Biography of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688

Paternal Family Tree: Norman

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Sydenham 1562

1648 Treaty of Newport

1656 Treaty of Brussels

1658 Royalist Conspiracy

1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1663 Blood's Plot

1671 Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

Before 1610 [his father] Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles (age 29) and [his mother] Elizabeth Poyntz (age 22) were married. He the son of Walter Butler 11th Earl Ormonde 4th Earl Ossory (age 50) and Helen Butler Countess Ormonde and Ossory.

On 19 Oct 1610 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde was born to Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles (age 29) and Elizabeth Poyntz (age 23).

On 15 Dec 1619 [his father] Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles (age 38) drowned accidentally at Skerries, Anglesey having been sent to England to answer charges of having garissoned Kilkenny Castle, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny.

In Dec 1629 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 19) and Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Richard Preston 1st Earl Desmond and Elizabeth Butler. They were second cousin once removed.

In 1632 [his son] Thomas Butler died.

In 1632 [his son] Thomas Butler was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 21) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 16).

On 24 Feb 1633 [his grandfather] Walter Butler 11th Earl Ormonde 4th Earl Ossory (age 74) died. His grandson James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 22) succeeded 12th Earl Ormonde, 5th Earl Ossory. [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 17) by marriage Countess Ormonde.

On 08 Jul 1634 [his son] Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 23) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 18) at Kilkenny Castle, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny.

In 1636 [his son] James Butler was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 25) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 20).

On 15 Jul 1639 [his son] Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 28) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 23).

On 29 Jun 1640 [his daughter] Elizabeth Butler Countess Chesterfield was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 29) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 24).

On 30 Aug 1642 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Ormonde. [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 27) by marriage Marchioness Ormonde.

In 1643 [his son] John Butler 1st Earl Gowran was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 32) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 27).

In 1645 [his son] James Butler (age 9) died.

In 1646 [his daughter] Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire was born to James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 35) and [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 30).

Around 1647 Peter Lely (age 28). Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 36).

Treaty of Newport

Between 15 Sep 1648 and 27 Nov 1648 the Treaty of Newport attempted to reconcile King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 47) (who was imprisoned at nearby Carisbrooke Castle [Map]) with Parliament. Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles (age 48) and Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 35) represented Parliament. James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 37) represented King Charles. The Treaty eventually came to nothing.

Parliament was also represented by John Crew 1st Baron Crew (age 50), John Glynne (age 46), Nathaniel Fiennes (age 40), William Pierrepont of Thoresby (age 40), Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland (age 45), William Fiennes 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (age 66), Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 63), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury (age 57), James Cranfield 2nd Earl Middlesex (age 27) and Thomas Wenman 2nd Viscount Wenman (age 52).

In 1649 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 38) was appointed 444th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Mar 1650. Saw a triumph in Monsieur del Camp's Academy, where divers of the French and English noblesse, especially my Lord of Ossory, and Richard, sons to the Marquis of Ormond (age 39) (afterward Duke), did their exercises on horseback in noble equipage, before a world of spectators and great persons, men and ladies. It ended in a collation.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1651. Dr. Duncan preached on 8 Matt. v. 34, showing the mischief of covetousness. My Lord Marquis of Ormonde (age 40) and Inchiquin (age 37), come newly out of Ireland, were this day at chapel.

After 1654 [his son-in-law] Philip Stanhope 2nd Earl Chesterfield (age 20) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Butler Countess Chesterfield (age 13) were married. She by marriage Countess Chesterfield. She the daughter of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 43) and Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 38). He the son of Henry Stanhope and Katherine Wotton Countess Chesterfield (age 45).

Treaty of Brussels

On 02 Apr 1656 the Treaty of Brussels agreeing mutual support between England (Royal) and Spain was signed by Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester (age 43) and James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 45) on behalf of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 25), and Alonso Cárdenas on behalf of Philip IV King Spain (age 50).

Royalist Conspiracy

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1658. That excellent preacher and holy man, Dr. Hewer, was martyred for having intelligence with his Majesty (age 28), through the Lord Marquis of Ormond (age 47).

On 14 Nov 1659 [his son] Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory (age 25) and [his daughter-in-law] Emilia Nassau Beverweert Countess Ossory (age 24) were married at Den Bosch. He the son of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 49) and Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 44).

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jul 1660. The King received a congratulatory address from the city of Cologne, in Germany, where he had been some time in his exile; his Majesty (age 30) saying they were the best people in the world, the most kind and worthy to him that he ever met with. I recommended Monsieur Messary to be Judge Advocate in Jersey, by the Vice-Chamberlain's mediation with the Earl of St. Albans; and saluted my excellent and worthy noble friend, my [his son] Lord Ossory (age 25), son to the Marquis of Ormond (age 49), after many years' absence returned home.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1660. I heard his Majesty's (age 30) speech in the Lords' House, on passing the Bills of Tonnage and Poundage; restoration of my Lord Ormond (age 49) to his estate in Ireland; concerning the commission of sewers, and continuance of the excise. In the afternoon I saluted my old friend, the Archbishop of Armagh, formerly of Londonderry (Dr. Bramhall (age 66)). He presented several Irish divines to be promoted as Bishops in that kingdom, most of the Bishops in the three kingdoms being now almost worn out, and the Sees vacant.

1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

In early 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 02 Jan 1661 Henry Bedingfield 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Bedingfield of Oxburgh in Norfolk.

On 10 Jan 1661 Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was created 1st Baron Rutherford with special remainder to his heirs and assignees whatsoever, and that under what provisions, restrictions, and conditions the said Lord Rutherford should think fit.

On 23 Jan 1661 John Cole 1st Baronet (age 41) was created Baronet Cole of Newland.

On 23 Feb 1661 Edward Smythe 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Smythe.

On 04 Mar 1661 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet Reade of Barton in Berkshire. Mary Cornwall Lady Reade (age 31) by marriage Lady Reade of Barton in Berkshire.

On 10 Mar 1661 Brian Broughton 1st Baronet (age 42) was created 1st Baronet Broughton of Broughton in Staffordshire.

On 20 Mar 1661 Thomas Rich 1st Baronet (age 60) was created 1st Baronet Rich of Sonning in Berkshire.

On 29 Mar 1661 Robert Cholmondeley 1st Viscount Cholmondeley (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Cholmondeley of Kells in County Meath.

On 30 Mar 1661 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 50) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 30 Mar 1661 John Fettiplace 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire. Anne Wenman Lady Fettiplace (age 31) by marriage Lady Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. But, above all, was these three Lords, Northumberland (age 58), and Suffolk (age 42), and the Duke of Ormond (age 50), coming before the courses on horseback, and staying so all dinner-time, and at last to bring up [Dymock] the King's Champion, all in armour on horseback, with his spear and targett carried before him. And a Herald proclaims "That if any dare deny Charles Stewart to be lawful King of England, here was a Champion that would fight with him1;" and with these words, the Champion flings down his gauntlet, and all this he do three times in his going up towards the King's table. At last when he is come, the King drinks to him, and then sends him the cup which is of gold, and he drinks it off, and then rides back again with the cup in his hand.

Note 1. The terms of the Champion's challenge were as follows: "If any person of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay our Soveraigne Lord King Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, Sonne and next heire to our Soveraigne Lord Charles the First, the last King deceased, to be right heire to the Imperiall Crowne of this Realme of England, or that bee ought not to enjoy the same; here is his champion, who sayth that he lyeth and is a false Traytor, being ready in person to combate with him, and in this quarrell will venture his life against him, on what day soever hee shall be appointed".

