Biography of Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster 1310-1361

1337 Battle of Cadzand

1340 Battle of Sluys

1344 Creation of the Order of the Garter

1345 Battle of Bergerac

1345 Funeral Henry 3rd Earl Lancaster

1345 Battle of Auberoche

1347 Capture of Calais

1350 Battle of Winchelsea

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1360 Black Monday Hailstorm

1361 Death of Henry of Grosmont

On 30 Dec 1292 [his father] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (11) and Maud Chaworth 1282-1322 (10) were married. He a grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Around 1310 Henry of Grosmont was born to [his father] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (29) and Maud Chaworth 1282-1322 (27) at Grosmont Castle. He a great grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

On 03 Dec 1322 [his mother] Maud Chaworth 1282-1322 (40) died.

On 16 Nov 1327 William Donn Burgh 3rd Earl Ulster 1312-1333 (15) and [his sister] Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster 1310-1377 (17) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Ulster.

Around 1328 Henry of Grosmont (18) and [his wife] Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 1320-1361 (8) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

In 1330 Henry of Grosmont (20) was knighted.

On 06 Nov 1330 [his brother-in-law] John Beaumont 2nd Baron Beaumont 1317-1342 (12) and Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel Countess Surrey 1318-1372 (12) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

In 1336 Henry of Grosmont (26) was appointed King's Lieutenant in Scotland.

1337 Battle of Cadzand

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 31 The Battle of Cadsant, between the English and the Flemings, attched to the Earl of Flanders. 1337When the English saw the town of Cadsant, whither they were bending their course to attack those that were within it, they considered, that, as the wind and tide were in their favour, in the name of God and St. George they would run close up to it. They ordered the trumpets to sound, and each made himself quickly ready; they ranged their vessels, and placing the archers on the prows, made full sail for the town. The sentinels and guards at Cadsant had plainly perceived the approach of this large fleet, and taking it for granted that it must be English, had already armed and placed themselves upon the dykes and the sands, with their banners in their proper position before them. They had also created a number of knights upon the occasion, as many as sixteen: their numbers might be about five thousand, taking all together, very valiant knights and bachelors, as they proved by their deeds. Among them were sir Guy of Flanders, a good knight, but a bastard*, who was very anxious that all in his train should do their duty; sir Dutres de Halluyn, sir John de Rhodes, sir Giles de l'Estrief, sir Simon and sir John de Bouquedent, who were then knighted, and Peter d'Aglemoustier, with many other bachelors and esquires, valiant men at arms. There was no parley between them, for the English were as eager to attack as the Flemings were to defend themselves. The archers were ordered to draw their bows stiff and strong, and to set up their shouts; upon which those that guarded the haven were forced to retire, whether they would or not, for this first discharge did much mischief, and many were maimed and hurt. The English barons and knights then landed, and with battle-axes, swords, and lances, combated their enemies. Many gallant deeds of prowess and courage were done that day:— the Flemings fought valiantly, and the English attacked them in all the spirit of chivalry. The gallant earl of Derby (27) proved himself a good knight, and advanced so forward at the first assault, that he was struck down: and then the lord of Manny (27) was of essential service to him; for, by his feats of arms, he covered him and raised him up, and placed him out of danger, crying, " Lancaster for the earl of Derby !" They then closed with each other; — many were wounded, but more of the Flemings than of the English; for the English archers made such continual discharges, from the time they landed, that they did them much damage.

