1270-1299 Welsh and Scottish Wars

1270-1299 Welsh and Scottish Wars is in 13th Century Events.

Murder of Henry of Almain

New Chronicle by Villani Chapter 39. 13 Mar 1271. And now we return to our chief subject — how was slain Count Henry, earl of Cornwall (age 35), brother [cousin] of King Edward, in revenge for this, as we said before. The court was greatly disturbed, giving much blame therefor to King Charles, who ought not to have suffered this if he knew thereof, and if he did not know it he ought not to have let it go unavenged. But the said Count Guy (age 27), being provided with a company of men-at-arms on horse and on foot, was not content only with having done the said murder; forasmuch as a cavalier asked him what he had done, and he replied, “J’ai fait ma vangeance,” [I took my revenge] and that cavalier said, “Comment? Votre père fut trainé;” [How? Your father was dragged] and immediately he returned to the church, and took Henry by the hair, and dead as he was, he dragged him vilely without the church; and when he had done the said sacrilege and homicide, he departed from Viterbo, and came safe and sound into Maremma to the lands of Count Rosso, his father-in-law. By reason of the death of the said Henry, Edward, his brother, very wrathful and indignant against King Charles, departed from Viterbo, and came with his followers through Tuscany, and abode in Florence, and knighted many citizens, giving them horses and all knightly accoutrements very nobly, and then he came into England, and set the heart of his said brother in a golden cup upon a pillar at the head of London Bridge over the river Thames, to keep the English in mind of the outrage sustained. For the which thing, Edward, after he became king, was never friendly towards King Charles, nor to his folk. After like manner, Philip, king of France, departed with his folk, and came and dwelt many days in Florence; and when he was come into France, he buried the body of the good King Louis, his father with great honour, and had himself crowned with great solemnity at Rheims.

On 13 Mar 1271 Henry "Almain" Cornwall (age 35) was murdered while attending mass at the Chiesa di San Silvestro Viterbo Lazio by his cousins Simon "Younger" Montfort and Guy Montfort Count Nola (age 27) in revenge for the deaths of their father Simon and older brother Henry at the Battle of Evesham.

The murder was carried out in the presence of the Cardinals, who were conducting a papal Election, King Philip III of France (age 25), and King Charles of Sicily (age 43). The Montfort brothers were excommunicated

The deed is mentioned by Dante Alighieri some forty years after in the Divine Comedy who placed Guy de Montfort in the seventh circle of hell. Henry "Almain" Cornwall (age 35) was buried in Hailes Abbey [Map].

Divine Comedy Canto 12. Then I turned me to the Poet, and he said, "Let him now be first, and I second." A little further on the Centaur stopped above some folk who far as the throat were seen to issue from that boiling stream. He showed to us at one side a solitary shade, and said, "He cleft, in the bosom of God, the heart that still is honored on the Thames."1 Then I saw folk, who out of the stream held their head, and even all their chest; and of these I recognized many. Thus ever more and more shallow became that blood, until it cooked only the feet: and here was our passage of the foss.

Note 1. In 1271, Prince Henry, son of Richard of Cornwall, was stabbed during the mass, in a church at Viterbo, by Guy of Montfort, to avenge the death of his father, Simon, Earl of Leicester, in 1261. The heart of the young Prince was placed in a golden cup, as Villani (vii. 39) reports, on a column, at the head of a bridge in London.

Death of Henry III

Second Council of Lyons

In 1272 Bishop Thomas Cantilupe (age 54) attended the Second Council of Lyons.

Coronation Edward I

Welsh Wars

Treaty of Aberconwy

In 1277 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 37) and Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44) signed the Treaty of Aberconwy by which Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44) agreed that Welsh self-rule would end with the death of Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44). As part of the Treaty Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 45) was released from Dolbadarn Castle [Map].

Night of St Gertrude

On 16 Mar 1278 William Jülich IV Count Jülich (age 68) and his son William Jülich (age 38) were killed. He and his two sons William and Roland (his natural son), had entered the town of Aachen to collect taxes for King Rudolph I of Germany (age 59). There was a riot and William and his sons were killed. The city of Aachen was later ordered to pay a high compensation to William's widow Richardis (age 63) as compensation for his murder.

