Derbyshire Archaeological Journal Volume 30 1908 Page 155

Derbyshire Archaeological Journal Volume 30 1908 Page 155 is in Derbyshire Archaeological Journal Volume 30 1908.

Notes of some Derbyshire Antiquities from Samuel Mitchell's Memoranda by John Ward F.S.A.

In the MSS. Department of the British Museum are nine volumes of abstracts of charters, pedigrees, tracts, cuttings, and particulars of antiquities relating mostly to the Hundreds of High Peak and Scarsdale, Derbyshire, made and bequeathed to the Museum by Samuel Mitchell, of Sheffield (Add. MSS., 28,108-28,116). The volume which attracted my attention several years ago is the fifth of the series (28,112). It may be described as an archeological commonplace-book, into which he copied extracts from published papers, letters from antiquaries, and his own observations and investigations. These, for the most part, relate to Derbyshire, but some few to his more immediate neighbourhood in Yorkshire, while others show that he wandered further afield - to Anglesey, for instance. The handwriting is clear and neat, and the occasional sketches, some coloured, are as a rule carefully executed. The dates given show that most of the contents were written when he was a young man in his twenties, at which period he evidently had a strong predilection for prehistoric and Romano-British archeology.

The earlier portion of the volume is devoted to transcripts of papers in Archaeologia relating to Derbyshire, by Dr. Samuel Pegge, F.S.A., and Major Hayman Rooke; then follow the miscellaneous matters indicated above, as extracts from letters received from Mr. Wiiliam Bateman, of Middleton-by-Youlgreave, and the Rev. J. Waatson, M.A., of Stockport; sketches; copies of MSS. of John Mander, of Bakewell; and lastly, but most important, accounts of the openings of barrows, mostly in Derbyshire - the subject of this paper.

15 Sep 1868. The following biographical sketch is taken from The Sheffield and Rotherham lndependent of September 15th, 1868:

The death of Samuel Mitchell (deceased), Esq., which took place at an early hour yesterday morning, will be learned with regret by a wide circle of friends. Mr. Mitchell was born on the 13th February, 1803, and was the son of Mr. Samuel Mitchell, of Sheffield and Whiteley Wood, merchant, by Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. William Brightmore and grandson of Thomas Bolsover, the inventor of the useful art of silver plating. When quite a young man he evinced a decided taste for antiquarian pursuits, and subsequently became one of our best known students of the Past.

On the 10th October, 1828, he [Samuel Mitchell] read before the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society a very interesting paper on 'The history of the Burgery of Sheffield, commonly called the Town Trust,' which was afterwards published in the Independent.

In 1831, he [Samuel Mitchell] was spoken of by the late Rev' Joseph Hunter in his History of the Deanery of Doncaster as 'a young and zealous antiquary,' a tribute to which he, was justly entitled, for he had then discovered an important fact in connection with the history of Sheffield which had entirely escaped Mr. Hunter's notice when preparing his History of Hallamshire. Mr. Mitchell, in turning over the records in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, found in the 40th vol. of Dodsworth's collection evidence of the fact that Sheffield had been destroyed by fire during the civil wars in the reign of Henry III. So extensive was the destruction that Thomas de Furnival, then Lord of the Manor, claimed £3,000 as damages for burning his house and taking away his goods, and for years afterwards the inhabitants of the town were in the habit of dating events by the year of the great burning. About this period, Mr. Mitchell was actively engaged with his friend, the late Thomas Bateman, Esq. of Lomberdale Honse, Youlgreave, in exploring the barrows of North Derbyshire. The result of their joint labours was published by Mr. Bateman, in a very readable volume, and the well-known Museum of Lomberdale was greatly enriched by the trophies of their skill and perseverance. The friendship then formed between these two men of kindred tastes continued intimate and unbroken until Mr. Bateman's death a few years ago. Mr. Mitchell contributed various valuable articles to antiquarian publications, and formed a large and important collection of original documents and other things relating to family and local history in this neighbourhood. It was his intention, an intention unfortunately never fulfilled, to publish a history and topography of the, Hundreds of High Peak and Scarsdale in the county of Derby. The collections he made for this purpose form no inconsiderable portion of his literary remains, and if they fall into the right hands may still be made available for those who are glad to know something of the past history of places among which their present lot is cast.

