Urn is in Pottery.

Section I Tumuli 1787. Towards the north-east end of Stanton Moor is a small Druid circle, inclosed with a vallum of earth and stones, not raised above two feet; within this at the west end was a little barrow [Map]; opened about the year 1787, by Mr. Rooke; this barrow was about six feet in diameter, and but slightly higher than the surrounding field. The Major here found three large urns of coarse clay, placed in a row, about eight inches from each other. They rested upon stones a little below the natural soil, within twelve or fourteen inches of the top of the barrow.

Seing so near the surface the heavy rains and the roots of fern and gorse which had so penetrated the urns, made it difficult to move them without their falling to pieces; in taking out of one of them the ashes and bones which it contained, the Major found at the bottom, a smaller urn, also full of burned bones, covered with a piece of clay of a circular form.

In 1799 Mr. White Watson, of Bakewell, procured several urns from tumuli, upon Stanton Moor, one of which with an incense cup found at the same place is here engraved. From the information of the person employed, it appears that three were frequently found in one barrow, arranged in a triangular form. Several other barrows were opened upon Stanton Moor by the Rev. Bache Thornhill, in which were discovered only such interments as had undergone cremation, and in most cases the ashes had been gathered together and placed within urns; the remains of three varieties of these vessels, with their contents, were presented by William Pole Thornhill, Esq., of Stanton, to the writer. Amongst the calcined bones were two pins, one of bone, the other of bronze, a few pieces of flint, and a large pebble with a vitrified surface resulting from the strong degree of heat to which in common with the other articles, it had been exposed.

Section I Tumuli 1787. About the year 1787, Major Booke opened a barrow [Note. It isn't clear which of the four Calton Barrows, Chatsworth [Map]: Calton Barrow 1 [Map], Calton Barrow 2 [Map], Calton Barrow 3 [Map] and Calton Barrow 4 [Map] is being referred to.] situate at the southern extremity of the earthwork at Calton, near Chatsworth, where he found an Urn of very coarse clay, slightly ornamented by zig-zag scratches, containing ashes of a light brown colour: it was found near the bottom of the tumulus, placed between two stones, set edgeways, and covered by a third; it measured near five inches in height, and near six in diameter at the mouth.

Section I Tumuli 1793. In May, 1793, Major Booke opened a large barrow on a rising ground near Hopton, which is called Abbotts Lowe [Map], and is about 196 feet in circumference. At the depth of about five feet from the top of the barrow was a very large urn, about seventeen inches in diameter, which was placed in an excavation in the native soil, about eighteen inches deep. It contained a deposit of burned bones and ashes, and was broken to pieces in attempting to remove it.

Section I Tumuli 1795. In the year 1795, two kistvaens, or British sepulchres, were discovered by Major Booke, on opening a large tumulus upon Fin-cop, about two miles north-west from Ashford. In one of these was a skeleton, with the face downwards, having a piece of the black Derbyshire marble, two feet long, nine inches wide, and six inches thick, lying on the skull; under the head were two arrow-heads of flint. The other contained burnt bones and ashes. In other parts of the tumulus were found three urns of coarse pottery, full of ashes and burnt bones, two skeletons, deposited on the level ground, and a spear-head of stone. In the same cist that contained the skeleton with the face downwards was found a small, flat, circular stone, which had a thin body of stucco on both sides; the top, which was of a yellowish colour, and had apparently been varnished.

Thomas Bateman 1824. On the 31st of May, 1824, a large tumulus [Map], sixty feet in diameter, and four feet in height, situated in Haddon field, near the river Lathkiln, almost opposite to Conksbury [Map] was opened; it had been before disturbed by labourers in search of stone, who discovered near the centre a loosely walled vault or cist, containing two human skeletons, and a rude urn of baked clay; they also met with a considerable number of Roman coins in small brass, which were deposited in Haddon Hall. This second opening was made by cutting a trench from the north-west extremity towards the centre, during the progress of which the whole barrow was observed to consist of loose stones thrown together.

About three yards from the centre of the mound were found scattered about a quantity of third brass Roman coins to the number of eighty-two (quere 71 ), and with them some small pieces of lead ore, which would furnish an additional proof, were any wanting, of the remote era in which the Derbyshire lead mines were worked; near the coins was part of a glass vessel, when perfect, about three inches in diameter. In the vault (apparently the only one in the barrow), and doubtless containing the original interments, were discovered human bones, some of which had undergone cremation, fragments of four urns, and traces of decayed wood. The bodies were laid with their heads towards the north-east, and had the usual accompaniment of rats' bones; also the teeth of a canine animal.