Marriage of King John of Scotland and Isabella Warenne

On 09 Feb 1281 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland (age 32) and Isabella Warenne were married. She the daughter of John Warenne 6th Earl of Surrey (age 50) and Alice Lusignan Countess of Surrey. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Battle of Llandeilo Fawr

On 17 Jun 1282 the army of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 38) were ambushed by the Welsh at Llandeilo.

William "The Younger" Valence was killed.

Much of Gilbert Clare's (age 38) army of 1600 men was destroyed.

Battle of Moel y don

On 12 Nov 1282 the English forces attempted to cross the Menai Straits to invade Gwynedd without waiting for the arrival of Edward's larger force. The battle was a rout. Roger Clifford (age 39) drowned. The brothers William Burnell and Philip Burnell were killed.

Battle of Orewin Bridge

On 11 Dec 1282 an English force including John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield (age 50), Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn Mathrafal Prince Powys Wenwynwyn (age 71) and Owen de la Pole Mathrafal 1st Lord Powis (age 25) defeated a Welsh force at Builth Wells [Map] during the Battle of Orewin Bridge. The Welsh leader Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 49) was killed effectively bringing to an end the independence of Wales.

Treaty of Rheinfelden

On 01 Jun 1283 the Treaty of Rheinfelden was the first treaty to determine the Habsburg order of succession.

On 01 May 1308 Albert Habsburg I Duke Austria (age 52) was murdered by his nephew John "Parricide" Habsburg (age 18) who he had deprived of his inheritance when Albert Habsburg I Duke Austria (age 52) forced John's (age 18) eleven year old father Rudolf Habsburg II Duke Austria to waive his rights to the Habsburg duchies of Austria and Styria as part of the Treaty of Rheinfelden.

Antony Bek Enthroned as Bishop of Durham

On 25 Dec 1285 Bishop Antony Bek (age 40) was enthroned at Durham Cathedral [Map].

Charles "Bad" II King Navarre succeeded by Charles III King Navarre

On 01 Jan 1387 Charles "Bad" II King Navarre (age 54) died. His son Charles III King Navarre (age 26) succeeded III King Navarre. Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort Navarre (age 24) by marriage Queen Consort Navarre.

Battle of the Counts

On 23 Apr 1287 Guy Montfort Count Nola (age 43) was captured during the Battle of the Counts.

1287 Great Storm

On 14 Dec 1287 a great storm caused a significant number of deaths on both sides of the English Channel. In the Low Countries around 50,000 people are believed to have died. In England hundreds were killed. The port of New Romney was so changed as to be replaced by Rye [Map] through which the course of the River Rother now ran. The port of Dunwich, Suffolk never recovered from the storm and thereafter declined.

Death of Eleanor of Castile

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section XIII. The corpse (age 49) was opened and embalmed. The heart was reserved to be deposited, probably at her own desire, in the church of the Friars Predicants in London. What else was removed was interred in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin in the Minster at Lincoln [Map]. Writs are found tested by the King (age 51) at Lincoln on the 2nd and 3rd of December. On the 5th they are tested at Casterton, which is on the road from Grantham to Stamford; on the 9th at Northampton; on the 13th at Saint Alban's and London. It is manifest, therefore, that the funeral procession, in which the King was personally present, must have set out very soon after the death. It would seem that the body was taken from Hardby to Lincoln, and that the procession set out from Lincoln on the morning of the 4th.

On 28 Nov 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 49) died at Harby Manor. Her viscera were buried at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

Coronation of John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland

On 30 Nov 1292 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland (age 43) was crowned I King Scotland.

Siege of Conwy Castle

In Dec 1294 Madog ap Llywelyn besieged King England in Conwy Castle [Map] for three months.

Battle of Maes Moydog

On 05 Mar 1295 William Beauchamp 9th Earl Warwick (age 58) defeated the army of Madog ap Llywelyn during the Battle of Maes Moydog at Llanfair Caereinion, Montgomeryshire [Map]. English losses were around 100 dead, Welsh around 700.

First War of Scottish Independence

1296 Capture of Berwick

On 30 Mar 1296 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 21) captured Berwick on Tweed [Map] from William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas (age 56). Richard Cornwall (age 44) was killed during the course of the siege.'When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.' - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower's Scotichronicon.