The battle was very severe and fierce before the town of Cadsant, for the Flemings were good men, and expert in arms; the earl had selected and placed them there to defend the passage against the English, and they were desirous of performing their duty in every respect» which they did. Of the barons and knights of England, there were, first, the earl of Derby, son of Henry of Lancaster, surnamed Wryneck; the earl of Suffolk, lord Reginald Cobham (42), lord Lewis Beauchamp, lord William, son of the earl of Warwick, the lord William Beauclerk, sir Walter Manny, and many others, who most vigorously assaulted the Flemings. The combat was very sharp and well fought, for they were engaged hand to fist; but at length the Flemings were put to the rout, and more than three thousand killed, as well at the haven as in the streets and houses. Sir Guy, the Bastard, of Flanders, was taken prisoner. Of the killed, were sir Dutres de Halluyn, sir John of Rhodes, the two brothers Bonquedent, sir Giles de D'Estrief, and more than twunty-six other knights and esquires. The town was taken and pillaged: and when every thing was put on board the vessels with the prisoners, it was burnt. The English returned without accident to England. The king made the Jord Guy of Flanders pledge his troth, that he would remain a prisoner; hot in the course of the year he turned to the English, and did his homage and fealty to the king.

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In 1337 Henry of Grosmont (27) was created 1st Earl Derby 2C 1337. [his wife] Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 1320-1361 (17) by marriage Countess Derby.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 41 How these kings ordained their battles at Buironfosse. 1339. When the Friday came in the morning, both hosts apparelled themselves ready, and every lord heard mass among their own companies and divers were shriven.

First we will speak of the order of the Englishmen, who drew them forward into the field and made three battles afoot, and did put all their horses and baggages into a little wood behind them, and fortified it. The first battle led1 the duke of Gueldres, the marquis of Meissen, the marquis of Brandebourg, sir John of Hainault, the earl of Mons, the earl of Salm, the lord of Fauquemont, sir William of Duvenvoorde, sir Arnold of Baquehem and the Almains; and among them was twenty-two banners and sixty pennons in the whole, and eight thousand men. The second battle had the duke of Brabant and the lords and knights of his country — first the lord of Cuyk, the lord Berg, the lord of Breda, the lord of Rotselaer, the lord of Vorsselaer, the lord of Borgneval, the lord of Schoonvorst, the lord of Witham, the lord of Aerschot, the lord of Gaesbeck, the lord of Duffel, sir Thierry of Walcourt, sir Rasse of Gres, sir John of Kesterbeke, sir John Pyliser, sir Giles of Coterebbe, sir Walter of Huldeberg, the three brethren of Harlebeke, sir Henry of Flanders, and divers other barons and knights of Flanders, who were all under the duke of Brabant's banner, as the lord of Halewyn, the lord of Gruthuse, sir Hector Vilain, sir John of Rhodes, sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, sir William of Straten, sir Gossuin de la Moere, and many other: the duke of Brabant had a twenty-four banners and eighty pennons, and in all a seven thousand men. The third battle and the greatest had the king of England and with him his cousin the earl of Derby (29), the bishop of Lincoln (47), the bishop of Durham, the earl of Salisbury (38), the earl of Northampton (29), and of Gloucester (48), the earl of Suffolk (40), sir Robert d'Artois (52), as then called earl of Richmond5, the lord Raynold Cobham (44), the lord Percy, the lord Ros (54), the lord Mowbray (28), sir Lewis and sir John Beauchamp, the lord Delaware (62), the lord of Langton, the lord Basset, the lord Fitzwalter, sir Walter Manny (29), sir Hugh Hastings (29), sir John Lisle (20), and divers other that I cannot name: among other was sir John Chandos (19), of whom much honour is spoken in this book2. The king had with him twenty-eight banners and ninety pennons, and in his battle a six thousand men of arms and six thousand archers; and he had set another battle as in a wing, whereof the earl of Warwick (25), the earl of Pembroke (19), the lord Berkeley (43), the lord Multon and divers other were as chief, and they were on horseback3. Thus when every lord was under his banner, as it was commanded by the marshals, the king of England mounted on a palfrey, accompanied all only with sir Robert d'Artois (52), sir Raynold Cobham (44) and sir Walter of Manny, and rode along before all his battles, and right sweetly desired all his lords and other that they would that day aid to defend his honour. And they all promised him so to do. Then he returned to his own battle and set everything in good order and commanded that none should go before the marshals' banners.

