1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War

1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War is in 15th Century Events.

Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 03 Jan 1437. Ande that same year Quene Kateryn (age 35) dyde at Bredmonsey [Map] the iij day of Jany ver.

On 03 Jan 1437 Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 35) died at Bermondsey Abbey [Map]. She had been married aged eighteen to King Henry V of England for two years three months. Their son was King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 15).

After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to Owen Tudor (age 37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Her children Edmund (age 6) and Jasper (age 5) were subsequently placed in the care of Abbess Katherine Pole, then Abbess of Barking. Katherine's brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 40) had the wardship of Edmund's future wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond.

Assassination of King James I of Scotland

On 21 Feb 1437 King James I of Scotland (age 42) was assassinated at Blackfriars. He was buried at Carthusian Charterhouse, Perth. His son King James II of Scotland (age 6) succeeded II King Scotland. His wife, Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland (age 33), managed to escape.

On 26 Mar 1437 Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 3rd Earl Caithness (age 77) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Edinburgh Castle [Map] for having conspired to assassinate King James I of Scotland (deceased). He had unbarred the doors to the royal apartments, permitting assassins to enter the King's lodging. Earl Atholl and Earl Caithness forfeit by attainder.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. Ande the same year the King of Schottys was trayturly slayne in his owne londe, of a false squyr and the squyer is sone, of the same londe, that was namyd Robert Grahams. The whyche squyer and his son were take anon aftyr, and there they were playnely put to dethe, as welle worthy was, to be traye any King or prynce.

Death of Sigismund King of Hungary Germany Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor

Douglas Black Dinner

On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton 1st Lord Crichton arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle. During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine (age 16) and David Douglas (age 10) was beheaded in front of the young King James II of Scotland (age 10).

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 1441. And in the same year there were take certayne traytourys, the whyche purposyd to slee our lege lord the kyng (age 19) by crafte of egremauncey1, and there instrumentys were opynly shewyde to alle men at the Crosse [Map] in Powlys chyrche yerde a-pon a schaffolde i-made there-for. Att the whyche tyme was present one of the same traytours, whiche was callyd Roger Bulbroke, a clerke of Oxforde, and for that same tresoun my Lady of Glouceter (age 41) toke sayntwerye at Westemyster; and the xj day of Auguste thenne next folowynge she toke the way to the castelle of Lesnes.

Before 27 Oct 1441 Eleanor Cobham Duchess of Gloucester (age 41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (age 51), brother of the deceased King Henry V of England, uncle of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26). She was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude is eve was the wycche (age 26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde [Map], and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore said traytours, deyde in the Toure [Map] for sorowe.

Note 1. Necromancy.

On 27 Oct 1441 Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26) was burned at the stake.

On 28 Oct 1441 Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 13 Nov 1441. Ande in that same year the Lady of Glouceter (age 41) for the same treson she was juggyde by the spyrytualle lawe to iij [3] sondyr or dyvers placys, that is to wete, on Mondaye, the xiij daye of Novembyr, to Powlys; and on the Wanysday i-sygnyd unto Crychyrche; and on the Fryday nexte folowyng to Synt Mychellys in Cornehylle.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 18 Nov 1441. And on the Satyrday next folowyng was Roger Bulbroke hanggyde, and drawe, and quarteryde at Tyburne.

On 18 Nov 1441, Saturday, Roger Bolingbroke was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map].

1443 Beaufort Campaign

In Apr 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 40) declared himself Lieutenant of Aquitaine and Captain-General of Guyenne. He was paid £25,000 attracting the enmity of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 31) whose significants debts remained unpaid by the Crown.

In Sep 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 40) led 7000 men to Cherbourg [Map]. He returned around Dec 1443 having achieved nothing but the loss of all his funds and, possibly, half his men.

Chronicle of Gregory 1443. 08 Sep 1443. And on the same year, the viij day of Septembyr, there was done a grete vyage yn Fraunce by the Duke of Somesette (age 40) and his retynowe; and at the same viage were slayne and takyn to the nombyr of iij M vij c [3700], whereof were ix lordys and a squyer, whyche that was a grete captayne.

Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 22) and Margaret of Anjou (age 14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (age 47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (age 38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (age 38) and Richard Duke of York (age 32) who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

Battle of Arbroath

On 24 Jan 1445 the Battle of Arbroath was fought between Clan Lindsay and Clans Ogilvy, Gordon, Oliphant, Seton and Forbes. David Lindsay 3rd Earl Crawford (age 40) was killed when attempting to prevent the battle by riding between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce. Unfortunately a member of the Clan Ogilvy, thinking the Earl was attacked threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth, killing him instantly. Clan Lindsay victorious.

Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 33) met Margaret of Anjou (age 14) at Pontoise [Map] on his mission to bring her back to England for her marriage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 01 Apr 1445. And a pon the first day of Aprylle Quene Margarete (age 15) landed at Portysmowthe [Map], and a-pon the x day of the same monythe sche was weddyd at a lytylle velage [Map] in Hampsehyre i-namyd.

Coronation of Queen Margaret of Anjou

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 28 May 1445. And a-pon the morowe, the Satyrday, she was brought thoroughe London syttyng in a lytter by twyne ij [2] goode and nobylle stedys i-trappyd with whyte satton, and sche was conveyyde unto Westemyster. And apon the morowe the Sonday was the coronacyon, and ij [2] dayes aftyr there was grette revylle of justys of pes in the sayntewery at Westemyster, &c.

On 30 May 1445, five weeks after her marriage, Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 15) was crowned Queen Consort England by Archbishop John Stafford at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Richard of York returns to England

On 20 Oct 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 34) returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 44), Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 41), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 47) and Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 58).

On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) died at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [Map]. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral [Map]. Duke Gloucester, Earl Pembroke extinct. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales six years later.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 23 Feb 1447. Ande at Schroffe tyde nexte aftyr there was ordaynyd a Parlyment at Synt Edmondys Bury [Map]; ande att the comyng of the goode Duke Umfray, some tyme Duke of Glouceter (age 56), uppon the Satyrday anon as he was a lyght of his hors he was a-restyde of dyvers lordys for treson by commaundement of the kyng (age 25), and men said at that tyme. And uppon the Thursseday next folowynge he dyssesyd ande passyde out of this wrecchide and false trobely worlde. And he is buryde at Syn Albonys.

Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York (age 35) was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard (age 35).

Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick (age 4) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 44).

After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 44), Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 39), Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer (age 31) and her full aunt Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 21), the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (age 21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp  (age 21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (age 19) by marriage Earl Warwick; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.

The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 42) who was married to Anne's (age 21) half-sister Eleanor (age 39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

Battle of Sark

On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 27) and Thomas Harrington (age 48) were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 55) escaped.

Battle of Formigny

On 15 Apr 1450 the Battle of Formigny was a descisive victory for the French that destroyed the England's last army in France bringing to end English control of Normandy.

Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany (age 56) commanded the French. The English commander Thomas Kyriell (age 54) was captured.

The battle is considered to be one of the first where cannon played a decisive role.

Murder of William de la Pole

Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement. Before he left he wrote to his eight year old son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 7):

My dear and only well-beloved son, I beseech our Lord in Heaven, the Maker of all the World, to bless you, and to send you ever grace to love him, and to dread him, to the which, as far as a father may charge his child, I both charge you, and pray you to set all your spirits and wits to do, and to know his holy laws and commandments, by the which you shall, with his great mercy, pass all the great tempests and troubles of this wretched world.

And that also, knowingly, you do nothing for love nor dread of any earthly creature that should displease him. And there as any frailty maketh you to fall, beseech his mercy soon to call you to him again with repentance, satisfaction, and contrition of your heart, never more in will to offend him.

Secondly, next him above all earthly things, to be true liegeman in heart, in will, in thought, in deed, unto the king our aldermost high and dread sovereign lord, to whom both you and I be so much bound to; charging you as father can and may, rather to die than to be the contrary, or to know anything that were against the welfare or prosperity of his most royal person, but that as far as your body and life may stretch you live and die to defend it, and to let his highness have knowledge thereof in all the haste you can.

Thirdly, in the same way, I charge you, my dear son, always as you be bounden by the commandment of God to do, to love, to worship, your lady and mother; and also that you obey always her commandments, and to believe her counsels and advices in all your works, the which dread not but shall be best and truest to you. And if any other body would steer you to the contrary, to flee the counsel in any wise, for you shall find it naught and evil.

Thirdly, in the same way, I charge you, my dear son, always as you be bounden by the commandment of God to do, to love, to worship, your lady and mother; and also that you obey always her commandments, and to believe her counsels and advices in all your works, the which dread not but shall be best and truest to you. And if any other body would steer you to the contrary, to flee the counsel in any wise, for you shall find it naught and evil.

Moreover, never follow your own wit in nowise, but in all your works, of such folks as I write of above, ask your advice and counsel, and doing thus, with the mercy of God, you shall do right well, and live in right much worship, and great heart’s rest and ease.

And I will be to you as good lord and father as my heart can think.

