Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire

Carnarfonshire is in North-West Wales aka Gwynedd.

1277 Treaty of Aberconwy

1408 Siege of Harlech Castle

1466 Harlech Rebels

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Bardsey Island [Map]

The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales: Book 2 Chapter 6. Beyond Lleyn, there is a small island [Bardsey Island [Map]] inhabited by very religious monks, called Caelibes, or Colidei. This island, either from the wholesomeness of its climate, owing to its vicinity to Ireland, or rather from some miracle obtained by the merits of the saints, has this wonderful peculiarity, that the oldest people die first, because diseases are uncommon, and scarcely any die except from extreme old age. Its name is Enlli in the Welsh, and Berdesey146 in the Saxon language; and very many bodies of saints are said to be buried there, and amongst them that of Daniel, bishop of Bangor.

Note 146. This island once afforded, according to the old accounts, an asylum to twenty thousand saints, and after death, graves to as many of their bodies; whence it has been called Insula Sanctorum, the Isle of Saints. This island derived its British name of Enlli from the fierce current which rages between it and the main land. The Saxons named it Bardsey, probably from the Bards, who retired hither, preferring solitude to the company of invading foreigners.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Betws-y-Coed [Map]

The Diary of George Price Boyce 1851. 05 Aug 1851. (at Bettws-y-Coed [Map]). While sketching, David Cox (age 68) came and shook hands with me. He has put up here (the "Royal Oak") After dinner I made an evening sketch on grey wrapping-up paper. David Cox (age 68) saw it and approved.

The River Conwy rises on the on the Migneint moor where a number of small streams flow into Llyn Conwy [Map] from where it flows more or less north through Betws-y-Coed [Map], under Llanrwst Bridge, Clywd [Map] past Conwy Castle [Map] where it joins the Irish Sea.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Criccieth

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Criccieth Castle [Map]

In 1239 Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 7) was imprisoned at Criccieth Castle [Map].

In 1239 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw (age 41) was imprisoned at Criccieth Castle [Map].

On 12 Mar 1310 William Leybourne 1st Baron Leybourne (age 68) died at Criccieth Castle [Map].

The Welsh Castles and Towns of Edward I comprise a number of castles, some with associated planned towns, commissioned as a means of containing the Welsh. They included, from east to west, Flint Castle [Map], Rhuddlan, Conwy Castle [Map], Beaumaris Castle [Map], Caernarfon Castle [Map], Harlech Castle [Map] and Aberystwyth Castle [Map]. Those not on the coast include Chirk Castle [Map], Denbigh Castle and Town Walls and Builth Castle [Map]. Arguably, Holt Castle [Map] and Criccieth Castle [Map] should be included.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Criccieth, Ystumcegid aka Coetan Arthur Burial Mound [Map]

Ystumcegid aka Coetan Arthur Burial Mound is also in Prehistoric Wales Neolithic Burials.

Archaeologia Volume 34 Section VIII. Account of Ystumcegid Cromlech [Map], in the parish of Llanfihangel - y - Pennant, county of Carnarvon. By NATHANIEL NEAL SOLLY, Esq. Communicated in a Letter to Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N., K.S.F., Director. Read December 5, 1850.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Dinas Mawddwy [Map]

The River Dovey rises nears Pennant, Gwynedd [Map] from where it flows past Dinas Mawddwy, Gwynedd [Map], Aberangell [Map], Cemmaes, Montgomeryshire [Map], Machynlleth [Map] to Aberdyfi [Map] where it joins the Irish Sea.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Dolbadarn

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Dolbadarn Castle [Map]

In 1255 Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 23) was imprisoned at Dolbadarn Castle [Map].

In 1277 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 37) and Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44) signed the Treaty of Aberconwy by which Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44) agreed that Welsh self-rule would end with the death of Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 44). As part of the Treaty Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 45) was released from Dolbadarn Castle [Map].

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Dolwyddelan Castle [Map]

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Glynllifon

In 1602 John Glynne was born to William Glynne (age 36) and Jane Griffith at Glynllifon.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Harlech

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Harlech Castle [Map]

In 1408 Edmund Mortimer (age 31) died at Harlech Castle [Map] during the Siege of Harlech Castle.

In 1466 the Lancastrian Richard Turnstall led the garrison of Harlech Castle [Map] in a raid on Wrexham. The rebels captured Holt Castle [Map]. John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 38) was sent to suppress the rebellion.

