Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans [Map]

St Albans, Hertfordshire is in Hertfordshire.

1290 Eleanor Crosses

1381 Peasants' Revolt

1447 Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Book 6 Nero. To all the disasters and abuses thus caused by the prince there were added certain accidents of fortune; a plague which in a single autumn entered thirty thousand deaths in the accounts of Libitina;​123 a disaster in Britain, where two important towns were sacked​124 and great numbers of citizens and allies were butchered; a shameful defeat in the Orient, in consequence of which the legions in Armenia were•sent under the yoke and Syria was all but lost. It is surprising and of special note that all this time he bore nothing with more patience than the curses and abuse of the people, and was particularly lenient towards those who assailed him with gibes and lampoons. 2 Of these many were posted or circulated both in Greek and Latin, for example the following:

Nero, Orestes, Alcmeon their mothers slew."

"A calculation new. Nero his mother slew."​125

"Who can deny the descent from Aeneas' great line of our Nero? One his mother took off, the other one took off his sire."

"While our ruler his lyre doth twang and the Parthian his bowstring, Paean-singer our prince shall be, and Far-darter our foe."

"Rome is becoming one house; off with you to Veii, Quirites! If that house does not soon seize upon Veii as well."

He made no effort, however, to find the authors; in fact, when some of them were reported to the senate by an informer, he forbade their being very severely punished.

As he was passing along a public street, the Cynic Isidorus loudly taunted him, "because he was a good singer of the ills of Nauplius, but made ill use of his own goods." Datus also, an actor of Atellan farces, in a song beginning:

"Farewell to thee, father; farewell to thee, mother,"

represented drinking and swimming in pantomime, referring of course to the death of Claudius and Agrippina; and in the final tag,

"Orcus guides your steps,"

he indicated the senate by a gesture.​126 Nero contented himself with banishing the actor and the philosopher from the city, either because he was impervious p161 to all insults, or to avoid sharpening men's wits by showing his vexation.

Note 123. Venus Libitina, in whose temple funeral outfits and a register of deaths were kept; cf. Hor. Serm. II.6, 19.

Note 124. Camulodunum (Meldon [Map]) and Verulamium (St. Albans [Map]); according to Xiphilinus (61.1) 80,000 perished. The revolt by Boudica Queen of the Iceni.

Note 125. See the reference to the Rh. Mus. in the textual note. The numerical value of the Greek letters in Nero's name (1005) is the same as that of the rest of the sentence; hence we have an equation, Nero = the slayer of one's own mother.

Note 126 Referring to Nero's design mentioned in chap. xxxvii.3.

Around 1192 Joan Nouwell was born to Geoffrey Nouwell at St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map].

Eleanor Crosses

On 12 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (deceased) body rested at St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map].

Peasants' Revolt

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map] in the presence of King Richard II of England (age 14).

Around Sep 1429 Richard Hankford (age 32) was knighted at St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map].

Second Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (age 39) roode to Synt Albonys [Map], and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (age 32), the Erle of Arundelle (age 43), the Lord Bouser (age 30), the Lord Bonvyle (age 68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Ml men. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (age 30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore said; and her mayny and every lord is men bare her lordys leverey, that every man mighte knowe his owne feleschippe by his lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lord bare the Pryncys (age 7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge is fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and some were take and spoylyd out of her harnysse by the way as they fledde. And some of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit is to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl [Map]; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for some were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And son aftyr the bocher, for schame of his sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as it is said, hynge him selfe; and some men said that it was for loste of his goode, but dede he ys-God knowythe the trought.

And in the myddys of the batayle King Harry (age 39) wente unto his Quene (age 30) and for-soke alle his lordys, ande truste better to her party thenne unto his owne lordys. And then thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) a schapyd a-waye; the Byschoppe of Exceter (age 29), that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lord Bouser (age 30), whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lord Bonevyle (age 68) was be-heddyd, the common sayynge that his longage causyd him to dye. The Prynce (age 7) was jugge is owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel (age 65). The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys (age 39) party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd it full stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake her raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe them in towne of Synt Albonys [Map], and then alle [t]yng was to seke and out of ordyr, for her pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene (age 30) was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle her gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete mighty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they might schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute this iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr it by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute out at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as full of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they might stonde. And whenn her schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, then there might noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe him sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse full of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man might bryse it to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he might hale it a brode, then hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle this ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf it were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry (age 39). There fore it is moche lefte, and men take them to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe her vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men is alle the tryste.

