Canopy is in Architectural Detail.
On 27 Nov 1268 Peter Acquablanca Bishop of Hereford -1268 died. Monument in the North Transept of Hereford Cathedral Low altar-tomb with moulded capping and plinth, and effigy in surplice, defaced head on cushion, feet on lion, remains of recumbent trefoiled canopy with crockets and trefoiled spandrels, drapery carefully rendered.
On 25 Aug 1282 Thomas Cantilupe Bishop of Hereford 1218-1282 (64) died in Ferento, Orvieto. Monument in the North Transept of Hereford Cathedral in the form of a shrine-pedestal and consisting of an altar-tomb and open superstructure (Plate 134), altar-tomb possibly slightly earlier than the rest, tapering on plan and re-assembled, long sides with six bays and W. end with two bays of cinque-foiled arcading on attached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases, spandrels carved with varying naturalistic foliage; each bay filled with figure of knight (Plate 136) with long surcoat, heater-shaped shield and feet on lions and other beasts, faces all defaced; on slab, indent of brass figure of bishop with mitre and crozier and canopy; small brass figure of St. Ethelbert now in library; superstructure with six bays on long sides and two at W. end of open trefoiled arcading resting on shafts with moulded capitals and bases, spandrels carved with naturalistic foliage and winged beasts, moulded cornice at top and plain top slab; E. end of tomb, plain and not intended to be seen, with part of carved spandrel set in it.
Around 1327. Lady Chapel of Hereford Cathedral Monument to Joanna Plunket de Kilpec Countess Hereford, wife of Henry de Bohun, , altar-tomb with effigy in wallrecess, plain altar-tomb with moulded top-edge enriched with Paterae and heads alternately, at head recumbent canopy with ogee cinque-foiled arch, crockets and finial; effigy of woman in wimple and veiled head-dress, tight sleeves and loose gown, head on cushion and feet on dog; all set in a 13th-century recess with moulded and segmental-pointed arch and label with head-stops and apex turned up to mitre with string-course of chapel; remains of black and red colour on effigy and arch, traces of painted figure and arch on back of recess and remains of decoration in spandrels of arch, including a diaper of fleur-de-lis and rosettes and two shields-of-arms (a) Plunkenet and (b) formerly Bohun but now obliterated. Bohun. Pye.
After 10 Aug 1358. Monument to Piers Grandison 2nd Baron Grandison -1358. Lady Chapel of Hereford Cathedral. Mid 14th-century, altar-tomb with effigy and canopy, altar-tomb with range of cinquefoil-headed panels in front and panelled buttresses at ends carried up to the cornice of the canopy, effigy in mixed mail and plate-armour with camail and ridged bascinet, hauberk with scalloped lower edge, cyclas, enriched Hip Belt with dagger hanging in front and sword at side, head on cushions and feet on hound; recess with panelled back, moulded jambs and square head enriched with Paterae and trefoiled and sub-cusped pendant tracery below the head; vaulted soffit to canopy; canopy with range of six bays of open arcading with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads, crockets and finials, in arcading two headless figures of the Coronation of the Virgin, headless figure with book, archbishop with cross-staff, St. John the Baptist holding a roundel with the Agnus Dei, and a bishop, last four figures brought from elsewhere; canopy finished with enriched cornice and pierced parapet with quatrefoils and cusped cresting.
In 1435 Richard Delamere died, and Isabel his wife, died 1421. Monument in the North Transept of Hereford Cathedral. Figure of man in plate armour, feet on lion, figure of lady in horned headdress and SS collar, two dogs at feet, double canopy with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arches and crocketted ogee gables and upper cornice, parts of standards and pinnacles missing, foot inscription and three shields-of-arms (a) Delamere, (b) the same impaling Acton.
