1532-1535 Marriage and Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1532-1535 Marriage and Coronation of Anne Boleyn is in 16th Century Events.

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

Annales of England by John Stow. 01 Sep 1533. The firste of September the Lady Anne Bolleine (age 32) was made Marchionesse of Pembrooke at Windsore, and then was gyuen hir by the King, one thousande pounde by yeare, [out of the Bishopricke of Durham].

Hall's Chronicle 1532. 01 Sep 1535. The King being in progress this summer, was advertised that the Pope and the French King, had appointed to meet at Marseilles in Provence, in the beginning of the next spring, wherefore the King like a wise and politic prince, thought it convenient to speak with the French King in his own person, before the Pope and he should come together, and to declare to him both the determination, of the Universities and Doctors concerning his matrimony, and also the general counsels, which ordained such causes, to be tried in the provinces and countries, where the doubt should rise, trusting that the French King should cause the Pope to incline to God’s law, and to leave his own traditions and avoid dispensations, whereupon both the princes concluded, to meet in October following, between Calais and Boulogne. Wherefore the King of England sent out his letters, to his nobility, prelates, and servants, commanding them to be ready at Canterbury, the 26th day of September, to passe the Seas with him, for the accomplishing of the interview, between him and his brother the Frenche King. Many men were sorry to hear, that the King should pass the sea in winter, and especially in October, when the seas be rough, but their sayings letted not his purpose: for he marched forward from Ampthill to Windsor, where on Sunday being the first day of September, he created the lady Anne Boleyn (age 34), Marchioness of Pembroke, and gave to her one thousand pound land by the year, and that solemnity finished, he rode to the College to Masse, and when the Masse was ended, a new league was concluded and sworn, between the King and the French King, Monsieur Pomoray the French Ambassador then being present. After which oath taken, Doctor Fox the King’s almoner, made an eloquent oration in Latin, in praise of peace, love, and amity. Which done the trumpets blew, and the King returned to the Castle, where was kept a solemn feast. From thence the King removed to Greenwich, and so forward to Canterbury, where at the day appointed, he found ready furnished, all such as were commanded to pass the sea with him, well and richly adorned, both they and their servants.

Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

After 01 Sep 1532 Thomas Cranmer (age 43), whilst staying in Mantua, received a royal letter dated 01 Sep 1532 by which he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury; he was ordered to return to England. Cranmer's appointment, supported, if not arranged, by the Boleyn family who he subsequently supported.

Letters and Papers 1533. 22 Feb 1533. Add. MS. 28,585, f. 222, B.M. 178. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Letters have come from Flanders of 24 Jan., stating that the brief has been received, and will be notified. The Emperor sends to order it to be notified at once.

Eustace Chapuis writes from England that on Christmas Eve Master Abel and another preacher were let out of the Tower, where they were confined, with orders not to preach or write until five days after Easter (Pascua). The truce between England and Scotland came to an end on St. Andrew's Day (por Santandres), and the English have invaded Scotland in three places and done much damage, taking more than 300 prisoners.

The Scotch ambassador in England had returned. It is feared there will be war. The Emperor has sent the count of Cifuentes here as ambassador.

Since writing the above, letters have arrived from the ambassador in England, dated 9 Feb., stating that the brief has been notified in Flanders, and that the king of England has given the archbishopric of Canterbury to a chaplain (age 43) of "this Ana (age 32)," which has been taken ill by many. Bolonia, 22 Feb. 1533.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 8. How the King made a Chaplain of Anne's father Archbishop of Canterbury.

As soon as the King was married to Anne the Archbishop of Canterbury died, and Anne asked the King to grant her the boon of giving the archbishopric to a chaplain of her father's called Thomas Cranmer. The King granted it and summoned the chaplain, to whom he said, "Chaplain, I grant you the boon of the archbishopric of Canterbury." It may well be imagined that this news was received with joy by the Chaplain, who knelt down and kissed the King's hand. "Give your thanks to the Queen, Archbishop," said the King, and when the Archbishop thanked her, the Queen replied, "Cranmer, you have well deserved it for the good service you have rendered to my father."

Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 11 Oct 1532. I1 will certyfye you of our newes in the partyes of Calais. Fyrst the xj. day of October whiche was Fryday in the mornyng at. v. of the clocke the kynges grace toke his Shyppe called the Swallowe and so came to Caleys by. x. of the clocke. And there he was receyved with processyon and with the mayre and the lorde delite and all the speres [knights] and the sowdyours in araye with a greate peale of gonnes and laye in Caleys tyll the Sondaye seuenyght after. And on the. xvj. day of October my lorde of Norffolke (age 59) accompanyed with my lord of Darby (age 23) and a great nombre of gentilmen besydes mette with the great mayster of Fraunce vj. myles fro Calays at the englysshe pale the sayd great mayster hauynge two greate lordes in his company of theyr ordre and a hondred gentylmen attendynge vpon them. And there my lorde of Norffolke (age 59) and the greate mayster deuysed the place where the two kynges sholde mete whiche was at Sandyngfelde. And that done they wente bothe to Caleys with theyr companyes. And the sayd greate mayster with dyuerse other straungers dyned that daye with ye Kynge. And after dyner my lorde of Norffolke brought them forth on theyr way a myle or two and so departed for that tyme (age 59).

Note 1. In the Second Edition, the text begins with:

The names of the noble men of Fraunce.

Fyrst the frensshe Kynge.

The kynge of Nauerne [Henry d'Albret, King of Navarre (age 29)]

The Dolphyn Duke of Brytayne Frauncys (age 14).

The duke of Orlyaunce Henry (age 13).

The duke of Angoulesme Charles (age 10).

The duke of Vendosme Charles (age 43).

The duke of Guyse (age 35).

The duke of Longouille (age 22).

The cardynall of Burbon.

The cardynall of Lorrayne (age 34)

The Legate and cardynall chaunceler of Fraunce Antony de prayt (age 69).

The cardynal tournon.

The cardynal gramond (age 46).

The marques of Lorayne de pont.

The marques of Rochelyne.

The two sonnes of the duke of Vendosme.

The sone of the duke of Guyse conte damualle. [D'Aumale]

The conte of saynt Poule Frauncys ile Burbon.

The conte of Neuers.

The conute [sic] Loys de Neuers conte danseore.

The lorde marshal! seigneur de Floraynge.

The lorde myrepois marshall de la foy. [A descendant of Guy de Lews, -who -was elected marshall of the Crusaders "who marched against the jilbigenses ; hence his successors -were all called Marec/iaux de la Foi. He received the lands of Afire foix, in Languedoc, in return for hit services. The family became very illustrious, and tve refer readers ivho have the time and patience to study a very curious piece of family history, to tlie turnings of Carrier and Lognac.]

The conte de porsean.

The conte de bresne.

The conte de tonnore. [The Comte de Tonnerre.]

The conte de sensare.

The conte de grant pre.

The conte d'apremont.

The lorde greate mayster Anne de Momerancy (age 39).

The lorde admarald Philyp Schabbot (age 40).

The lorde grand esquyer Galliot.

The prynce of molse.

The conte de tande. [This is undoubtedly Honorat, son of Pillars, Comte de Tende, natural son of Philip, duke of Sairoy. Villars had been killed at Pavia in 1525. Honorat's daughter married the great duke de Mayenne.]

The conte de villars. [Andre de Brancas, contte de Villars.]

The conte de estampes Johan de la berre. [Jean de Berri, ccmte d'Etampes,]

The conte de chambre. [Chambery?]

The lorde canamples.

The lorde barbeluiez.

The lorde hummeres. [Probably Henry de Cre'vant d'Humieres, ancestor of the celebrated marechal d' Humiercs.]

The lorde roche piot.

The lorde of saynt Andrews.

The lorde montigeu.

The lorde roche guyon.

The lorde piennes.

The lorde pontremy.

Monsieur de longe.

Monsieur de belley. Probably Martin du Bel/ay, prince a" T-vetot.

The archebysshop of Roan.

The archebysshop of Vienne.

The bysshop of Lyseures.

The bysshop of Langres.

The bysshop of Charttres.

The bysshop of Lymoges.

The bysshop of beauuoys.

The bysshop of Auuergne.

The bysshop of Macon.

The bysshop of Castres.

The bysshop of Paris.

The bysshop of Angoulesme.