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 26), Henry Roos and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12) and Thomas Tresham (age 41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 30) was captured. Robert Poynings (age 42) and James Luttrell (age 34) were killed.

John Grey (age 29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) subsequently married King Edward IV of England (age 18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) and Thomas Kyriell (age 65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (age 39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 2nd Baroness Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell (age 65) was beheaded.

William Cotton (age 21) was killed.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 303. 4438. Hennege to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55).

The King (age 37) begs you to be of good comfort, and do as he does. He is sorry that you are so far off, and thinks that if you were at St. Alban's [Map] you might every hour hear the one of the other, and his physicians attend upon you, should anything happen. News is come of the death of Sir William Compton (age 46). Suits are made for his offices, and the King wishes to have a bill of them. All are in good health at the Court, and they that sickened on Sunday night are recovered. The King (age 37) is merry, and pleased with your "mynone house" here. Tuesday.

P.S.-I will not ask for any of those offices for myself, considering the little time I have been in the King's service. The King sent for Mr. Herytage today, to make a new window in your closet, because it is so little.

In 1560 Bishop Robert Wright was born at St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Dec 1685. I accompanied my Lord Lieutenant as far as St. Alban's [Map], there going out of towne with him neere 200 coaches of all the greate officers and nobilitie. The next morning taking leave, I return'd to London.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jul 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin (age 39) and his brother Sir William (age 48) to St. Alban's [Map], to see a library he would have bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright [NOTE. Assume Cartwright a typo for Carter], late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection of books, especially in divinity; he was to give £300 for them. Having seen the GREAT CHURCH [Map], now newly repaired by a public contribution, we returned home.

In 1815 Mildred Porteus (age 70) died at St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map].

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section XIII. This was not the usual route from those parts of the kingdom to London. The ordinary route in those times was from Stamford by Walmesford to Huntingdon, and from thence by Royston, Puckeridge, and Cheshunt. But it was intended that the august procession should pass through a more frequented part of the country, where the Queen was well known. It was also a part of the plan to take some of the greater religious houses by the way, and to have suitable places at which to rest: hence the deviation from the direct line from Stratford to Dunstable, to take in Woburn.

We have two notices of occurrences in this solemnity. One of what passed at Dunstable, the other Walsingham's account of what was done at Saint Alban's.

They enable us to form some idea of what was done at other places where the body rested. In the Annals of Dunstableh. we read that the body rested there one night, and that there was given to the house two rich cloths of Baudekyn and fourscore pounds of wax and more, and that when the procession left Dunstable [Map] the herse remained standing "in medio Fori [in the middle of the Forum]" says the printed copy, a manifest error for "in medio Chori," meaning in the midst of the choir of the Priory-church there. I need not say that by "herse" is meant a temporary frame of wood on which the coffin was placed, covered with black cloth. The Annals further say that the herse remained standing until the Chancellor and other eminent persons came to Dunstable and marked out the place on which the Memorial Cross was to be erected. When the procession approached Saint Alban's [Map], the whole Convent "solemniter revestitus in capis [solemnly clothed on the head]" went out to meet it as far as the church of Saint Michael at the entrance of the town. The body was taken immediately to their church and placed before the high altar, and all night long the whole convent was engaged in divine offices and holy vigils. The words of Walsingham, few and simple as they are, call up a very impressive spectacle. But if this were a proper occasion to introduce any thing for which we have no special evidence, and only know that it must have existed from what we can collect of the usages of the time, and from the common principles of human nature, it would be easy to shew that this funeral procession was one of the most striking spectacles that England ever witnessed.

