History of Hereford

1055 Battle and Burning of Hereford

1326 Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

1328 Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

Hereford is in Herefordshire.

Before 1042 Ralph de Gael Earl East Anglia 1041-1096 was born to Ralph "Staller" Gael Earl East Anglia 1011-1068 at Hereford.

Battle and Burning of Hereford

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. 24 Oct 1055. This year died Earl Siward (45) at York; and his body lies within the minster at Galmanho, (76) which he had himself ordered to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. Olave, to the honour of God and to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey fetched his pall from Pope Victor. Then, within a little time after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of the land. And he was arraigned thereof before all that were there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was unintentional. The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl Siward (45) formerly had, to Tosty (29), son of Earl Godwin (54). Whereupon Earl Elgar sought Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships, besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with the armament, who received him on terms of amity. And they gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of Hereford; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the English people fled, because they were on horses. The enemy then made a great slaughter there—about four hundred or five hundred men; they on the other side none. They went then to the town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster (77) also which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away. Then an army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh; (78) and they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against the Welsh, and there lay some time. And Earl Harold (33) caused the dike to be dug about the town the while. Meantime men began to speak of peace; and Earl Harold (33) and those who were with him came to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between them. The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed; and they gave him all that was taken from him before. The fleet returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar promised them. The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends of November. In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop, soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute, after he became infirm.
76 The church, dedicated to St. Olave, was given by Alan Earl of Richmond, about thirty-three years afterwards, to the first abbot of St. Mary's in York, to assist him in the construction of the new abbey. It appears from a MS. quoted by Leland, that Bootham-bar was formerly called "Galman-hithe", not Galmanlith, as printed by Tanner and others.
77 Called St. Ethelbert's minster; because the relics of the holy King Ethelbert were there deposited and preserved.
78 The place where this army was assembled, though said to be very nigh to Hereford, was only so with reference to the great distance from which some part of the forces came; as they were gathered from all England. They met, I conjecture, on the memorable spot called "Harold's Cross", near Cheltenham, and thence proceeded, as here stated, to Gloucester.

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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle William The Conqueror. 1067. The child Edric and the Britons were unsettled this year, and fought with the castlemen at Hereford, and did them much harm. The king (39) this year imposed a heavy guild on the wretched people; but, notwithstanding, let his men always plunder all the country that they went over; and then he marched to Devonshire, and beset the city of Exeter eighteen days. There were many of his army slain; out he had promised them well, and performed ill; and the citizens surrendered the city because the thanes had betrayed them.

On 27 Mar 1085 Hugh Lacy 1020-1085 (65) died at Hereford.

Around 1220 Gilbert Talbot 1220-1274 was born to Richard Talbot 3rd Baron Talbot 1180-1234 (40) and Aline Aliva Basset 1189-1281 (31) at Hereford.

Before 13 Apr 1234 Richard Talbot 3rd Baron Talbot 1180-1234 died at Hereford. His grandson Richard Talbot 4th Baron Talbot 1250-1306 succeeded 4th Baron Talbot Feudal. Sarah Beauchamp Baroness Talbot 1255-1318 by marriage Baroness Talbot Feudal.

On 17 Nov 1326 Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 (41) was beheaded with a blunt sword requiring twenty-two strokes at Hereford. His son Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 (20) succeeded 10th Earl Arundel Sussex.

Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

On 24 Nov 1326 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1286-1326 (40) was hanged in Hereford. Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (31) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (39) were present.
He was dragged naked through the streets, for the crowd's mistreatment. He was made a spectacle, which included writing on his body biblical verses against the capital sins he was accused of. Then he was hanged as a mere commoner, yet released before full asphyxiation could happen.
He was then tied firmly to a ladder and his genitals sliced off and burned while he was still conscious. His entrails were slowly pulled out; finally, his heart was cut out and thrown into a fire. His body was beheaded and cut into four pieces. His head was mounted on the gates of London.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 13 How sir Hugh Spencer was put to his judgment. 24 Nov 1326. WHEN this feast was done, then sir Hugh Spencer (40), who was nothing beloved, was brought forth before the queen (31) and all the lords and knights, and there before him in writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against the which he could give no manner of answer. And so he was then judged by plain sentence, first to be drawn on an hurdle with trumps and trumpets through all the city of Hereford, and after to be brought into the market-place, whereas all the people were assembled, and there to be tied on high upon a ladder that every man might see him; and in the same place there to be made a great fire, and there his privy members cut from him, because they reputed him as an heretic and so deemed, and so to be burnt in the fire before his face; and then his heart to be drawn out of his body and cast into the fire, because he was a false traitor of heart, and that by his traitor's counsel and exhortation the king (42) had shamed his realm and brought it to great mischief, for he had caused to be beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, by whom the realm ought to have been sustained and defended; and he had so induced the king (42) that he would not see the queen his wife nor Edward his eldest son (14), and caused him to chase them out of the realm for fear of their lives; and then his head to be stricken off and sent to London. And according to his judgment he was executed. Then the queen (31) and all her lords took their way toward London, and did so much by their journeys that they arrived at the city of London, and they of the city with great company met them and did to the queen and to her son great reverence, and to all their company, as they thought it best bestowed. And when they had been thus received and feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights strangers, and namely sir John of Hainault (38), had great desire to return again into their own countries, for they thought they had well done their devoir and achieved great honour, and so took their leave of the queen and of the lords of the realm: and the queen and the lords required them to tarry longer a little space, to see what should be done with the king (42), who was in prison; but the strangers had so great desire to return into their own countries that to pray them the contrary availed not. And when the queen and her council saw that, they yet desired sir John of Hainault (38) to tarry till it was past Christmas, and to retain with him such of his company as pleased him best. The gentle knight would not leave to perform his service, but courteously granted the queen to tarry as long as it pleased her, and caused to tarry such of his company as he could get that was but a few, for the remnant would in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. When the queen and her council saw that they would not abide for no prayers, then they made them great cheer and feasts. And the queen made to be given to them plenty of gold and silver for their costs and services, and did give great jewels to each of them according to their degrees, so as they all held themselves right well content. And over that they had silver for their horses, such as they would leave behind them, at their own estimation without any grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault (38) abode still with a small company among the Englishmen, who always did him as much honour as they could imagine, and to all his company. And in likewise so did the ladies and damosels of the country; for there were great plenty of countesses and great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who were come thither to accompany the queen. For it seemed well to them that the knight sir John of Hainault (38) had well deserved the cheer and feast that they made him.

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Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

On 31 May 1328 the Mortimer family leveraged their new status at a lavish ceremony that celebrated the marriages of two of Roger Mortimer's (41) daughters at Hereford.
Edward Plantagenet 1320-1334 (8) and Beatrice Mortimer 1322-1383 (6) were married. They were half third cousins once removed. He a grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 4 granddaughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.
Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke 1319-1348 (9) and Agnes Mortimer 1317-1368 (11) were married. They were third cousins once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.
King Edward III England (15) and his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (33) attended as well as Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (41).

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On 16 Sep 1362 Elizabeth Lisle 1308-1362 (54) died at Hereford.

On 18 Feb 1375 John Talbot 1337-1375 (38) died in Hereford.

On 16 Apr 1375 John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (27) died. He was buried at Hereford. His son John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (2) succeeded 3rd Earl Pembroke 4C 1339, 5th Baron Hastings 1C 1290, 16th Baron Bergavenny Feudal Creation.

In 1426 Robert Wingfield 1403-1454 (23) was knighted by Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (4) at Hereford.

Around 1450. The Wye Bridge Hereford is six-bay 15th-century bridge across the River Wye in Hereford. All six bays have cutwaters and pedestrian refuges built into the parapeted top. In 1490 a gatehouse was added to the southern end of the bridge to control access to the town. In 1645 the bridge was damaged during the Civil War. The bridge was rebuilt in the 17th century and widened in 1826.

In 1472 Thomas Cornwall 6th Baron Burford 1407-1472 (65) died at Hereford. His son Edmund Cornwall 7th Baron Burford 1448-1498 (24) succeeded 7th Baron Burford 1C.

In 1506 Richard Herbert 1506-1570 was born to Richard Herbert 1442-1510 (64) and Margaret Cradock at Hereford.

On 17 Sep 1510 Hugh Shirley 1468-1510 (42) died at Hereford.

In 1642 Humphrey Edwin Lord Mayor 1642-1707 was born to William Edwin -1707 at Hereford.

Clehonger Hereford, Herefordshire

In 1420 Thomas Barre 1349-1420 (71) died at Clehonger Hereford.

Franciscan Church Hereford, Herefordshire

After 17 Nov 1326 Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 was buried at Franciscan Church Hereford.