1856. In politics, Mr. Mitchell (age 52) was a Liberal. For many years he took an active part as an Improvement Commissioner and a guardian of Ecclesall Union, and was one of the most regular attendants at the meetings of the Literary and Philosophical Society, a body over which he was president in 1856. On the formation of the Sheffield Architectural and Archaeological Society, at the beginning of this year, Mr. Mitchell, though in failing health, came forward to assist, and was appointed one of the vice-presidents. He married, in 1829, Eliza, youngest dauqhter of Thos. Riddell, Esq., of Hull, who survives him."

Among the many papers that he [Samuel Mitchell] read before the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, the following related wholly or in part to Derbyshire: "On the Druidical Remains at Arbor Low" (November 5th, 1824); "On Druidism " (June 3rd, 1825); "On the Peak of Derbyshire at the time of the Conquest " (December 4th, 1829); "On the History of the Manor of Ashford-in-the-Water " (March 7th, 1834); " A Sketch of the History and Castle of High Peak" (December 1st, 1848); and probably another, "On Ancient Modes of Sepulture " (November 5th, 1847), related to our county.

Most of the barrows described in the volume are in the vicinity of Youlgreave, and were opened in the early summers of 1824-5. It is evident that Mr. Mitchell had made the acquaintance of Mr. William Bateman, of Middleton-by-Youlgreave, a gentleman of antiquarian tastes, wiro had already gathered to his home the miscellaneous antiquities which, under his son, Thomas Bateman, F.S.A., formed the nucleus of the famous collection at Lomberdale Hoiuse, a large portion of which is now one of the chief features of the Sheffield Museum. There is evidence that this acquaintanceship was already of at least several years standing; but whether it was the outcome of their kindred tastes, or was the cause which directed young Mitchell's thoughts in the direction of archaeology, is uncertain. Mr. Bateman was his senior by sixteen years, so perhaps it was the latter.

These barrow investigations are, with one exception, described on pages 30-34 of Vestiges of tlte Antiquities of Derbyshire, written by Thomas Bateman, and published in 1848. A comparison of these descriptions with those of the manuscript volume we are considering, is tolerably conclusive that the former were compiled from the latter, the chief alterations being in the terminology of the "finds," which the advance of archmological knowledge had rendered desirable. In Vestiges, however, these investigations are attributed to William Bateman, Mitchell's name not being mentioned. It is true that in the preface the author expresses his obligations "to Samuel Mitchell, Esq., of Sheffield, for the account of his barrow digging-excursions in the North of Derbyshire"; but this obviously refers to some diggings made by the latter in the neighbourhood of Hathersage a few years subsequent to 1824, wlrich are given on page 27. The exception referred to above was the opening of a small barrow at One Ash, which was more successfully excavated by Thomas Bateman in 1844, and in the account of this on page 54, mention is made of Mr. Mitchell's earlier examination. It is difficult to understand why Mr. Mitchell should have been ignored, as his memoranda clearly prove his own presence, and inferentially, in one case at least, Mr. William Bateman's absence, this being the excavation of a large barrow at Haddon Fields, which was jointly made by himself and Dr. Ewer Colie. The frequent use of the pronoun "we" in the memoranda may be reasonably taken to indicate the presence of his host. For some reason or other, Mr. Mitchell's memoranda, so far as the barrows in the Youlgreave district are concerned, cease with 1825. In Vestiges, two subsequent barrow-openings are attributed to Mr. William Bateman, the one on the Garratt Piece in 1826, and ther other at Cross Flatts in 1827. Whether Mr. Mitchell was associated with these operations is uncertain. Mr. Bateman died in 1835, and nothing further is attributed to him in this respect. In the Dictionary of National Biography he is said to have "followed in the footsteps of Pegge and Major Rooke," and to have "made excavations into several of the barrows of the Peak District, and communicated some of the resuits to Archaeologia." No such communications, however, appeared in that publication, nor, so far as I am aware, anywhere else. However much he may have been interested in these researches, we know him rather as a collector of the dilettante order; whereas everything goes to show that Mr. Mitchell was an archaeologist in the full and true sense of the word.