Vesta Monumenta. Plate 1.8: Engraving of a Plan of Ancient Verulamium [Map]

Plate 1.8 of Vetusta Monumenta features an extensively labeled map of the Roman remains of Verulamium with inset images of two ancient British coins and a section of Roman wall. Engraving by George Vertue after William Stukeley. Published by the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1721. Current location: Stukeley's original map is preserved at the Society of Antiquaries of London; the Roman ruins today are encompassed by the modern city of St. Alban's in Hertfordshire, UK.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, Bull Inn

Roger Whitley's Diary. 06 Feb 1690. Thursday, severall people came to take leave of us (Tovey, Kent, Kenrick, brother &c). we took 3 coaches, set out past 8; stayd awhile at the Greene Man in Barnet; dined at Bull in St Albans; lay at the Sugar Loaf (the Crowne being full) at Dunstable.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, Holywell House

On 05 Jun 1660 Sarah Jennings Duchess of Marlborough was born to Richard Jennings (age 41) and Frances Thornhurst at Holywell House, St Albans.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, Old Gorhambury House

On 20 Feb 1579 Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper (age 68) died at Old Gorhambury House, St Albans.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, Romeland

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, 3 Romeland

On 23 Apr 1914 Edward Robert Hughes (age 62) died after an operation for appendicitis at his home 3 Romeland.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, St Alban's Cathedral [Map]

Abbot John Whethamstede’s Chronicle of the Abbey of St Albans.

Available at Amazon in paperback and Ebook.

Abbot John Whethamstede's Register aka Chronicle of his second term at the Abbey of St Albans [Map], 1452-1461, is a remarkable text that describes his first-hand experience of the beginning of the Wars of the Roses including the First and Second Battles of St Albans, 1455 and 1461, respectively, their cause, and their consequences, not least on the Abbey itself. His text also includes Loveday, Blore Heath, Northampton, the Act of Accord, Wakefield, and Towton, and ends with the Coronation of King Edward IV. In addition to the events of the Wars of the Roses, Abbot John, or his scribes who wrote the Chronicle, include details in the life of the Abbey such as charters, letters, land exchanges, visits by legates, and disputes, which provide a rich insight into the day-to-day life of the Abbey, and the challenges faced by its Abbot.

Flowers of History. 24 Apr 1071. Lanfranc (age 66), abbot of Caen, was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, on the twenty-fourth of April. And this Lanfranc (age 66), when archbishop, established the order of monks according to the rule of Saint Benedict in many of the convents of England. And he did so, first of all, in the church of Canterbury; after that, in the church of Saint Alban [Map], the protomartyr of the English, where also, when the abbot Frederic died, he appointed his [Lanfranc's] nephew Paul as his successor; who, relying on the support of his uncle (age 66), restored the church, and reformed the brotherhood, which had fallen into some irregularities.

Between 1076 and 1088 Robert de Todeni and his wife founded Belvoir Priory [Map] as a Priory of St Alban's Abbey [Map].

Chronica Majora. Before 24 Jun 1237. In the same year, the emperor Frederick (age 42), by special messengers and imperial letters, summoned all the great Christian princes of the world to assemble on the day of St. John the Baptist's nativity, at Vaucouleurs, which is on the confines, or near the confines, of the empire and the French kingdom, there to discuss some difficult matters concerning the empire as well as the kingdom. The king of France, as if entertaining suspicion of this conference, proceeded at the time fixed to the place appointed, attended by a large army, which he had assembled for the purpose, and thus set dreadful and pernicious example to others, inasmuch as he went to discuss matters of peace in the same way as he would to attack his enemies. The king of England (age 29) made reasonable excuses for not coming in person; but sent a peaceful embassy, consisting of some of the chief men of the kingdom; namely, Richard earl of Cornwall (age 28), his brother, with some other nobles, fit to manage a conference, under the guidance of the venerable archbishop of York (age 57) and the bishop of Ely, and other trustworthy persons selected for the purpose. The bishop of Winchester, although selected before all others, absolutely refused to go, and, not without reason, gave the following as the cause for excusing himself: "My lord king," said he "you lately laid a heavy complaint against me before the emperor, telling him that I, with some other nobles, disturbed your kingdom: whether you did this with justice, or unjustly, God knows; but I trust that I have saved my conscience in every respect. But if your words were now placed with confidence in my mouth and in your letters, and should declare that I was a familar and faithful friend of yours; all this would appear as contrary, and he would accuse both you and me of instability; and this would blacken your fame in a great degree. Therefore, because it would be manifestly to your dishonour, I will not go on any account." And in the opinion of many, this reply gave sufficient excuse for him. When all preparations had been made, and they were all ready to set sail on this journey, they were met by letters from the emperor, to say that he could not go to the conference then, as he had purposed; but that what he could not do then, should, by God's favour, be carried into effect on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the following year; and thus each and all of them returned without effecting anything. In this year, on the day of the Supper, the bishop of Hereford consecrated the holy unction in the church of St. Albans [Map]. About this time, too, John Scott (deceased), earl of Chester, closed his life about Whitsuntide, having been poisoned by the agency of his wife (age 19), the daughter of Llewellyn (age 65). The life of the bishop of Lincoln (age 69), too, was also attempted by the same means, and he was with difficulty recalled from the gates of death. In the same year, in the week before Whitsuntide, there fell storms of hail which exceeded the size of apples, killing the sheep; and they were followed by continued rain.