The coins, which would pertain to a later interment of the Romano-British period, were of the following reigns: Constantine nine, Constans seventeen, Constantius II nine, family of Constantine three; namely, Urbs Roma one, and Constantinopolis two, Valentinian five, Valens twelve, Gratian three, and the remainder illegible.

Section I Tumuli 1830. About the year 1830 a barrow upon the East Moor, near Baslow, called Stone Lowe [Map], was accidentally opened by the farmer in whose stackyard it stood. In the centre he found two large urns, both neatly ornamented, and both containing calcined bones and flints. Inside one of them was a small incense cup, with two perforations through one side. This being fortunately preserved, we are enabled to give a cut of it.

Section I Tumuli 1832. In January 1832 a barrow was opened in a field called the "Long Roods," [Note. There are two Long Rood's Barrows: Long Roods Barrow 1 [Map] and Long Roods Barrow 2 [Map]. It isn't clear which is being referred to. The description 'about three hundred yards in front of the left flank of the military works on Fin Cop suggests the latter.] situated about three hundred yards in front of the left flank of the military works on Fin Cop, one mile north-west of Ashford-in-the-Water, on the road to Tideswell, in which two highly ornamental urns were found one broken to pieces, the other whole, and containing a deposit of calcined bones.

Amongst the debris of the barrow a third brass coin of Constantine, of the extremely common 'Gloria exercitus' type, was found.

Section I Tumuli 1843. The first tumulus opened this season was situate upon the Meadow-place Farm, near Yolgrave, and is generally known as Bee Lowe [Map]; it was decided upon to open it on the 16th of June, when it was found to be impossible to excavate it in a proper manner, owing to the trees growing upon the sides; therefore the only method of examining it was by sinking a hole down the centre of the mound, which consisted of loose earth and stones, amongst which a profusion of rats' bones was met with. In the course of this excavation the broken fragments of a human skeleton were turned up, which made it evident that one interment at least had been disturbed at some former period. Amongst these bones were found a small arrow-head of flint, elegantly formed, two rude instruments of the same material, and about half a dozen horse's teeth. On reaching the native soil, which was about four feet from the top of the barrow, the primary deposit was found, consisting of burnt bones, amongst which was part of a bone pin, also calcined; and near to the same place lay some fragments of a well-baked clay urn, very tastefully ornamented with a chevron pattern, and which had been of the form of vessel designated "drinking cups" by Sir Richard Hoare, by which name they will be distinguished in the subsequent parts of this work, as a simple way of expressing their difference from the sepulchral urns and incense cups, although it is by no means certain that they were made use of for the purpose implied by the words "drinking cup."

Section I Tumuli 1843. August the 5th 1843 was opened a barrow called Elk Lowe [Map] (quere Ell? that being the ancient British word signifying conspicuous) situate on a considerable eminence near Newhaven. It is of the form which Dr. Stukeley assigns to Druids' barrows without any substantial grounds. The only point in which this kind of tumulus differs from the general form being in the central depression which in this case is so much extended as to spread out into a level and circular area surrounded by a more elevated ring or rampire of earth or stones. In the barrow in question this circle was constructed of very large stones inclining towards the central plain, and covered with small stones and earth, thus forming an extremely durable erection to the height of about three feet, whilst the interior area is not more than one foot above the level of the surrounding soil. In the centre of this space, upon a stratum of stiff clay, was laid a skeleton, whose head rested upon a large limestone. This clay, appearing to replace soil (which had been removed for about a foot in depth below the natural surface), was dug out and carefully examined, and from amongst it were taken a large flint arrow- or lance-head, three other instruments of the same material, and a small piece of sandstone, rubbed smooth. These articles were immediately beneath the skeleton, on whose right hand lay a deposit of burnt human bones, containing an arrow-head of flint, also calcined, and a considerable quantity of charcoal, amongst which were several hazel-nuts, still retaining their perfect form. In other parts of the area, the remains of two more skeletons and some fragments of a large urn, composed of imperfectly baked clay, profusely ornamented, were found. A few dogs' teeth were also observed. The most remarkable circumstance attending the opening of this barrow was the discovery of rats' bones in an unprecedented quantity the whole of the interior circle of the area being covered with a stratum of them not less than three inches in thickness.