Mr. Mitchell's memoranda of these investigations are well worth a place in this Journal, for they amplify the statements of Vestiges in many little particulars and some of the other memoranda which will be given are of gleat interest, especially those which relate to Arbor Low. They are not given in the strict order of the volume, and my comments will take the form of footnotes.

[Fol 38.] Strawberry Lee, &c

"July 1824, by permission of B. B. Steade Esqr of Beauchief Hall (agent to Peter Pegge Burnell Esqr) I opened a remarkably ccnspicuous and well shaped tumulus at Strawberry Lee1, near Totley, in Derbyshire, which was supposed to have been a barrow. We dug through the side to the centre withoout discovering the least sign of its being a funeral mound.

"The same day, I opened several of a great number of small tumuli near the Carle's Wark [Map], close to the Burbage Brook, and near the road from Fox house to Hathersage, without finding any thing of interest. These were certainly not barrows2."

S. Mitchell (age 21) June 1824.

Note 1. 11½ miles west of Totley. No barrow is here marked on the Ordnance Survey

Note 2 A good day's work, truly! Even with a large gang of labourers it would be impossible to satisfactorily prove whether all these mounds, including that at Strawberry Lee which is about 4 miles away, were or were not burial-places, in so short a time; but a similar haste was characteristic of much of Thomas Bateman's work, the result being that nearly all the barrows which he opened, and which have since been further examined, have yielded internents which escaped his spade.

[Fol.4r.] "Memorandum. Opening of Haddon barrow [Map], June 1st 18241.

"With the permission and kind assistance of Dr. Ewer Colie Esqr, I opened the barrow situate on the hill above the Eastern bank of the river Lathkill in Haddon pasture, in the County of Derby which, having been disturbed some years before with the view of procuring stone to build the adjoining fences, had been found to contain human bones, &c. The men who were employed on that occasion, broke into a vault or coffin walled round with loose stone, containing two human bodies, together with a rude urn of unbaked clay, and about 30 Roman coins (one Gallienus) now deposited in Haddon Hall, on finding which they were ordered to desist from their search.

"On the 2nd attempt to open it, I ordered a trench to be cut from the N.W. boundary to the centre, as well as an excavation to be made in the place where the vault was originally broken into. We discovered the vault marked out by stones rudely piled together on each side, and at the ends, which pointed about S.W. and N.E., the head of the skeleton2 lying at the N.E. end of it. Among the rubbish we discovered many human bones, fragments of bones, some pieces of calcined bones, with several Roman coins. The teeth of a dog, and a number of heads and bones of rats and other small animals were discovered here and in other parts of the mound. In the section from N.W. the mound was found full of stones, which seemed to extend through the whole barrow. Among these stones, which were intermixed with earth, we discovered, about 3 yds. from the centre of the tumulus, a quantity of scattered Roman coins, to the number of 703, with some pieces of lead ore, and a portion of glass, which seemed to have formed part of an urn of the same material. The decayed remains of an oaken board4, of about ¾in. thick, were found near the centre of the mount. We couid not discover any other vault than the one described, in the whole tumulus. From the fragrnents found in this excdvation, as well as the former, there must have been at least 4 earthen urns deposited in the barrow5. The coins found were Urbs Roma, one; Constantius, 9; Constantinus, 9; Constantinopolis, 2; Constans, 17; Valentinianus, 5; Valens, 12; Gratianus, 3; and the remainder iliegible. The mound was about 6o ft. in diameter and elevated 4 feet from the level of the ground. I have no doubt of its being constructed in the reign of the emperor Gratian, who was assassinated in the year 3836."

