Biography of King Henry III of England 1207-1272

1199 Death of Richard I

1216 Death of King John

1216 Gloucester Coronation of Henry III

1220 Westminster Coronation of Henry III

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1242 Battle of Taillebourg

1254 Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

1264 Battle of Lewes

1265 Battle of Evesham

1266 Dictum of Kenilworth

1272 Death of Henry III

On 29 Aug 1189 [his father] King John "Lackland" of England (age 22) and [his step-mother] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex (age 16) were married at Marlborough Castle [Map]. He by marriage Earl Gloucester 1C 1121. She the daughter of William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester and Hawise Beaumont Countess Gloucester. He the son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 67). They were half second cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Death of Richard I

On 06 Apr 1199 [his uncle] King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 41) was besieging Châlus Chabrol Castle, Domfront. During the course of the evening King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 41) was shot by a crossbow. The wound quickly became gangrenous; Richard died in the arms of his mother [his grandmother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 77). His brother [his father] King John "Lackland" of England (age 32) succeeded I King England.

There was a brother between Richard and John named [his uncle] Geoffrey Duke of Brittany who had a son Arthur (age 12), who was around twelve, and a daughter Eleanor (age 15), who was around fifteen, whose mother was Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany (age 38).

King Philip II of France (age 33) had planned for Eleanor (age 15) to marry his son, probably to bring Brittany into the French Royal family, possibly to pursue a claim on England.

King Philip II of France (age 33) supported Arthur's (age 12) claim to the English throne. In the resulting war Arthur (age 12) was captured, imprisoned and never seen again. Eleanor (age 15) was captured, probably around the same time as Arthur, and imprisoned, more or less, for the remainder of her life, even after King John's death through the reign of King Henry III since she represented a threat to Henry's succession.

On 24 Aug 1200 [his father] King John "Lackland" of England (age 33) and [his mother] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 12) were married at . She had been engaged to Hugh Lusignan IX Count Lusignan (age 37) who subsequently appealed to King Philip II of France (age 35), their feudal overlord, who used the position to justify a war against John. The difference in their ages was 21 years. She the daughter of Aymer Angoulême I Count Angoulême (age 40) and Alice Courtenay Countess Angoulême. He the son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 78).

On 01 Oct 1207 King Henry III of England was born to King John "Lackland" of England (age 40) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 19) at Winchester Castle [Map].

Death of King John

On 19 Oct 1216 [his father] King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) died at Newark Castle [Map]. His son King Henry III of England (age 9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth (age 34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 - 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? - 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl of Derby (age 48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172-1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 - 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? - 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? - 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

Gloucester Coronation of Henry III

On 28 Oct 1216 King Henry III of England (age 9) was crowned III King England at Gloucester Cathedral [Map] during the Gloucester Coronation of Henry III at which Cardinal Guala Bicchieri (age 66) presided, Sylvester Bishop of Worcester and Simon Apulia Bishop of Exeter anointed the King. The coronation took place in Gloucester since London was at the time held by rebels. John Monmouth (age 34) was present.

Letters. 1220To her dearest son Henry (age 12), by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, earl of Anjou, [his mother] Isabella (age 32), by the same grace queen of England, lady of Ireland, duchess of Normandy and Aquitaine, countess of Anjou and Angoulême, sends health and her maternal benediction.

We hereby signify to you that when the Earls of March and Eu departed this life, the lord [his step-father] Hugh de Lusignan (age 37) remained alone and without heirs in Poitou, and his friends would not permit that our daughter should be united to him in marriage, because her age is so tender, but counselled him to take a wife from whom he might speedily hope for an heir; and it was proposed that he should take a wife in France, which if he had done, all your land in Poitou and Gascony would be lost. We, therefore, seeing the great peril that might accrue if that marriage should take place, when our counsellors could give us no advice, ourselves married the said Hugh earl of March (age 37); and God knows that we did this rather for your benefit than our own. Wherefore we entreat you, as our dear son, that this thing may be pleasing to you, seeing it conduces greatly to the profit of you and yours; and we earnestly pray you that you will restore to him his lawful right, that is Niort, the castles of Exeter [Map] and Rockingham [Map], and 3500 marks, which your father, our former husband, bequeathed to us; and so, if it please you, deal with him, who is so powerful, that he may not remain against you, since he can serve you well - for he is wdl-disposed to serve you faithfully with all his power; and we are certain and undertake that he shall serve you well if you will restore to him his rights, and, therefore, we advise that you take opportune counsel on these matters; and, when it shall please you, you may send for our daughter, your sister, by a trusty messenger and your letters patent, and we will send her to you.

Westminster Coronation of Henry III

On 17 May 1220 King Henry III of England (age 12) was crowned III King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] during the Westminster Coronation of Henry III since the Pope didn't consider the earlier Gloucester Coronation of Henry III to have been performed correctly. Archbishop Stephen Langton (age 70) presided.

In 1223 King Henry III of England (age 15) visited Bromholm Priory [Map] to take the holy waters.

Letters. 1225. Letter X. Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 60) to King Henry III of England (age 17).

To her lord and dearest nephew Henry, by God's grace illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, Berengaria, by the same grace formerly the humble queen of England, wishes health and prosperous success to his utmost desires.

We requested you by our letters patent, sent to you by Friar Walter de Persona, our chaplain of the Cistercian order, that you would send to us by the said Friar Walter and Master Simon, our clerks, 1000 marks sterling, which you owe us at this feast of All Saints, according to the composition of our dowry solemnly drawn out between us and you. But since the said Master Simon, being detained by sickness, cannot come over to you, we send in his stead our servant Martin, the bearer of these presents, earnestly requesting you to send us the thousand marks by the said Friar Walter, and by this Martin, or by one of them, if by any chance impediment both cannot come to you. In testimony of which we send you our present letters patent. Given at Mans, the Sunday next before the Feast of the Apostles Simon and Jade/ in the month of October, the year of our Lord 1226.

In Apr 1231 Hawise Gernon 2nd Countess Lincoln (age 51) succeeded 2nd Countess Lincoln. Robert Quincy Earl Lincoln by marriage Earl Lincoln 4C 1217. She was gifted the title by her childless brother Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 61) by agreement with King Henry III of England (age 23).