In 1521 Francis Bryan (age 31) was appointed Constable of Harlech Castle which office he held until his death in 1550.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1461. And after that, the castelle of Bamburght was yoldene to the Kynge, by treyatte and apoyntment by Herry the Duke of Somersett that kept it, and came in to Kynge Edwardes grace, whiche graunted to hym a Ml, marke by yere, whereof he was not payede, the[r]for he departed oute of England after halff yere into Scotlonde, &c, And so Kynge Edward was possessed of alle England, excepte a castelle in Northe Wales called Harlake [Map]1, whiche Sere Richard Tunstall kepte, the qwhiche was gotene afterwarde by the Lorde Harberde7,

Note 1. Excepte a castelle in Northe Wales called Harlake. I cannot resist the temptation of taking the following lines from the poems of Lewis Glyn Cothi, relative to the future siege of Harlech

"Doves â'i wyr, divasw wedd,

Dareni daiar Wynedd;

Jarll, ond ev a'r llu, nid â

Ar wddv Eryri Wyddva.

Dau er ei chael dri a chwech,-

Un dân harddlun yw Harddlech.

Tynu â gwyr tònau gwin

Peiriannus, val mab brenin.

Uchel ewri a chlariwns,

A tharvu gwyr â thwrv gwns;

Saethu 'mhob parth saith mil pen,

A'u bwa o bob ywen:

Clod wellwell, cludaw allan

Goed mawr a fagodau mân;

O wartha 'r rhai'n, hyd yr hwyr,

Arvogion a'u rhyvagwyr.

Trwy'r tair gwart Herbart hirborth

Ty'nu'r pen capten i'r porth.

Ennillodd, eu ewyllys,

Y brenin lech Bronwen Lys.

Hywel Davydd ab Jevan ab Rhys.

As no translation is added in the published works of Glyn Cothi, may be as well to give one here;

"He tamed, in no trifling manner,

The lofty heights of Gwyneth2; No earl, save him and his followers, could ever mount

Upon the neck of Snowdon, the Alpine of Eryri.3

There would climb up, to gain the ascent,

Now three, -now six men, all at once;

One beautifully formed fiery blaze is Harddlech4

Men drawing from men waves of wine5, -

Loud the shouting - loud the blasts of clarions;

Scattering of men, thundering of guns;

Arrows flying in every quarter from seven thousand men,

Using bows made of the yew.

Bravo! bravo! they bring out large trees and faggots;

They pile them up, and, behind the pile,

Armed men are placed to continue there ' til night.

Then Herbert, through the three wards,

Brings forth the head captain in the porch.

Thus King Edward, as it were, with one volition,

Gained possession of Bronwen's Court."

This place was possessedd in 1468 by Dafydd ap Jeuan ap Einion, - a strong friend of the house of Lancaster, distinguished for his valour and great stature. He was besieged here by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, after a march through the heart of our Alps, attended with incredible difficulties; for in some parts, the soldiers were obliged to climb; in others, to precipitate themselves down the rocks; and, at length, invested a place till that time deemed impregnable.

The Earl committed the care of the siege to Sir Richard, a hero equal in size to the British commandant. Sir Richard sent a summons of surrender, but Dafydd stoutly answered that he had kept a castle in France so long, that he made all the old women in Wales talk of him; and that he would keep this so long, that all the old women in France should also talk of him. He at last surrendered, and Herbert had a hard struggle with Edward's barbarous policy to save the noble defender's life. - Pennant's Tour in Wales, vol. II. p. 121-2. Margaret of Anjou found refuge in this Castle after the unfortunate battle of Northampton; and it has been conjectured that the song of "Farwel iti Peggy Ban" was composed on the occasion of her quitting it. On the peculiar advantages of the position of this castle, see The Cambrian Traveller's Guide, p. 574.

Note 2. North Wales.

Note 3. The mountains surrounding Snowdon.

Note 4. This couplet is metaphorical of the rapidity of Herbert's motions.

Note 5. i.e. streams of blood.

Note 6. The castle was anciently called Twr Bronwen, after Bronwen, daughter of Llyr (King Lear), and aunt to the great Caractacus. See The Cambro - Briton, ii. 71. She is the subject of an old Welsh Romance.

Note 7. By the Lorde Harberde. "Et castrum forte in Wallia per dominum Harbarde captum est, et Dominus Ricardus Tunstalle, cum ceteris ibi inventis, captus est, et in Turri Londonie clausus, qui tum in breve gratiam a Rege consecutus est. Duo nobiles ex illic capti decollati sunt [And a strong castle in Wales was captured by Lord Harbarde, and Lord Richard Tunstalle, along with others found there, was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London, who then shortly obtained favor from the King. Two nobles captured there were beheaded]." - MS. Arundel, Coll. Arm. 5, fol. 171, rº. There is a grant to Lord Herbert for his services in Rot. Pat. 3 Edw. IV.