Now let us speak of the lords of France, what they did. They were eleven score banners, four kings, six dukes, twenty-six earls, and more than four thousand knights, and of the commons of France more than sixty thousand. The kings that were there with king Philip of Valois was the king of Bohemia, the king of Navarre, and king David of Scotland: the duke of Normandy, the duke of Bretayne, the duke of Bourbon, the duke of Lorraine and the duke of Athens: 2 of earls, the earl of Alencon (42) brother to the king, the earl of Flanders, the earl of Hainault, the earl of Blois, the earl of Bar, the earl of Forez, the earl of Foix, the earl of Armagnac, the earl Dolphin of Auvergne, the earl of Joinville, the earl of Etampes, the earl of Vendome, the earl of Harcourt, the earl of Saint-Pol, the earl of Guines, the earl of Boulogne, the earl of Roucy, the earl of Dammartin, the earl of Valentinois, the earl of Auxerre, the earl of Sancerre, the earl of Geneva, the earl of Dreux; and of Gascoyne and of Languedoc so many earls and viscounts, that it were long to rehearse. It was a great beauty to behold the banners and standards waving in the wind, and horses barded, and knights and squires richly armed. The Frenchmen ordained three great battles, in each of them fifteen thousand men of arms and twenty thousand men afoot.

Note 1. Perhaps a misprint for 'had.' The original is 'eut.'

Note 2. In the later revision the writer says: 'I, Froissart, writer of these chronicles, more than once heard the gentle knight sir John Chandos say that he was made knight by the hand of the king Edward of England on this Friday that the assembly was at Buironfosse; and since that he was more valiant than any other who took arms on the side of the English, I make mention of this here.'

Note 3. The original says: ' So these remained on horseback to support those battles which should waver, and were as a rear-guard.'

Note 4. The name of the duke of Burgundy is omitted.

Note 5. TT. Robert III Artois 1287-1342 (52) wasn't created Earl Richmond until 1341?

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On 04 Apr 1339 [his daughter] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 was born to Henry of Grosmont (29) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 1320-1361 (19) at Bolingbroke Castle. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Battle of Sluys

On 24 Jun 1340 King Edward III England (27) attacked the French fleet at anchor during the Battle of Sluys capturing more than 200 ships, killing around 18000 French. The English force included John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick 1316-1360 (24), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (30), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (27), William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer Corby 1330-1381 (10), John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle 1318-1355 (22), Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford 1301-1372 (38), Henry of Grosmont (30), Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny 1310-1372 (30) and Richard Pembridge 1320-1375 (20).

Thomas Monthermer 2nd Baron Monthermer 1301-1340 (38) died from wounds. His daughter Margaret Monthermer Baroness Montagu 3rd Baroness Monthermer -1395 succeeded 3rd Baron Monthermer.

In 1344 [his son-in-law] Ralph Stafford -1347 and Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (4) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

On 05 Feb 1344 Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 (38) and [his sister] Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel Countess Surrey 1318-1372 (25) were married at Ditton Church Stoke Poges. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Arundel Sussex.

Creation of the Order of the Garter

On 23 Apr 1344 King Edward III England (31) created the Order of the Garter. The date nominal as there are different accounts; some sources say 1348.

1 Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376

2 Henry of Grosmont.

3 Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick 1313-1386.

4 Jean Grailly 1331-1376.

5 Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford 1301-1372.

6 William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury 1328-1397.

7 Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl Dunbar aka March 1328-1360.

8 John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle 1318-1355.

9 Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh 1328-1369.

10 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick 1316-1360.

11 John Mohun 2nd Baron Mohun Dunster 1320-1375.

12 Hugh Courtenay -1348.

13 Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360.