Greyfriars Church Hereford, Herefordshire

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2). Somewhat curious that his other son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) didn't contribute although the political situation may have made it difficult to do so.
Memorial to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) in the Market Place Hereford. Somewhat icongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

Hereford Cathedral

Market Place Hereford, Herefordshire

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 13 How sir Hugh Spencer was put to his judgment. 24 Nov 1326. WHEN this feast was done, then sir Hugh Spencer (40), who was nothing beloved, was brought forth before the queen (31) and all the lords and knights, and there before him in writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against the which he could give no manner of answer. And so he was then judged by plain sentence, first to be drawn on an hurdle with trumps and trumpets through all the city of Hereford, and after to be brought into the market-place, whereas all the people were assembled, and there to be tied on high upon a ladder that every man might see him; and in the same place there to be made a great fire, and there his privy members cut from him, because they reputed him as an heretic and so deemed, and so to be burnt in the fire before his face; and then his heart to be drawn out of his body and cast into the fire, because he was a false traitor of heart, and that by his traitor's counsel and exhortation the king (42) had shamed his realm and brought it to great mischief, for he had caused to be beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, by whom the realm ought to have been sustained and defended; and he had so induced the king (42) that he would not see the queen his wife nor Edward his eldest son (14), and caused him to chase them out of the realm for fear of their lives; and then his head to be stricken off and sent to London. And according to his judgment he was executed. Then the queen (31) and all her lords took their way toward London, and did so much by their journeys that they arrived at the city of London, and they of the city with great company met them and did to the queen and to her son great reverence, and to all their company, as they thought it best bestowed. And when they had been thus received and feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights strangers, and namely sir John of Hainault (38), had great desire to return again into their own countries, for they thought they had well done their devoir and achieved great honour, and so took their leave of the queen and of the lords of the realm: and the queen and the lords required them to tarry longer a little space, to see what should be done with the king (42), who was in prison; but the strangers had so great desire to return into their own countries that to pray them the contrary availed not. And when the queen and her council saw that, they yet desired sir John of Hainault (38) to tarry till it was past Christmas, and to retain with him such of his company as pleased him best. The gentle knight would not leave to perform his service, but courteously granted the queen to tarry as long as it pleased her, and caused to tarry such of his company as he could get that was but a few, for the remnant would in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. When the queen and her council saw that they would not abide for no prayers, then they made them great cheer and feasts. And the queen made to be given to them plenty of gold and silver for their costs and services, and did give great jewels to each of them according to their degrees, so as they all held themselves right well content. And over that they had silver for their horses, such as they would leave behind them, at their own estimation without any grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault (38) abode still with a small company among the Englishmen, who always did him as much honour as they could imagine, and to all his company. And in likewise so did the ladies and damosels of the country; for there were great plenty of countesses and great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who were come thither to accompany the queen. For it seemed well to them that the knight sir John of Hainault (38) had well deserved the cheer and feast that they made him.

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Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2). Somewhat curious that his other son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) didn't contribute although the political situation may have made it difficult to do so.
Memorial to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) in the Market Place Hereford. Somewhat icongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461-1469. Ande in that jornay was Owyn Tetyr (61) take and brought unto Herforde este, an he was be heddyde at the market place, and hys hedde sette a-pone the hygheyste gryce of the market crosse, and a madde woman kembyd hys here and wysche a way the blode of hys face, and she gate candellys and sette a-boute hym brennynge, moo then a C [Note. One hundred]. Thys Owyne Tytyr (61) was fadyr unto the Erle of Penbroke (29), and hadde weddyd Quene Kateryn (59), Kyng Harry the VI (39). ys modyr, wenyng and trustyng all eway that he shulde not be hedyd tylle he sawe the axe and the blocke, and whenn that he was in hys dobelet he trustyd on pardon and grace tylle the coler of hys redde vellvet dobbelet was ryppyd of. Then he sayde, "That hede shalle ly on the stocke that was wonte to ly on Quene Kateryns (59) lappe," and put hys herte and mynde holy unto God, and fulle mekely toke hys dethe.

Wye Bridge Hereford, Herefordshire

Around 1450. The Wye Bridge Hereford is six-bay 15th-century bridge across the River Wye in Hereford. All six bays have cutwaters and pedestrian refuges built into the parapeted top. In 1490 a gatehouse was added to the southern end of the bridge to control access to the town. In 1645 the bridge was damaged during the Civil War. The bridge was rebuilt in the 17th century and widened in 1826.

1819. James Lonsdale Painter 1777-1839 (41). Portrait of Charles Howard 11th Duke Norfolk 1746-1815 (72) looking over the Wye Bridge and Hereford Cathedral.

1819. James Lonsdale Painter 1777-1839. Portrait of Charles Howard 11th Duke Norfolk 1746-1815 looking over the Wye Bridge and Hereford Cathedral.

The River Wye rises on Plynlimon after which it travels through, under, or near, Rhayader, Newbridge-on-Wye, Builth Wells, Llanstephan Suspension Bridge, Glasbury, Hay-on-Wye, Clifford Castle, Bredwardine, Byford, Wye Bridge Hereford, Holme Lacy, Capler Camp, through Ross-on-Wye, past Goodrich Castle, Monmouth, Tintern Abbey and Chepstow Castle joining the Severn Estuary 800m south-east of Thornwell.