And as concernynge the nobles and ryall states of this realme it necleth not to expresse by name.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 21 Oct 1532. And on the mondaye the. xxj. daye of October the Kyng of Englande toke his waye to mete with the frensshe kyng at the place before appoynted with seven score [140] all in veluet cotes afore hym lordes and Knyghtes and forty of his garde and other to the nombre (as we thynke) of six hondred horses and as well horsed as euer was seen. And the Kyng our mayster mette with the frensshe Kyng at Sandyngfelde within the englysshe pale thre myles. There the frensshe kynge taryed for our mayster the space of an houre or two the frensshe kynge beyngc accompanyed with the kynge of Nauerne the cardinal of Loreyn the duke of Vandome and1 with dyuerse other noblemen well and rychely appoynted beynge of lyke nombre as our kyng was of that is to saye six hondred psones2. There was the louyngest metyng that euer was seen for the one embraced the other five or six tymes on horsbacke and so dyd the lordes on eyther party eche to other and so dyd ryde hande in hande with greate loue the space of a myle3 and than they dyd lyght of theyr horses and dranke eche to other the frensshe kyng dranke fyrst to our kyng and whan they had dronke they embraced eche other agayne with great loue and so rode towards Bulleyn our kynge on the ryght hande. And whan they came within a myle of Bulleyn there mette with the kynges the Dolphyn (age 14) beynge accompanyed with his two bretherne the duke of Orliaunce (age 13) and the count or erle of Angolame (age 10) very goodly chyldren and attendyng vpon them four cardynalles with a thousand horses very well beseen. And whan they came nere to the towne the frensshe kynge caused our mayster to tary whyles the gonshot was shotte whiche was herd fro Bulleyn twenty englysshe myles of. And so entered the towne where stode the captayn with the sowdyours in good ordre and aboue them stode a hondred swytsheners of the frensh kynges garde in theyr dublettes and theyr hosen of yelowe veluct cutte goodly persons4 and aboue them stode two hundred of the frensshe kynges garde more scottes and frensshmen in cotes of yelow blewe and crymsyn veluet beryng halberdes in theyr handes and aboue them stode two hundred gentylmen beyng in theyr gownes well and rychely beseen euery man hauyng an ax5 in theyr handes and theyr captaines standyng by them. And so they taryed in Bulleyn mondaye tuysdaye Wednesday and thursday all daye.6 And for the greate chere that was there no man can expresse it. For the kynges grace was there enterteyned all at the frensshe kynges costes and charges. And euery daye noble men of Fraunce desyred our nobles and gentylmen home to theyr lodgynges where as they founde theyr houses rychely hanged greate cupbordes of plate sumptuous fare with syngyng and playenge of all kyndes of musyke. And also there was sent vnto our lodgynges great fare with all maner of wynes for our seruantes and our horsmeet payd for and al at theyr charges. And euery day the frensshe kyng had at dyncr and souper with hym certayne noble men of Englande. And the kynges grace had in lykewyse certeyn of theyr nobles at dyner and souper during the tyme of theyr beyng at Bulleyn. And this contynued with as great chere and familiarite as myght be.

Note 1. The Second Edition omits: "and."

Note 2. persons.

Note 3. The Second Edition inserts: At the metyng of these two noble kynges there were sacres and sacrettes cast of and at dyuerse flyghtes two kytes were beten downe which were sooryng in the ayre wh such lyke pastyme whiche greatly pleased al the nobles on bothe partyes.

Note 4. The Second Edition reads "persons" thus "psones."

Note 5. The Second Edition has "a batayle ax."

Note 6. The Second Edition inserts: "The tuysday beynge the seconde day of hys there beyng the frenssh king gaue our kyng ryche apparayle wrought with nedle werke pyrled [fringed] with golde in the whiche lyke apparayle bothe the kynges went to our lady chyrche in Bulleyn. And at that time our kyng optayned release and lyberte of the frenssh kyng for all prysoners at that tyme beynge prisoners in Bulleyn. And in lykewyse dyd the frenssh kyng in Caleys of our kyng and mayster at his there beynge and optayned grace for all banysshed men whiche wolde make sute for theyr pardon. And to esteme the rich trauerses [low curtains] that were in Bulleyn at our lady chyrche and in Caleys in our lady chyrche in lykewyse for bothe the kynges the riche ordynaunces and prouysyon for the same it is to moche for to wryte. And as for the greate chere " &c.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 28 Oct 1532. And vpon monday whiche was the twenty-ninth [a mistake for twenty-eighth?] day of October at Caleys our kyng made the great mayster of Fraunce (age 39) and the admyrall of Fraunce (age 40) knyghtes of the garter. And that daye there was a greate wrastelynge betwene englysshe men and frensshe men before bothe the kynges the frensshe kynge had none but preestes that wrasteled which were bygge men and stronge they were bretherne but they had moost falles1.

Note 1. After "most falls" the Second Edition inserts, "And as concernynge the haboundaunt and lyberal mutytude of gyftes that were so louyngly and cordyally gyuen on bothe partyes (to the greate honour of bothe the kynges) my penne or capacit can not expresse it as well amonge the greate lordes as vnto the lowest yemen that bare ony offyce in eyther kynges hous and specially the kynges gyftes on both partyes alway rewarded the one lyke vnto ye other And all other gyftes was nothynge but ryche plate golde coyne and syluer was of no estymacyon beside raymentes horses geldynges fawcons beres dogges for the game with many other whiche were to moche to write. And upon the xxix. day" &c.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 28 Oct 1532. And vpon sondaye both the kynges herde masse in theyr lodgynges. And at after-noone the kynge of Englande went to Staple hall to the frensshe kynge and there was bothe bere baytynge and bulbayting tyll nyght. And at nyght the frensshe kynge souped with our kynge and there was greate bankettynge. And after souper1 there came in a maske my lady marques of Penbroke (age 31) my lady Mary (age 33) my lady Darby (age 21) my lady Fitzwater (age 26) my lady Rocheford (age 27) my lady Lislie (age 38) and my lady Wallop gorgyously apparayled with visers on theyr faces and so came and toke the frensshe kynge by the hande and other lordes of Fraunce and daunced a daunce or two. And after that the kynge toke of theyr visers and than they daunced with gentylmen of Fraunce an houre after. And than they departed to theyr lodgynges. And as for the apparayle of the frensshe lordes my tongue can not expresse it and in especyal the frensshe kyng his apparayle passed1 my penne to wryte for he had a dublet ouer set all with stones and rychc diamondes whiche was valued by discrete men at a hondred thousand pounde they passed ferre our lordes and knyghtes in apparayle and rychesse. They had greate chere in Caleys and louynge also and all at our kynges costes and charges. Also the same daye that the kynges came from Bulleyn the frensshe kynge made the duke of Norffolke (age 59) and the duke of Suffolke (age 48) of the ordre of saynt Mighill2.

Note 1. The Second Edition reads "passeth" for "passed."

Note 2. Saint Michael.

Annales of England by John Stow. 11 Oct 1533. The eleuenth of October King Henrie landed at Calleis, with the Duke of Richemonde (age 14) hys bastarde sonne, the Duke of Norffolke (age 60) Lord Treasurer of England, the Duke of Suffolke, the Marquesse of Excester, the Erles of Darby, Arundale, Ox∣forde, Surrey and Rutlande, the Vicount Lisle King Edwarde the fourth his bastarde sonne, the Lord Matrauers, the Lord Sands Lorde Chamberlaine of the Kings house, the Lorde William Hawarde, the Lorde Bray, the Lorde Montague, the Lorde Cobham, the Lorde Mordant, the Lorde Dawb∣ney, the Lorde Grey, the Lord Clinton, the Lorde Vaux, the Lorde Mountegle, the Lorde Rocheford, wyth diuers o∣ther Lordes: the Bishoppes of Winchester, London, Lincolne, and Bathe: sir William Fitz William treasourer of the kings house, sir William Pawlet Comptroller, sir William King∣stone Capitaine of the Guarde, sir Iohn Page, sir Iames Bo∣leine, sir Anthony Browne, sir Edwarde Neuell, sir Thomas Cheyney▪ sir Iohn Russell, sir Richard Page, sir Ralph Elder∣care, sir Edward Baynton, sir Edwarde Santener, sir Griffyth Deene, sir Iohn Dudley, sir Iohn Femer, sir Henry Long, sir Anthony Hungerforde, sir Iohn Brudges, sir Arthur Hoptō, sir Anthony Wingfielde, sir William Paston, sir Edmonde Bedingfielde, sir Thomas Strange, sir William Hawte, sir Ed∣warde Wotton, sir William Askewe, sir Iohn Marleant, sir William Barington, sir William Essex, sir Giles Strangweis, sir Edwarde Chamberlaine, sir Giles Caple, sir Iohn Sent-Iohn, sir Walter Hungerforde, sir William Gascoine, sir Lio∣nel Norrice, sir Edwarde Boloine, sir Thomas Lisle, sir Iohn Ashton, sir Thomas Palmer, sir William Boloine, sir Willi∣am Finche, sir William Pellam, sir Thomas Rotherham, sir Iohn Norton, sir Richarde Sandes, sir Iohn Neuell, and thyr∣tie Esquiers, with manye Gentlemenne, and all theyr traines.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. And as concernyng ladyes and gentylwoman there1 was non there. And on frydaye folowynge the kynges came to Caleys. And the dolphyn with the cardynalles and all theyr gentylmen brought the kynges vnto the place where they fyrst mette and than departed. The frensshe king had great cariage2 for there came three hundred mules laden with stuffe. And3 whan they came to Caleys they were saluted with great melody what with gonnes and all other instrumentes and the ordre of the towne it was a heuenly syght for the tyme. First at Newnam bridge, four hundred shotte at the blockhous. Forty shot at Rycebanke toure [Map]. Three hundred shot within the towne of Caleys. Two thousand shot great and small besydes the shyppes it was all nombered three thousand shot. And at Bulleyn by estymation it past not two hundred shot but they were great peces. Also for the ordre of the towne there was set all seruynge men on the one syde in tawny cotes and sowdyours on the other syde all in cotes of reed and blewe with halberdes in theyr handes. And so the kynges came ryding in the myddes and so the frensshe kynge went to staple hall which is a pryncely hous and vpon saterday bothe the kynges rode to our lady chyrche to masse. And at after noone4 bothe theyr counselles sate togyder.