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 44), Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 41), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 47) and Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 58).

On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) died at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [Map]. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral [Map]. Duke Gloucester, Earl Pembroke extinct. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales six years later.

After 22 May 1455 Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49), Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (deceased) and Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (deceased) were buried at St Alban's Cathedral [Map].

On 09 Aug 1683 Archdeacon Edward Carter was appointed Archdeacon of St Albans.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jul 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin (age 39) and his brother Sir William (age 48) to St. Alban's [Map], to see a library he would have bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright [NOTE. Assume Cartwright a typo for Carter], late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection of books, especially in divinity; he was to give £300 for them. Having seen the GREAT CHURCH [Map], now newly repaired by a public contribution, we returned home.

On 29 Apr 1905 Edmund Beckett 1st Baron Grimthorpe (age 88) died after a fall. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral [Map]. His nephew Ernest William Beckett 2nd Baron Grimthorpe (age 48) succeeded 2nd Baron Grimthorpe, 6th Baronet Beckett of Leeds.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans School

Around 1805 Bishop Aubrey Spencer (age 9) educated at St Albans School, Hertfordshire.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, St Peter's Street

The Chronicle of St Albans by Abbot John Whethamstede. 22 May 1455. The King, accompanied by nobles and various armed men, came to the town of St. Albans, and there in the midst of St. Peter's Street, engaged in a great battle or conflict with the Duke of York (age 43). Finally, with his side succumbing, he withdrew to a private location. And the original cause or occasion of that war, or conflict, was as follows:

Indeed, it happened in times past, while the Duchy of Normandy remained under the dominion of the King, and the King used to appoint there an illustrious lord who would hold his place and maintain the newly subjected people in peace and tranquillity through the administration of justice, that after the death of the illustrious, and truly illustrious, Prince, Lord John, Duke of Bedford , who had ruled there for a long time, the King, on the advice of his Council, directed the Duke of York, his fairly close kinsman, to that place, and entrusted him with the governance of that land for a period of five years, assigning a suitable stipend for his soldiers.

Rex cum proceribus, virisque armatis variis, ad villam Sancti Albani venit, ibidemque in medio Vici Sancti Petri grande habens bellum, sive conflictum, cum Domino Duce Eboraci, tandem, subcumbente sua parte, ad privatum locum se subtraxit. Et erat belli istius, sive conflictus, causa originalis, sive occasio, talis.—

Dudum siquidem, dum Ducatus Normanniæ sub ditione Regis subsisteret, soleretque Rex dirigere illuc illustrem dominum aliquem, qui teneret ibidem suum locum, et populum, noviter subjectum, in pace et tranquillitate per ministrationem justitiæ conservaret, accidit ut, post mortem illustris, et vere illustris, Principis, Domini Johannis, Ducis Bedfordiæ, qui ibidem per tempora longa regimen legitur. habuisse, Rex, de avisamento sui Concilii, Dominum Ducem Eboraci, suum in gradu satis propinquo consanguineum, illuc dirigeret, sibique per quinquennium commisit patriæ illius regimen, ac stipendium congruum pro suis stipendiariis assignaret.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, Verlamion [Map]

20BC. Verlamion, Hertfordshire [Map] was an Iron Age settlement of the Catuvellauni.

Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Hertfordshire, St Albans, Verulamium [Map]

Around 50AD the Roman settlement of Verulamium, Hertfordshire [Map] was granted the rank of municipium.

Watling Street 1d Marble Arch to St Albans. From Marble Arch [Map] Watling Street continues north-west along the Edgeware Road, Maida Vale [Map], Cricklewood [Map], Sulloniacis [Map], Radlett, Hertfordshire [Map], Park Street, Hertfordshire [Map] to Verulamium, Hertfordshire [Map] aka St Albans.