemblance to the well-known portrait of Chaucer. It is engraved in Rymsdyk's "Museum Britannicum", tab. xxviii. A flint, showing Mr. Pitt's face, used once to be exhibited at the meetings of the Pitt Club. B.

Note 2. Money paid to men who enlist into the public service; press money. So called because those who receive it are to be prest or ready when called on ("Encyclopaedic Dictionary ").

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

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Before 16 Jun 1685 Elizabeth Sands 1533-1585 was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 20 May 15544. The xx day of May my lade Elsabeth the [her half-sister] quen('s) syster cam owt of the Towre, and toke her barge at Towre warfe, and so to Rychemond, and from thens unto Wyndsor, and so to Wodstoke.

Frances Radclyffe -1602 was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Ambrose Willoughby was appointed Esquire to the Body to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Henry Knollys 1542-1582 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3: Parishes: Chenies. He entertained Queen Elizabeth at Chenies on 19 July 157050 and she thought of returning there in August 157651.

50. Nichols, Queen Elizabeth's Progresses, i, 274.

51. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vii, App. 629; Pepys MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), 179.

Catherine Carey 1524-1569 was appointed Chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.