In 1232 Ednyfed "Fychan aka Younger" Tudor (age 62) represented Llewellyn "The Great" Aberffraw (age 60) at a meeting with King Henry III of England (age 24).

On 27 May 1234 King Louis IX of France (age 20) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Provence Queen Consort France (age 13) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence (age 36) and Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence (age 36). He the son of Louis "Lion" VIII King France and Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France (age 46). They were half third cousins. He a great grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

On 14 Jan 1236 or 24 Jan 1236 King Henry III of England (age 28) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Canterbury Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Edmund Rich (age 61). She the daughter of Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence (age 38) and Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence (age 38). He the son of King John "Lackland" of England and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 48). They were fourth cousins.

Chronica Majora. 14 Jan 1236. Anno Domini 1236, which was the twentieth year of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Winchester at Christmas, where he observed that festival with rejoicings. He was at this time anxiously looking for the return of the special messengers, whom he had sent into Provence to [his father-in-law] Raymond (age 38), count of that province, with letters containing his own inmost thoughts about contracting a marriage with his daughter [his wife] Eleanor (age 13). This said count was a man of illustrious race and brave in battle, but, by continual wars, he had wasted almost all the money he possessed. He had married the [his mother-in-law] daughter (age 38) of Thomas, the late count of Savoy, and sister of the present count, Amadeus (age 39), a woman of remarkable beauty, by name Beatrice (age 38). This lady had issue by the aforesaid count, two daughters of great beauty, the elder of whom, named [his sister-in-law] Margaret (age 15), was married to Louis (age 21), the French king, as we are told by a clerk named John de Gates; and the king of England had now, by the aforesaid messengers, demanded the younger one, a young lady of handsome appearance, in marriage. In order to obtain this favour, he had secretly sent Richard, prior of Hurle, in advance, who faithfully and with diligence brought the matter to a conclusion. On the prior's returning and telling the king the result, the latter sent him back to the count with some other messengers, namely, the bishops Hugh of Ely, and Robert of Hereford, and the brother of Robert de SANFORD, the master of the Knights Templars. These messengers were received by the count on their arrival in Provence with the greatest honour and respect, and from his hands received his daughter Eleanor, for the purpose of being united to the King of England; she was also attended by her uncle, William, bishop elect of Valentia; a man of distinction, and by the count of Champagne, a relation of the English king. The king of Navarre, on learning that they would travel through his territories, went joyfully to meet them, and accompanied them as a guide through his dominions during a journey of five days and more; he also, from his natural generosity, paid all their expenses, both for horses and attendants. Their retinue consisted of more than three hundred horsemen, not including the people who followed them in great numbers. On reaching the boundaries of France, they obtained not only a safe but honourable passage through that country, under conduct of the French king (age 21) and his queen (age 15), the sister of the lady about to be married to the English king, and also of Blanche (age 47), the French king's mother. They embarked at the port of Sandwich [Note. Should be Wissant], and with full sail made for Dover [Map], where they arrived, after a quick passage, before they were expected. Having thus safely landed, they set out for Canterbury, Kent [Map], and were met by the king, who rushed into the arms of the messengers, and, having seen the lady and received possession of her, he married her at Canterbury; the ceremony being performed on the fourteenth of January, by Edmund, archbishop (age 61) of that place, assisted by the bishops, who had come with the lady, in the presence of the other nobles and prelates of the kingdom. On the 19th of January the king went to Westminster, where an extra-ordinary solemnity took place on the following day, which was Sunday, at which the king wore his crown and Eleanor was crowned queen. Thus was Henry the Third married at Canterbury, and the nuptials were celebrated in London, at Westminster, on the feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian.

Chronica Majora. 19 Jan 1236. There were assembled at the king's (age 28) nuptial festivities such a host of nobles of both sexes, such numbers of religious men, such crowds of the populace, and such a variety of actors, that London, with its capacious bosom, could scarcely contain them. The whole city was ornamented with flags and banners, chaplets and hangings, candles and lamps, and with wonderful devices and extraordinary representations, and all the roads were cleansed from mud and dirt, sticks, and everything offensive. The citizens, too, went out to meet the king (age 28) and [his wife] queen (age 13), dressed out in their ornaments, and vied with each other in trying the speed of their horses. On the same day, when they left the city for Westminster, to perform the duties of butler to the king (which office belonged to them by right of old, at the coronation), they proceeded thither dressed in silk garments, with mantles worked in gold, and with costly changes of raiment, mounted on valuable horses, glittering with new bits and saddles, and riding in troops arranged in order. They carried with them three hundred and sixty gold and silver cups, preceded by the king's trumpeters and with horns sounding, so that such a wonderful novelty struck all who beheld it with astonishment. The archbishop of Canterbury (age 61), by the right especially belonging to him, performed the duty of crowning, with the usual solemnities, the bishop of London assisting him as a dean, the other bishops taking their stations according to their rank. In the same way all the abbats, at the head of whom, as was his right, was the abbat of St. Alban's (for as the Protomartyr of England, B. Alban, was the chief of all the martyrs of England, so also was his abbat the chief of all the abbats in rank and dignity), as the authentic privileges of that church set forth. The nobles, too, performed the duties, which, by ancient right and custom, pertained to them at the coronations of kings. In like manner some of the inhabitants of certain cities discharged certain duties which belonged to them by right of their ancestors. The earl of Chester (age 29) carried the sword of St. Edward, which was called "Curtein", before the king, as a sign that he was earl of the palace, and had by right the power of restraining the king if he should commit an error. The earl was attended by the constable of Chester (age 44), and kept the people away with a wand when they pressed forward in a disorderly way. The grand marshal of England, the earl of Pembroke (age 39), carried a wand before the king and cleared the way before him both, in the church and in the banquet-hall, and arranged the banquet and the guests at table. The Wardens of the Cinque Ports carried the pall over the king, supported by four spears, but the claim to this duty was not altogether undisputed. The earl of Leicester (age 28) supplied the king with water in basins to wash before his meal; the Earl Warrenne performed the duty of king's Cupbearer, supplying the place of the earl of Arundel, because the latter was a youth and not as yet made a belted knight. Master Michael Belet was butler ex officio; the earl of Hereford (age 32) performed the duties of marshal of the king's household, and William Beauchamp (age 51) held the station of almoner. The justiciary of the forests arranged the drinking cups on the table at the king's right hand, although he met with some opposition, which however fell to the ground. The citizens of London passed the wine about in all directions, in costly cups, and those of Winchester superintended the cooking of the feast; the rest, according to the ancient statutes, filled their separate stations, or made their claims to do so. And in order that the nuptial festivities might not be clouded by any disputes, saving the right of any one, many things were put up with for the time which they left for decision at a more favourable opportunity. The office of chancellor of England, and all the offices connected with the king, are ordained and assized in the Exchequer. Therefore the chancellor, the chamberlain, the marshal, and the constable, by right of their office, took their seats there, as also did the barons, according to the date of their creation, in the city of London, whereby they each knew his own place. The ceremony was splendid, with the gay dresses of the clergy and knights who were present. The abbat of Westminster sprinkled the holy water, and the treasurer, acting the part of sub-dean, carried the Paten. Why should I describe all those persons who reverently ministered in the church to God as was their duty? Why describe the abundance of meats and dishes on the table & the quantity of venison, the variety of fish, the joyous sounds of the glee-men, and the gaiety of the waiters? Whatever the world could afford to create pleasure and magnificence was there brought together from every quarter.