Note 1. Vestiges, p. 30, but the date given as May 31st, 1824, and without any mention of Mr. Mitchell or Dr. Colie.

Note 2. Vestiges, "the bodies were laid with their heads towards the north-east."

Note 3. Ibid. "eighty-two (quere 71)."

Note 4. Ibid. "traces of decayed wood" in the vault.

Note 5. These are said to have been in the vault, Vestiges.

Note 6. The mound, of course, was much more ancient, and the coins part of a hoard hidden in it at the time of Gratian or later. Derbyshire has supplied many instances of Neolithic and Bronze age barrows, which received at later periods deposits, sepulchral or otherwise.

[Fol. 42.] May 31st 1824. Opening of One Ash [Map] barrow.1

"I re-opened a low [Cales Dale Barrow [Map]] on Mr. Beaumont's farm at One Ash, in the County of Derby, in which we found some further remains of an urn, and the bones and teeth of a skeleton lying with its head towards the S.E. On a previous examination of this barrow in 1818 we found some remains of the urn, and calcined bones, together with a great quantity of the bones of rats, and a few human bones. Having been disturbed by labourers procuring stone, the urn was, no doubt, broken to pieces by them. The barrow was about 6 yds. in diameter, and elevated not more than 3 ft. irom the surface. From the appearance of the urn, which is ornamented in a style rather superior to what are usually found, Mr. Lemon supposes it (the barrow) to have been the burial place of a Briton of distinction."

Note 1. This barrow was opened by Mr.Thomas Bateman on July 31st, 1844, when he found the remains of several interments. At the time, he was not aware that it had been previousiy opened by Mr. Mitchell, but refers to this in his text. Vestiges, p. 54.

[Fol. 42] June 1st, 1824. Arborlow.2.

"Opened the tumulus at Arborlow [Arbor Low Henge Barrow [Map]] by driving a level thro, the N.W. side next to the ditch. We found the whole mass as described by Mr Mander of Bakewell (the companion of Major Rooke on its first examination 29th, June 1782) composed of common vachill or loose stones and earth, intermixed occasionally with lumps of clay. A few heads and jaw bones of rats were scattered among the stones, with a human tooth, some fragments of bone probably human, and some small remains of charcoal. We penetrated 2 or 3 ft. below the depth to which Major Rooke had previously excavated it, when we came to a sandy soil with a stratum of clay beneath it, same as that of the natural soil around the tumulus. We cleared away the whole centre of the mound without making any discovery, or meeting with any circumstance, which would induce us to suppose it had been a place of sepulture. I feel certain, that whatever (from the circumstance of our finding a few bones, and a human tooth) might have been its destination in later times, its original design was not as a place of burial, but was some necessary appendage to the temple."

Briefly referred to, Vestiges, p. 31, and again on p. 64, where Mr. Mitchell is stated to have been associated with Mr. W. Bateman. The second of these pages gives an account of the successful opening of this barrow by Mr. T. Bateman on May 23rd, 1845 when a cist containing burnt human bones and two small vases were found.

[Fol. 43.] June 1st and 2nd 18241.