The Welsh Castles and Towns of Edward I comprise a number of castles, some with associated planned towns, commissioned as a means of containing the Welsh. They included, from east to west, Flint Castle [Map], Rhuddlan, Conwy Castle [Map], Beaumaris Castle [Map], Caernarfon Castle [Map], Harlech Castle [Map] and Aberystwyth Castle [Map]. Those not on the coast include Chirk Castle [Map], Denbigh Castle and Town Walls and Builth Castle [Map]. Arguably, Holt Castle [Map] and Criccieth Castle [Map] should be included.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Llandwrog

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Llyn Conwy [Map]

The River Conwy rises on the on the Migneint moor where a number of small streams flow into Llyn Conwy [Map] from where it flows more or less north through Betws-y-Coed [Map], under Llanrwst Bridge, Clywd [Map] past Conwy Castle [Map] where it joins the Irish Sea.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Pennant [Map]

The River Dovey rises nears Pennant, Gwynedd [Map] from where it flows past Dinas Mawddwy, Gwynedd [Map], Aberangell [Map], Cemmaes, Montgomeryshire [Map], Machynlleth [Map] to Aberdyfi [Map] where it joins the Irish Sea.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Penrhyndeudraeth [Map]

The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales: Book 2 Chapter 6. We continued our journey over the Traeth Mawr [Map],141 and Traeth Bachan,142 that is, the greater and the smaller arm of the sea, where two stone castles have newly been erected; one called Deudraeth [Map], belonging to the sons of Conan, situated in Evionyth, towards the northern mountains; the other named Carn Madryn, the property of the sons of Owen, built on the other side of the river towards the sea, on the head-land Lleyn.143 Traeth, in the Welsh language, signifies a tract of sand flooded by the tides, and left bare when the sea ebbs. We had before passed over the noted rivers, the Dissenith,144 between the Maw and Traeth Mawr, and the Arthro, between the Traeth Mawr and Traeth Bachan. We slept that night at Nevyn, on the eve of Palm Sunday, where the archdeacon, after long inquiry and research, is said to have found Merlin Sylvestris.145

Note 141. The Traeth Mawr, or the large sands, are occasioned by a variety of springs and rivers which flow from the Snowdon mountains, and, uniting their streams, form an aestuary below Pont Aberglaslyn.

Note 142. The Traeth Bychan, or the small sands, are chiefly formed by the river which runs down the beautiful vale of Festiniog to Maentwrog and Tan y bwlch, near which place it becomes navigable. Over each of these sands the road leads from Merionyth into Caernarvonshire.

Note 143. Lleyn, the Canganorum promontorium of Ptolemy, was an extensive hundred containing three comots, and comprehending that long neck of land between Caernarvon and Cardigan bays. Leland says, "Al Lene is as it were a pointe into the se."

Note 144. In mentioning the rivers which the missionaries had lately crossed, our author has been guilty of a great topographical error in placing the river Dissennith between the Maw and Traeth Mawr, as also in placing the Arthro between the Traeth Mawr and Traeth Bychan, as a glance at a map will shew.

Note 145. To two personages of this name the gift of prophecy was anciently attributed: one was called Ambrosius, the other Sylvestris; the latter here mentioned (and whose works Giraldus, after a long research, found at Nefyn) was, according to the story, the son of Morvryn, and generally called Merddin Wyllt, or Merddin the Wild. He is pretended to have flourished about the middle of the sixth century, and ranked with Merddin Emrys and Taliesin, under the appellation of the three principal bards of the Isle of Britain.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Snowdon aka Yr Wyddfa [Map]

The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales: Book 2 Chapter 9. I must not pass over in silence the mountains called by the Welsh Eryri [Map], but by the English Snowdon, or Mountains of Snow, which gradually increasing from the land of the sons of Conan, and extending themselves northwards near Deganwy, seem to rear their lofty summits even to the clouds, when viewed from the opposite coast of Anglesey. They are said to be of so great an extent, that according to an ancient proverb, "As Mona could supply corn for all the inhabitants of Wales, so could the Eryri mountains afford sufficient pasture for all the herds, if collected together." Hence these lines of Virgil may be applied to them:-

"Et quantum longis carpent armenta diebus,

Exigua tautum gelidus ros nocte reponet."