Chronica Majora. 11 Feb 1236. When the nuptial rejoicings were concluded, the king (age 28) left London and went to Merton [Map], where he summoned the nobles to hear a message lately brought from the emperor (age 41), and to discuss the business of the kingdom. For messengers had come direct from the emperor to the king with letters, asking him without delay to send his brother [his brother] Richard, earl of Cornwall (age 27), whose circumspect skill report had spread far and wide, to make war on the king of the French. He also promised, by way of assistance, to send all the Imperial forces, especially in order to enable the English king (age 28) not only to recover his continental possessions, but also, when they were regained, to extend his former possessions. To this, the king (age 28) and the nobles there assembled, after due deliberation, replied that it would not be safe or prudent to send one so young out of the kingdom and to expose him to the doubtful chances and dangers of war, since he was the only apparent heir of the king and kingdom, and the hopes of all were centred in him next to the king. For the king, although he was married, had no children, and the [his wife] queen his wife (age 13) was still young, and did not know whether she was fruitful or barren. But if it was agreeable to his excellency the emperor to summon any other brave man he chose, from amongst the nobles of the kingdom, for the purpose, they, the king, and all his friends and subjects, in accordance with his request, would at once render him all the assistance in their power. The messengers, on receiving this reply, returned to inform their lord.

Chronica Majora. 12 Feb 1236. About the same time, king Henry the Third (age 28), for the salvation of his soul and the improvement of his kingdom, influenced by a spirit of justice and piety, made some new laws, and ordered them to be inviolably observed throughout his kingdom.

In the first place with respect to widows, who, after the death of their husbands were deprived of their dowry, or could not hold it and their quarentin without a plea, it was decreed, that whoever should deforce them from their dowry, from the tenements of which their husbands died possessed, and the widows should afterwards recover their dowry by plea, and the deforcing party shall be conNdcted of unjust deforcement, they shall make the damages good to the said widows, to the fall value of the dowry falling to them, from the time of the decease of their husbands to the day on which they recovered possession by judgment, and nevertheless the deforcers themselves shall be at the king's mercy. Also, all widows shall henceforth be at liberty to bequeath all the com on their land, as well from their dowries, as from other lands and tenements, saving the services which are due to their lords from their dowries and other tenements. Also, whoever shall have been disseised from his free tenement, and shall have recovered possession by assize of a new disseisin before the justiciaries, or shall have made a disseisin with their cognizance, and when disseised shall have held possession through the sheriff, if the said disseisers shall have disseised them after the circuit of the justiciaries or during the same, and shall be convicted thereof, they shall be taken and detained in a prison of our lord the king, until by him they are liberated, either by ransom or in any other manner. And the following is the form of conviction to be observed with regard to them: When the complainants come to the court, they shall have a brief from the king directed to the sheriff, in which shall be contained their evidence of the disseisin made on disseisin, and therein the Sheriff of shall be ordered to take with him the overseers of the pleas of the crown, and other legal officers, and to go in person to the tenement or pasture about which the complaint has been made, and in their presence, by jurors first, and by other neighbours and liege men, to make a careful inquisition in the matter, and if they shall discover it to be disseised as above mentioned, then they shall proceed according to the provisions before declared, but if not, then the complainants shall be at the mercy of the king, and the other party shall go away quit. The same shall be done in the case of those who recover possession by assize of the death of their predecessor; the same also shall be done in the case of all tenements recovered by juries in the king's court. Also, whereas several of the nobles of England have enfeoffed knights and their free tenants of small tenements in their manors, and have complained that they cannot effect their conveniency as regarded the residue of their manors, as of wastes, woods, and pastures, so that the feoffees might have sufficient as was proper according to their tenements, it was provided and granted, that feoffees of this kind, from whomsoever they should hereafter bring an assize of a new disseisin, if before the justiciaries it shall be proved that they have sufficient pasturage, in proportion to their tenement, together with free ingress and egress from their tenements to that pasture, they shall be content with the same, and those of whom such complaint has been made shall be satisfied with having effected their will in the matter of their waste lands, woods, and pastures; but if they say that they have not sufficient pasture or sufficient ingress and egress, then the truth shall be inquired into by assize. And if it is discovered by assize that there was any obstruction in the ingress or egress, or that the pasture was not sufficient, as aforesaid, then he shall receive possession after inspection by the jurors, so that at their discretion and on their oaths, the complainants may have sufficient pasture and free ingress and egress, in the form above stated. And the disseisers shall remain at the mercy of the king, and shall pay damages, as they used to be paid before this provision; but if it shall be found by assize that the complainants have sufficient pasture and free ingress and egress, as aforesaid, then the other party shall be allowed to do what is right with the residue, and shall depart quietly. It is also granted by our lord the king, with the consent of the nobles, that from this time, interest shall not accumulate against a minor from the time of the decease of his predecessor, whose heir he is, till he lawfully comes of age; but that on this account the payment of the principal shall not be delayed. Also, with respect to those who commit offences in parks and warrens, a discussion was entered upon, but not decided, for the nobles demanded to have each his own prison for offenders they might take in their parks and warrens; but this the king would not grant them, and therefore this remains as formerly.

