1380-1389 Peasants' Revolt and Lords Appellant

1380-1389 Peasants' Revolt and Lords Appellant is in 14th Century Events.

Peasants' Revolt

Around Jun 1381 John Ball was released from Maidstone Prison by the Kentish rebels. He then preached to the rebels at Blackheath, Greenwich [Map]: "When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman? From the beginning all men by nature were created alike, and our bondage or servitude came in by the unjust oppression of naughty men. For if God would have had any bondmen from the beginning, he would have appointed who should be bond, and who free. And therefore I exhort you to consider that now the time is come, appointed to us by God, in which ye may (if ye will) cast off the yoke of bondage, and recover liberty". When the rebels had dispersed, Ball was taken prisoner at Coventry [Map], given a trial in which, unlike most, he was permitted to speak.

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. 12 Jun 1381. During this king Richard’s reign great things were looked for. But he being of tender years, others, who had the care of him and his kingdom, did not cease to inflict on the land acts of wantonness, extortions, and unbearable wrongs. Whence sprang that unnatural deed, when the commons of the land, and specially those of Kent and Essex [Peasants' Revolt], under their wretched leader Jack Straw1, declaring that they could no longer bear such wrongs, and above all wrongs of taxes and subsidies, rose in overwhelming numbers against the lords and the king’s officers, and, marching to London on the eve of Corpus Christi (12th June), in the year of Our Lord 1381 struck off the heads of Simon Sudbury (age 65), archbishop of Canterbury, then the king’s chancellor, sir Robert Hales (age 56), the treasurer, and many others, hard by the Tower of London. And on the places where these lords were beheaded there are set up to this day two marble crosses, a lasting memorial of so monstrous a deed.

Note 1. Wat Tyler is quite lost sight of. Knighton (Rolls series, ij. 137), in like manner, confuses the two men: "ductor eorum proprio nomine Watte Tyler, sed jam nomine mutato vocatus est Jakke Strawe."

On 14 Jun 1381 the mob gained access to the Tower of London [Map] capturing Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 52), the future King Henry IV of England (age 14), Joan Holland Duchess York (age 1) and Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65).

Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral [Map].

Lord Treasurer Robert Hales (age 56), who had only been appointed on the 1st February 1381, was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Calendars. 15 Jun 1381. Commission of oyer and terminer to William Walleworth, mayor of London, Robert Bealknapp, Robert Knolles, Nicholas Brembre, John Philipot, Robert Launde, and William Cheyne, on information that great crowds of labourers and others have collected together, especially in the counties of Essex, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Middlesex, compelled their betters to go with them, killed many of the king's lieges, and burned many houses, entered the city of London, and burned the house of the king's uncle John, duke of Lancaster (age 41), called the 'Sauveye [Map],' and the priory in Clerkenwelle of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and killed Simon, archbishop of Canterbury (deceased) and chancellor, and Robert de Hales (deceased), prior of the said Hospital. By К. June 15. London.

On 15 Jun 1381 John Cavendish (age 35) was captured at Church of St Mary, Cavendish during the Peasants' Revolt. He was beheaded in the Market Place in Bury St Edmunds.

On 15 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England (age 14) met with Wat Tyler at Smithfield [Map]. During the course of the meeting Wat Tyler was wounded by William Walworth. Wat Tyler was then captured and beheaded at Smithfield [Map]. His head was placed on top a pole and carried through the city, then displayed on London Bridge.

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map] in the presence of King Richard II of England (age 14).

Battle of North Walsham

On 25 Jun 1381 Bishop Henry Despencer (age 40) brought the Peasant's Revolt to an end at North Walsham, Norfolk at the Battle of North Walsham.

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 King Richard II of England (age 15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 15) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Bishop Robert Braybrooke. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Charles IV King Bohemia Holy Roman Emperor Luxemburg and Elizabeth Pomerania Holy Roman Empress Luxemburg (age 35). He the son of Edward "Black Prince" and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 53). They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map].

Arranged by Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

On 22 Jan 1382 Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 15) was crowned Queen Consort England by Archbishop William de Courtenay (age 40) (even though he had not received his Pall from the Pope.)

Double Marrige of the Burgundian Court

On 12 Apr 1385 a double wedding of the Burgundian Court was celebrated with brother and sister John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 13) and Margaret Valois Countess Holland (age 10) getting married ...