The large barrow [Gib Hill Barrow [Map]] situate 4 or 500 yds. from Arborlow, in a field called Gib hill [Map], belonging to Mr. Thos. Bateman of Middleton by Youlgreave, was opened by Mr W. Bateman (age 37), and myself, by driving a level through the S.E. side to the centre. The first covering which was about 2 yard in depth consisted of loose stones and earth, (but not so stoney as the Arborlow) under which a thin layer of tuft stone. Beneath this was a stratum similar to the first of about 1½ yards in thickness with a second thin bed of tuft stone. To this succeeded a stiff reddish brown clay, completely saturated with what we supposed to be animal matter, and having evident marks of fire. This clay was laid on the natural soil, about 1½ yds. in thickness, and 3 or 4 yards in diameter, and was throughout its whole circumference full of burnt bones and charcoal, disposed apparently in layers. A stratum of tuft stone which we supposed had been changed into a yellow ochry substance by the action of the fire, was placed under this; beneath which we penetrated to the solid rock 5 or 6 yds. in perpendicular height from the summit of the mount. We carefully examined the clayey stratum but could find no traces of an urn having ever been deposited; we found in the clay a small arrow head of flint, and a stone of somewhat peculiar shape, much broken, which might have been made use of as a hatchet2, some pieces of burnt bones (whether human or not cannot be ascertained) and a (very) few bones of rats were found3.

The mount has, no doubt, been raised over the funeral pile of some family, in which the bodies were entirely consumed, perhaps before the introduction of urn burial. The tumulus has evidently been connected with the adjoining temple by a small rampire of earth which runs Southward from the vallum of the Arborlow, round this barrow to the Westward; but may not be coeval with the original foundation of the temple. The remains found are in the possession of Mr. W. Bateman of Middleton.

One of the men employed in this excavation stated positively that he and a John Broomhead, had, under the direction of Mr. B. Thornhill, of Stanton, dug down into the centre of this barrow many years before, when they found the bones of a human hand, and several Coins, some of which were silver, and that on their arrival at some large stones, they desisted. The coins were taken away by Mr. Thornhill. The stones appear to have been considerably above the stratum of burnt bones, &c. mentioned. On Mr. Bateman's application to Mr. Thornhill on the subject, he denied having any recollection of opening the barrow at all.

Samuel Mitchell (age 21) Junior.

Note 1. Vestiges, pp. 31-2, and briefly in Ten Years' Diggings, pp. 17-20, in both of which the above exploration is attributed to Mr. W. Bateman only. These pages in Ten Years' Diggings record the opening of this great-barrow by Mr T. Bateman, January 10th-17th, 1848, when a huge cist containing burnt human bones and a vase were found near the summit.

Note 2. "A battered celt of basaltic stone"- Ten Years' Diggings, p. 20. In addition to the "finds" enumerated above, a small iron fibula was found in the upper part of the mound.

Note 3. Mr. Mitchell's account of the opening of this barrow is valuable, as his description of the construction is more detailed antl explicit than that of Vestiges, p. 31. The exploration of 1848 proved that the upper portion of the mound had been raised over four small ones of clay, placed square-wise. The present writer has recently suggested that these may simply represent the mode of constructing a square mound like that near the south-west side of the great circle at Dove Holes [Map], and that the upper material of stones and earth represents a subsequent enlarging of the barrow when the cist was introduced (Reliquary, 1908). Derbyshire has supplied other examples of barrows which have been raised or otherwise enlarged upon the occasion of later burials.

The preceding memoranda communicated to D. Ewer Colie Esq. Jun. 7th 1824."

[Fol. 45.] July 1824.

Saw Mr White Watson at Bakewell. He had submitted a portion of the reddish brown clay found in Gib Hill barrow [Map], which I had brought away with me, to Sir Francis Darwin and Dr Booth, who both agreed that the appearances of decayed matter throughout the mass were not sufficiently decisive to warrant the conclusion that they were the effects of decayed animal matter.

Mr Watson thought that the stone somewhat shaped like a hatchet found in Gib Hill Barrow [Map], much broken, was, on comparison with such a like in his possession, the remnant of a Celt of porphyry.

Extract of letter. Fol. 24.