Chronica Majora. Around 11 Jul 1236. In this year, about the feast of St. Benedict, the emperor (age 41) sent a handsome present to the king of England (age 28), consisting of eighteen valuable horses, and three mules laden with silks and other costly presents. He also sent some valuable horses and other desirable things to [his brother] Earl Richard (age 27), the king's brother.

Chronica Majora. After 14 Feb 1237. About this time William, bishop elect of Valentia, to whom the king (age 29) had entirely intrusted the reins of government, seeing that the nobles had, not without reason, conceived great indignation against him, on that account took his departure for his own country; his lands and rich farms, which the king had given him, he placed in the hands of Aaron, a Jew of York, in the form of a pledge, receiving from him, by way of loan, nine hundred marks of new sterling money in hand. He then directed his steps towards Dover, under the guidance of the king himself, with the packsaddles of his beasts of burden full of gold, silver, and divers royal presents, besides some desirable jennets and valuable saddle horses. And so cunningly had this man managed matters, that the king, abandoning the example set him by the noble emperor and the careful king of France, who did not permit their backs to be trodden upon by their wives and their relatives and countrymen, deprived and drained of all his money, and become a needy man, suffered this bishop to pull his kingdom to pieces, and, being under the influence of his [his wife] wife (age 14), allowed him, on the least pretence, to consume the produce of his own temtories. He also allowed foreigners, - Poictevins, Germans, Provencals, and Romans, - to fatten themselves on the good things of the country, to the injury of his kingdom. The aforesaid bishop elect of Valentia then went to France, whence, after paying his respects to the king and his sister, he was without delay sent away in peace, and allowed to depart without any presents. He then sent the presents he had brought from England to Provence, and there distributed them, together with some horses loaded with an immense sum of money, and then returned empty lianded to England, where he was received by the king with open arms.

Chronica Majora. Before 24 Jun 1237. In the same year, the emperor Frederick (age 42), by special messengers and imperial letters, summoned all the great Christian princes of the world to assemble on the day of St. John the Baptist's nativity, at Vaucouleurs, which is on the confines, or near the confines, of the empire and the French kingdom, there to discuss some difficult matters concerning the empire as well as the kingdom. The king of France, as if entertaining suspicion of this conference, proceeded at the time fixed to the place appointed, attended by a large army, which he had assembled for the purpose, and thus set dreadful and pernicious example to others, inasmuch as he went to discuss matters of peace in the same way as he would to attack his enemies. The king of England (age 29) made reasonable excuses for not coming in person; but sent a peaceful embassy, consisting of some of the chief men of the kingdom; namely, [his brother] Richard earl of Cornwall (age 28), his brother, with some other nobles, fit to manage a conference, under the guidance of the venerable archbishop of York (age 57) and the bishop of Ely, and other trustworthy persons selected for the purpose. The bishop of Winchester, although selected before all others, absolutely refused to go, and, not without reason, gave the following as the cause for excusing himself: "My lord king," said he "you lately laid a heavy complaint against me before the emperor, telling him that I, with some other nobles, disturbed your kingdom: whether you did this with justice, or unjustly, God knows; but I trust that I have saved my conscience in every respect. But if your words were now placed with confidence in my mouth and in your letters, and should declare that I was a familar and faithful friend of yours; all this would appear as contrary, and he would accuse both you and me of instability; and this would blacken your fame in a great degree. Therefore, because it would be manifestly to your dishonour, I will not go on any account." And in the opinion of many, this reply gave sufficient excuse for him. When all preparations had been made, and they were all ready to set sail on this journey, they were met by letters from the emperor, to say that he could not go to the conference then, as he had purposed; but that what he could not do then, should, by God's favour, be carried into effect on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the following year; and thus each and all of them returned without effecting anything. In this year, on the day of the Supper, the bishop of Hereford consecrated the holy unction in the church of St. Albans [Map]. About this time, too, John Scott (deceased), earl of Chester, closed his life about Whitsuntide, having been poisoned by the agency of his wife (age 19), the daughter of Llewellyn (age 65). The life of the bishop of Lincoln (age 69), too, was also attempted by the same means, and he was with difficulty recalled from the gates of death. In the same year, in the week before Whitsuntide, there fell storms of hail which exceeded the size of apples, killing the sheep; and they were followed by continued rain.

On 17 Jun 1239 [his son] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England was born to King Henry III of England (age 31) and [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 16) at Westminster Palace [Map].

On 29 Sep 1240 [his daughter] Margaret Queen of Scotland was born to King Henry III of England (age 32) and [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 17) at Windsor Castle [Map].

Chronica Majora. On the 9th of June, in this year. Master Nicholas of Farnham, bishop elect of Durham, was consecrated bishop of that see in St. Oswald's church [Map] at Gloucester, by Walter, archbishop of York (age 61), in the presence of the king (age 33) and [his wife] queen (age 18), with numerous bishops and abbats. But inasmuch as a question had been mooted concerning his profession, amongst some who wished to excite discord, the said Nicholas refused to claim a liberty that was not his due, or to show himself insolent or recalcitrant; he therefore, at his consecration, in public, before all the prelates and nobles, and in the presence of his metropolitan, the said Archbishop Walter, solemnly and distinctly made his profession in a loud voice, according to custom, as follows; "I Nicholas, bishop elect of the church of Durham, acknowledge canonical subjection, reverence, and obedience to the church of York, and to you, father Walter, its archbishop, and this I subscribe with my own hand." He then immediately, in the presence of all assembled, marked the sign of the cross in ink at the head of the charter, and delivered the same to the archbishop to be kept in his possession in his treasury.

On 27 Jun 1241 Gilbert Marshal 4th Earl Pembroke (age 44) was killed in a tournament at Ware [Map]. He was buried at Temple Church, London [Map] next to his father. His brother Walter Marshal 5th Earl Pembroke (age 42) succeeded 5th Earl Pembroke 2C 1199; he had also attended the tournament. The King King Henry III of England (age 33) had expressly forbidden the tournament leading to anger at his disobeying the King's orders.