John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 13) and Margaret Wittelsbach Duchess Burgundy (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Albert Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria (age 48) and Margaret Silesia. He the son of Philip "Bold" Valois II Duke Burgundy (age 43) and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Burgundy (age 37). They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

William Wittelsbach IV Count Holland VI Count Hainault V Count Zeeland (age 20) and Margaret Valois Countess Holland (age 10) were married. She the daughter of Philip "Bold" Valois II Duke Burgundy (age 43) and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Burgundy (age 37). He the son of Albert Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria (age 48) and Margaret Silesia. They were third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 44) was created 1st Duke York by King Richard II of England (age 18). Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 30) by marriage Duchess York.

In 1385 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, and around the same time, 1st Duke Gloucester. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Gloucester (age 19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duchess Gloucester.

Wonderful Parliament

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. Sep 1386. Owing to the many ill-starred crises of king Richard’s (age 19) reign, which were caused by his youth, a solemn parliament was holden at Westminster, wherein twelve of the chief men of the land were advanced, by full provision of parliament, to the government of the king and the kingdom, in order to bridle the wantonness and extravagance of his servants and flatterers, and, in short, to reform the business of the realm; but alas! only to lead to the weary deeds which are hereinafter written1.

Note 1. The actual number of the commissioners appointed by the Wonderful Parliament of 1386 was eleven, or fourteen if the three principal officers of state be included. The eleven were: the archbishops of Canterbury (age 44) and York (age 45), the dukes of York (age 45) and Gloucester (age 31), the bishops of Winchester (age 66) and Exeter, the abbot of Waltham, the earl of Arundel, John de Cobham, Richard le Scrope, and John Devereux. Thomas Arundel (age 33), bishop of Ely, had replaced Michael de la Pole (age 25), earl of Suffolk, as chancellor; John Gilbert, bishop of Hereford, was treasurer; and John de Waltham, keeper of the privy seal. It will be remembered that John of Gaunt (age 46) was at this time in Spain, as a reason for his name not appearing on the commission.

Around Sep 1386 the Wonderful Parliament sought to reform the administration of King Richard II of England (age 19). Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 56) was impeached for his failures in France.

Peter IV King Aragon Dies John I King Aragon Succeeds

On 06 Jan 1387 Peter IV King Aragon (age 67) died. His son King John I of Aragon (age 36) succeeded I King Aragon.

Lords Appellant

In 1387 Bishop Richard Mitford was arrested by Lords Appellant and imprisoned in Bristol Castle, Gloucestershire [Map]. He was then imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. Thereafter he was released without charge.

In 1397 Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 58) was imprisoned at Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London [Map] during the Lords Appellant.

Before 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 42) was imprisoned in Calais [Map] to await trial for treason for being the leader of the Lords Appellant.

Around 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 42) was murdered in Calais [Map] for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Duke Gloucester, Earl Essex forfeit. His son Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham (age 16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham.

Walter Clopton was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

Battle of Radcot Bridge

On 19 Dec 1387 the forces of the Lords Appellant led by the future King Henry IV of England (age 20) prevented the forces of King Richard II of England (age 20) commanded by Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 25) from crossing the bridge [Map] over the River Thames at Radcot in Oxfordshire. When Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 32) arrived with further Lord Appellant forces the King's men were encircled. The King's men attempted to force the crossing of the bridge at which time the only casualties occurred including Thomas Molyneux (age 49) who was killed by Thomas Mortimer (age 37). Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 25) narrowly escaped to France. Around 800 of his men drowned in the marshes whilst trying to escape.

In 1397 Thomas Mortimer (age 47) was charged with treason for having killed Thomas Molyneux at the Battle of Radcot Bridge. Ordered to surrender himself with three months he decided to flee to Scotland.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle, Kent [Map]. He fled to Louvain [Map] where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Baron Beauchamp of Kidderminster forfeit.

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

Walter Clopton pronounced the death sentences.

Battle of Otterburn

Froissart. 05 Aug 1388 or 19 Aug 1388. There began a cruel battle and at the first encounter many were overthrown of both parties; and because the Englishmen were a great number and greatly desired to vanguish their enemies, and rested 1 and greatly did put aback the Scots, so that the Scots were near discomfited. Then the earl James Douglas, who was young and strong and of great desire to get praise and grace, and was willing to deserve to have it, and cared for no pain nor travail, came forth with his banner and cried, 'Douglas, Douglas!' and sir Henry Percy and sir Ralph his brother, who had great indignation against the earl Douglas because he had won the pennon of their arms at the barriers before Newcastle, came to that part and cried, 'Percy!' Their two banners met and their men: there was a sore fight: the Englishmen were so strong and fought so valiantly that they reculed the Scots back. There were two valiant knights of Scots under the banner of the earl Douglas, called sir Patrick of Hepbourn and sir Patrick his son. They acquitted themselves that day valiantly: the earl's banner had been won, an they had not been: they defended it so valiantly and in the rescuing thereof did such feats of arms, that it was greatly to their recommendation and to their heirs' for ever after.