On 29 Aug 1582 Thomas St Paul -1582 died. He was buried at St Lawrence's Church Snarford. Monument to Thomas St Paul -1582 and Faith Grantham. Fine freestanding tomb chest with canopy. The sides of the tomb chest have acanthus Pilasters, the panels between contain wreathed shields. The full length recumbent albaster effigies show the man in full plate armour holding sword and prayerbook, head on helm, feet on a cushion with flowers. His wife is in a long dress with cloak and close fitting hat, holding a bible. The inscription runs round the top edge of the chest. The canopy is supported on six pillars, those at the angles being circular and bulbous, the others in the form of obelisks decorated with fishscale Paterae, with elaborate Ionic Capitals with roses in the necking. The entablature has an egg and dart frieze. Above the heads of the columns are five female and one male weepers. At the centre of the canopy is a raised altar bearing shields and surmounted by the kneeling figure of the heir clad in armour. In front kneels a larger figure of a girl. the monument is all painted and gilded.
On 04 Aug 1598 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (77) died. His son Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter 1542-1623 (56) succeeded 2nd Baron Burghley. He was buried at St Martin's Church Stamford with a large free-standing Elizabethan Period monument under the north chapel arch, in coloured marbles with a figure on tomb chest under an arched canopy supported on paired columns. Attributed to Cornelius Cure Sculptor -1607. The emblem of the Knights of the Garter on William's left shoulder. Leg Garter. In his right-hand he is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office; originally white.
The inscription one the monument is on contained within three panels: two on the south (Chancel) side, and one on the north (Chapel) side.
Sacred to God most good and great, and to memory. The most honourable and far renowned Lord William Cecil, Baron of Burghley, Lord High Treasurer of England, President of the Court of Wards, knight of the most noble order of the Garter, Privy Counsellor to the most serene Elizabeth, Queen of England, &c., and Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, under this tomb awaits the second coming of Christ: Who for the excellent endowments of the mind, was first made Privy Counsellor to Edward the sixth, King of England; afterwards to Queen Elizabeth: under whom being intrusted with the greatest and most weighty affairs of this kingdom, and above all others approved, in promoting the true religion, and providing for the safety and honour of the commonwealth; by his prudence, honesty, integrity, and great services to the nation, he obtained the highest honours: and when he had long enough to nature, long enough for glory, but not long enough to his country, quietly fell asleep in Christ. He had two wives: Mary, sister of Sir John Cheeke (84), knight, of whom ie begat one son, Thomas (56), now Baron of Burghley; and Mildred (72), daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke (94), knight, who bore to him Sir Robert Cecil (35), knight, Privy Counsellor to Queen Elizabeth and President of the Court of Wards; Anne (41), married to Edward, Earl of Oxford (48); and Elizabeth (34) to William Wentworth (43), eldest son of Baron Wentworth (73).
In 1625 John Sydenham V 1568-1625 (57) died. Monument at St Andrew's Church Brympton d'Evercy.
A Corinthian column at each corner supports the fine canopy, and the whole is adorned withmany coats of arms, which,commencing on the north side, illustrate, as it were, the pedigree of the family. On either side the canopy is surmounted by the arms ofSir John Sydenham, on the north impaling those of his first wife, and on the south the arms of his second;each coat is flanked by a small shield supported by a ram. Bound the edge of the canopy are thirteen shields, on which are impaled the arms brought inby various atches. On each side of the tomb itself are three large shields:those on the north side bearing the arms of Sydenham, impaling those of Audley Arm, Bruges, and Godolphin, with their various quarterings;on the south are the arms of John Sydenham (36), who erected the monument, his sister impaled with those of her husband Edward Paston, and another coat in which the sinister side is not filled in. Probably it was meant to await the marriage of Sir Balph Sydenham (34), a younger brother of the founder. At the west end base is the large quartered coat of Sir John Sydenham, impaling the arms of Buckland with its nine quarterings. At the head of the tomb, surmounted by the helmet, crest, and lambrequin, is the—Sydenham coat of twelve quarterings, beneath which is the following inscription:
My foundir Sydenham, match'd with Hobye's Heyr,.