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Apr 1661. I presented his Majesty (age 30) with his "Panegyric" in the Privy Chamber, which he was pleased to accept most graciously; I gave copies to the Lord Chancellor (age 52), and most of the noblemen who came to me for it. I dined at the Marquis of Ormond's (age 50) where was a magnificent feast, and many great persons.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 May 1661. This evening, I was with my Lord Brouncker (age 50), Sir Robert Murray (age 53), Sir Patrick Neill, Monsieur Zulichem, and Bull (all of them of our Society, and excellent mathematicians), to show his Majesty (age 30), who was present, Saturn's annulus, as some thought, but as Zulichem affirmed with his balteus (as that learned gentleman had published), very near eclipsed by the moon, near the Mons Porphyritis; also, Jupiter and satellites, through his Majesty's (age 30) great telescope, drawing thirty-five feet; on which were divers discourses.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1661. Thence homewards, and meeting Mr. Creed I took him by water to the Wardrobe with me, and there we found my Lord newly gone away with the Duke of Ormond (age 50) and some others, whom he had had to the collation; and so we, with the rest of the servants in the hall, sat down and eat of the best cold meats that ever I eat on in all my life. From thence I went home (Mr. Moore with me to the waterside, telling me how kindly he is used by my Lord and my Lady since his coming hither as a servant), and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1661. I dined with the Duke of Ormond (age 51), who told me there were no moles in Ireland, nor any rats till of late, and that in but one county; but it was a mistake that spiders would not live there, only they were not poisonous. Also, that they frequently took Salmon with dogs.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1662. This evening, according to custom, his Majesty (age 31) opened the revels of that night by throwing the dice himself in the privy chamber, where was a table set on purpose, and lost his £100. (The year before he won £1,500.) The ladies also played very deep. I came away when the Duke of Ormond (age 51) had won about £1,000, and left them still at passage, cards, etc. At other tables, both there and at the groom-porter's, observing the wicked folly and monstrous excess of passion among some losers; sorry am I that such a wretched custom as play to that excess should be countenanced in a Court, which ought to be an example of virtue to the rest of the Kingdom.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jan 1662. Having notice of the Duke of York's (age 28) intention to visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, when he was pleased to do me that honor of his own accord, and to stay some time viewing such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward he caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, and to sit with him covered at the same table. There were his Highness (age 28), the Duke of Ormond (age 51), and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds about a project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp (age 63). After this, I accompanied the Duke (age 28) to an East India vessel that lay at Blackwall [Map], where we had entertainment of several curiosities. Among other spirituous drinks, as punch, etc., they gave us Canary that had been carried to and brought from the Indies, which was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London with his Highness (age 28). This night was acted before his Majesty (age 31) "The Widow", a lewd play.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. And looking upon his lodgings, which are now enlarging, he in passion cried, "Guarda mi spada; for, by God, I may chance to keep him in Ireland, when he is there:" for Sir W. Pen (age 41) is going thither with my Lord Lieutenant (age 51). But it is my design to keep much in with Sir George (age 52); and I think I have begun very well towards it. So to the office, and was there late doing business, and so with my head full of business I to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 May 1662. I saw the Queen (age 23) at dinner; the Judges came to compliment her arrival, and, after them, the Duke of Ormond (age 51) brought me to kiss her hand.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Aug 1662. I was admitted and then sworn one of the Council of the Royal Society, being nominated in his Majesty's (age 32) original grant to be of this Council for the regulation of the Society, and making laws and statutes conducible to its establishment and progress, for which we now set apart every Wednesday morning till they were all finished. Lord Viscount Brouncker (age 51) (that excellent mathematician) was also by his Majesty (age 32), our founder, nominated our first President. The King (age 32) gave us the arms of England to be borne in a canton in our arms, and sent us a mace of silver gilt, of the same fashion and size as those carried before his Majesty (age 32), to be borne before our president on meeting days. It was brought by Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 56), master of his Majesty's jewel house.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Aug 1662. I dined with my Lord Brouncker (age 51) and Sir Robert Murray (age 54), and then went to consult about a newly modeled ship at Lambeth, the intention being to reduce that art to as certain a method as any other part of architecture.

On 26 Oct 1662 [his son-in-law] William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire (age 22) and [his daughter] Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire (age 16) were married. She the daughter of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 52) and Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 47). He the son of William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire (age 45) and Elizabeth Cecil Countess Devonshire (age 43).

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), from whom I receive every day more and more signs of his confidence and esteem of me. Here I met with Pierce the chyrurgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) is with child; but though it be the King's, yet her Lord (age 28) being still in town, and sometimes seeing of her, though never to eat or lie together, it will be laid to him. He tells me also how the Duke of York (age 29) is smitten in love with my [his daughter] Lady Chesterfield (age 22)1 (a virtuous lady, daughter to my Lord of Ormond (age 52)); and so much, that the Duchess of York (age 25) hath complained to the King (age 32) and her father (age 53) about it, and my Lady Chesterfield (age 22) is gone into the country for it. At all which I am sorry; but it is the effect of idleness, and having nothing else to employ their great spirits upon.

Note 1. Lady Elizabeth Butler (age 22), daughter of James Butler (age 52), first Duke of Ormond, second wife of [his son-in-law] Philip Stanhope (age 28), second Earl of Chesterfield. She died July, 1665 (see "Memoires de Grammont", chap. viii.). Peter Cunningham thinks that this banishment was only temporary, for, according to the Grammont Memoirs, she was in town when the Russian ambassador was in London, December, 1662, and January, 1662- 63. "It appears from the books of the Lord Steward's office... that Lord Chesterfield (age 28) set out for the country on the 12th May, 1663, and, from his 'Short Notes' referred to in the Memoirs before his Correspondence, that he remained at Bretby, in Derbyshire, with his wife, throughout the summer of that year" ("Story of Nell Gwyn", 1852, p. 189).

1663 Blood's Plot

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1663. So home to supper and to bed. This day I hear at Court of the great plot which was lately discovered in Ireland, made among the Presbyters and others, designing to cry up the Covenant, and to secure Dublin Castle and other places; and they have debauched a good part of the army there, promising them ready money1. Some of the Parliament there, they say, are guilty, and some withdrawn upon it; several persons taken, and among others a son of Scott's, that was executed here for the King's murder. What reason the King (age 33) hath, I know not; but it seems he is doubtfull of Scotland: and this afternoon, when I was there, the Council was called extraordinary; and they were opening the letters this last post's coming and going between Scotland and us and other places. Blessed be God, my head and hands are clear, and therefore my sleep safe.