Chronica Majora. David (age 29) had, as before stated, sworn to present himself before the king (age 34), saving his person and honour, and the persons and honour of his subjects, at London or elsewhere, as the king should determine; and had, moreover, given hostages to him for the fulfilment of his promise: he accordingly came to the king, at London, on the eighth day after Michaelmas, and after having sworn fealty and allegiance, and all security and good faith, he was dismissed in peace, as he was so near a relation of the king, and allowed to return home. Henry thus, under God's favour, triumphed over his enemies, and subdued Wales without bloodshed, and without having to tempt the doubtful chances of war. Wales, in this case, discovered that the words of our Lord, mentioned in the Gospel, were not without truth; namely, that "every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation."

On 24 Jun 1242 [his daughter] Beatrice Plantagenet was born to King Henry III of England (age 34) and [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 19) at Bordeaux [Map].

Battle of Taillebourg

On 21 Jul 1242 the forces of King Henry III of England (age 34) and [his half-brother] Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême (age 21) fought against the forces of at King Louis IX of France (age 28) and his brother Alphonse Capet Count Poitou II Count Toulose (age 21) at Taillebourg [Map] during the Battle of Taillebourg. The battle was a decisive victory for the French. Henry thereafter signed a five-year truce with the French.

On 16 Jan 1245 [his son] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster was born to King Henry III of England (age 37) and [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 22) in London.

On 31 Jan 1246 King Charles Capet of Sicily (age 18) and [his sister-in-law] Beatrice Provence Queen Consort Sicily (age 15) were married. She the daughter of Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence and Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence (age 48). He the son of Louis "Lion" VIII King France and Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France (age 57). They were half third cousins. He a great grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 25 or 26 Dec 1251 [his son-in-law] Alexander III King Scotland (age 10) and [his daughter] Margaret Queen of Scotland (age 11) were married at York Minster [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland. The couple remained in York until Jan 1252 after which they travelled to Edinburgh [Map]. She the daughter of King Henry III of England (age 44) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 28). He the son of Alexander II King Scotland and Marie Coucy (age 33). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

In 1252 Roger Leybourne (age 37) took the cross to atone for having killed Arnulf de Munteny, one of the king's household knights, in a jousting tournament with a sharpened lance, avenging himself of an injury caused by Arnulf in a previous tournament. He was pardoned by King Henry III of England (age 44).

On 25 Nov 1253 [his daughter] Katherine Plantagenet was born to King Henry III of England (age 46) and [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 30) at Westminster Palace [Map].

Effigy of Hugh de Northwold, Bishop of Ely. HUGH DE NORTHWOLD, Abbot of St. Edmundsbury, was consecrated Bishop of Ely in the year 1229 (14 Henry III.) He was a munificent restorer of his Cathedral Church, which he almost rebuilt from the foundation at the cost of upwards of five thousand pounds, a princely sum for the time in which he flourished. In the dark days of Christianity the pastors of the church exhibited noble ideas of the honour due to the Deity in the piles devoted to his worship, and a corresponding munificence in contributing to their construction. The rebuilding Ely Cathedral [Map] by Northwold occupied seventeen years, and he consecrated the new church in the presence of Henry III (age 46) and Prince Edward (age 14), whom he entertained (keeping at the same time "the hall," or open house to all comers) in his palace at Ely. The last mentioned edifice he also entirely rebuilt, and covered with a distinction of the most costly buildings in the middle age. He departed this life on the 9th of August 1254, thankful to Providence for having been allowed to see the completion of his cathedral, where he was interred in the middle of the presbytery. On the removal of the choir the situation of his effigy was changed, and it now lies on the altar tomb of Barnet, who died Bishop of Ely 1373. The niche which canopies the figure of Northwold is in the richest style of sculpture, the pillars are composed of interlacing foliage in scroll work, intermixed with heads of ecclesiastics and birds. At the top of the canopy are fragments of two angels. The sides are adorned with niches containing figures: these do not appear in the etching. The Bishop treads on a dragon and a lion, under both of which images the power of Satan is indicated in Holy Writ. The entablature at the foot of the tomb, delineated in the plate, represents the martyrdom of St. Edmund, King of the East Angles, who was shot to death with arrows by the Danes, A. D. 870. This piece of sculpture of course alludes to Northwold, as Abbot of Saint Edmundsbury.

Letters. 13 Feb 1254. Letter XII. [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 31) and [his brother] Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall (age 45) to King Henry III of England (age 46).

To their most excellent lord, the lord Henry, by God's grace the illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, his most devoted consort Eleanora, by the same grace queen of England, and his devoted and faithful Richard earl of Cornwall, send health with all reverence and honour.

Be it known to your revered lordship that the lords the earl marshall (age 45) and John de Bailiol (age 46), being hindered at sea by a contrary wind during twelve days, came to us in England on the Wednesday after the Purification of Blessed Mary last past.

We had been treating with your prelates and the magnates of your kingdom of England before the advent of the said Earl and John, on the quinzaines of St. Hilary last past about your subsidy, and after the arrival of the said Earl and John, with certain of the aforesaid prelates and magnates, the archbishops and bishops answered us that if the King of Castile (age 32) should come against you in Gascony each of them would assist you from his own property, so that you would be under perpetual obli gations to them; but with regard to granting you an aid from their clergy, they could do nothing without the assent of the said clergy; nor do they believe that their clergy can be induced to give you any help, unless the tenth of clerical goods granted to you for the first year of the crusade, which should begin in the present year, might be relaxed at once by your letters patent, and the collection of the said tenth for the said crusade, for the two following years, might be put in respite up to the term of two years before your passage to the Holy Land; and they will give diligence and treat with the clergy submitted to them, to induce them to assist you according to that form with a tenth of their benefices, in case the King of Castile should attack you in Gascony; but at the departure of the bearer of these presents no subsidy had as yet been granted by the aforesaid clergy. Moreover, as we have elsewhere signified to you, if the King of Castile should come against you in Gascony, all the earls and barons of your kingdom, who are able to cross the sea, will come to you in Gascony, with all their power; but from the other laymen who do not sail over to you we do not think that we can obtain any help for your use, unless you write to your lieutenants in England firmly to maintain your great charters of liberties, and to let this be distinctly perceived by your letters to each Sheriff of your kingdom, and publicly proclaimed through each county of the said kingdom; since, by this means, they would be more strongly animated cheerfully to grant you aid; for many persons complain that the aforesaid charters are not kept by your sheriffs and other bailiffs as they ought to be kept. Be it known, therefore, to your lordship, that we shall hold a conference with the aforesaid clergy and laity at Westminster, in the quinzaines of Passover next, about the aforesaid aid, and we supplicate your lordship that you will write us your good pleasure concerning these affairs with the utmost possible haste. For you will find us prepared and devoted, according to our power, to solicit the aforesaid aid for your use, and to do and procure all other things ....* which can contribute to your convenience and the increase of your honour. Given at Windsor [Map], the 13th of February, in the thirty-eighth year of your reign.

Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

On 01 Nov 1254 [his son] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 15) and [his daughter-in-law] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas. She the daughter of Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon and Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon (age 34). He the son of King Henry III of England (age 47) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 31). They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 03 May 1257 [his daughter] Katherine Plantagenet (age 3) died at Swallowfield. She was buried in the Ambulatory, Chancel, Westminster Abbey.

Letters. 1258. Letter XIII. Matilda Prioress of the Convent of Barking to Henry III (age 50).

To her most excellent lord Henry, by God's grace illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, Matilda, humble prioress of Barking, and of the convent of the same place, wishes health, with due reverence and honour, and the suflFrages of her prayers.

Since the lady our mother, venerable for her religion, the lady Christina, late abbess of our house, did on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, in the forty-third year of your reign, of her own good and spontaneous will, yield up the government of the said abbey, on account of the infirmity and debility of her body, and was absolved from it by our venerable father Foulk, bishop of London (age 69), we now, being destitute of the solace of an abbess, send to you our beloved sisters and fellow-nuns, Roesia de Argentes, Joanna de Wantham, and Agnes Costentin, humbly and de voutly supplicating that the bowels of your compassion may be moved towards us, and that the condescension of your mercy will grant us permission to elect some other as our abbess, so that henceforth you may receive from the highest retributor a worthy reward, and we may be henceforth obligated more specially to ofier up the merited suflfrages of our prayers for you and yours. Given at Barking [Map] the Tuesday after the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, in the forty-third year of your reign.

Letters. 1258. Letter XIV. Lady Havisia de Neville (age 38) to her Son, Hugh de Neville.

Havisia de Neville to her very dear son, Hugh de Neville, wishes health and the blessing of God and her own.

Know, dear son that I am well and hearty thanks to Grod, and am much rejoiced at the news that William Fitz Simon brought me of your health. God be thanked for it! Know, dear son, that our necessities of receiving the returns from your lands can avail nothing, on account of the great rule your adversary has in the king's court, unless you yourself were present. Wherefore your father-in-law and I, and all your other friends, agree that you should come to England, and we pray and entreat you, by the faith and love that you owe us, that you will not by any means fail in this; since you ought once again to return. For we know well that it would be a very great dishonour, and we consider it a great sin, to suffer us and ours to be disinherited by your indolence.!Therefore I anxiously pray you, dear son, that you will travel with all possible haste, and also, according to the counsel of all your friends, that you go to the court of Rome, and procure if you can the letter of the pope, express and stringent, to the king of England (age 50), that he should restore your lands, and have them restored. And that you may make a proper understanding at the court of all our needs, without omitting or concealing anything; that is, how you are placed with the king, and that you are compelled by a writing to hold the obligation (word missing in original), without contradiction and without ever making an acquisition to the contrary. For wise persons have said the acquisition would be worth nothing, unless it made express mention of this, that it was through no fault of yours that you made this the aforesaid obligation when in war, and through fear of prison. And know, good son, that the first acquisition you got at Rome for our lands was not such as you understood, for it was only a loving petition for your rights of the money which you ought to have had of the crusade allowance. The legate, thanks to him, has granted us that he would let us have it if we could espy out where it is, but we have not as yet found any, except what is in the hands of such as themselves would wish to go into the Holy Land; but as much as we may be able to acquire, now or henceforth, between this and St. John's day, we will then send you by the messengers of the Temple, who will bring their own money. And for God's sake, good son, guard against making such an obligation as you have made for Sir Ingelram de Umfranville; for I was grieved that it was proper to have it paid from our own demesne. And good, sweet, dear son, X anxiously pray you that you will send us word how much money you have really had by my command, for the thing is not in my power, for I could never spy a man who went to that part, that I might send you letters, which weighs no little upon me. For if it could be that I could often have good news of you, and comfort you again often by my messages, there would be nothing that could more rejoice me except it were to see and speak to you. And know, dear son, that my heart is grieved and alarmed day and night, since William Fitz Simon brought me news that you were so poorly provided with money; but God who is Almighty, if it please him, give you speedy amendment, and I will do it to my utmost power. Dear son, I pray you not to trust too much to the money of the crusade allowance, for they say that more great lords of England will take the cross; and they will take away as much as shall be raised for the crusade, as certain friends have given me to know. But do not ever cease, as you dearly love me, for no waiting for money, to borrow all the money that you can, and to go to the court of Rome to acquire for our necessities, and to hasten to come to England io accomplish our needs. For I hope, by the help of God, if you could well accomplish what you have to do about the acquisition of our lands, that you will see such change* in England, that never in our time could you have better accomplished your wish, or more to your honour. Wherefore cease not to solicit again about your coming, since you can here best serve God. I con^mend you to the true body of God, who give you life and health. Sir Walter de la Hide, Joanna your sister, and all our household, salute you. And know, dear son, that my counsel is that you obtain the letters of request of the legate of that country, and the letters of the master of the Temple and of the Hospital, to the legate of England and to other rich men, for your needs, and in testimony of your deeds in that country on the occasion of your coming. And ever take care of your house that you have there, if God give you courage to return.

1260 Annals Dunstable. 1260. In the year of grace 1260.Henry King of England (age 52), son of [his father] King John, etc.