14 John Grey 2nd Baron Grey Rotherfield 1300-1359.

15 Richard Fitzsimon -1349.

16 Miles Stapleton 1320-1364.

17 Thomas Wale 1303-1352.

18 Hugh Wrottesley 1333-1381.

19 Neil Loring 1320-1386.

20 John Chandos 1320-1369.

21 James Audley 1318-1369.

22 Otho Holland 1316-1359.

23 Henry Eam -1359.

24 Sanchet Abrichecourt 1330-1360.

25 Walter Paveley 4th Baron Burghesh 1319-1375.

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In or before 1345 Ralph Ufford 1302-1346 (43) and [his sister] Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster 1310-1377 (34) were married. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

On 25 Mar 1345 [his daughter] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 was born to Henry of Grosmont (35) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 1320-1361 (25) at Bolingbroke Castle. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Battle of Bergerac

Around 25 Aug 1345 Henry of Grosmont (35) commanded the English forces at Bergerac, Dordogne during the Battle of Bergerac. The English army including Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny 1310-1372 (35) won a decisive victory over the French with Henri Montigny captured.

On 22 Sep 1345 [his father] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (64) died at Leicester Castle. His son Henry of Grosmont (35) succeeded 4th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265, 4th Earl Lancaster.

Funeral Henry 3rd Earl Lancaster

After 22 Sep 1345 [his father] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark, or possibly the Hospital Chapel, at a ceremony attended by King Edward III England and his wife Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369. His son Henry of Grosmont subsequently moved had his remains moved to St Mary de Castro Leicester.

Battle of Auberoche

On 21 Oct 1345 Henry of Grosmont (35) commanded an English army including Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny 1310-1372 (35) at Auberoche, Perigueux during the Battle of Auberoche. The battle was a significant victory for the English with the French forces being heavily defeated. The ransoms alone made a fortune for many of the soldiers in Derby's army, as well as Derby himself, who was said to have made at least £50,000 from the day's captives, and sealed his reputation as 'one of the best warriors in the world'.

Capture of Calais

On 03 Aug 1347 the English captured Calais providing England with a French port for the next two hundred years. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick 1313-1386 (34) commanded, John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle 1318-1355 (29), Richard Vache -1366 and Henry of Grosmont (37) fought during the year long siege.

Battle of Winchelsea

On 29 Aug 1350 the English fleet defeated a Castilian fleet at Winchelsea during the Battle of Winchelsea. Around twenty Castilian ships were captured; several were sunk. For the English King Edward III England (37) and his son Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (20), James Audley 1318-1369 (32), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (37), Henry of Grosmont (40) and John Sully 1283-1388 (67) fought.

In 1351 Henry of Grosmont (41) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 1C 1351 by King Edward III England (38). [his wife] Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 1320-1361 (31) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

In 1352 [his son-in-law] William Wittelsbach I Duke Lower Bavaria 1330-1389 (21) and Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (12) were marriedin London He a great x 4 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Duchess Lower Bavaria. [his son-in-law] William Wittelsbach I Duke Lower Bavaria 1330-1389 (21) by marriage 5th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

In 1352 Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) and [his niece] Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (19) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) by marriage 4th Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347.

In 1353 Henry of Grosmont (43) founded at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

Double Royal Wedding

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of King Edward III England (46) were married:

[his son-in-law] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.

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After 09 Sep 1359 Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton 1341-1373 and [his niece] Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex Hereford and Northampton 1347-1419 were married. They were third cousins. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Around 28 Sep 1359 [his nephew] Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (13) and Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey 1350-1385 (9) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Black Monday Hailstorm

On 13 Apr 1360 a freak weather event known as Black Monday Hailstorm occurred as the army of King Edward III England (47) were camped outside Chartres. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick 1313-1386 (47), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (50), Henry of Grosmont (50), Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (29) and Walter Mauny were present. Around one thousand English were killed, with up to six thousand horses. King Edward III England (47) believed the event to be an Act of God and proceeded to negotiate with the French resulting in the Treaty of Brétigny.

On 28 Apr 1360 Guy Beauchamp -1360 died from injuries received during the Black Monday Hailstorm.

In 1361 [his wife] Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 1320-1361 (41) died.

Death of Henry of Grosmont

On 23 Mar 1361 Henry of Grosmont (51) died at Leicester Castle. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

[his daughter] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Lancaster and 2nd Earl Derby 2C 1337. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (21) by marriage Earl Lancaster, Earl Derby 2C 1337. Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (21) succeeded 5th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.