Note 1. This was known as "Blood's Plot", and was named after Colonel Thomas Blood (age 45), afterwards notorious for his desperate attack upon the Duke of Ormond (age 52) in St. James's Street (1670) and for his robbery of the crown jewels in the Tower (1671). He died August 24th, 1680.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1663. So I bade him good morrow, he being out of order to speak anything of our office business, and so away to Westminster Hall [Map], where I hear more of the plot from Ireland; which it seems hath been hatching, and known to the Lord Lieutenant (age 52) a great while, and kept close till within three days that it should have taken effect. The term ended yesterday, and it seems the Courts rose sooner, for want of causes, than it is remembered to have done in the memory of man.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1664. This morning Mr. Burgby, one of the writing clerks belonging to the Council, was with me about business, a knowing man, he complains how most of the Lords of the Council do look after themselves and their own ends, and none the publique, unless Sir Edward Nicholas (age 70). Sir G. Carteret (age 54) is diligent, but all for his own ends and profit. My Lord Privy Seale (age 58), a destroyer of every body's business, and do no good at all to the publique. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65) speaks very little, nor do much, being now come to the highest pitch that he can expect. He tells me, he believes that things will go very high against the Chancellor (age 55) by Digby (age 51), and that bad things will be proved. Talks much of his neglecting the King (age 33); and making the King (age 33) to trot every day to him, when he is well enough to go to visit his cozen Chief-Justice Hide (age 69), but not to the Council or King. He commends my Lord of Ormond (age 53) mightily in Ireland; but cries out cruelly of Sir G. Lane (age 44) for his corruption; and that he hath done my Lord great dishonour by selling of places here, which are now all taken away, and the poor wretches ready to starve. That nobody almost understands or judges of business better than the King (age 33), if he would not be guilty of his father's fault to be doubtfull of himself, and easily be removed from his own opinion. That my Lord Lauderdale (age 47) is never from the King's care nor council, and that he is a most cunning fellow. Upon the whole, that he finds things go very bad every where; and even in the Council nobody minds the publique.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. Came to dine with me the Earl of Lauderdale (age 47), his Majesty's (age 33) great favorite, and Secretary of Scotland; the Earl of Teviot (age 38); my Lord Viscount Brouncker (age 53), President of the Royal Society; Dr. Wilkins (age 50), Dean of Ripon; Sir Robert Murray (age 56), and Mr. Hooke (age 28), Curator to the Society.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1664. So home to supper and to bed. Strange to see how pert Sir W. Pen (age 43) is to-day newly come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] with his head full of great reports of his service and the state of the ships there. When that is over he will be just as another man again or worse. But I wonder whence Mr. Coventry (age 36) should take all this care for him, to send for him up only to look after his Irish business with my Lord Ormond (age 53) and to get the Duke's leave for him to come with so much officiousness, when I am sure he knows him as well as I do as to his little service he do.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1664. I dined with my Lord Treasurer (age 57) at Southampton House, where his Lordship used me with singular humanity. I went in the afternoon to Chelsea, to wait on the Duke of Ormond (age 53), and returned to London.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1664. He gone, I late to my office, and cannot forbear admiring and consulting my new rule, and so home to supper and to bed. This day, for a wager before the King (age 34), my Lords of Castlehaven (age 47) and [his son] Arran (age 25) (a son of my Lord of Ormond's (age 53)), they two alone did run down and kill a stoute bucke in St. James's parke.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1664. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's (age 55), where was the Duke of Ormond (age 53), Earl of Cork, and Bishop of Winchester (age 66). After dinner, my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and his lady (age 47) carried me in their coach to see their palace (for he now lived at Worcester-House in the Strand), building at the upper end of St. James's street, and to project the garden. In the evening, I presented him with my book on Architecture, as before I had done to his Majesty (age 34) and the Queen-Mother (age 54). His lordship caused me to stay with him in his bedchamber, discoursing of several matters very late, even till he was going into his bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Mar 1665. I went with his Majesty (age 34) into the lobby behind the House of Lords, where I saw the King (age 34) and the rest of the Lords robe themselves, and got into the House of Lords in a corner near the woolsack, on which the Lord Chancellor sits next below the throne: the King (age 34) sat in all the regalia, the crown-imperial on his head, the sceptre and globe, etc. The Duke of Albemarle (age 56) bore the sword, the Duke of Ormond (age 54), the cap of dignity. The rest of the Lords robed in their places:-a most splendid and august convention. Then came the Speaker and the House of Commons (age 48), and at the bar made a speech, and afterward presented several bills, a nod only passing them, the clerk saying, Le Roy le veult, as to public bills, as to private, Soit faite commeil est desirè. Then, his Majesty (age 34) made a handsome but short speech, commanding my Lord Privy Seal (age 59) to prorogue the Parliament, which he did, the Chancellor (age 56) being ill and absent. I had not before seen this ceremony.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1665. And then up and home, and there dressed myself, and by appointment to Deptford, Kent [Map], to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), between six and seven o'clock, where I found him and my George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 55) and Lady (age 63) almost ready, and by and by went over to the ferry, and took coach and six horses nobly for Dagenhams, himself and lady and their little daughter, Louisonne, and myself in the coach; where, when we come, we were bravely entertained and spent the day most pleasantly with the young ladies, and I so merry as never more. Only for want of sleep, and drinking of strong beer had a rheum in one of my eyes, which troubled me much. Here with great content all the day, as I think I ever passed a day in my life, because of the contentfulnesse of our errand, and the noblenesse of the company and our manner of going. But I find Mr. Carteret (age 24) yet as backward almost in his caresses, as he was the first day. At night, about seven o'clock, took coach again; but, Lord! to see in what a pleasant humour Sir G. Carteret (age 55) hath been both coming and going; so light, so fond, so merry, so boyish (so much content he takes in this business), it is one of the greatest wonders I ever saw in my mind. But once in serious discourse he did say that, if he knew his son to be a debauchee, as many and, most are now-a-days about the Court, he would tell it, and my Lady Jem. should not have him; and so enlarged both he and she about the baseness and looseness of the Court, and told several stories of the Duke of Monmouth (age 16), and Richmond (age 26), and some great person, my Lord of Ormond's (age 54) [his son] second son (age 26), married to a Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran (age 26) and lady (age 14) of extraordinary quality (fit and that might have been made a wife for the King (age 35) himself), about six months since, that this great person hath given the pox to---; and discoursed how much this would oblige the Kingdom if the King (age 35) would banish some of these great persons publiquely from the Court, and wished it with all their hearts.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1666. Thence to talk about publique business; he tells me how the two Houses begin to be troublesome; the Lords to have quarrels one with another. My Lord Duke of Buckingham (age 38) having said to the Chancellor (age 57) (who is against the passing of the Bill for prohibiting the bringing over of Irish cattle), that whoever was against the Bill, was there led to it by an Irish interest, or an Irish understanding, which is as much as to say he is a Poole; this bred heat from my Chancellor (age 57), and something he [Buckingham] said did offend my [his son] Lord of Ossory (age 32) my (Lord Duke of Ormond's (age 56) son), and they two had hard words, upon which the latter sends a challenge to the former; of which the former complains to the House, and so the business is to be heard on Monday next. Then as to the Commons; some ugly knives, like poignards, to stab people with, about two or three hundred of them were brought in yesterday to the House, found in one of the house's rubbish that was burned, and said to be the house of a Catholique. This and several letters out of the country, saying how high the Catholiques are everywhere and bold in the owning their religion, have made the Commons mad, and they presently voted that the King (age 36) be desired to put all Catholiques out of employment, and other high things; while the business of money hangs in the hedge. So that upon the whole, God knows we are in a sad condition like to be, there being the very beginnings of the late troubles.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1667. Thence to Faythorne (age 51), and bought a head or two; one of them my Lord of Ormond's (age 56), the best I ever saw, and then to Arundell House [Map], where first the Royall Society meet, by the favour of Mr. Harry Howard (age 38), who was there, and has given us his grandfather's library, a noble gift, and a noble favour and undertaking it is for him to make his house the seat for this college. Here was an experiment shown about improving the use of powder for creating of force in winding up of springs and other uses of great worth. And here was a great meeting of worthy noble persons; but my Lord Bruncker (age 47), who pretended to make a congratulatory speech upon their coming hither, and in thanks to Mr. Howard (age 38), do it in the worst manner in the world, being the worst speaker, so as I do wonder at his parts and the unhappiness of his speaking.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1667. Soon as dined, my wife and I out to the Duke's playhouse, and there saw "Heraclius", an excellent play, to my extraordinary content; and the more from the house being very full, and great company; among others, Mrs. Steward (age 19), very fine, with her locks done up with puffes, as my wife calls them: and several other great ladies had their hair so, though I do not like it; but my wife do mightily-but it is only because she sees it is the fashion. Here I saw my Lord Rochester (age 19) and his lady, Mrs. Mallet (age 16), who hath after all this ado married him; and, as I hear some say in the pit, it is a great act of charity, for he hath no estate. But it was pleasant to see how every body rose up when my [his son] Lord John Butler (age 24), the Duke of Ormond's (age 56) son, come into the pit towards the end of the play, who was a servant [lover] to Mrs. Mallet (age 16), and now smiled upon her, and she on him. I had sitting next to me a woman, the likest my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) that ever I saw anybody like another; but she is a whore, I believe, for she is acquainted with every fine fellow, and called them by their name, Jacke, and Tom, and before the end of the play frisked to another place. Mightily pleased with the play, we home by coach, and there a little to the office, and then to my chamber, and there finished my Catalogue of my books with my own hand, and so to supper and to bed, and had a good night's rest, the last night's being troublesome, but now my heart light and full of resolution of standing close to my business.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jul 1667. Up, and to my chamber, and by and by comes Greeting, and to my flageolet with him with a pretty deal of pleasure, and then to the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I met about putting men to work for the weighing of the ships in the River sunk. Then home again, and there heard Mr. Caesar play some very good things on the lute together with myself on the violl and Greeting on the viallin. Then with my wife abroad by coach, she to her tailor's, I to Westminster to Burges about my Tangier business, and thence to White Hall, where I spoke with Sir John Nicholas, who tells me that Mr. Coventry (age 39) is come from Bredah, as was expected; but, contrary to expectation, brings with him two or three articles which do not please the King (age 37): as, to retrench the Act of Navigation, and then to ascertain what are contraband goods; and then that those exiled persons, who are or shall take refuge in their country, may be secure from any further prosecution. Whether these will be enough to break the peace upon, or no, he cannot tell; but I perceive the certainty of peace is blown over. So called on my wife and met Creed by the way, and they two and I to Charing Cross [Map], there to see the great boy and girle that are lately come out of Ireland, the latter eight, the former but four years old, of most prodigious bigness for their age. I tried to weigh them in my arms, and find them twice as heavy as people almost twice their age; and yet I am apt to believe they are very young. Their father a little sorry fellow, and their mother an old Irish woman. They have had four children of this bigness, and four of ordinary growth, whereof two of each are dead. If, as my Lord Ormond (age 56) certifies, it be true that they are no older, it is very monstrous.