Note 1. The Second Edition omits: "there."

Note 2. Baggage.

Note 3. The Second Edition reads for: "And when they came to Calais" .... "And so commynge towarde Caleys the duke of Rychemonde accompanyed with bysshops and many other noble men that were not with the kyng at Bulieyn and all the kynges garde which were with all other meruaylously well horsed and trymde they stode in aplace appoynted in aray and good order in the way two mile out of Caleys where the frensshe kynge sholde come who saluted ye frensshe kynge with great honour in lykr maner as the kynge our mayster.

Note 4. For "after noone" the Second Edition reads, "after onne."

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

Hall's Chronicle 1532. [10 Oct 1532]. The 10th day of October, the King came to Dover, and on the 11th day in the morning being Friday, at three of the clock, he took ship in Dover Road, and before ten of the clock the same day, he with the lady Marchioness of Pembroke (age 31), landed at Calais, where he was honourably received with procession, and brought to Saint Nicholas church, where he heard Mass, and so to his place called The Exchequer, where he lodged. And on the Sunday after came to Calais, the Lorde Roche Baron, and Monsieur de Mountpesat, messengers from the French King, advertising the King of England, that the French King would repair to Abuile the same night marching towards Boulogne, of which tidings the King was very glad, but suddenly came a messenger, and reported that the great Master of France, and the Archbishop of Rouen, with diverse noble men of France, were come to Sandifeld, intending to come to Calais, to salute the King, from the King their Master. He being thereof advertised, sent in great haste the fifteenth day of October, the Duke of Norfolk, the Marques of Exeter, the Earles of Oxford, Derby, and Rutland, the Lord Sandys, and the Lord Fitzwater, with three hundred gentlemen, which honourably received the French Lords, at the English pale, and so brought them to the King’s presence in Calais, which stood under a rich clothe of estate of such value that they much mused of the riches. The King (as he that knew all honour and nurture) received the French Lords, very lovingly and amiably, and with them took a day and place of meeting: these Lords were highly feasted, and after diner departed to Boulogne.

Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries v. lvii. p. 266. 822. Zuam Antonio Venier to the Signory.

All the ambassadors being here [at Abbeville] on the 18th, I wrote from Montreuil, that on the 17th the Papal Nuncio and the Imperial Ambassador caused us to remain here at Abbeville an insult to the powers we represent, we being put to cost and in confinement whilst the former ambassadors are sent for to Montreuil and Boulogne, and while others are allowed to attend the congress, which shows they are treating against our princes.1

On the 11th instant the English King crossed the Channel, and landed at Calais with from 1,500 to 2,000 horse. He brought with him the Marchioness Boleyn (age 31), his favourite, with some twenty maids of honour (damigelle). The most Christian King remained hunting in the neighbourhood of Boulogne until the 19th, when he entered the town. On the 20th he went to Marquise, and on the afternoon of the 21st proceeded towards Calais, and midway met the English King, and both their Majesties, with mutual goodwill and respect, embraced, calling each other "brother;" and coming to Boulogne, the most Christian King placed the King of England on his right hand; and passing through Marquise they refreshed themselves, the reception being as pompous and costly as possible, there being great plenty of everything requisite.

Proceeding on their way, they met the Dauphin and the Dukes of Orleans and Angouleme, and the most Christian King said to the English King, "Sire, those are the Dauphin and my other sons, who wish, and are bound, to pay their respects to your Majesty;" and he then drew a little aside, not choosing to take part in the reception. Whereupon the English King not only embraced but kissed them all three on the mouth; and the Dauphin and Orleans thanked him for what he had done, and for having released their father from captivity, declaring that their lives and their entire substance would at all times be at the disposal of his Majesty and his kingdom. Angouleme, who had not the same subject of discourse, addressed him in another form, but so sweetly and sagely, according to report, that he spoke like an angel; so that the English King again embraced him alone, kissing him several times; after which the most Christian King resumed his place beside King Henry, thanking him for his gracious reception of his sons. They were then met in succession by five cardinals, namely, the Legate [Chancellor Duprat (age 69)], Bourbon, Lorraine, Tournon, and Grammont, and by a great number of archbishops, bishops, and prelates, and by many princes and barons, all of whom were embraced by the English King, which being a tedious and fatiguing ceremony, was considered a mark of great gracious-ness on the part of his Majesty; there being, in addition to these, the 200 gentlemen of his most Christian Majesty's household, in rich and noble array, and the 400 archers, and the 100 Switzers, all in very costly liveries of silk and gold, so that the abundance of silk, gold, pearls, and jewels on the part of France was considered inestimable, most especially on account of the embroideries and brocades (brocature) now in fashion there; but on the side of England there were many cloths of silk, and gold chains without number, but not such boundless expense.

On entering Boulogne, although the English King remonstrated against it, his most Christian Majesty accompanied him to his chamber; and on the following day sent him, as a present, a coat (iuppone) a doublet (soio) and a gown (roba) such as he himself purposed wearing on that day, which apparel was embroidered with pearls and precious stones, so that it is said to be marvellous. And the various games, entertainments, and pageants were most splendid and endless; and the extreme graciousness of both the Kings was remarkable, for the most Christian King always banqueted the Englishmen, King Henry doing the like by the Frenchmen. On the 13th the most Christian King gave the English King a suit of bed furniture, wrought throughout with pearls on crimson velvet, which he purchased lately in Paris of an Italian merchant for 10,000 golden crowns; and the other day he gave him six coursers of his own breed, the handsomest he had in his stable.

It is said that on the evening of the 23rd the two Kings held a long secret conference, there being present on the part of France the Lord Chancellor Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral2, and on the part of England the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the Bishop of Winchester.

The result of this conference is understood to be that the most Christian King sends the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont to the Pope about the Emperor entering Italy, and will send a personage to said Emperor (a esso Cesare) and he has despatched an ambassador to Scotland to offer his daughter to the King there, according to the request made by the Scottish ambassador, who had returned to his King without any decision. But his most Christian Majesty will give him his daughter on condition that he do forthwith form a league and understanding with his Majesty and the English King, which will be difficult.

It is said that the English King having made the Marchioness (age 31) cross the Channel with him for the purpose of marrying her, with the intervention of King Francis, (per sposarla con intervento dil Re Xmo.) his most Christian Majesty apparently modified this project at the consultation held between them; and such is the belief of the French and English.

The Reverend (sic) Casal3 arrived lately, having ridden post from Rome, where he was negotiating for the English King. No farther change was caused by his coming.

On the morning of the 25th the most Christian King gave the collar of his order of St. Michael to the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and went to Calais with the English King; and on the road, and on entering that town, the same compliments were paid as on entering Boulogne, every loving and honourable demonstration being made towards the French; nor was there less magnificence; games and pageants being exchanged for wild fowl and venison, and, moreover, for English ladies.4 Then the English King gave his most Christian Majesty a vesture (uno vestido) and six coursers, and six hobbies (chinee); and it is said, though this I do not know for certain, that he remitted and gave to the three French princes the entire debt due from their father, amounting to about 300,000 crowns. He also gave his Order of St. George to the Lord Steward and to the Admiral5; and finally gave, as servant to the most Christian King, his natural son, who is about 13 years old.