Section I Tumuli 1843. About the close of the last or the commencement of the present century, a very large barrow, situated upon Brassington Moor, and now called Stoney Lowe [Map], though sometimes written Stanhope Lowe, was removed, in order that its time-honoured materials might assist in Macadamising some lanes or roads in the immediate neighbourhood. In the course of this work of destruction a large cist was discovered, in which lay three human skeletons, ranged side by side, one of which is said to have had one half of its skull clothed with hair. In another part of this barrow an urn was found, and taken out only to be broken to pieces. On attentively surveying the site of this noble tumulus, which, previous to its demolition, was connected with a small cirque of stones adjoining to it, and destroyed at the same time, the edges of several large stones, placed in a cist-like form, and appearing above the turf, suggested an idea, that, by digging into the interior of these vaults, something might yet be recovered. This was put to the proof on the 8th of August, 1843, and produced the following results: the first vault was a square of about three yards, and contained earth and stones for about a foot in depth, which was indeed the entire depth of the vault itself when cleared out. These debris were minutely scrutinised, and were found to contain the following remains, all in the utmost disorder: no less than 161 human teeth, a large quantity of human bones, a small piece of an urn, various kinds of animals bones and rats bones in abundance. The second vault was of more irregular form, but was very similar to the first in the confusion visible amongst its contents, which were the remains of two human skeletons, apparently of females, with which a delicately-formed arrow-head was found, which, as is frequently the case, had been calcined. The number of interments originally deposited in this tumulus must have been enormous, as the teeth before mentioned vary from those of very juvenile subjects to those of persons of very advanced age, some of the latter are worn almost to a level with the jaw, and yet do not exhibit the least symptom of decay.

Section I Tumuli 1843. August 23d, 1843, the large and well-known barrow upon the summit of Wolfscote Hill [Map], near Biggin [Map], was opened by cutting a wide trench from the south side towards the central depression. Shortly before arriving at this point, a cist, built of large limestones, was discovered immediately across the cutting and on the level of the natural ground. This vault, having no cover, was filled with earth and stones, which had settled down into it. On these being cleared out, the contents of the cist were found to be the remains of two young children, accompanied by an urn of sun-dried clay, rather neatly ornamented. This, owing to the settling of the mound, was crushed to pieces, and lay on one side on the floor of the cist, which was covered with rats' bones. On reaching the centre of the tumulus, it became very apparent that that part had been opened previously and the contents destroyed, the only remains now found being fragments of two urns, the bones of a similar number of human skeletons, and a variety of animal remains, all which had been taken out and thrown in again with the soil at the time of the prior opening of this barrow.

Section I Tumuli 1843. Some years ago, a large and interesting barrow upon Bakewell Moor, called Bole Hill [Map], was carted away in order to build stone fences, at which time a vault was discovered, closed with a large, fiat stone, which, being removed, displayed to the astonished rustics engaged in the work of demolition, the unexpected sight of three human skeletons. The only relic found with them was a large spear of some kind of metal, which was preserved for a short time and then lost. There are yet traces of five vaults to be seen on the ground fonnerly covered by the tumulus. These vaults were filled up for about a foot in depth with soil which was dug out and examined on the 24th of August, 1843, in the hope of rescuing some relic before all traces of this once noble barrow shall have disappeared, and its existence be forgotten. In the largest vault the remains of four human skeletons and the pieces of a large sepulchral urn of coarse material and plain manufacture were brought to light. In another of the vaults were found a few bones, horses' teeth, and two skulls of the polecat. In the other three vaults nothing was found but rats' bones, which were equally prevalent in each vault.

Section I Tumuli 1787. In the autumn of the year 1847, three urns were found in the same locality by persons engaged in cutting drains; they were about two feet beneath the surface, and appeared to have been baked upon the spot. They all contained human bones in a calcined state, and in one was found a small instrument of flint. When first discovered the largest one was inverted, and over the least of the two smaller, which stood upright, was placed a large stone.

Kitchen Hill Bowl Barrow [Map]. Historic England 101426.

The monument includes a barrow situated 800m east of Kitchen Hill Long Barrow [Map]. It forms the southern outlier of a cemetery which includes a total of five barrows. This is one of a number of cemeteries located on the Downs. The barrow has a mound which has been reduced by cultivation in the past but which survives as a visible monument, best seen from the east. It measures 12m in diameter and up to 0.6m high. The western half of the barrow has been reduced to the point where it is no longer clearly definable at ground level. This difference in survival of the mound, which originally stood at least 0.9m high, is due to the fact that it is crossed from north east to south west by a fence line which forms the parish boundary and the extent of cultivation either side of the boundary has been variable. Surrounding the original extent of the mound is a 2m quarry ditch from which material was obtained during its construction. This survives as a buried feature below the modern ground level. Beyond the ditch lies a 1.5m wide counter-scarp bank which stands 0.3m high on the eastern side of the monument. It has been levelled to the west. During the late 1850s the barrow was partly excavated and a secondary cremationburial was found, placed on a flat stone beneath an inverted Late Bronze Age bucket urn.