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1667. Thence home, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to the Excise Office to see what tallies are paying, and thence back to the Old Exchange [Map], by the way talking of news, and he owning Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in his opinion, to be one of the worthiest men in the nation, as I do really think he is. He tells me he do think really that they will cut off my Chancellor's (age 58) head, the Chancellor (age 58) at this day showing as much pride as is possible to those few that venture their fortunes by coming to see him; and that the Duke of York (age 34) is troubled much, knowing that those that fling down the Chancellor (age 58) cannot stop there, but will do something to him, to prevent his having it in his power hereafter to avenge himself and father-in-law upon them. And this Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) fears may be by divorcing the Queen (age 28) and getting another, or declaring the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate; which God forbid! He tells me he do verily believe that there will come in an impeachment of High Treason against my Lord of Ormond (age 57); among other things, for ordering the quartering of soldiers in Ireland on free quarters; which, it seems, is High Treason in that country, and was one of the things that lost the Lord Strafford his head, and the law is not yet repealed; which, he says, was a mighty oversight of him not to have it repealed, which he might with ease have done, or have justified himself by an Act. From the Exchange [Map] I took a coach, and went to Turlington, the great spectacle-maker, for advice, who dissuades me from using old spectacles, but rather young ones, and do tell me that nothing can wrong my eyes more than for me to use reading-glasses, which do magnify much.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1668. Thence Pen and I to Islington [Map], and there, at the old house, eat, and drank, and merry, and there by chance giving two pretty fat boys each of them a cake, they proved to be Captain Holland's children, whom therefore I pity. So round by Hackney home, having good discourse, he [Pen] being very open to me in his talk, how the King (age 37) ought to dissolve this Parliament, when the Bill of Money is passed, they being never likely to give him more; how he [the King (age 37)] hath great opportunity of making himself popular by stopping this Act against Conventicles; and how my Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (age 57), if the Parliament continue, will undoubtedly fall, he having managed that place with so much self-seeking, and disorder, and pleasure, and some great men are designing to overthrow (him), as, among the rest, my Lord Orrery (age 47); and that this will try the King (age 37) mightily, he being a firm friend to my Lord Lieutenant.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1668. Up, and to my office, where alone all the morning. About noon comes to me my cousin Sarah, and my aunt Livett, newly come out of Gloucestershire, good woman, and come to see me; I took them home, and made them drink, but they would not stay dinner, I being alone. But here they tell me that they hear that this day Kate Joyce was to be married to a man called Hollingshed, whom she indeed did once tell me of, and desired me to enquire after him. But, whatever she said of his being rich, I do fear, by her doing this without my advice, it is not as it ought to be; but, as she brews, let her bake. They being gone, I to dinner with Balty (age 28) and his wife, who is come to town to-day from Deptford, Kent [Map] to see us, and after dinner I out and took a coach, and called Mercer, and she and I to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw "The Tempest", and between two acts, I went out to Mr. Harris (age 34), and got him to repeat to me the words of the Echo, while I writ them down, having tried in the play to have wrote them; but, when I had done it, having done it without looking upon my paper, I find I could not read the blacklead. But now I have got the words clear, and, in going in thither, had the pleasure to see the actors in their several dresses, especially the seamen and monster, which were very droll: so into the play again. But there happened one thing which vexed me, which is, that the orange-woman did come in the pit, and challenge me for twelve oranges, which she delivered by my order at a late play, at night, to give to some ladies in a box, which was wholly untrue, but yet she swore it to be true. But, however, I did deny it, and did not pay her; but, for quiet, did buy 4s. worth of oranges of her, at 6d. a-piece. Here I saw first my Lord Ormond (age 57) since his coming from Ireland, which is now about eight days. After the play done, I took Mercer by water to Spring Garden; and there with great pleasure walked, and eat, and drank, and sang, making people come about us, to hear us, and two little children of one of our neighbours that happened to be there, did come into our arbour, and we made them dance prettily.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1668. Up, and called on Mr. Pierce, who tells me that after all this ado Ward is come to town, and hath appeared to the Commissioners of Accounts and given such answers as he thinks will do every body right, and let the world see that their great expectations and jealousies have been vain in this matter of the prizes. The Commissioners were mighty inquisitive whether he was not instructed by letters or otherwise from hence from my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) friends what to say and do, and particularly from me, which he did wholly deny, as it was true, I not knowing the man that I know of. He tells me also that, for certain, Mr. Vaughan (age 64) is made Lord Chief justice, which I am glad of. He tells me, too; that since my Lord of Ormond's (age 57) coming over, the King (age 37) begins to be mightily reclaimed, and sups every night with great pleasure with the Queene (age 58): and yet, it seems, he is mighty hot upon the Duchess of Richmond (age 20); insomuch that, upon Sunday was se'nnight, at night, after he had ordered his Guards and coach to be ready to carry him to the Park, he did, on a sudden, take a pair of oars or sculler, and all alone, or but one with him, go to Somersett House [Map], and there, the garden-door not being open, himself clamber over the walls to make a visit to her, which is a horrid shame. He gone, I to the office, where we sat all the morning, Sir W. Pen (age 47) sick of the gout comes not out.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1668. Mr. Bramstone (son to Judge B), my old fellow-traveler, now reader at the Middle Temple, invited me to his feast, which was so very extravagant and great as the like had not been seen at any time. There were the Duke of Ormond (age 57), Privy Seal (age 62), Bedford (age 52), Belasis (age 54), Halifax (age 34), and a world more of Earls and Lords.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1668. Thence by coach, doing several errands, home and there to dinner, and then to the Office, where all the afternoon till late at night, and so home. Deb. hath been abroad to-day with her friends, poor girle, I believe toward the getting of a place. This day a boy is sent me out of the country from Impington by my cozen Roger Pepys' (age 51) getting, whom I visited this morning at his chamber in the Strand and carried him to Westminster Hall [Map], where I took a turn or two with him and Sir John Talbot (age 38), who talks mighty high for my Lord of Ormond (age 58): and I perceive this family of the Talbots hath been raised by my Lord. When I come home to-night I find Deb. not come home, and do doubt whether she be not quite gone or no, but my wife is silent to me in it, and I to her, but fell to other discourse, and indeed am well satisfied that my house will never be at peace between my wife and I unless I let her go, though it grieves me to the heart. My wife and I spent much time this evening talking of our being put out of the Office, and my going to live at Deptford, Kent [Map] at her brother's, till I can clear my accounts, and rid my hands of the town, which will take me a year or more, and I do think it will be best for me to do so, in order to our living cheap, and out of sight.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall; and there I find the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) come the last night, and every body's mouth full of my Lord Anglesey's (age 54) suspension being sealed; which it was, it seems, yesterday; so that he is prevented in his remedy at the Council; and, it seems, the two new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand this morning, brought in by my Lord Arlington (age 50). They walked up and down together the Court this day, and several people joyed them; but I avoided it, that I might not be seen to look either way. This day also I hear that my Lord Ormond (age 58) is to be declared in Council no more Deputy Governor of Ireland, his commission being expired: and the King (age 38) is prevailed with to take it out of his hands; which people do mightily admire, saying that he is the greatest subject of any Prince in Christendome, and hath more acres of land than any, and hath done more for his Prince than ever any yet did. But all will not do; he must down, it seems, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) carrying all before him. But that, that troubles me most is, that they begin to talk that the Duke of York's (age 35) regiment is ordered to be disbanded; and more, that undoubtedly his Admiralty will follow: which do shake me mightily, and I fear will have ill consequences in the nation, for these counsels are very mad. The Duke of York (age 35) do, by all men's report, carry himself wonderfull submissive to the King (age 38), in the most humble manner in the world; but yet, it seems, nothing must be spared that tends to, the keeping out of the Chancellor (age 59); and that is the reason of all this. The great discourse now is, that the Parliament shall be dissolved and another called, which shall give the King (age 38) the Deane (age 34) and Chapter lands; and that will put him out of debt. And it is said that Buckingham do knownly meet daily with Wildman and other Commonwealth-men; and that when he is with them, he makes the King (age 38) believe that he is with his wenches; and something looks like the Parliament's being dissolved, by Harry Brouncker's (age 41) being now come back, and appears this day the first day at White Hall; but hath not been yet with the King (age 38), but is secure that he shall be well received, I hear. God bless us, when such men as he shall be restored! But that, that pleases me most is, that several do tell me that Pen is to be removed; and others, that he hath resigned his place; and particularly Spragg tells me for certain that he hath resigned it, and is become a partner with Gawden in the Victualling: in which I think he hath done a very cunning thing; but I am sure I am glad of it; and it will be well for the King (age 38) to have him out of this Office.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1668. Up, and Willet come home in the morning, and, God forgive me! I could not conceal my content thereat by smiling, and my wife observed it, but I said nothing, nor she, but away to the office. Presently up by water to White Hall, and there all of us to wait on the Duke of York (age 35), which we did, having little to do, and then I up and down the house, till by and by the Duke of York (age 35), who had bid me stay, did come to his closet again, and there did call in me and Mr. Wren; and there my paper, that I have lately taken pains to draw up, was read, and the Duke of York (age 35) pleased therewith; and we did all along conclude upon answers to my mind for the Board, and that that, if put in execution, will do the King's business. But I do now more and more perceive the Duke of York's (age 35) trouble, and that he do lie under great weight of mind from the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) carrying things against him; and particularly when I advised that he would use his interest that a seaman might come into the room of W. Pen (age 47), who is now declared to be gone from us to that of the Victualling, and did shew how the Office would now be left without one seaman in it, but the Surveyour and the Controller, who is so old as to be able to do nothing, he told me plainly that I knew his mind well enough as to seamen, but that it must be as others will. And Wren did tell it me as a secret, that when the Duke of York (age 35) did first tell the King (age 38) about Sir W. Pen's (age 47) leaving of the place, and that when the Duke of York (age 35) did move the King (age 38) that either Captain Cox or Sir Jer. Smith might succeed him, the King (age 38) did tell him that that was a matter fit to be considered of, and would not agree to either presently; and so the Duke of York (age 35) could not prevail for either, nor knows who it shall be. The Duke of York (age 35) did tell me himself, that if he had not carried it privately when first he mentioned Pen's leaving his place to the King (age 38), it had not been done; for the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and those of his party do cry out upon it, as a strange thing to trust such a thing into the hands of one that stands accused in Parliament: and that they have so far prevailed upon the King (age 38) that he would not have him named in Council, but only take his name to the Board; but I think he said that only D. Gawden's name shall go in the patent; at least, at the time when Sir Richard Browne (age 63) asked the King (age 38) the names of D. Gawden's security, the King (age 38) told him it was not yet necessary for him to declare them. And by and by, when the Duke of York (age 35) and we had done, and Wren brought into the closet Captain Cox and James Temple [Map] About business of the Guiney Company, and talking something of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) concernment therein, and says the Duke of York (age 35), "I will give the Devil his due, as they say the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath paid in his money to the Company", or something of that kind, wherein he would do right to him. The Duke of York (age 35) told me how these people do begin to cast dirt upon the business that passed the Council lately, touching Supernumeraries, as passed by virtue of his authority there, there being not liberty for any man to withstand what the Duke of York (age 35) advises there; which, he told me, they bring only as an argument to insinuate the putting of the Admiralty into Commission, which by all men's discourse is now designed, and I perceive the same by him. This being done, and going from him, I up and down the house to hear news: and there every body's mouth full of changes; and, among others, the Duke of York's (age 35) regiment of Guards, that was raised during the late war at sea, is to be disbanded: and also, that this day the King (age 38) do intend to declare that the Duke of Ormond (age 58) is no more Deputy of Ireland, but that he will put it into Commission. This day our new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand, who complimented them, as they say, very highly, that he had for a long time been abused in his Treasurer, and that he was now safe in their hands. I saw them walk up and down the Court together all this morning; the first time I ever saw Osborne, who is a comely gentleman. This day I was told that my Lord Anglesey (age 54) did deliver a petition on Wednesday in Council to the King (age 38), laying open, that