Battle of Dunbar

On 27 Apr 1296 Battle of Dunbar was fought between John Warenne 6th Earl of Surrey (age 65) and John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland (age 47), his son in law. John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl (age 30) and John Comyn 3rd Earl Buchan were captured. The English routed the disorganised Scots in a single charge. Few died; many were captured.

1295 Edward I Creates New Barons 36th Parliament

On 24 Jun 1295 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 56) created new baronies through writs for summons to his 36th Parliament

John Montfort 1st Baron Montfort (age 31) was created 1st Baron Montfort. Alice Plaunche Baroness Montfort by marriage Baroness Montfort.

Walter Fauconberg 1st Baron Fauconberg (age 75) was created 1st Baron Fauconberg.

Thomas Furnival 1st Baron Furnivall (age 35) was created 1st Baron Furnivall. Joan Despencer Baroness Furnivall (age 37) by marriage Baroness Furnivall.

Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter (age 48) was created 1st Baron Fitzwalter. Eleanor Ferrers Baroness Fitzwalter by marriage Baroness Fitzwalter.

Ralph Basset 1st Baron Basset Drayton (age 31) was created 1st Baron Basset Drayton. Hawise Grey Baroness Basset Drayton (age 40) by marriage Baroness Basset Drayton.

The following Baronies may have been created at the 36th Parliament or the 37th Parliament summoned on 30 Sep 1295.

John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell (age 27) was created 1st Baron Wake of Liddell.

Andrew Astley 1st Baron Astley (age 49) was created 1st Baron Astley.

Thomas Berkeley 6th and 1st Baron Berkeley (age 49) was created 1st Baron Berkeley. Joan Ferrers Baroness Berkeley by marriage Baroness Berkeley.

Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey of Wilton (age 55) was created 1st Baron Grey of Wilton. Maud Fitzhugh Baroness Grey Wilton (age 73) by marriage Baroness Grey of Wilton.

John Hastings 13th Baron Bergavenny 1st Baron Hastings (age 33) was created 1st Baron Hastings by a summons to Parliament. Isabel Valence Baroness Bergavenny Baroness Hastings by marriage Baroness Hastings.

Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 32) was created 1st Baron Neville Raby. Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby (age 28) by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

John Beke 1st Baron Beke (age 72) was created 1st Baron Beke (although there is some doubt whether he was created Baron).

Fulk Fitzwarin 1st Baron Fitzwarin (age 43) was created 1st Baron Fitzwarin.

Marriage of Princess Elizabeth and John of Holland

On 08 Jan 1297 John Gerulfing I Count Holland (age 13) and Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex, Hereford and Holland (age 14) were married at Ipswich, Suffolk [Map]. She by marriage Countess Holland. The wedding was attended by her sister Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant (age 21), her father King Edward I (age 57), her brother Edward (age 12) and her future second husband Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 21). She the daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 57) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England. He the son of Floris Gerulfing V Count Holland and Beatrix Dampierre.

Battle of Furnes

On 20 Aug 1297 Philip Artois (age 29) was wounded during the Battle of Furnes.

Battle of Stirling Bridge

On 11 Sep 1297 the combined forces of Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeated the forces of John Warenne 6th Earl of Surrey (age 66) near Stirling Bridge, Stirling during the Battle of Stirling Bridge. After around half the English had crossed the narrow bridge the Scots attacked subjecting the English to a significant defeat.

Edward I 43rd Parliament

In 1298 Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu (age 48) attended Edward I 43rd Parliament at York [Map].

Battle of Falkirk

On 22 Jul 1298 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 59) defeated the Scottish army led by William Wallace during the Battle of Falkirk at Falkirk [Map] using archers to firstly attack the Scottish shiltrons with the heavy cavalry with infantry completing the defeat.

John de Graham and John Stewart of Bonkyll (age 52) were killed.

The English were described in the Falkirk Roll that lists 111 men with their armorials including:

Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 26).

Walter Beauchamp (age 55).

Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk (age 53).

Humphrey Bohun 3rd Earl Hereford 2nd Earl Essex (age 49).

Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 24).

Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester (age 37).

William Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 26).

Thomas Berkeley 6th and 1st Baron Berkeley (age 52).

Maurice Berkeley 7th and 2nd Baron Berkeley (age 27).

Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey of Codnor (age 43).

Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey of Wilton (age 58).

John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Wilton (age 30).

John Mohun 1st Baron Dunster (age 29).

Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu (age 48).

Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 11).

William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley (age 43).

John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave (age 42).

Nicholas Segrave (age 42).

Robert de Vere 6th Earl of Oxford (age 41).

Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby (age 30).

Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 20).

Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster (age 17).

John Warenne 6th Earl of Surrey (age 67).

Henry Percy 9th and 1st Baron Percy (age 25).

Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon (age 21).

Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl of Arundel (age 31).

Henry Beaumont Earl Buchan (age 19).

John Capet II Duke Brittany (age 59).

Philip Darcy (age 40).

Robert Fitzroger.

Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter (age 51), or possiby a Roger Fitzwalter?.

Simon Fraser.

Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 23).

John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell (age 30), and.

Henry Lacy 4th Earl Lincoln, Earl Salisbury (age 47).

William Scrope (age 53) was knighted.

John Moels 1st Baron Moels (age 29) fought.

John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel (age 44) fought.

1299 Edward I Creates New Barons

On 06 Feb 1299 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 59) created a number of new Barons by writ of summons to Edward's 44th Parliament ...

John Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 27) was created 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley.

John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel (age 45) was created 1st Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh. Joan Ros Baroness Lovel (age 39) by marriage Baroness Lovel of Titchmarsh.

William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley (age 44) was created 1st Baron Ros Helmsley. Maud Vaux Baroness Ros (age 42) by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley.

William Devereux 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall (age 55) was created 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall. Lucy Burnell Baroness Devereux Lyonshall by marriage Baroness Devereux Lyonshall.

Adam Welles 1st Baron Welles (age 50) was created 1st Baron Welles. Joan D'Engayne Baroness Welles and Ughtred by marriage Baroness Welles.

Robert Clinton 1st Baron Clinton (age 41) was created 1st Baron Clinton. Ida Odingsells Baroness Clinton (age 34) by marriage Baroness Clinton.

John Moels 1st Baron Moels (age 30) was created 1st Baron Moels.

The next baronies may not have been created on 06 Feb 1299 but were created in 1299 possibly for Edward's 45th and 46th Parliaments on 10 Apr 1299 and 21 Sep 1299 respectively.

Edmund Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt (age 49) was created 1st Baron Deincourt.

John Strange 1st Baron Strange Knockin (age 46) was created 1st Baron Strange Knockin. Maud Eiville Baroness Strange Knockin by marriage Baroness Strange Knockin.

John St John 1st Baron St John Lagenham (age 49) was created 1st Baron St John of Lagenham.

Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 24) was created 1st Baron de Clifford. Maud Clare Baroness Clifford Baroness Welles (age 23) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey of Codnor (age 44) was created 1st Baron Grey of Codnor. Eleanor Courtenay Baroness Grey Codnor by marriage Baroness Grey of Codnor.

John Mohun 1st Baron Dunster (age 30) was created 1st Baron Mohun of Dunster. Ada Tiptoft Baroness Dunster (age 24) by marriage Baroness Mohun of Dunster.

Roger Scales 1st Baron Scales was created 1st Baron Scales.

John St John 1st Baron St John of Basing (age 25) was created 1st Baron St John of Basing.

John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset (age 24) was created 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset.

Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby (age 31) was created 1st Baron Zouche Ashby.

Henry Percy 9th and 1st Baron Percy (age 25) was created 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick. Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy (age 15) by marriage Baroness Percy of Alnwick.

William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison (age 37) was created 1st Baron Grandison. Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison by marriage Baroness Grandison. His brother was also created Baron Grandison on the same day.

Otto Grandison 1st Baron Grandison (age 61) was created 1st Baron Grandison. His brother was also created Baron Grandison on the same day.

Thomas de Multon 1st Baron Multon (age 22) was created 1st Baron Multon Egremont. Eleanor Burgh Baroness Multon Egremont (age 17) by marriage Baroness Multon Egremont.

Edward I and Margaret of France Wedding

On 08 Sep 1299 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 60) and Margaret of France Queen Consort England (age 20) were married at Canterbury Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 39 years. She the daughter of Philip "Bold" III King France and Maria Reginar Queen Consort France (age 43). He the son of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England. They were first cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 27) was present.