"And what is cropt by day the night renews,

Shedding refreshful stores of cooling dews."

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Tanyrallt

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Sep 1811 to Feb 1813. [Percy Bysshe Shelley] ... sailed thence to Dublin, where Shelley was eager, and in some degree prominent, in the good cause of Catholic emancipation, conjoined with repeal of the union; crossed to Wales, and lived at Nant-Gwillt, near Rhayader, then at Lynmouth [Map] in Devonshire, then at Tanyrallt in Carnarvonshire. All this was between September 1811 and February 1813. At Lynmouth an Irish servant of Shelley's was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for distributing and posting up printed papers, bearing no printer's name, of an inflammatory or seditious tendency - being a Declaration of Rights composed by the youthful reformer, and some verses of his named The Devil's Walk. At Tanyrallt Shelley was (according to his own and Harriet's account, confirmed by the evidence of Miss Westbrook, the elder sister, who continued an inmate in most of their homes) attacked on the night of 26th February by an assassin who fired three pistol-shots. It was either a human assassin or (as Shelley once said) " the devil." The motive of the attack was undefined; the fact of its occurrence was generally disbelieved, both at the time and by subsequent inquirers. Shelley was full of wild unpractical notions; he dosed himself occasionally with laudanum as a palliative to spasmodic pains; he was given to strange assertions and romancing narratives (several of which might properly be specified here but for want of space), and was not incapable of conscious fibbing. His mind no doubt oscillated at times along the line which divides sanity from insane delusion. It is now, however, at last proved that he did not invent such a monstrous story to serve a purpose. The Century Magazine for October 1905 contained an article entitled "A Strange Adventure of Shelley's," by Margaret L. Croft, which shows that a shepherd close to Tanyrallt, named Robin Pant Evan, being irritated by some well-meant acts of Shelley in terminating the lives of dying or diseased sheep, did really combine with two other shepherds to scare the poet, and Evan was the person who played the part of "assassin." He himself avowed as much to members of a family, Greaves, who were living at Tanyrallt between 1847 and 1865. This was the break-up of the residence of the Shelleys at Tanyrallt; they revisited Ireland, and then settled for a while in London.

Europe, British Isles, North-West Wales aka Gwynedd, Carnarfonshire, Traeth Mawr [Map]

The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales: Book 2 Chapter 6. We continued our journey over the Traeth Mawr [Map],141 and Traeth Bachan,142 that is, the greater and the smaller arm of the sea, where two stone castles have newly been erected; one called Deudraeth [Map], belonging to the sons of Conan, situated in Evionyth, towards the northern mountains; the other named Carn Madryn, the property of the sons of Owen, built on the other side of the river towards the sea, on the head-land Lleyn.143 Traeth, in the Welsh language, signifies a tract of sand flooded by the tides, and left bare when the sea ebbs. We had before passed over the noted rivers, the Dissenith,144 between the Maw and Traeth Mawr, and the Arthro, between the Traeth Mawr and Traeth Bachan. We slept that night at Nevyn, on the eve of Palm Sunday, where the archdeacon, after long inquiry and research, is said to have found Merlin Sylvestris.145

Note 141. The Traeth Mawr, or the large sands, are occasioned by a variety of springs and rivers which flow from the Snowdon mountains, and, uniting their streams, form an aestuary below Pont Aberglaslyn.

Note 142. The Traeth Bychan, or the small sands, are chiefly formed by the river which runs down the beautiful vale of Festiniog to Maentwrog and Tan y bwlch, near which place it becomes navigable. Over each of these sands the road leads from Merionyth into Caernarvonshire.

Note 143. Lleyn, the Canganorum promontorium of Ptolemy, was an extensive hundred containing three comots, and comprehending that long neck of land between Caernarvon and Cardigan bays. Leland says, "Al Lene is as it were a pointe into the se."

Note 144. In mentioning the rivers which the missionaries had lately crossed, our author has been guilty of a great topographical error in placing the river Dissennith between the Maw and Traeth Mawr, as also in placing the Arthro between the Traeth Mawr and Traeth Bychan, as a glance at a map will shew.

Note 145. To two personages of this name the gift of prophecy was anciently attributed: one was called Ambrosius, the other Sylvestris; the latter here mentioned (and whose works Giraldus, after a long research, found at Nefyn) was, according to the story, the son of Morvryn, and generally called Merddin Wyllt, or Merddin the Wild. He is pretended to have flourished about the middle of the sixth century, and ranked with Merddin Emrys and Taliesin, under the appellation of the three principal bards of the Isle of Britain.