whereas he had heard that his Majesty had made such a disposal of his place, which he had formerly granted him for life upon a valuable consideration, and that, without any thing laid to his charge, and during a Parliament's sessions, he prayed that his Majesty would be pleased to let his case be heard before the Council and the judges of the land, who were his proper counsel in all matters of right: to which, I am told, the King (age 38), after my Lord's being withdrawn, concluded upon his giving him an answer some few days hence; and so he was called in, and told so, and so it ended. Having heard all this I took coach and to Mr. Povy's (age 54), where I hear he is gone to the Swedes Resident in Covent Garden [Map], where he is to dine. I went thither, but he is not come yet, so I to White Hall to look for him, and up and down walking there I met with Sir Robert Holmes (age 46), who asking news I told him of Sir W. Pen's (age 47) going from us, who ketched at it so as that my heart misgives me that he will have a mind to it, which made me heartily sorry for my words, but he invited me and would have me go to dine with him at the Treasurer's, Sir Thomas Clifford (age 38), where I did go and eat some oysters; which while we were at, in comes my Lord Keeper and much company; and so I thought it best to withdraw. And so away, and to the Swedes Agent's, and there met Mr. Povy (age 54); where the Agent would have me stay and dine, there being only them, and Joseph Williamson (age 35), and Sir Thomas Clayton; but what he is I know not. Here much extraordinary noble discourse of foreign Princes, and particularly the greatness of the King of France (age 30), and of his being fallen into the right way of making the Kingdom great, which [none] of his ancestors ever did before. I was mightily pleased with this company and their discourse, so as to have been seldom so much in all my life, and so after dinner up into his upper room, and there did see a piece of perspective, but much inferior to Mr. Povy's (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1668. Thence walked with him to White Hall, where to the Duke of York (age 35); and there the Duke, and Wren, and I, by appointment in his closet, to read over our letter to the Office, which he heard, and signed it, and it is to my mind, Mr. Wren (age 39) having made it somewhat sweeter to the Board, and yet with all the advice fully, that I did draw it up with. He [the Duke] said little more to us now, his head being full of other business; but I do see that he do continue to put a value upon my advice; and so Mr. Wren (age 39) and I to his chamber, and there talked: and he seems to hope that these people, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), will run themselves off of their legs; they being forced to be always putting the King (age 38) upon one idle thing or other, against the easiness of his nature, which he will never be able to bear, nor they to keep him to, and so will lose themselves. And, for instance of their little progress, he tells me that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) is like yet to carry it, and to continue in his command in Ireland; at least, they cannot get the better of him yet. But he tells me that the Keeper is wrought upon, as they say, to give his opinion for the dissolving of the Parliament, which, he thinks, will undo him in the eyes of the people. He do not seem to own the hearing or fearing of any thing to be done in the Admiralty, to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), though he hears how the town talk's full of it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1668. Up, after a little talk with my wife, which troubled me, she being ever since our late difference mighty watchful of sleep and dreams, and will not be persuaded but I do dream of Deb., and do tell me that I speak in my dreams and that this night I did cry, Huzzy, and it must be she, and now and then I start otherwise than I used to do, she says, which I know not, for I do not know that I dream of her more than usual, though I cannot deny that my thoughts waking do run now and then against my will and judgment upon her, for that only is wanting to undo me, being now in every other thing as to my mind most happy, and may still be so but for my own fault, if I be catched loving any body but my wife again. So up and to the office, and at noon to dinner, and thence to office, where late, mighty busy, and despatching much business, settling papers in my own office, and so home to supper, and to bed. No news stirring, but that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) is likely to go to Ireland again, which do shew that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) do not rule all so absolutely; and that, however, we shall speedily have more changes in the Navy: and it is certain that the Nonconformists do now preach openly in houses, in many places, and among others the house that was heretofore Sir G. Carteret's (age 58), in Leadenhall Street [Map]e, and have ready access to the King (age 38). And now the great dispute is, whether this Parliament or another; and my great design, if I continue in the Navy, is to get myself to be a Parliament-man.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1669. Thence to the New Exchange, to buy some things; and, among others, my wife did give me my pair of gloves, which, by contract, she is to give me in her £30 a-year. Here Mrs. Smith tells us of the great murder thereabouts, on Saturday last, of one Captain Bumbridge, by one Symons, both of her acquaintance; and hectors that were at play, and in drink: the former is killed, and is kinsman to my Lord of Ormond (age 58), which made him speak of it with so much passion, as I overheard him this morning, but could not make anything of it till now, but would they would kill more of them.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1669. Thence to the Treasurer's; and I and Sir J. Minnes (age 69) and Mr. Tippets down to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and there had a hot debate from Sir Thomas Clifford (age 38) and my Lord Ashly (age 47) (the latter of which, I hear, is turning about as fast as he can to the Duke of Buckingham's (age 41) side, being in danger, it seems, of being otherwise out of play, which would not be convenient for him), against Sir W. Coventry (age 41) and Sir J. Duncomb, who did uphold our Office against an accusation of our Treasurers, who told the Lords that they found that we had run the King (age 38) in debt £50,000 or more, more than the money appointed for the year would defray, which they declared like fools, and with design to hurt us, though the thing is in itself ridiculous. But my Lord Ashly (age 47) and Clifford did most horribly cry out against the want of method in the Office. At last it come that it should be put in writing what they had to object; but I was devilish mad at it, to see us thus wounded by our own members, and so away vexed, and called my wife, and to Hercules Pillars, Tom and I, there dined; and here there coming a Frenchman by with his Shew, we did make him shew it us, which he did just as Lacy (age 54) acts it, which made it mighty pleasant to me. So after dinner we away and to Dancre's (age 44), and there saw our picture of Greenwich, Kent [Map] in doing, which is mighty pretty, and so to White Hall, my wife to Unthank's, and I attended with Lord Brouncker (age 49) the King (age 38) and Council, about the proposition of balancing Storekeeper's accounts and there presented Hosier's book, and it was mighty well resented and approved of. So the Council being up, we to the Queen's (age 30) side with the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35): and the Duke of York (age 35) did take me out to talk of our Treasurers, whom he is mighty angry with: and I perceive he is mighty desirous to bring in as many good motions of profit and reformation in the Navy as he can, before the Treasurers do light upon them, they being desirous, it seems, to be thought the great reformers: and the Duke of York (age 35) do well. But to my great joy he is mighty open to me in every thing; and by this means I know his whole mind, and shall be able to secure myself, if he stands. Here to-night I understand, by my Lord Brouncker (age 49), that at last it is concluded on by the King (age 38) and Buckingham that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) shall not hold his government of Ireland, which is a great stroke, to shew the power of Buckingham and the poor spirit of the King (age 38), and little hold that any man can have of him.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (age 55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and so was also Harry Saville (age 27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (age 35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (age 35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (age 38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower [Map], this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (age 58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, the King (age 38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (age 35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (age 54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (age 41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (age 41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (age 27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did bid Holmes (age 47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (age 27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (age 41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (age 67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) to come to the King (age 38), Holmes (age 47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (age 38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (age 41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (age 38) asking W. Coventry (age 41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (age 38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (age 38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower [Map]2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (age 35) and his brother (age 50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (age 38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (age 41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe [Map], and so walked to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (age 35) is, and his Duchess (age 31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (age 31), the Countess of Falmouth (age 24), Castlemayne (age 28), Henrietta Hide (age 23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (age 24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (age 47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (age 17), Blake (age 16), and Howard (age 18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (age 43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (age 28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (age 48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny (age 46), and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (age 28) how angry the Duke of York (age 35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (age 31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (age 24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (age 41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower [Map] stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1669. Up, and by Hackney-coach to Auditor Beale's Office, in Holborne, to look for records of the Navy, but he was out of the way, and so forced to go next to White Hall, to the Privy Seal; and, after staying a little there, then to Westminster, where, at the Exchequer, I met with Mr. Newport and Major Halsey; and, after doing a little business with Mr. Burges, we by water to White Hall, where I made a little stop: and so with them by coach to Temple Bar, where, at the Sugar Loaf we dined, and W. Hewer (age 27) with me; and there comes a companion of theirs, Colonel Vernon, I think they called him; a merry good fellow, and one that was very plain in cursing the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and discoursing of his designs to ruin us, and that ruin must follow his counsels, and that we are an undone people. To which the others concurred, but not so plain, but all vexed at Sir W. Coventry's (age 41) being laid aside: but Vernon, he is concerned, I perceive, for my Lord Ormond's (age 58) being laid aside; but their company, being all old cavaliers, were very pleasant to hear how they swear and talk. But Halsey, to my content, tells me that my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 60) says that W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, nothing will be well done at the Treasury, and I believe it; but they do all talk as that Duncombe, upon some pretence or other, must follow him.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1669. Having two days before had notice that the University intended me the honor of Doctorship, I was this morning attended by the beadles belonging to the Law, who conducted me to the Theater, where I found the Duke of Ormond (age 58) (now Chancellor of the University) with the [his former son-in-law] Earl of Chesterfield (age 35) and Mr. Spencer (age 40) (brother to the late Earl of Sunderland). Thence, we marched to the Convocation House, a convocation having been called on purpose; here, being all of us robed in the porch, in scarlet with caps and hoods, we were led in by the Professor of Laws, and presented respectively by name, with a short eulogy, to the Vice-Chancellor, who sat in the chair, with all the Doctors and Heads of Houses and masters about the room, which was exceedingly full. Then, began the Public Orator his speech, directed chiefly to the Duke of Ormond, the Chancellor; but in which I had my compliment, in course. This ended, we were called up, and created Doctors according to the form, and seated by the Vice-Chancellor among the Doctors, on his right hand; then, the Vice-Chancellor made a short speech, and so, saluting our brother Doctors, the pageantry concluded, and the convocation was dissolved. So formal a creation of honorary Doctors had seldom been seen, that a convocation should be called on purpose, and speeches made by the Orator; but they could do no less, their Chancellor being to receive, or rather do them, this honor. I should have been made Doctor with the rest at the public Act, but their expectation of their Chancellor made them defer it. I was then led with my brother Doctors to an extraordinary entertainment at Doctor Mewes's, head of St John's College, Oxford University, and, after abundance of feasting and compliments, having visited the Vice-Chancellor and other Doctors, and given them thanks for the honor done me, I went toward home the 16th, and got as far as Windsor, Berkshire [Map], and so to my house the next day.

Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood (age 53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London [Map]. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London [Map] with the Crown. Following his capture he refused to to answer to anyone but the King (age 40). He was questioned by the King (age 40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 51). For unknown reasons he was pardoned by the King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Mar 1673. I was sworn a younger brother of the Trinity House, with my most worthy and long-acquainted noble friend, [his son] Lord Ossory (age 38) (eldest son to the Duke of Ormond (age 62)), Sir Richard Browne (age 68), my father-in-law, being now Master of that Society; after which there was a great collation.

In May 1673 [his mother] Elizabeth Poyntz (age 86) died.

In Jan 1675 [his son] John Butler 1st Earl Gowran (age 32) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Chichester Countess Gowran and Longford were married. She the daughter of Arthur Chichester 1st Earl Donegal (age 68) and Letitia Hicks Countess Donegal (age 48). He the son of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 64) and Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 59).

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1675. Sir William (age 51) was, with all this, facetious and of easy conversation, friendly and courteous, and had such a faculty of imitating others, that he would take a text and preach, now like a grave orthodox divine, then falling into the Presbyterian way, then to the fanatical, the Quaker, the monk and friar, the Popish priest, with such admirable action, and alteration of voice and tone, as it was not possible to abstain from wonder, and one would swear to hear several persons, or forbear to think he was not in good earnest an enthusiast and almost beside himself; then, he would fall out of it into a serious discourse; but it was very rarely he would be prevailed on to oblige the company with this faculty, and that only among most intimate friends. My Lord Duke of Ormond (age 64) once obtained it of him, and was almost ravished with admiration; but by and by, he fell upon a serious reprimand of the faults and miscarriages of some Princes and Governors, which, though he named none, did so sensibly touch the Duke, who was then Lieutenant of Ireland, that he began to be very uneasy, and wished the spirit laid which he had raised, for he was neither able to endure such truths, nor could he but be delighted. At last, he melted his discourse to a ridiculous subject, and came down from the joint stool on which he had stood; but my lord would not have him preach any more. He never could get favor at Court, because he outwitted all the projectors that came near him. Having never known such another genius, I cannot but mention these particulars, among a multitude of others which I could produce. When I, who knew him in mean circumstances, have been in his splendid palace, he would himself be in admiration how he arrived at it; nor was it his value or inclination for splendid furniture and the curiosities of the age, but his elegant lady could endure nothing mean, or that was not magnificent. He was very negligent himself, and rather so of his person, and of a philosophic temper. "What a to-do is here!" would he say, "I can lie in straw with as much satisfaction"..

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1675. At Ely House, I went to the consecration of my worthy friend, the learned Dr. Barlow (age 51), Warden of Queen's College, Oxford, now made Bishop of Lincoln. After it succeeded a magnificent feast, where were the Duke of Ormond (age 64), Earl of Lauderdale (age 59), the Lord Treasurer (age 43), Lord Keeper, etc.

Around 1678 Peter Lely (age 59). Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 67) in his Garter Robes.

Before 05 Feb 1678 Philip "Infamous Earl" Herbert 7th Earl Pembroke 4th Earl Montgomery (age 26) had kicked to death Nathaniel Cony in a tavern for no apparent reason, and a few days later a Middlesex grand jury indicted him for murder. He was tried by his peers on 04 Apr 1678 and found guilty of manslaughter. He successfully pleaded Privilege of peerage, the right to escape punishment for one's first offence, and he was discharged on payment of all fees. The Lord High Steward presiding at the trial, James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 67) warned him to note "that no man could have the benefit of that statute but once". The foreman of the jury Edmund Berry Godfrey (age 56) was found dead in a ditch nine months later.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Jul 1680. My [his son] Lord (age 46), being an exceedingly brave and valiant person, and who had so approved himself in divers signal battles, both at sea and land; so beloved and so esteemed by the people, as one they depended on, upon all occasions worthy of such a captain;-he looked on this as too great an indifference in his Majesty (age 50), after all his services, and the merits of his father, the Duke of Ormond (age 69), and a design of some who envied his virtue. It certainly took so deep root in his mind, that he who was the most void of fear in the world (and assured me he would go to Tangier with ten men if his Majesty (age 50) commanded him) could not bear up against this unkindness. Having disburdened himself of this to me after dinner, he went with his Majesty (age 50) to the sheriffs at a great supper in Fishmongers' Hall; but finding himself ill, took his leave immediately of his Majesty (age 50), and came back to his lodging. Not resting well this night, he was persuaded to remove to Arlington House, for better accommodation. His disorder turned to a malignant fever, which increasing, after all that six of the most able physicians could do, he became delirious, with intervals of sense, during which Dr. Lloyd (age 52) (after Bishop of St. Asaph) administered the Holy Sacrament, of which I also participated. He died the Friday following, the 30th of July, to the universal grief of all that knew or heard of his great worth, nor had any a greater loss than myself. Oft would he say I was the oldest acquaintance he had in England (when his father was in Ireland), it being now of about thirty years, contracted abroad, when he rode in the Academy in Paris, and when we were seldom asunder.