Badde me inform thee (gentle Passenger).
That what hee hath donne in mcc is onlie meant.
To memorize his father and s discent.
Without vayne glorye but he doth intreat.
That if thou comst his legende to repeate.
Thou speak him truly as he was and than — Report itso, hee dyed an honest mane.
10 November 1626.
The main armorial as follows: 1 Sydenham Arms 2 Kitsford Arms 3 Dalingrige Arms 4 Hussey 5 Stourton 6 Langland Arms 7 Beaufre Arms 8 Furneux Arms 9 Godolphin 10 Balune Arms 11 Killigrew 12 Trenouth Arms. Source.
John Evelyn's Diary 22 October 1644. 22 Oct 1644. From Livorno, I took coach to Empoly, where we lay, and the next day arrived at Florence, being recommended to the house of Signor Baritiére, in the Piazza del Spirito Santo, where we were exceedingly well treated. Florence is at the foot of the Apennines, the west part full of stately groves and pleasant meadows, beautified with more than a thousand houses and country palaces of note, belonging to gentlemen of the town. The river Arno runs through the city, in a broad, but very shallow channel, dividing it, as it were, in the middle, and over it are four most sumptuous bridges of stone. On that nearest to our quarter are the four Seasons, in white marble; on another are the goldsmiths' shops; at the head of the former stands a column of ophite, upon which a statue of Justice, with her balance and sword, cut out of porphyry, and the more remarkable for being the first which had been carved out of that hard material, and brought to perfection, after the art had been utterly lost; they say this was done by hardening the tools in the juice of certain herbs. This statue was erected in that corner, because there Cosmo was first saluted with the news of Sienna being taken.
Near this is the famous Palazzo di Strozzi, a princely piece of architecture, in a rustic manner. The Palace of Pitti was built by that family, but of late greatly beautified by Cosmo with huge square stones of the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian orders, with a terrace at each side having rustic uncut balustrades, with a fountain that ends in a cascade seen from the great gate, and so forming a vista to the gardens. Nothing is more admirable than the vacant staircase, marbles, statues, urns, pictures, court, grotto, and waterworks. In the quadrangle is a huge jetto of water in a volto of four faces, with noble statues at each square, especially the Diana of porphyry above the grotto. We were here shown a prodigious great loadstone.
The garden has every variety, hills, dales, rocks, groves, aviaries, vivaries, fountains, especially one of five jettos, the middle basin being one of the longest stones I ever saw. Here is everything to make such a Paradise delightful. In the garden I saw a rose grafted on an orange tree. There was much topiary-work, and columns in architecture about the hedges. The Duke has added an ample laboratory, over against which stands a fort on a hill, where they told us his treasure is kept. In this Palace the Duke ordinarily resides, living with his Swiss guards, after the frugal Italian way, and even selling what he can spare of his wines, at the cellar under his very house, wicker bottles dangling over even the chief entrance into the palace, serving for a vintner's bush.
In the Church of Santo Spirito the altar and reliquary are most rich, and full of precious stones; there are four pillars of a kind of serpentine, and some of blue. Hence we went to another Palace of the Duke's, called Palazzo Vecchio, before which is a statue of David, by Michael Angelo, and one of Hercules, killing Cacus, the work of Baccio Bandinelli. The quadrangle about this is of the Corinthian order, and in the hall are many rare marbles, as those of Leo X. and Clement VII., both Popes of the Medicean family; also the acts of Cosmo, in rare painting. In the chapel is kept (as they would make one believe) the original Gospel of St. John, written with his own hand; and the famous Florentine Pandects, and divers precious stones. Near it is another pendent Tower like that of Pisa, always threatening ruin.