Original Latin Text:

Anno gratiae MCCLX. Henricus rex Angliae (age 52), filius regis Johannis, pace firmata cum rege Franciae, ibidem per longum tempus moram traxit; nec in Angliam redire curavit, donec episcopi et magnates Angliae ei literatorie mandaverunt quod reverti in Angliam properaret; quod si non faceret, ad placitum suum in Anglia non rediret. Quo audito, rex in se reversus, in Angliam rediit; sed quidam malitiosi falsis rumoribus inter patrem et filium suum Edwardum discordiam seminavervmt, asserentes quod dictus Edwardus et consiliarii sui guerram domino regi movere procurarunt; propter quod dominus rex supra modum iratus, multos milites de partibus transmarinis usque Londoniam secum adduxit; et eis ultra pontem dimissis in partibus Sureiae, ipse civitatem Londonise ingressus est, et ibi aliquandiu moram fecit, portis civitatis firmatis et seratis, apposuit custodes, ut nullus nisi ab eo licentiatus ingrederetur.

Comes vero Gloverni, et Johannes Maunsel, et quidam alii qui de concilio regis fuerunt, ad placitum suum ingressum et egressum habuerunt.

Rex vero proliibuit, ne filius suus Edwardus, nec aliquis qui de consilio suo extiterat, coram ipso venirent, dicens, "Coram me non appareat filius mens Edwardus, quia si eum videro, quin ipsum osculer me non cohibebo.".

Tandem, amore paterno commotus, et magnatum precibus devictus, ipsum ad osculum pacis recepit, et regina mater sua similiter, quae, ut dicebatur, causa totius malitis extiterat.

Dum ista aguntur, quantos honores et quantas expensas, omnibus qui interesse voluerint, dominus Edwardus fecerit, lingua vix potest explicare.

On 22 Jan 1260 [his son-in-law] John Capet II Duke Brittany (age 21) and [his daughter] Beatrice Plantagenet (age 17) were married. She the daughter of King Henry III of England (age 52) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 37). He the son of John "The Red" Capet I Duke Brittany (age 42) and Blanche "Navarre" Blois Duchess Brittany (age 34). They were half second cousin twice removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

Battle of Lewes

On 14 May 1264 the army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 56) including Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 20), Henry Hastings (age 29) and Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave (age 26) defeated the army of King Henry III of England (age 56) during the Battle of Lewes at Lewes [Map]. King Henry III of England (age 56), his son the future [his son] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 24), Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 60), [his brother] Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall (age 55), John "Red" Comyn 1st Lord Baddenoch (age 44), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion (age 30) and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield (age 32) were captured. John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey (age 33), John Balliol (age 56), Robert Bruce 5th Lord Annandale (age 49), Roger Leybourne (age 49) and [his half-brother] William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke fought for the King. [his half-brother] Guy Lusignan was killed. Fulk IV Fitzwarin (age 44) drowned. Bishop Walter de Cantelupe (age 73) was present and blessed the Montfort army before the battle.

Battle of Evesham

On 04 Aug 1265 the army loyal to King Henry III of England (age 57), led by his son the future [his son] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 26), supported by Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 21), Warin Basingburne and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield (age 33) defeated the rebel army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 57) at the Battle of Evesham.

Roger Leybourne (age 50) fought and reputedly saved the King's life.

Adam Mohaut rescued the King.

Alan de Plugenet of Kilpec fought for the King.

Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Chester (age 57) and his son Henry Montfort (age 26) were killed. Earl of Leicester 1C 1107, Earl Chester 4C 1264 forfeit.

Hugh Despencer (age 41) was killed by Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (age 34).

Simon Beauchamp (age 31), Ralph Basset (age 50), William Devereux (age 46), Hugh Troyes, Richard Trussel, Peter Montfort (age 60), William Mandeville, William Crepping, William Birmingham, Guy Balliol and Thomas Astley (age 50) were killed. Henry Hastings (age 30), Humphrey Bohun (age 44), Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave (age 27), John Vesci, John Fitzjohn and Guy Montfort Count Nola (age 21) were captured.

John Vesci was wounded and taken prisoner.

Dictum of Kenilworth

On 31 Oct 1266 the Dictum of Kenilworth was issued. The Dictum was a peace agreement between King Henry III of England (age 59) and the rebels who were besieged in the impregnable Kenilworth Castle [Map]. The committee included:

Bishop Walter Branscombe (age 46).

Walter Giffard Archbishop of York (age 41).

Bishop Nicholas Ely.

Gilbert de Clare 8th Earl Gloucester 7th Earl Hertford.

Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex (age 62).

Philip Basset (age 82).

John Balliol (age 58).

Robert Walerand.

Alan Zouche (age 63).

Roger Somery 2nd Baron Dudley (age 76), and.

Warin Bassingbourne.

Robert Ferrers 6th Earl of Derby (age 27) and Henry Hastings (age 31) were fined seven times their annual income. The Dictum, however, required the rebels to pay their fines before being restored to their lands; something of a Catch-22 since if they weren't restored to their lands, they would have no income to pay the fine.

In 1267 [his sister-in-law] Beatrice Provence Queen Consort Sicily (age 36) died.

On 08 Apr 1269 [his son] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster (age 24) and [his daughter-in-law] Aveline Forz 6th Countess Albemarle and Lancaster were married. She by marriage Countess Lancaster. She the daughter of William Forz 4th Earl Albemarle aka Aumale and Isabella Redvers 8th Countess Devon and Albemarle aka Aumale (age 31). He the son of King Henry III of England (age 61) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 46). She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Death of Henry III

On 16 Nov 1272 King Henry III of England (age 65) died at Westminster [Map]. His son [his son] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) succeeded I King England. [his daughter-in-law] Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 31) by marriage Queen Consort England.

On 24 Jun 1291 [his former wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 68) died at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire [Map] where she was subsequently buried. Her heart was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

Chronica Majora. Incited by these promises, the king made arrangements to enter Wales, He therefore issued royal letters, ordering all throughout England who owed him military service to assemble at Gloucester, in the beginning of autumn, equipped with horses and arms, to set out on an expedition which he had determined on. He next held a council at Shrewsbury, on the morrow of the feast of St. Peter "ad vincula," and within a fortnight he raised his standard, and turned his arms against his nephew David, as he had discovered him to be a traitor and rebel in every respect, and as he refused to come at any time to a peaceable conference at his, the king's, summons, even under a promise of safe-conduct; for in a stiff-necked and obstinate way he replaied that he would not, on any account, release his brother Griffin. The king then led his army, which was numerous and of great strength, in good order, towards Chester, as if about to make war immediately. David, however, feared to encounter his violence, both because the heat, which had continued intense for four months, had dried up all the lakes and marshy places of Wales, and because many of the Welsh nobles, especially the powerfid and prudent Griffin, the son of Madoch, who had become a great ally of the king's, loved Griffin more than him, David, and also because he was lying under an anathema, and feared lest he should become still worse off; he therefore sent word to the king that he would set Griffin at liberty, at the same time informing him with many reasonings, that if he did release him, he would excite renewed wars against him. David also imposed on the king the condition that he should receive him peaceably, on his binding himself by oath, and by giving hostages, and that he would not deprive him of his inheritance. This the king kindly conceded, and David thereupon released his brother Griffin, and sent him to the king, who, trusting to prudent advice, sent him, on his arrival, to London, under the protection and conduct of John of Lexington, to be there kept in the Tower [Map], with some other nobles of Wales, the hostages of David and other Welsh princes. All these events occurred between the day of the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas-day.