An opportunity was lately given by the Reverend Mr Thornhill to make further inquiry as to the opening of Gib-Hill, by him and he says, that if it ever was cut into by a Thornhill, it must have been by his late brother, Coll Henry T[hornhill]. This will, I fancy, make it very clear that it was not the gentleman described by the labourers. He could not tell where any coins were, that might have been found; but as they had them not at Stanton, they might probably be in the possession of Mrs Henry T[hornhill]. the widow, who resides near Derby.

Aug 10. 1824.

Extract of letter from Mr. William Bateman.

Of the curious circumstance of the former opening by Reverend Mr Thornhill, you heard both sides, I have reconsidered it, and find myself placed in a curious situation, between a desire to give every light in my power to our researches, and a disinclination to wound the feelings of so good a neighbour and friend as Mr T[hornhill] by even attempting to refresh his memory, I have come to this conclusion, that if Mr T[hornhill] did open it, he must have entirely forgot it, and that what was then found denote it to have been a Roman interment upon an aboriginal (or, at least much earlier) barrow. Pray give me your opinion upon this'.... As to the opening of the barrow Fidler of Biggin mentioned to you by Mr Bowman, I have inquired, and he informs me that he saw his uncle open two barrows in Hartington township, but never either saw, or heard of, Gib-Hill opened1.

Note 1. It is evident, from Ten Years' Diggings, p. 20, that Mr. Thomas Bateman considered that an attempt hed been made to open Gib-Hill about the year 1812, and that the fibula may have been associated with a late interment near the sumnit, which was destroyecl on that occasion.

Account of the opening of some sepulchral tumuli in the neighbourhood of Arbow-low Co. Derby - read before the Literary and Philosophical Society of Sheffield, June 3rd 18251.

May 18th 1825. On opening a tumulus on the hill called Kenslow2, we met with a few remnants of the skull and other bones of a human skeleton deposited in a cist cut out of the solid rock, accompanied by a spear-head of Iron, and another small instrument of iron whose use we could not ascertain. The metal of which these were composed, was very much corroded. In the socket of the spear head the remains of wood were still visible; from the oxidation of the iron, it had become petrified, and as hard as the metal itself.

On the same ridge3 of hill, and not far distant, a very fine barrow was opened in 1825, an account of which I havealready presented to the Society in my essay on Arborlow.

A second barrow opened on this same day and situate close to the Roman Road which crosses this part of the country from Buxton to Little Chester, presented nothing on being opened but a mass of burnt bones, ashes, and charcoal, without either urn or interments of any description4.

Note 1. The portion of the paper "On Druidism", p. 157, relating to Derbyshire.

Note 2. Vestiges, p. 33

Note 3. lbid., p. 28.

Note 4. lbid., p. 33. Subsequently re-excavated by Mr. T. Bateman, 1844.

May 20th, 1825. With somewhat better success we opened a tumulus not far from the village of Middleton, and on the low ground near the river Bradford1. The country people knew it by the name of Larks low [Map]. About the centre of the mount we discovered a cist formed of large stones set edgeways at the sides and ends with similar ones serving for a cover. It contained the decayed fragments of a human skeleton. On the Eastem side of the barrow, after removing a flat stone we discovered an earihern lamp2 (Fig. 1 in annexed plate) which I should consider Roman, and which was placed on the top of a large urn full of burnt bones and ashes. The urn being composed of clay, which had only been baked in the sun, fell into small pieces on the slightest touch, so that no part of it could be preserved. Fig. 3 presents the manner in which it was ornamented by zig-zag scratches, and from a segment of the circle measured on the spot it appears to have been 7 inches diameter on the rim and 4¼ inches diameter at bottom. Its general shape seemed to be like Fig. 4.3 - The lamp which had been well baked, and is in great preservation was 3¾ inches diameter and 2 inches high. Fragments of human bones, along with the teeth and bones of horses and other animals (among which the water rat was, as usual, conspicuous,) were scattered throughout the mount.