On 09 Nov 1682 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 72) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52). [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 67) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 21 Jul 1684 [his wife] Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 68) died. On 24 Jul 1684 she was buried in the Duke of Ormonde Vault, King Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing (age 31). Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 76).

On 21 Jul 1688 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 77) died. His grandson James Butler 2nd Duke Ormonde (age 23) de jure 2nd Duke Ormonde, 2nd Marquess Ormonde, 13th Earl Ormonde, 6th Earl Ossory. Mary Somerset Duchess Ormonde (age 24) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

In 1715 Godfrey Kneller (age 68). Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde.

Letters of Horace Walpole. 05 Aug 1752. Now begins our chapter of woes. The inn was full of farmers and tobacco; and the next morning, when we were bound for Penshurst, Kent [Map], the only man in the town who had two horses would not let us have them, because the roads, as he said, were so bad. We were forced to send to the wells for others, which did not arrive till half the day was spent-we all the while up to the head and ears in a market of sheep and oxen. A mile from the town we climbed up a hill to see Summer Hill335, the residence of Grammont's Princess of Babylon.336 There is now scarce a road to it: the Paladins of those times were too valorous to fear breaking their necks; and I much apprehend that la Monsery and the fair Mademoiselle Hamilton337, must have mounted their palfreys and rode behind their gentlemen-ushers upon pillions to the Wells. The house is little better than a farm, but has been an excellent one, and is entire, though out of repair. I have drawn the front of it to show you, which you are to draw over again to show me. It stands high, commands a vast landscape beautifully wooded, and has quantities of large old trees to shelter itself, some of which might be well spared to open views.

From Summer Hill we went to Lamberhurst to dine; near which, that is, at the distance of three miles, up and down impracticable hills, in a most retired vale, such as Pope describes in the last Dunciad, "Where slumber abbots, purple as their vines,"

Note 335. "May 29, 1652. We went to see the house of my Lord Clanrickard, at Summer Hill, near Tunbridge; now given to that villain Bradshaw, who condemned the King. 'Tis situated on an eminent hill, with a park, but has nothing else extraordinary." Evelyn, vol. ii. p. 58.-E.

Note 336. Lady Margaret Macarthy, daughter and heiress of the Marquis of Clanricarde, wife of Charles, Lord Muskerry.-E.

Note 337. Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir George Hamilton, fourth son of the first Earl of Abercorn, and niece of to the first Duke of Ormond, celebrated in the "Memoires de Grammont" (written by her brother, Count Anthony Hamilton,) for her beauty and accomplishments. She married Philip, Count de Grammont, by whom she had two daughters; the eldest married Henry Howard, created Earl of Stafford, and the youngest took the veil.-E.

Grammont. The Duke of Ormond possessed the confidence and esteem of his master: the greatness of his services, the splendour of his merit and his birth, and the fortune he had abandoned in adhering to the fate of his prince, rendered him worthy of it nor durst the courtiers even murmur at seeing him grand steward of the household, first lord of the bed-chamber, and lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He exactly resembled the Marshal de Grammont, in the turn of his wit and the nobleness of his manners: and like him was the honour of his master's court.

Grammont. The court, as we have mentioned before, was an entire scene of gallantry and amusements, with all the politeness and magnificence, which the inclinations of a prince, naturally addicted to tenderness and pleasure, could suggest; the beauties were desirous of charming, and the men endeavoured to please; all studied to set themselves off to the best advantage; some distinguished themselves by dancing; others by show and magnificence; some by their wit, many by their amours, but few by their constancy. There was a certain Italian at court, famous for the guitar; he had a genius for music, and he was the only man who could make any thing of the guitar: his style of play was so full of grace and tenderness, that he would have given harmony to the most discordant instruments. The truth is, nothing was so difficult as to play like this foreigner. The king's relish for his compositions had brought the instrument so much into vogue, that every person played upon it, well or ill; and you were as sure to see a guitar on a lady's toilette, as rouge or patches. The Duke of York played upon it tolerably well, and the [his son] Earl of Arran like Francisco himself. This Francisco had composed a saraband, which either charmed or infatuated every person; for the whole guitarery at court were trying at it, and God knows what an universal strumming there was. The Duke of York, pretending not to be perfect in it, desired Lord Arran to play it to him. [his daughter] Lady Chesterfield had the best guitar in England. The Earl of Arran, who was desirous of playing his best, conducted his royal highness to his sister's apartments; she was lodged at court, at her father's, the Duke of Ormond's, and this wonderful guitar was lodged there too. Whether this visit had been preconcerted or not, I do not pretend to say; but it is certain that they found both the lady and the guitar at home; they likewise found there Lord Chesterfield, so much surprised at this unexpected visit, that it was a considerable time before he thought of rising from his seat, to receive them with due respect.

Jealousy, like a malignant vapour, now seized upon his brain; a thousand suspicions, blacker than ink, took possession of his imagination, and were continually increasing; for whilst the brother played upon the guitar to the duke, the sister ogled and accompanied him with her eyes, as if the coast had been clear, and no enemy to observe them. This saraband was at least repeated twenty times; the duke declared it was played to perfection. Lady Chesterfield found fault with the composition; but her husband, who clearly perceived that he was the person played upon, thought it a most detestable piece. However, though he was in the last agony, at being obliged to curb his passion, while others gave a free scope to theirs, he was resolved to find out the drift of the visit; but it was not in his power; for having the honour to be chamberlain to the queen, a messenger came to require his immediate attendance on her majesty. His first thought was to pretend sickness; the second to suspect that the queen, who sent for him at such an unseasonable time, was in the plot; but at last, after all the extravagant ideas of a suspicious man, and all the irresolutions of a jealous husband, he was obliged to go.

We may easily imagine what his state of mind was when he arrived at the palace. Alarms are to the jealous, what disasters are to the unfortunate: they seldom come alone, but form a series of persecution. He was informed that he was sent for to attend the queen at an audience she gave to seven or eight Muscovite ambassadors: he had scarce begun to curse the Muscovites, when his brother-in-law appeared, and drew upon himself all the imprecations he bestowed upon the embassy: he no longer doubted his being in the plot with the two persons he had left together; and in his heart sincerely wished him such recompense for his good offices as such good offices deserved. It was with great difficulty that he restrained himself from immediately acquainting him what was his opinion of such conduct: he thought that what he had already seen was a 'sufficient proof of his wife's infidelity; but before the end of the very same day, some circumstances occurred, which increased his suspicions, and persuaded him, that they had taken advantage of his absence, and of the honourable officiousness of his brother-in-law. He passed, however, that night with tranquillity; but the next morning, being reduced, to the necessity either of bursting or giving vent to his sorrows and conjectures, he did nothing but think and walk about the room until Park-time. He went to court, seemed very busy, as if seeking for some person or other, imagining that people guessed at the subject of his uneasiness: he avoided every body; but at length meeting with Hamilton, he thought he was the very man that he wanted; and having desired him to take an airing with him in Hyde Park, he took him up in his coach, and they arrived at the Ring, without a word having passed between them.

Grammont. Miss Hamilton had much difficulty to suppress her laughter during this harangue: however, she told him, that she thought herself much honoured by his intentions towards her, and still more obliged to him for consulting her, before he made any overtures to her relations: "It will be time enough," said she, "to speak to them upon the subject at your return from the waters; for I do not think it is at all probable that they will dispose of me before that time, and in case they should be urgent in their solicitations, your nephew William will take care to acquaint you; therefore, you may set out whenever you think proper; but take care not to injure your health by returning too soon."