On the 29th the English King, accompanied by the most Christian King, went a distance of three leagues beyond Calais; there they took leave of each other with many mutual embraces and caresses.

It is reported that these two nations, which are by nature hostile to each other, exchanged greater marks of honour and goodwill than were expected.

Two days hence the most Christian King will go to Amiens, there to consult about the mission of these two Cardinals. It is said that these two Kings have agreed for the Cardinals to insist on the Pope's not leaguing with the Emperor, and should he make a fresh agreement with him, they will no longer allow the collation of the benefices of France and England to be referred to Rome, but will separate their clergy from the Roman See. (Si dice questi Rè kanno convenuto che li Cardinali insista ch'el Papa non conseguisca il vincolo con Cesare; et facendo nova, intelligentia non voter più che la erpeditione di Franca et Anglia vadino a Roma, ma divider il suo clero dalla Sede Romana). But this interview (vista) and conference have been a superfluous expenditure,—entertainments and pageants, and nothing else.

Abbeville6, 31st October. Registered by Sanuto, 29th November.

[Italian.]

Note 1. "Ritrovandosi tutti li Oratori quì alli 18, scrissi da Montreuil che adi 17 il Nontio Pontificio et Orator Cesareo concluseno questo atto di fame star quì apartati, e via (eon pocha consideration, et per far grande iniuria a li Principi de chi semo Oratori, li quali è sta fati venir a Montarol e Bologna), e spender, confiuandone, e a cadaun altro è sta leeito andar a vedcr i congressi."

Note 2. Philippe Chabot, Seigneur de Brion.

Note 3. Query Sir Gregory Casal. (See State Papers, vol. vii. part 5, p. 380.)

Note 4. "e non furono inferiori di splendidezza, suplendo nelli jochi spetaculi, de animali silvestri e di più dille dame Englese." See also Hall, p. 795. "I assure you he [Francis I] and his trayne, were requited at Caleis for [by?] the plentie of wylde foule, venison," etc., etc.

Note 5. Montmorency and Chabot.

Note 6. In the original "Bovilla," but see letter dated Montreuil, 17th October.

Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvii. p. 279.. 824. Summary of the Interview between the Kings of England and France.

Madam Anne (age 31) is not one of the handsomest women in the world; she is of middling stature, swarthy complexion, long neck, wide mouth, bosom not much raised, and in fact has nothing but the English King's great appetite, and her eyes, which are black and beautiful, and take great effect on those who served the Queen when she was on the throne—(et li ochj, che sono neri et belli, el che ha grande modo de l'iutertenimento di servitori avesse la Regina quando era in salute).

The most Christian King will go to a distance of two leagues from Calais to meet the King of England, and then return to dine at Marquise, and sleep at Boulogne, where they will remain Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and then on Friday go to Calais, remaining there Saturday and Sunday.

These two Kings have a bitter feeling against the Pope and the Emperor. The English King purposes destroying the castle of Gravelines, which the Emperor built opposite Calais.

Madam Anne lives like a Queen at Calais, and the King accompanies her to mass and everywhere as if she was such.

The King's son is very handsome and accomplished.

On the 20th October the most Christian King, accompanied by the gentlemen of his household, went to mass at Notre Dame de Boulogne.

200 Imperial horse and 500 infantry have entered Gravelines; so the Emperor has shifted his quarters.

In the afternoon the King, accompanied by the princes, went to sleep at Marquise, between Boulogne and Calais; his three sons, the Legate, the Lord Chancellor, and the other Cardinals and Bishops remaining at Boulogne, he having solely Lorraine and Bayonne with him; and tomorrow the two kings will meet at the "Hospice" of St. Gilbert.

On the 21st October 1532, at the ninth hour, the most Christian King dined; at the 10th he mounted on horseback with all the princes and gentlemen who were at Marquise, and they went towards Calais, without servants: and all the gentlemen, who were in great number, were clad in velvet.

On arriving at St. Gilbert's, two leagues from Calais, the King of England came in sight, very well accompanied by princes and gentlemen. And when the two Kings met they embraced each other twice, and after exchanging a few words, again embraced closely, shedding a few tears of joy, and then reciprocally embraced the princes.

The Dauphin with his two brothers and the Legate, Bourbon, Tournon, and Grammont, were at a distance of half a league from Boulogne with the young Princes Nevers, the sons of Vendome, de Guise, and many other gentlemen, and the King's archer-guard and the Switzers. When the Kings met them, his English Majesty embraced them, and Angoulême's speech to him was graceful.

They then entered the town in a body; and in the evening the two Kings remained together before supper in pleasing discourse, after which all went to supper in their own apartments. And after supper the most Christian King went to visit the English King, and they discussed light topics (e parlono di cose piacevole) and then withdrew to their chambers. The chambers were richly furnished, and the halls also.

This morning, the 22nd, the most Christian King sent to give the English King a gown, a coat, and a doublet (una vesta, uno zamavo, e uno giupono) and the King also clad himself in like manner, and they went to a church. One went to one chapel, the other to another, both of which were very richly furnished; and the mass being ended, they joined company, and a "mottetto" was sung in his (sic) chapel, commencing with the words "Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris." All the Cardinals who were at the mass went together, after church, to the apartment (scalla) of the English King, where they remained half an hour in conversation, and then went to the apartment of the most Christian King, and the English King kept the Cardinal of Lorraine to dine with him; and after dinner they had a game at ball, and then gambled. The most Christian King dragged the King of England1 to Council, where he remained about an hour, and then went to see the English King joust. They are intent on making good cheer; the Dauphin and the Lord Steward invite some of these grandees to banquet with them. The negotiations are conducted very secretly. On coming from the game of ball in the middle of the court, compliments were exchanged about accompanying each other. Having entered their chambers, the most Christian King before supper went to visit King Henry, whom he took to sup with him, and a very handsome banquet was served, after which they gambled, and the Cardinal of Lorraine lost 1,500 crowns to the Duke of Suffolk; everyone then withdrew. The Lord Steward placed the first service before the the King, and then retired to his lodging in the Castle, taking with him all the English princes and lords, to whom he gave a very grand banquet in great state.

On the 23rd, the two Kings on quitting their chambers met in the centre of the court, and after talking together awhile, proceeded to the mass, which being ended, they returned to their apartments. The most Christian King took the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with him, and the English King did the like by the Cardinal of Bourbon, Lorraine, Vendôme, St. Pol, and Guise. Even the King talked licentiously2; and they gambled for the space of two hours. After dinner the most Christian King sat in Council with the Bishop of Winchester, the Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, the Cardinal Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral; the Cardinals Grammont, Tournon, and Bayonne were in the hall but did not enter, and departed3. They remained together for an hour, and then the most Christian King came to the English King to the joust. The aforesaid again sat in Council, remaining thus for about two hours, the only persons present besides themselves being Vilander (sic) and an English secretary. The joust being ended, the two Kings went into his most Christian Majesty's chamber and had a long conversation at a window, and it was known to be of importance.

This evening the Cardinal of Lorraine gave a banquet to the English Princes. The English King gave his most Christian Majesty 13 very handsome horses of his country, and received others from King Francis.

A roll is being made of the persons who are to go to Calais.

The affairs here are conducted very secretly, nor can one hear anything.

It is understood that the Queen of France demands her share in the government of Flanders4.

It is said that the marriage of Madam Anne (age 31) will be solemnized on Sunday, and that Bayonne will sing the mass.

During the last two days the most Christian King has been in a great passion, owing to letters received from Rome, purporting that he has been the cause of the Turkish invasion, and the Pope allows sermons to be preached in Rome publicly to this effect.

On the 25th the Legate went to the King, as did also the other Cardinals. Afterwards, the two Kings being in riding gear, and with the order [of St. Michael] round their necks, [the most Christian King] gave it with very great ceremony to Suffolk and Norfolk.

After dinner the two Kings mounted on horseback on their way to Calais, accompanied by his most Christian Majesty's three sons; and the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont are being sent to Rome, for the purpose, it is said, of obtaining the tenths and annats of benefices in the same manner as conceded to the Emperor.

The marriage of Madam Anne (age 31) is announced by balls5, banquets, and masquings, but the people of England will not allow it to take place.