A copper pin, Fig 2.4. rather more than 2 inches in length, which had previously served as a fastening for the dress, was also found.

These barrows are situate in this manor of Middleton by Youlgreave, belonging to Thomas Bateman Esquire5, and were opened under the superintendence of Mr W Bateman and myself. - l am decidedly of opinion that they are all Roman or Romanized British6.

Note 1. lbid., p. 33.

Note 2. A so-called "Incense cup."

Note 3. This is hardly likely to be a correct restoration of the cinerary urn.

Note 4. Not copper, but bronze, Evidently an awl, not a pin.

Note 5. Father of William Bateman.

Note 6. This, of course, is a wrong surmise. They are all of the Bronze Age.

May 19th 1825. We opened a barrow composed principally of stone situated on the top of Cronkstone Hill1. It is on a farm belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, called Cronkstone Grange, in the Parish of Hartington, and is about three miles N.W. of Arborlow, which can be distinctly seen from it. We have discovered the remains of a human skeleton, deposited in a cist, formed of Stones, widely piled together, and about 4 feet in length. The body could not, of course, have been laid straight, but was doubled up with the knees towards the chin and breast, and reclined on the right side. This mode of interment is not very unusual in the Derbyshire barrows, and is supposed to be of the most remote antiquity. Under the head of the skeleton was placed the part of the horn of what I imagine to be the red-deer, and apparently must have been of large dimentions. It measures 9¼ inches round the base or root.

I have before noticed in my essay on Arbor-low that it was not uncommon to bury the horns of Deer with human bodies in these sepulchral tumuli. There was the usual accompaniment of rats' bones in this barrow, which I conceive, from analogous examples, should be referred to a very early date among the ancient Britons.

The top of Cronkston hill2, which is of great elevation is surrounded by a vallum and rampart of earth and stones, of no great height, ranging about 100 yards on every side of the barrow, and apparently intended solely to enclose and protect it. On the East side of the Hill is an amphitheatre, which has been formed by the excavation of the earth from the sides of the hill in a semi-elliptic form. There is a low bench of turf running quite round the amphitheatre, which has clearly been used as a seat for the principal spectators. It is about 15 or 16 yards across, and to the eastward, which is the side open, a space of the same width, and perhaps 100 yds. in length has been carefully levelled, and may perhaps have served as a cursus. This place is very similar to the semi-circular cove of earth mentioned by Stukeley, in his 2nd Itinerary as existing at Staden Low, near Buxton, and which he, with great probability, imagined to have been used for shows. Whether these remains at Cronkstone have served as a place of common amusement for the inhabitants of this district, or have been used for games instituted in memory of, and to the honour of the warrior or hunter buried in this barrow, whose remains we have deterred, must, of course, be quite conjectural."

Samuel Mitchell Junior (age 22).

Note 1. Vestiges, p. 125.

[Fol. 44.]

June 1st 1824. Examined William Normanshaw of Middleton aged 74 years, son of W. Normanshaw mentioned by Pegge. He says he has repeatedly heard his father (who died about 20 years ago at the age of 90) say that he remembered the stones in the circle at Arborlow [Map]; many of them standing, more erect than they do now1. Does not think they have undergone much alteration in position in his own remembrance. Recollects Major Rook opening the low they found the horns of a stag - once dug into the side of the barrow belonging to T. Bateman Esquire for stone, when he found the scull of a human being.

Note 1. This tends to confirm Pilkington's statement: I have been informed, that a very old man, living in Middleton, remembers, when he was a boy, to have seen them (the stones), standing obliquely upon one end." - A View of the Present State of Derbyshire, II., p. 460 ( 1789). Statements of this sort, however, must be accepted tun grano salis [with a grain of salt]. An old man employed in Mr. H. St. George Gray's recent excavation assured him that he had seen five of the stones standing when he was a boy and had sheltered under them. But it should be noticed that none of these statements imply that any of these stones were seen standing vertically on end. They simply imply that in comparatively recent times some were obliquely elevated, a conceivable attitude in the process of gradual subsidence.