The Chevalier de Grammont, having heard the particulars of this conversation, endeavoured as well as he could to be entertained with it; though there were certain circumstances in the declaration, notwithstanding the absurdity of others, which did not fail to give him some uneasiness. Upon the whole, he was not sorry for Russell's departure; and, assuming an air of pleasantry, he went to relate to the king, how Heaven had favoured him, by delivering him from so dangerous a rival. "He is gone then, Chevalier?" said the king "Certainly, Sir," said he, "I had the honour to see him embark in a coach, with his asthma, and country equipage, his perruque à calotte, neatly tied with a yellow riband, and his old-fashioned hat covered with oil-skin, which becomes him uncommonly well: therefore, I have only to contend with William Russell, whom he leaves as his resident with Miss Hamilton; and, as for him, I neither fear him upon his own account, nor his uncle's: he is too much in love himself, to pay attention to the interests of another; and as he has but one method of promoting his own, which is by sacrificing the portrait, or some love-letters of Mrs. Middleton, I have it easily in my power to counteract him in such kind of favours, though I confess I have pretty well paid for them."

"Since your affairs proceed so prosperously with the Russells," said the king, "I will acquaint you that you are delivered from another rival, much more dangerous, if he were not already married: my brother has lately fallen in love with [his daughter] Lady Chesterfield." "How many blessings at once!" exclaimed the Chevalier de Grammont: "I have so many obligations to him for this inconstancy, that I would willingly serve him in his new amour, if Hamilton was not his rival: nor will your majesty take it ill, if I promote the interests of my mistress's brother, rather than those of your majesty's brother." "Hamilton, however," said the king, "does not stand so much in need of assistance, in affairs of this nature. as the Duke of York; but I know Lord Chesterfield is of such a disposition, that he will not suffer men to quarrel about his wife, with the same patience as the complaisant Shrewsbury; though he well deserves the same fate." Here follows a true description of Lord Chesterfield.

He had a very agreeable face, a fine head of hair, an indifferent shape, and a worse air; he was not, however, deficient in wit: a long residence in Italy had made him ceremonious in his commerce with men, and jealous in his connection with women. He had been much hated by the king, because he had been much beloved by Lady Castlemaine: it was reported that he had been in her good graces prior to her marriage; and as neither of them denied it. it was the more generally believed.

He had paid his devoirs to the eldest daughter of the Duke of Ormond, while his heart was still taken up with his former passion. The king's love for Lady Castlemaine, and the advancement he expected from such an alliance, made him press the match with as much ardour as if he had been passionately in love: he had therefore married Lady Chesterfield without loving her, and had lived some time with her in such coolness, as to leave her no room to doubt of his indifference. As she was endowed with great sensibility and delicacy, she suffered at this contempt: she was at first much affected with his behaviour, and afterwards enraged at it; and, when he began to give her proofs of his affection, she had the pleasure of convincing him of her indifference.

They were upon this footing, when she resolved to cure Hamilton, as she had lately done her husband, of all his remaining tenderness for Lady Castlemaine. For her it was no difficult undertaking: the conversation of the one was disagreeable, from the unpolished state of her manners, her ill-timed pride, her uneven temper, and extravagant humours: Lady Chesterfield, on the contrary, knew how to heighten her charms, with all the bewitching attractions in the power of a woman to invent, who wishes to make a conquest.

Besides all this, she had greater opportunities of making advances to him, than to any other: she lived at the Duke of Ormond's, at Whitehall, where Hamilton, as was said before, had free admittance at all hours: her extreme coldness, or rather the disgust which she shewed for her husband's returning affection, wakened his natural inclination to jealousy: he suspected that she could not so very suddenly pass from anxiety to indifference for him, without some secret object of a new attachment; and, according to the maxims of all jealous husbands, he immediately put in practice all his experience and industry, in order to make a discovery, which was to destroy his own happiness.

Hamilton, who knew his disposition, was, on the other hand, upon his guard, and the more he advanced in his intrigue, the more attentive was he to remove every degree of suspicion from the earl's mind: he pretended to make him his confidant, in the most unguarded and open manner, of his passion for Lady Castlemaine: he complained of her caprice, and most earnestly desired his advice how to succeed with a person whose affections he alone had entirely possessed.

Chesterfield, who was flattered with this discourse, promised him his protection with greater sincerity than it had been demanded: Hamilton, therefore, was no further embarrased than to preserve Lady Chesterfield's reputation, who, in his opinion, declared herself rather too openly in his favour: but whilst he was diligently employed in regulating, within the rules of diseretion, the partiality she expressed for him, and in conjuring her to restrain her glances within bounds, she was receiving those of the Duke of York; and, what is more, made them favourable returns.

He thought that he had perceived it, as well as every one besides; but he thought likewise, that all the world was deceived as well as himself: how could he trust his own eyes, as to what those of Lady Chesterfield betrayed for this new rival? He could not think it probable, that a woman of her disposition could relish a man, whose manners had a thousand times been the subject of their private ridicule; but what he judged still more improbable was, that she should begin another intrigue before she had given the finishing stroke to that in which her own advances had engaged her: however, he began to observe her with more circumspection, when he found by his discoveries, that if she did not deceive him, at least the desire of doing so was not wanting. This he took the liberty of telling her of; but she answered him in so high a strain, and treated what he said so much like a phantom of his own imagination, that he appeared confused without being convinced: all the satisfaction he could procure from her, was her telling him, in a haughty manner, that such unjust reproaches as his ought to have had a better foundation.

Lord Chesterfield had taken the same alarm; and being convinced, from the observations he had made, that he had found out the happy lover who had gained possession of his lady's heart, he was satisfied; and without teazing her with unnecessary reproaches, he only waited for an opportunity to confound her, before he took his measures.

After all, how can we account for Lady Chesterfield's conduct, unless we attribute it to the disease incident to most coquettes, who, charmed with superiority, put in practice every art to rob another of her conquest, and spare nothing to preserve it.

Grammont. The Duke of Ormond's sons and his nephews had been in the king's court during his exile, and were far from diminishing its lustre after his return. The [his son] Earl of Arran had a singular address in all kinds of exercises, played well at tennis and on the guitar, and was pretty successful in gallantry: his elder brother, the [his son] Earl of Ossory, was not so lively, but of the most liberal sentiments, and of great probity.

Royal Ancestors of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688

Kings Wessex: Great x 18 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 19 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 9 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 11 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Royal Descendants of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 2

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1

Ancestors of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Butler 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Piers "Red" Butler 8th Earl Ormonde 1st Earl Ossory 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sabh Macmurrough Kavanagh

Great x 2 Grandfather: James "Lame" Butler 9th Earl Ormonde 2nd Earl Ossory 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl of Kildare

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Fitzgerald Countess Ormonde and Ossory

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Fitzeustace Countess Kildare

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edward Butler 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Maurice Fitzgerald 9th Earl Desmond 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: James Fitzgerald 10th Earl Desmond 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ellen Roche Countess Desmond 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Fitzgerald Countess Ormonde and Ossory 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: Walter Butler 11th Earl Ormonde 4th Earl Ossory 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Mary Burke 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Walsingham

Great x 3 Grandfather: Francis Walsingham 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joyce Denny 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Frances Walsingham Countess Essex 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry St Barbe of Ashington Somerset

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ursula St Barbe

Father: Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles 10 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Butler 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Piers "Red" Butler 8th Earl Ormonde 1st Earl Ossory 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sabh Macmurrough Kavanagh

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Butler 1st Viscount Mountgarret 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl of Kildare

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Fitzgerald Countess Ormonde and Ossory

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Fitzeustace Countess Kildare

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund Butler 2nd Viscount Mountgarret 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Butler 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Theobald Butler 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sabh Macmurrough Kavanagh

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor Butler Viscountess Mountgarret 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Helen Butler Countess Ormonde and Ossory 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Barnaby Fitzpatrick 1st Baron Ossory

Great x 1 Grandmother: Grizzel Fitzpatrick Viscountess Mountgarret

James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Poyntz

Great x 3 Grandfather: Anthony Poyntz 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Woodville 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Nicholas Poyntz 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Huddersfield

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Huddersfield 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Courtenay 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Nicholas Poyntz 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Maurice Berkeley 3rd Baron Berkeley 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Berkeley 5th Baron Berkeley 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Berkeley 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Marmaduke Constable 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Constable Baroness Berkeley 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margery Fitzhugh 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: John Poyntz 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ralph Verney

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ralph Verney

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Weston

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Weston

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Verney 13 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Bray of Eaton Bray

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Braye 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Halwell of Halwell in Devon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Jane Halwell Baroness Bray 11 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Jane Norbury 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Mother: Elizabeth Poyntz 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Walter Sydenham 7 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Sydenham 8 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Sydenham III 9 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Alexander Syndeham 10 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Sydenham 11 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England