The King's sons remained [at Boulogne ?]; the Lord Steward went to . . .

I write nothing about the doings at Calais, but nothing was thought of but good cheer, balls, and masquings; and very great honour was paid to the most Christian King; and some Frenchmen were made Knights of the Garter.

The son of the English King is very handsome and accomplished; he came to France, and the son of the Duke of Norfolk is also coming.

The King of England has arranged to fortify Guisnes and other places distant 2½ leagues from Calais.

Boulogne ? 31st October. Registered by Sanuto 7th December.

[Italian.]

Note 1. "Il Rè Xmo il tiro in consilio dove stetey" etc.

Note 2. "Fino il Rè intrò in ragionamento di lussã" (sic) (lussuria?).

Note 3. "II Re Xmo poi disnar intrò in consilio con Monsignor di Vicestre, duca di Sopholch e di Norpholch, il Legato Cardinal Gran Metre et Admirante, li Cardinali Agrarnonte et Tornon et Bajona, erano in la salla e non introrono e se partirono."

Note 4. "La Regina di Franz a se intende dimanda il suo partagio delle coae di Fiandra." Eleanor of Austria, Queen of France, sister of Charles V., probably claimed part of the property left by her aunt Margaret, Governess of the Low Countries, who died at Mechlin on the 1st of December 1530; or it may mean "her share in the government of Flanders."

Note 5. S'è messo in balli etc.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 16. How the King went to Calais with his Queen Anne.

The King was so infatuated with his new Queen that he determined to go over to Calais and take her with him, so that the King of France might see her, and this he carried out. He started in very great state, and when he arrived at Calais the King of France was at Boulogne, and came to Calais, where the King gave him a very grand reception and great feastings. Queen Anne paid him great attention, for she had been brought up at the French court, and was even said to be not averse to the Admiral of France. Anything may be believed of her, for she acted as will be related presently.

On 11 Nov 1532 Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 31) met with King Francis I of France (age 38) at Calais [Map]. Henry Howard (age 16) was present.

Those listed as travelling with Henry and Anne include:

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37).

William Stafford (age 24); this may have been when he first met Mary Boleyn (age 33).

Mary Boleyn (age 33)

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

Hall's Chronicle 1532. [14 Nov 1532]. The King after his return, married privately the lady Anne Boleyn (age 31), on Saint Erkenwaldes day, which marriage was kept so secrete, that very few knew it, til she was great with child, at Easter after.

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 Feb 1533. Vienna Archives. 180. Chapuys to Charles V.

As the Queen sees that the obstinacy of the King increases daily, and the appearances of disorder in view of the new marriage, she is compelled to employ your aid. Since my last of the 15th, the King does not cease to press the archbishops of Canterbury and York, the bishops of London, Winchester, and Lincoln, and many others, Italians as well as English, to subscribe a document he has drawn up to his taste, of a very strange nature, as you will see. The archbishop of York and the bishop of Winchester have not yet agreed to do so. The elect of Canterbury (age 43) has made no difficulty about it, and has even solicited it, as if it were his own business; and if it be true, as I am told today on good authority, that he has gone to give the Queen special notice of it, he has given good earnest of maintaining the opinion of the King in this divorce without variation. He has married (esposé) the King to the Lady (age 32), in presence of the father (age 56), mother (age 53), brother (age 30), and two of her favorites, and one of his priests. If it be so, the King has taken the best means of preventing him from changing his opinions when raised to his dignity, as the archbishop of York has done. It is very probable either that the said elect has solemnised these espousals, or has promised to do so for certain considerations, as I have written to your Majesty, especially as since he has been elected he has dared to say openly that he would maintain, on pain of being burned, that the King might take the Lady to wife. The bruit continues, that in order to accomplish the said marriage the King waits for nothing else except the bulls of the elect; and for this purpose he has commanded those who have the charge of it to summon a provincial synod for the 16th. It is said that the King means to demand money for a war with Scotland, and to make harbours on the coast; and the better to colour the matter, the king of France has sent him a master architect. The French ambassador had intended to visit me, but was prevented by company, and proposes to do so tomorrow. It is said that Melanchthon is in one of the King's lodgings, and has been there for eight days, but it is kept such a secret that I can find no one who knows the certainty of it. The King has written for him expressly, I think merely for the Queen's affair, for he favors her, and because he pretends and wishes to have in his hands all ecclesiastical ordinances,—not only the synodical ones of this kingdom, but the papal as well. And in order the better to conduct the affair, last year he induced the prelates, by menaces and devices, to submit to whatever should be decided by 40 persons, of whom one half should be appointed by himself, and the other by the prelates, and himself above all. For this reformation, or rather deformation, it seems he could find no fitter instrument than Melanchthon, so as to give the utmost possible trouble to the Pope, that his previous boasts might not be without effect.

Letters and Papers 1533. 07 May 1533. Add. MS. 28,585, f. 244. B. M. 454. Count Of Cifuentes to Charles V.

Was told by the Pope that he had letters from his Nuncio [in England] of April 12, saying, that the King had married "la Anna (age 32)" publicly, with all the usual ceremonies. A few days previously he had convoked the Estates for this purpose, and many opposed the King in both Houses (?) (asi de unos como de otros); and this was in the first Parliament. At the second the same thing happened, and the King rose to his feet, bidding those of his party help him, as he wished to marry. The opposition of the other party was at last overcome by money, promises, and threats. To give a colour to what the King wished to do, it was determined that all cases of tithes, marriages, or wills should be decided in the kingdom before ordinary judges, of whom the chief was the principal Archdeacon (archidiano mayor) of London1. The judge of the first and second appeal was the archbishop of Canterbury, with certain prelates. The King summoned the Archbishop, and told him that he should marry (casasse) this Anna. The dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were sent to intimate this to the Queen.

Note 1. William Clyff, LL.D.

Letters and Papers 1533. 10 May 1533. 465. The King's marriage was celebrated, as it is reported, on the day of the Conversion of St. Paul; and because at that time Dr. Bonner (age 33) had returned from Rome, and the Nuncio of the Pope was frequently at Court, some suspect that the Pope had given a tacit consent which I cannot believe. It is true that from that time the said Nuncio did not go very frankly into business; and although before the said statute I had solicited him according to the charge he had from his Holiness, and to the promise he had made me, when I presented your Majesty's letters to him, to put the brief in execution against the Archbishop, or that he would assist me in it, he has done nothing about it, and I fear that, "à la sourde," he has not always done his duty. The duke of Norfolk's mission to France is only founded on the Pope's journey to Nice, as I lately wrote. He came eight days ago, accompanied by the King's physician, to visit the French ambassador, who is ill of a tertian fever; and being there at dinner, some one asked if he was not going to Rome as reported; to which he replied, either for brag or to disguise his going to the Pope, that he would never go to Rome except with lance on thigh.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 May 1533 Lanz, II. 66. 523. Charles V. to Ferdinand of Hungary.

I wrote on the 12th what I had learned about the marriage (l'esposement) of the king of England to Anne Boleyn (age 32). I have since received letters from my ambassador, by which you will see that the said marriage is accomplished, and that the King holds her as his wife and queen of England. Although the injury done to the Queen and Princess is extreme, and there is little hope of bringing Henry to reason, considering the delays and subterfuges used by him and the Pope, yet after careful consideration it has been thought best to persist in the demand for justice, as you will see by the copy of our despatches to Rome and England; and that you also should send some one to Rome to urge the matter. I write also to the king of Portugal to do the like. Barcelona, 23 May 1533. Fr.

Letters and Papers 1533. 24 May 1533. Granvelle Papers, II. 30. 534. Charles V. to his Ambassador in France.

Since his last, touching the marriage of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn (age 32), has received letters from his ambassadors, stating that it has certainly taken place, and that the Queen has been forbidden to call herself Queen, and the Princess to write to her, &c. The people of England are scandalised at the King's barbarity. Is to show these things to Francis, and urge him as a Christian prince, and as related to Katharine by his wife, to denounce this marriage, or at least not to countenance it in any way or interfere with justice. He is also to deliver the Emperor's letters to the Queen, and urge her to use her best efforts in the matter. De Leyva writes that Montferrat is reduced all but Alba. Barcelona, 24 May 1533. Fr.