Chronica Majora. During all this time Griffin, the son of Llewellyn, had been detained in prison by his brother David, who had treacherously summoned him to a friendly council. Griffin had gone there under the conduct of Richard, bishop of Bangor, and some other Welsh nobles; on account of which crime the said bishop left Wales, after excommunicating the said David. He now went to the king of England, and laid a severe complaint before him of this base crime, and earnestly entreated of the king to release Griffin, who was thus unjustly detained a prisoner by his nephew David, to prevent the taint of such an iniquitous transaction from reaching distant countries and the court of Rome, to the prejudice of his royal honour. The king, therefore, severely reproached his nephew David for his treachery, and both advised and ordered him to liberate his brother, and thus obtain a restoration of his good name, and absolution from the sentence of excommunication. This, however, David, obstinately refused to do, and told the king for certain, that if he were to release Griffin, Wales would never after enjoy security and peace. Griffin, being informed of this, secretly sent word to the king, that if he would release him from prison, he would in future hold his territory from him, the king; that he would faithfully pay him two hundred marks annually for it, with many thanks for his kind services; and he bound himself by oath to fulfil the same, and giving him at the same time a special hostage; besides this, that he would diligently assist him to subdue the Welsh at a distance, who were rebelling against him and were still unsubdued. Another most powerful Welsh chief, named Griffin, the son of Madoch, also promised the king trusty and unwearied assistance, if he would invade Wales, and make war against David, who was a false man, and acted unjustly to many of them.

Family Trees of King Henry III of England 1207-1272

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Helene du Donjon 1095-1189

Descendants Family Trees:

Royal Ancestors of King Henry III of England 1207-1272

Kings Wessex: Great x 5 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 3 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 11 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine I King Franks

Kings France: Great x 2 Grand Son of Louis "Fat" VI King France

Royal Descendants of King Henry III of England 1207-1272

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England x 1

Margaret Dunkeld Queen Consort Norway x 1

Alexander Dunkeld Prince Scotland x 1

Margaret "Maid of Norway" I Queen Scotland x 1

Charles "Bad" II King Navarre x 1

Henry IV King England x 1

Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France x 1

King Louis of Naples x 1

King Henry V of England x 1

Edward "The Philosopher" I King Portugal x 1

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France x 1

Margaret Stewart Dauphine of France x 1

Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England x 1

King James II of Scotland x 1

Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England x 1

King Edward IV of England x 2

Isabella Queen Castile x 1

King James III of Scotland x 1

King Richard III of England x 2

John II King Portugal x 1

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 1

Louis XII King France x 2

Joan Valois Queen Consort France x 1

Elizabeth York Queen Consort England x 1

Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal x 1

Charles VIII King France x 1

King Edward V of England x 1

Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon x 2

King Henry VIII of England and Ireland x 1

Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre x 4

King Francis I of France x 4

Charles V Holy Roman Emperor x 4

Queen Anne Boleyn of England x 4

Isabella of Austria Queen Consort Denmark and Norway x 4

Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor x 4

King Henry II of Navarre x 1

Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal x 4

King James V of Scotland x 1

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 1

Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England x 3

Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland x 8

King Henry II of France x 2

Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor x 1

Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre x 4

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland x 4

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 6

King Edward VI of England and Ireland x 2

Louis VI Elector Palatine x 1

Mary Queen of Scots x 8

Henry IV King France x 6

Sebastian King Portugal x 4

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland x 3

Maximilian "The Great" Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria I Elector Bavaria x 11

Ferdinand of Spain II Holy Roman Emperor x 3

Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine x 3

John IV King Portugal x 2

Philip IV King Spain x 3

Ferdinand King Bohemia III Holy Roman Emperor x 11

Frederick William "Great Elector" Hohenzollern Elector Brandenburg x 3

Ferdinand King Bohemia IV King Romans x 3

Louis "Sun King" XIV King France x 3

Leopold Habsburg Spain I Holy Roman Emperor x 3

Charles "Bewitched" II King Spain x 3

Maximilian Wittelsbach II Elector Bavaria x 11

Victor Amadeus King Sardinia x 20

Frederick IV King Denmark and Norway x 3

Frederick I King Sweden x 6

Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor x 4

Louis Bourbon Duke Burgundy x 11

Philippe V King Spain x 11

Charles Habsburg Spain VI Holy Roman Emperor x 4

Charles Emmanuel III King Sardinia x 3

Louis I King Spain x 3

Francis I Holy Roman Emperor x 9

Louis XV King France x 14

Ferdinand VI King Spain x 3

President George Washington x 2

William Elector of Hesse x 6

King Louis Philippe I of France x 3

King Christian IX of Denmark x 6

Frederick VIII King Denmark x 6

Alexandra Glücksburg Queen Consort England x 6

George I King Greece x 6

Gustav V King Sweden x 6

George V King United Kingdom x 6

Victoria Mary Teck Queen Consort England x 12

Frederick Charles I King Finland x 6

King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom x 12

King George VI of the United Kingdom x 12

Olav Glücksburg V King Norway x 6

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 352

Constantine II King Hellenes x 6

Carl XVI King Sweden x 6

Ancestors of King Henry III of England 1207-1272

Great x 1 Grandfather: Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy

GrandFather: King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Empress Matilda Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Father: King John "Lackland" of England Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine

King Henry III of England Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Mother: Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Peter Courtenay

GrandMother: Alice Courtenay Countess Angoulême

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Courtenay