And last of all, as heartily and as lovingly as ever father blessed his child in earth, I give you the blessing of Our Lord and of me, which of his infinite mercy increase you in all virtue and good living; and that your blood may by his grace from kindred to kindred multiply in this earth to his service, in such wise as after the departing from this wretched world here, you and they may glorify him eternally amongst his angels in heaven.

Written of mine hand,

The day of my departing from this land.

Your true and loving father

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 01 May 1450. Ande at his passynge ovyr the see warde he was mette with by-twyne Dovyr and Calys by dyvers schyppys, of the whyche was here Admyralle Nycholas of the Towre; and yn that shyppe soo beyng in the see they smote of his hedde of the fore said Duke of Sowthefolke (age 53), and they caste bothe body and his hedde in to the see. And aftyr that it was takyn uppe and brought unto the towne of Dovyr [Map], and aftyr from thens brought unto Wynkylfylde [Map] in Sowthefolke, and there it is i-buryde; whos name was Syr Wylliam Pole (age 53).

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower, or by Admiral Nicholas of the Tower. His son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk 1C, 5th Earl Suffolk. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C. Earl Pembroke forfeit.

Paston Letters V1 120 William Lomner to John Paston. 05 May 1450.

William Lomner to John Paston (age 28)1

RIGHT worchipfull sir, I recomaunde me to yow, and am right sory of that I shalle sey, and have soo wesshe this litel bille with sorwfulle terys, that on ethes ye shalle reede it.

As on Monday2 nexte after May day there come tydyngs to London, that on Thorsday3 before the Duke of Suffolk (deceased) come unto the costes of Kent full nere Dower with his ij shepes and a litel spynner; the qweche spynner he sente with certeyn letters to certeyn of his trustid men unto Caleys warde, to knowe howe he shuld be resceyvyd; and with hym mette a shippe callyd Nicolas of the Towre, with other shippis waytyng on hym, and by hem that were in the spyner, the maister of the Nicolas hadde knowlich of the dukes comyng. And whanne he espyed the dukes shepis, he sent forthe his bote to wete what they were, and the duke hym selfe spakke to hem, and seyd, he was be the Kyngs comaundement sent to Caleys ward, &c.

And they seyd he most speke with here master. And soo he, with ij or iij of his men, wente forth with hem yn here bote to the Nicolas; and whanne he come, the master badde hym, 'Welcom, Traitor,' as men sey; and forther the maister desyryd to wete yf the shepmen woldde holde with the duke, and they sent word they wold not yn noo wyse; and soo he was on the Nicolas tyl Saturday4 next folwyng.

Note 1. [From Fenn, i. 38.] The date of this letter is perfectly determined by the events to which it relates.

Note 2. 4th May.

Note 3. 30th April.

Note 4. 2nd May.

Paston Letters V1 120 William Lomner to John Paston. Also he asked the name of the sheppe, and whanne he knew it, he remembred Stacy that seid, if he myght eschape the daunger of the Towr, he should be saffe; and thanne his herte faylyd hym, for he thowghte he was desseyvyd, and yn the syght of all his men he was drawyn ought of the grete shippe yn to the bote; and there was an exe, and a stoke, and oon of the lewdeste of the shippe badde hym ley down his hedde, and he should be fair ferd wyth, and dye on a swerd; and toke a rusty swerd, and smotte of his hedde withyn halfe a doseyn strokes, and toke awey his gown of russet, and his dobelette of velvet mayled, and leyde his body on the sonds of Dover; and some sey his hedde was sette oon a pole by it, and hes men sette on the londe be grette circumstaunce and preye. And the shreve of Kent doth weche the body, and sent his under shreve to the juges to wete what to doo, and also to the Kenge whatte shalbe doo.

1452 Battle of Brechin

On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of King James II of Scotland (age 21) and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl 4th Earl Crawford (age 29) on behalf on the King. John Lindsay (age 29), and the brothers William Gordon and Henry Gordon, were killed.

Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) and Thomas Neville (age 23), William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 30), brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 21) and Roger Lewknor were knighted by King Henry VI (age 31) at Greenwich, Kent [Map].

Battle of Heworth Moor

On or before 24 Aug 1453 Thomas Neville (age 23) and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby of Eresby were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby of Eresby was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 50) meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 30), took umbrage with the ensuing two year feud known as the Neville Percy Feud. He the son of Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 53) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 46). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 24 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) was ambushed at Heworth Moor York by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 30) leading a force of 700 or more men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle [Map] to Sheriff Hutton [Map].

Battle of Castillon