Statute in Restraint of Appeals

In Mar 1533 Parliament enacted the Statute in Restraint of Appeals by which Henry VIII (age 41) forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. Considered to be a cornerstone of the English Reformation.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

Hall's Chronicle 1533. After the King perceiving his new wife Queen Anne (age 32), to be great with child, caused all officers necessary, to be appointed to her, and so on Easter eve, she went to her Closet openly as Queen, with all solemnity, and then the King appointed the day of her Coronation, to be kept on Whit Sunday next following, and writings were sent to all Shires, to certify the names of men of forty pound, to receive the Order of Knighthood, or else to make a fine: the assessment of which fines, were appointed to Thomas Cromwell, Master of the Kings Jewel House, and counsellor to the king, and newly in his high favour, which so politicly handled the matter, that he raised of that seizing of fines, a great sum of money to the Kings use. Also the King wrote letters to the city of London, to prepare pageants against the same coronation.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 12 Apr 1533. Memorandum: the 12th day of Aprill, Anno Domini 1533, beinge Easter eaven, Anne Bulleine (age 32), Marques of Pembroke,d was proclaymed Queene at Greenewych, and ofired that daie in the Kinges Chappell as Queene of England.e

Note d. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was raised to the dignity of Marchioness of Pembroke on Sunday, September 1st, 1532, at Windsor Castle, an honour which had never before been conferred on any unmarried female.

Note e. She had been some months preriously married to Henry VIII in great privacy by Dr. Rowland Lee (age 46), afterwards Bishop of Lichfield and Coyentry, but whether the marriage took place, as Sanders says, November 14th, 1532, on their arrival at Dover from France, or was deferred, as Cranmer (age 43) [?] supposed, to January 25th, 1533, still remains uncertain.

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet at Greenwich Palace [Map]. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton.

The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (age 41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Apr 1533. 351. On Saturday, Easter Eve, dame Anne (age 32) went to mass in Royal state, loaded with jewels, clothed in a robe of cloth of gold friese. The daughter (age 14) of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), who is affianced to the duke of Richmond (age 13), carried her train; and she had in her suite sixty young ladies, and was brought to church, and brought back with the solemnities, or even more, which were used to the Queen. She has changed her name from Marchioness to Queen, and the preachers offered prayers for her by name. All the world is astonished at it for it looks like a dream, and even those who take her part know not whether to laugh or to cry. The King is very watchful of the countenance of the people, and begs the lords to go and visit and make their court to the new Queen, whom he intends to have solemnly crowned after Easter, when he will have feastings and tournaments; and some think that Clarencieux went four days ago to France to invite gentlemen at arms to the tourney, after the example of Francis, who did so at his nuptials. I know not whether this will be before or after, but the King has secretly appointed with the archbishop of Canterbury that of his office, without any other pressure, he shall cite the King as having two wives; and upon this, without summoning the Queen, he will declare that he was at liberty to marry as he has done without waiting for a dispensation or sentence of any kind.

Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (age 17).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

The name and title which the King (age 41) wishes the Queen (age 47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to princess Mary (age 17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the Lady (age 32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

On 16 Apr 1533, Wednesday, Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England (age 47) was demoted from Queen to Princess.

Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 08 May 1533. Nevertheless the viij th daye of Maye, accordyng to the said appoyntment, I came vnto Dunstable, my Lorde of Lyncoln (age 60) beyng assistante vnto me, and my Lorde of Wyncehester (age 50), Doctour Bell, Doctour Claybroke, Doctour Trygonnel, Doctour Hewis, Doctour Olyver, Doctour Brytten, Mr. Bedell, with diuerse other lernyd in the Lawe beyng councellours in the Lawe for the King's parte: and soo there at our commyng kepte a Courte for the apperance of the said Lady Kateren (age 47), where were examyned certeyn witnes whiche testified that she was lawfully cited and called to appere, whome for fawte of apperance was declared contumax; procedyng in the said cause agaynste her in pænam contumaciam as the processe of the Lawe thereunto belongeth; whiche contynewed xv. dayes after our cummyng thither. And the morow after Assension daye I gave finall Sentance therin, howe that it was indispensable for the Pope to lycense any suche marieges.

This donne, and after our reiornynga1 home agayne, the Kings Highnes prepared al thyngs convenient for the Coronacion of the Queene, whiche also was after suche a maner as foloweth.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 May [1533]. R. O. 525. John Tregonwell to Cromwell.

My lord of Canterbury (age 43) gave sentence this day at 11 o'clock in the great cause of matrimony ; has declared it to be against the law of God, and has divorced the King from the noble lady Katharine. He has used himself in this matter very honorably, and all who have been sent hither on the King's behalf have acted diligently and towardly. Sentence shall be given for the King's second contract of matrimony before the Feast of Pentecost. The process is partly devised. 23 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the Council. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 May [1533]. R. O. 526. Thomas Bedyll to Cromwell.

Sentence of divorce was given this day, 23 May, at 10 a.m., in open court, without contradiction. I have written this that you may signify it to the King if you be at court, that the King may have knowledge of it to his satisfaction. This day was appointed for the sentence at the last court. The King's commands, written to the Archbishop by Thirleby, were declared to my company here and to me, and we have done as much as the shortness of the time will allow. My servant comes post, having new horses at St. Alban's and Barnet. Dunstable, 23 May, after 10 o'clock a.m.

Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the Council.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 May [1533]. R. O. St. P. I. 396. Cranmer's Letters, 243. 528. Cranmer to Henry VIII.

Today, 23 May, I have given sentence in your great and weighty cause. I send a copy thereof by the bearer, Ric. Watkyns. As I was advertised by the letters of Mr. Thurlesbye, your chaplain, that it was your pleasure that I should cause your counsel to conceive a procuracy concerning the second marriage, I have sent the letters to them, and required them to act accordingly. I desire to know your pleasure concerning the second matrimony as soon as you and your counsel are perfectly resolved therein, for the time of the coronation is so near at hand that the matter requires good expedition. Dunstaple, 23 May. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1533. [23 May 1533]. R. O. Rym. XIV. 462. 529. The Divorce.

Notification of the sentence1 of divorce between Hen. VIII. and Katharine of Arragon pronounced by archbishop Cranmer. Dated in the monastery of Dunstable, 23 May 1533. Present, Gervase prior of the said monastery, Simon Haynes, S.T.P., John Newman, M.A., and others.

Two copies ; one badly and the other slightly mutilated.

Note 2. The sentence itself, as recited in the patent of 6 June (see Grants in June 1533, No. 7.), is printed both in Burnet and in Wilkins.

On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (age 43) declared the marriage of Henry VIII (age 41) and Catherine of Aragon (age 47) invalid.

Funeral of Mary Tudor

On 21 Jul 1533 Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (deceased) was buried at Bury St Edmund's Abbey. Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 14) chief mourner.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 07 Sep 1533. Memorandum, the viith daie of September, 1533, being Sonndaie, Queene Anne (age 32) was brought to bedd of a faire daughterc at three of the clocke in the after noune;d and the morrowe after, being the daie of the Nativitie of Our Ladie, Te Deum was songe solempnlie at Powles, the Major and Aldermen being present, with the head craftes of the Cittie of London.

Note c. The Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of England.

Note d. Between three and four of the clock at afternoon. — Stow, p. 569.

On 07 Sep 1533 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 42) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 10 Sep 1533. And the Wednesdaie next followinge,a the most honorable yonge ladie was christened at Greenewychb in the Friers Church, all the noble lordes and ladies doing service about the christening in their Elizabeth. offices after their degrees, which was a goodlie sight to see, and their shee had geaven her to name Elizabeth; my Lord Thomas Cranmer (age 44), Archbishopp of Canterberie, godfather; the old Dutchesse of Northfolke (age 56),c wydowe, my Ladie Marques of Dorcett (age 46), widowe, godmothers at the fonte, and my Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 30) godmother at the bishoppinge;d and the morrowe after their was fiers made in London, and at everie fire a vessell of wyne for people to drinke for the said solempnitie.

Note a. September 10.

Note b. Compare this with the accomit of the maimer of the chrifltening "of the Lady Elisabeth" in MS. Harleian. Cod. 643, fol. 128-80.

Note c. The Dowager Duchess (age 56) of Norfolk carried the infant, in a mantle of purple velvet, with a long train furred with ermine. Hall's "Chronicle" ed. 1809, p. 806.

Note d. Immediately after the christening the Archbishop (age 44) confirmed the infant princess, the Marchioness of Exeter (age 30) being godmother.

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map].

Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 30), Walter Blount, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk (age 56). Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 24), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 38) and George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 30) supported the train of the mantle.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60), William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 23), Thomas Howard (age 22) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 68) carried the canopy.

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 14) were married. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36). He the illegitmate son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 35). They were third cousins.