Note 1. In French, 'ilz se arresterent,' without 'and.'

On either 05 Aug 1388 or 19 Aug 1388 a Scottish army commanded by John Swinton defeated an English army commanded by Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 24) during the Battle of Otterburn at Otterburn [Map]. Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 24) and his brother Ralph Percy (age 29) were captured as was Matthew Redman (age 60). The English suffered 1000 killed, 2000 captured. The Scottish 100 killed, 200 captured.

On the Scottish side James Douglas 2nd Earl Douglas (age 30) was killed. His sister Isabel Douglas Countess Mar (age 28) succeeded Countess Mar.

John Dunbar 1st Earl of Moray (age 46) fought.

On 15 Sep 1397 Ralph Percy (age 38) was killed in the Battle of Otterburn or he was captured then executed.

Froissart. Battle of Otterburn. KNIGHTS and squires were of good courage on both parties to fight valiantly: cowards there had no place, but hardiness reigned with goodly feats of arms, for knights and squires were so joined together at hand strokes, that archers had no place of nother party. There the Scots shewed great hardiness and fought merrily with great desire of honour: the Englishmen were three to one: howbeit, I say not but Englishmen did nobly acquit themselves, for ever the Englishmen had rather been slain or taken in the place than to fly. Thus, as I have said, the banners of Douglas and Percy and their men were met each other, envious who should win the honour of that journey. At the beginning the Englishmen were so strong that they reculed back their enemies: then the earl Douglas, who was of great heart and high of enterprise, seeing his men recule back, then to recover the place and to shew knightly valour he took his axe in both his hands, and entered so into the press that he made himself way in such wise, that none durst approach near him, and he was so well armed that he bare well off such strokes as he received1. Thus he went ever forward like a hardy Hector, willing alone to conquer the field and to discomfit his enemies: but at last he was encountered with three spears all at once, the one strake him on the shoulder, the other on the breast and the stroke glinted down to his belly, and the third strake him in the thigh, and sore hurt with all three strokes, so that he was borne perforce to the earth and after that he could not be again relieved. Some of his knights and squires followed him, but not all, for it was night, and no light but by the shining of the moon. The Englishmen knew well they had borne one down to the earth, but they wist not who it was; for if they had known that it had been the earl Douglas, they had been thereof so joyful and so proud that the victory had been theirs. Nor also the Scots knew not of that adventure till the end of the battle; for if they had known it, they should have been so sore despaired and discouraged that they would have fled away. Thus as the earl Douglas was felled to the earth, he was stricken into the head with an axe, and another stroke through the thigh: the Englishmen passed forth and took no heed of him: they thought none otherwise but that they had slain a man of arms. On the other part the earl George de la March and of Dunbar fought right valiantly and gave the Englishmen much ado, and cried, 'Follow Douglas,' and set on the sons of Percy: also earl John of Moray with his banner and men fought valiantly and set fiercely on the Englishmen, and gave them so much to do that they wist not to whom to attend.

Note 1. 'No man was so well armed that he did not fear the great strokes which he gave.'

Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

In Sep 1389 the Scrope vs Grosvenor Case was brought to the Court of Chivalry. Up to that time two families, Scrope and Grosvenor, had been using the armorial Scrope Arms: Azure, a bend or.

Several hundred witnesses were called including John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49), Geoffrey Chaucer (age 46) and John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 64).

On 03 Sep 1386 Owain ap Gruffudd "Glyndŵr" Mathrafal Prince Powys (age 27) gave evidence at the Church of John the Baptist, Chester [Map].

The Court decided in favour of Scrope.

Neither party was happy with the decision so King Richard II (age 22) was called upon to give his personal verdict.

On 27 May 1390 he confirmed that Grosvenor could not bear the undifferenced arms.

As a consequence of the case the Grosvenor has for many years used the name Bendor for horses and nicknames.

Christmas Court

In Dec 1389 King Richard II of England (age 22) held his Christmas Court at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map].