10 Jun 1761[Fol. 45.]

Copied from MS of John Mander, of Bakewell.

Arbourlows [Map] viewed by Mr Pegge and myself, 10 June 1761.

There are 2 in the enclosed commons adjoining One Ash ground, the great one is environed (a) by a great circular rampire, whose height sloping is about 7 yards, the foss four yards (b) over, the area (c) flat of 50 yards diameter; round which are 32 very large limestone slabs formerly erect, now flat. This Mr Pegge called a British temple. It has two entrances, one to the East, another to the West1. From that to the East runs a smail rampire, winding south westwardly to the 2nd low (D) at the distance of about 4 or 500 yards2. On the NE3 side of the temple near the last entrance upon the rampire stands a large low, or mount of earth supposed a great barrow and is properly the low.

The low D4 is about 18 feet diameter at top, with a large hollow in the middle of its area summitt after the form of a bason, on the S side is a small faint rampire5 of earth with several breaks in it running across the field (at the distance of about 70 feet from the low) from the wall on the W, and across under the wall on wall to the E. N.B., On the W side of the western wall we could find no traces of this rampire, nor any place where it turned. This rampire crossing the Eastern wall as was said before passes quite to the foot of the great rampire of the temple."

Note 1. Mr Manders evidently had the compass bearings on the plan referred to in this MS., wrong. The entrances of the circle are nearly due north and south, and the tumulus is on the south-east.

Note 2. Gib Hill [Map], but its actual distance from the circle is about 300 yds. It is constantly stated by the older writers that this tumulus was connected with the circle by a "rampire." This, however, upon leaving the latter, does not point to Gib Hill [Map], but has a southerly course for about 200 yards, after which it curves to the west, but with a bearing considerably south of the latter, and is then lost. The recent excavations proved that it consists of a small bank and ditch.

Note 3. This tumulus is on the sonth-east.

Note 4. Gib Hill [Map],

Note 5. From personal observations, this is very doubtful (J.W.).

The tumulus [Arbor Low Henge Barrow [Map]] at the temple on Arberlow was begun to be opened by Major Rook, June 26, 27, 28. Common Rachell, in which small parts of animal bones, parts of stag horns, some of birds with claws, some of mice. Clay in some parts. The name given to this place by the country people Arbour lows Rink — William Normanshaw of Middleton by Youlgreave says he has seen some of these stones erect.

In the adjoining close S. is another barrow and the name Gib hill [Map] given to the close is for that a man was hung on a gibbet there fixt for a murder there committed — Llewing low (a Welch word) is the name of this barrow, other lows there are, Coving low, and Kenslow.

29 Jun 1782. Arber low [Map] 29: June 1782.

Qy of its addition Rink? Mr. Rook thinks this to be the most ancient and capital monument of antiquity in the Kingdom, and upon a plan full as large as Stonehenge, but vastly more ancient. That in every such place each stone had its name, before which stones the respective chiefs stood in their general assemblies, and every one knew his own stone, which bore his name of office, as King stone, &c. Rinch, Ringh, Ring from Winshew Curium rotendum. The temple here is certainly round, and if no circumstance of a barrow appears in the Mount now (June 29th 1782) opening, it should seem to be more like a court, when the assemblies of the ancient Britons with their chiefs were used to be held. Compare it with Vernometum in Leicestershire.

[Pencil note. Fol. 34.]

April 1834. Saw several rude urns found in a tumulus on the Hathersage moor adjoining the boundary of Bamford Common. Near the tumulus was a Druidical circle with 6 stones about 2 to 3 ft. high within a low mound of earth, and at a short distance, a single upright stone 7 to 8 ft. high, now marking the boundary of Hathersage and Bamford, S.M.1

Note 1. Vestiges, p. 27.