First Act of Succession

Hall's Chronicle 1533. In this parliament also was made the Act of Succession for the surety of the crown, to the which every person being of lawful age should be sworn upon the pain expressed in that Act, as in the same you may most evidently see.

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 18) illegitimate and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (age 42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Execution of Elizabeth Barton and her Supporters

Hall's Chronicle 1533. This yere also, one Pauier town clerk of the City of London, hanged himself, which surely was a man, that in nowise could abide to here that the Gospel should be in English, and I myself heard him once say to me and other that were by, swearing a great oath, that if he thought the King’s highness, would set forth the scripture in English, and let it be read of the people by his authority, rather then he would so long live he would cut his own throat, but he broke promises, for as you have heard he hanged himself : but of what mind and intent he so did, God judge. About this season was espied a new found Saint, and holy Hypocrite, called the Maid of Kent, which by the great labour, diligence, and pain taking of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Lord Cromwell, and one called Hugh Latimer a priest (which shortly after was made bishop of Worcester,) the juggling and crafty deceit of this maid, was manifested and brought to light: whereupon after diverse examinations, she with all her adherents, were in November brought to the Star Chamber : the names of them all shall follow, first Elizabeth Barton, which was she that called herself the Holy Maid of Kent, Richard Master priest person of Aldington in the County of Kent, Edward Bocking doctor in Divinity, Monk of Canterbury, Richarde Dering Monk also of Canterbury, Edward Twaites gentleman, Thomas Laurece register to the Archdeacon of Canterbury, Henry Gold person of Aldermary bachelor of Divinity, Hugh Riche Friar Observant, and Richard Risby, Thomas Gold gentleman. These all being in the Star Chamber, before diverse of the King’s Counsel, confessed their feigned hypocrisy, and dissimulated sanctity, and traitorous purposes and intents, and then was there by the King’s counsel adjudged, to stand at Paul’s Crosse, where they with their own hands, should severally deliver each of them to the preacher that should be appointed, a bill declaring their subtle, crafty and superstitious doings. Which thing the next Sunday after, they all above rehearsed, standing on a stage at Paul’s Cross, made for that purpose did accomplish: but for their treasons committed, the matter thereof was respited to the Parliament next following, where all they above said, with other as after ye shall hear, were attainted by Act of Parliament, and suffered death as traitors, by hanging, drawing, and quartering at Tyburn.

On 20 Apr 1534 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton (age 28) was hanged for treason at Tyburn [Map]. Five of her supporters were hanged alongside her:

Edward Bocking, Benedictine Monk of Christ Church, Canterbury

John Dering, Benedictine Monk

Henry Gold, Priest

Hugh Rich, Franciscan Friar

Richard Risby, Franciscan Friar

1534 Treasons Act

After 1534 Parliament enacted the Treason Act made it treason, punishable by death, to not swear an oath recognising the King Henry VIII (age 42) as the "... Only Head of the Church of England ...".

First Act of Supremacy

Hall's Chronicle 1533. 03 Nov 1533. In this year the third day of November the King’s Highness held his high court of Parliament, in the which was concluded and made many and sundry good, wholesome, and godly statutes: but among all one special statute, which authorised the King’s highness to be Supreme Head of the Church of England, by the which the Pope with all his College of Cardinals abolished, with all their pardons and indulgences was utterly abolished out of this realm, God be everlastingly praised therefore. In this Parliament also was given to the King’s highness the first fruits and tenths of all dignities and spiritual promotions. And in the end of the same Parliament the King’s Majesty most graciously grannted (and willed it by the same Parliament to be established) his most gracious and general free pardon.

On 03 Nov 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Supremacy by which Henry VIII (age 43) and his heirs were declared to be Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 9. How the prelates swore to the King as Head of the Church.1

It has already been told how within a month the prelates were to meet, and the gathering took place in the church of St. Paul's, London. All the bishops commenced, and then the prelates, and they all swore that from that time forward their King was also their spiritual head, and they would all obey him as such. They arranged that commissioners should go all over the kingdom to administer the oath to the clergy in the monasteries and churches, and it was ordered that those who would not take the oath should be hanged, drawn, and quartered. The commissioners who were appointed set forth for all parts of the kingdom, and two of them went to the churches and monasteries of London, where all, some from fear and some from inclination, took the oath, except most of the Carthusians, of whom we shall speak presently; and we shall tell how the Lords took the oath, and how the Chancellor would not take it.

Note 1. Spring, 1535.

Arrest of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and his son Henry

The History of England under Henry VIII 1546. 02 Dec 1546. The first that manifested himself was Sir Richard Southwel (age 43), who (Dec. 2.) said that he knew certain things of the earl, that touched his fidelity to the king: the earl, before the Lord Chancellor Wriothesley (age 40), the Lord St. John, the Earl of Hertford, and others, vehemently (Dec. 2.) affirmed himself a true man, desiring to be try'd by justice, or else offering himself to fight in his shirt with Southwel: but the lords for the present only committed them. The duke this while, hearing his son was in trouble, sends (Dec. 3. 4.) to divers of his friends to know the cause, and particularly to the Bishop of Winchester: those letters yet (it is probable) fell into the king's council's hands; but could not preserve him from being involved in his son's fortune: so that (Dec. 12.) he was sent for, and the same day, not long after his son, committed to the Tower. Divers persons also were examined concerning his affairs. Mrs. Elizabeth Holland being disposed, confess'd, that the duke had told her, that none of the king's council loved him, because they were no noblemen born themselves; as also because he believ'd too truly in the sacrament of the altar. Moreover, that the king loved him not, because he was too much lov'd in his country; but that he would follow his father's lesson, which was. that the less others set by him, the more he would set by himself. As also, that the duke complain'd that he was not of the most secret (or, as it is there term'd, the privy) council. And that the king was much grown of his body, and that he could not go up and down the stairs, but was let up and down by a device. And that his majesty was sickly, and could not long endure; and the rea.lm like to be in an ill case thro' diversity of opinions. And that if he were a young man, and the realm in quiet, he would ask leave to see the vernacle; which he said, was the picture of Christ given to women by himself as he went to death. As touching his arms, that she had not heard the duke speak of his own, but of his son's, that he liked them not, and that he had gather'd them, himself knew not from whence; and that he placed the Norfolk's arms wrong, and had found fault with him: and therefore that she should take no pattern of his son's arms to work them with her needle in his house, but as he gave them. Furthermore, she confess'd that the Earl of Surrey lov'd her not, nor the Dutchess of Richmond him; and that she addicted herself much to the said dutchess.

Mary Dutchess of Richmond being examin'd, confess'd that the duke her father wou'd have had her marry Sir Thomas Seymour, brother to the Earl of Hertford, which her brother also desir'd, wishing her withal to endear her self so into the king's favour, as she might the better rule here as others had done; and that she refused: and that her father would have had the Earl of Surrey to have matched with the Earl of Hertford's daughter, which her brother likewise heard of (and that this was the cause of his father's displeasure) as taking Hertford to be his enemy. And that her brother was so much incens'd against the said earl, as the duke his father said thereupon, his son would lose as much as he had gather'd together.

Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey

The History of England under Henry VIII 1546. 19 Jan 1547. Whereupon also judgment of death was given, and he beheaded at Tower-Hill. And thus ended the earl [Henry Howard (age 31)]; a man learned, and of an excellent wit, as his compositions shew.

On 19 Jan 1547 Henry Howard (age 31) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. He had foolishly added the arms of Edward the Confessor to his own arms. He was charged with treasonably quartering the royal arms. His father survived sentence since the King died the day before it was due to take place.

Visit of Chabot the French Admiral

Letters and Papers 1535. 14 Jan 1535. 48. Nothing is known about news from Ireland, except that about three days ago Cromwell delivered a good sum of money to two Irishmen, and said to some who were present that they had already taken one of the principal of those who had caused trouble there, and that Kildare would be taken and brought hither in a few days. Cromwell also mentioned that the king of France was raising lanceknights about Lorraine and the county of Montbeliard. Kildare has long been threatened, and will take as good care of himself as hitherto. It is true many fear that his men may betray him if he has not money to maintain them. I am told by a good man that about 60 English harquebusiers had entered some tower, but were surprised and driven out by Kildare, leaving their arms behind. I hear the King and Council are much disappointed at hearing nothing from France on the subject of the negotiations between the King and the Admiral (age 43), and they fear some intelligence with your Majesty. The King hopes that at an interview with Francis, which he reckons will be very soon, he will break off all other understandings. And to persuade Francis the better to this assembly, in order that he may not excuse himself, as last year, I am told that the King has come to no determination on any of the matters proposed by the Admiral (age 43), but put off his answer till the meeting. That was the answer given (among other things) as to the marriage of this princess with the duke of Angouleme; which the Admiral (age 43), I am told, took very ill; and still worse what occurred at the feast the King gave him on the eve of his departure, when he, being seated next the Lady (age 34), while they were dancing, she burst into a fit of incontrollable laughter without any occasion. The Admiral (age 43) frowned, and said, "What, madam, do you laugh at me?" On which she excused herself by saying it was because the King had told her he was going to ask for the Admiral's (age 43) secretary to amuse her, and that the King had met on the way a lady who made him forget the matter. I don't know if the excuse was accepted as satisfactory. The King, on the other hand, and the Lady were much disappointed that the Admiral (age 43) showed no pleasure at any attention that was shown to him, even at the Tower of London and the Ordnance.

Execution of the Carthusians

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 28 Apr 1535. This yeare, the 28 of Aprill, 1535, being Weddensdaye, were arreigned at Westminster in the Kings Benche (the Lord Chauncellor sittinge there as Highe Commissioner, with the moste parte of the nobles of the realme and the judges allso)a three munckes of the Charterhowsse, one beinge Prioure of the Charterhowsse in London named Mr. John Houghton (age 48), another named Mr. Robarte Lawrence,b prioure of a place in Lincolneshire, and sometyme chaplein to the Duke of Northfolke (age 62) now being, and the thirdc prioure of a place in Northamptonshire, and one, Richarde Reynold,d a brother of the monasterie of Syon, and two priests allso, one beinge Vicare of Thistleworthe in the shire of Middlesex, and this day were all endicted of highe treason against the Kinge; and the morrowe after, beinge the 29th of Aprill, all the saide persons appeared there agayne, the Lords beinge agayne present; and there their inditements being redd afore them, a jurie of esquiers and gentlemen of Middlesex were swome to passe on them, and incontinent gave verditt of them beinge guiltie of the same treason, whereupon the Lorde Cheefe Justice of Englande gave sentence on them, which was: that the saide muncks and priests should goe from thence to the place they came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawen throughe London to Tiburne [Map], and there to be hanged, and beinge aly ve cutt downe, their bowells to be brent afore them, and then their heades to be cutt of and theyr bodies to be quartered, and then their heades and bodies to be sett at suche placesf as the King should assigne them.

. And the 4th day of May followinge, being Tewsday in the Rogation week, the parties aforesayde were drawne from the Tower to Tybome [Map], and there had execution as afore is written, savinge the other priest called Jo. Ferne, who had his pardon delyvered him on the Tower Hill, and so was quitt.

Note a. It was with the full approral of his Council that Henry VIII took the resolution of executing the laws without mercy against such as impugned his spiritual authority.

Note b. Thomas Laurence, Prior of Hexham. — Stow.

Note c. Augustine Webster, Prior of "Bevall."— Stow.

Note d. Richard Reginalds, doctor, a monk of Sion.— Stow.

Note e. John Haile, Vicar of Isleworth.

Note f. Their heads and quarters were set on the gates of the City all sare one quarter, which was set on the Charterhouse at London.-Stow.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 11. How the Carthusian martyrs died who would not take the oath.

We have said how the Commissioners went to all the churches in the country to administer the oath acknowledging the King as head of the Church, and how they went to the Charterhouse. The night before they came the Prior called all the brethren together and preached to them very devoutly, and his sermon was such that all of them there and then declared they would die before they would take the oath. So they all promised one another, and were dismissed.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 May 1535. 666. The enormity of the case, and the confirmation it gives of the hopelessness of expecting the King to repent, compels me to write to your Majesty that yesterday there were dragged through the length of this city three Carthusians and a Bridgettine monk, all men of good character and learning, and cruelly put to death at the place of execution, only for having maintained that the Pope was the true Head of the universal Church, and that the King had no right in reason or conscience to usurp the sovereign authority over the clergy of this country. This they had declared to Cromwell, of their free will, about three weeks ago, in discharge of their own consciences and that of the King; and on Cromwell pointing out the danger, and advising them to reconsider it before the matter went further, they replied they would rather die a hundred times than vary. Eight days ago the duke of Norfolk sat in judgment on them, as the King's representative, assisted by the Chancellor and Cromwell, and the ordinary judges of the realm, and the knights of the Garter who had been at the feast (solempnite) of St. George. The monks maintained their cause most virtuously. No one being able to conquer them in argument, they were at last told that the statute being passed they could not dispute it, and that if they would not alter their language they were remanded till next day to hear their sentence. Next day, in the same presence, they were strongly exhorted to recant, and after a long discussion they were sentenced by lay judges and declared guilty of treason. Nothing was said about degrading them, or changing their habits. And the same fate has overtaken a priest for having spoken and written concerning the life and government of this King. It is altogether a new thing that the dukes of Richmond and Norfolk, the earl of Wiltshire, his son, and other lords and courtiers, were present at the said execution, quite near the sufferers. People say that the King himself would have liked to see the butchery; which is very probable, seeing that nearly all the Court, even those of the Privy Chamber, were there— his principal chamberlain, Norres, bringing with him 40 horses; and it is thought that he was of the number of five who came thither accoutred and mounted like Borderers (accoustrez et monstez comme ceulx des frontieres descosse), who were armed secretly, with vizors (?) before their faces, of which that of the duke of Norfolk's brother got detached, which has caused a great stir (que esbranle grandemen laffairez), together with the fact that while the five thus habited (vestuz et bouchez) were speaking all those of the Court dislodged.

Letters and Papers 1535. 17 May 1535. 726. There is strange news here of the cruelty of the king of England to certain religious men. He caused them to be ripped up in each other's presence, their arms torn off (con farli scarpar le braccia), their hearts cut out and rubbed upon their mouths and faces; and this for having caused remorse (per haver fatto coscienza) to certain ecclesiastics who had sworn that the King was Head of the English Church, and not the Pope. Has seen a letter of the 5th from London, saying that on the 4th a prior of one of the three Charterhouses, two friars of the Order, a prior of Sion, and a priest, who refused to swear to the King's supremacy, were hanged without degradation, as rebels. They were dragged through the streets in carts, their heads and feet were to be placed on the public gates, and the rest of their bodies burnt. The whole city is displeased, as they were of exemplary and holy life. It was thought that 10 or 12 priests now in the Tower would be also executed for the same cause. The same letter states that this "Gherardo" (Fitzgerald) in Ireland has lost a strong castle, and retired with 50 horse to the bogs, where he is safe while the wet weather lasts; but when it changes it will be easy for the King to take him dead or alive, for most of his followers have returned to their allegiance.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 11 Jun 1535. This yeare, 11 June, were arreigned in the Kinges Benche at Westminster 3 munckes of the Charterhowsse of London, and there condempned of highe treason against the Kinge,b and judged to be drawne, hanged, bowelled, beheaded, and quartered; one of them was called Francis Nitigate,c another called Mr. Exmew,d prompter of the same place, and the third was called Mr. Middlemore, vicar of the same placee.

Note b. The treason against the King was for denying that Heniy oovdd be, in spiritoal matters, the head of the Chnrch.

Note c. Sebastian Nidigate. — Stow.

Note d. Thomas Exmew or de Exmouth.

Note e. Humphry Middlemore, Vicar of Exmonth.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 19 Jul 1535. The 19th day of June, beinge Saterday, the 3 muncks of the Charterhowsse, afore written, were drawne from the Tower to Tyborne, and there were executed accordinge to their judgment, and their heades and bodies hanged at diverse gates aboute the Cittie.

Burning of the Anabaptists

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 04 Jun 1535. This yeare, the 4th day of June, were diverse Dutch men and weomen convicted for heresie to the number of 22,a of the which 14 were condemned, and two of them, that is to say a man and a woman, were brent in Smythfeild [Map] this day at three of the clocke in the aftemoone, and the other 12 were sent to diverse good townes in England, there to be brent; and the residue were converted and commaunded to departe out of this realme within 14 dayes into their countries, on payne of death at the Kings pleasure.

Note a. On the 25th May, in St. Paul's church at London, 19 men and 6 women, born in Holland, were examined, of whom 14 were convicted as Anabaptists.—Stow.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. About a score of Dutch Anabaptists have been taken here, of whom 13 have been condemned to the fire, and will be burnt in different parts of the kingdom, as the King and Cromwell have informed me. The others, who have been reconciled to the Church, will be sent into Flanders to the Queen to be dealt with as seems right. London, 5 June 1535.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 9.