Under the Court of Justice is a stately arcade for men to walk in, and over that, the shops of divers rare artists who continually work for the great Duke. Above this is that renowned Ceimeliarcha, or repository, wherein are hundreds of admirable antiquities, statues of marble and metal, vases of porphyry, etc.; but among the statues none so famous as the Scipio, the Boar, the Idol of Apollo, brought from the Delphic Temple, and two triumphant columns. Over these hang the pictures of the most famous persons and illustrious men in arts or arms, to the number of 300, taken out of the museum of Paulus Jovius. They then led us into a large square room, in the middle of which stood a cabinet of an octangular form, so adorned and furnished with crystals, agates, and sculptures, as exceeds any description. This cabinet is called the Tribuna and in it is a pearl as big as an hazelnut. The cabinet is of ebony, lazuli, and jasper; over the door is a round of M. Angelo; on the cabinet, Leo X. with other paintings of Raphael, del Sarto, Perugino, and Correggio, viz, a St. John, a Virgin, a Boy, two Apostles, two heads of Durer, rarely carved. Over this cabinet is a globe of ivory, excellently carved; the Labors of Hercules, in massy silver, and many incomparable pictures in small. There is another, which had about it eight Oriental columns of alabaster, on each whereof was placed a head of a Cæsar, covered with a canopy so richly set with precious stones, that they resembled a firmament of stars. Within it was our Savior's Passion, and the twelve Apostles in amber. This cabinet was valued at two hundred thousand crowns. In another, with calcedon pillars, was a series of golden medals. Here is also another rich ebony cabinet cupolaed with a tortoise shell, and containing a collection of gold medals esteemed worth 50,000 crowns; a wreathed pillar of Oriental alabaster, divers paintings of Da Vinci, Pontorno, del Sarto, an Ecce Homo of Titian, a Boy of Bronzini, etc. They showed us a branch of coral fixed on the rock, which they affirm does still grow. In another room, is kept the Tabernacle appointed for the chapel of St. Laurence, about which are placed small statues of Saints, of precious material; a piece of such art and cost, that having been these forty years in perfecting, it is one of the most curious things in the world. Here were divers tables of Pietra Commesso, which is a marble ground inlaid with several sorts of marbles and stones of various colors representing flowers, trees, beasts, birds, and landscapes. In one is represented the town of Leghorn, by the same hand who inlaid the altar of St. Laurence, Domenico Benotti, of whom I purchased nineteen pieces of the same work for a cabinet. In a press near this they showed an iron nail, one half whereof being converted into gold by one Thurnheuser, a German chemist, is looked on as a great rarity; but it plainly appeared to have been soldered together. There is a curious watch, a monstrous turquoise as big as an egg, on which is carved an emperor's head.
In the armory are kept many antique habits, as those of Chinese kings; the sword of Charlemagne; Hannibal's headpiece; a loadstone of a yard long, which bears up 86 lbs. weight, in a chain of seventeen links, such as the slaves are tied to. In another room are such rare turneries in ivory, as are not to be described for their curiosity. There is a fair pillar of oriental alabaster; twelve vast and complete services of silver plate, and one of gold, all of excellent workmanship; a rich embroidered saddle of pearls sent by the Emperor to this Duke; and here is that embroidered chair set with precious stones in which he sits, when, on St. John's day, he receives the tribute of the cities.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 November 1644. 19 Nov 1644. I visited St. Peter's, that most stupendous and incomparable Basilica, far surpassing any now extant in the world, and perhaps, Solomon's Temple excepted, any that was ever built. The largeness of the piazza before the portico is worth observing, because it affords a noble prospect of the church, not crowded up, as for the most part is the case in other places where great churches are erected. In this is a fountain, out of which gushes a river rather than a stream which, ascending a good height, breaks upon a round emboss of marble into millions of pearls that fall into the subjacent basins with great noise; I esteem this one of the goodliest fountains I ever saw.
Next is the obelisk transported out of Egypt, and dedicated by Octavius Augustus to Julius Cæsar, whose ashes it formerly bore on the summit; but, being since overturned by the barbarians, was re-erected with vast cost and a most stupendous invention by Domenico Fontana, architect to Sextus V. The obelisk consists of one entire square stone without hieroglyphics, in height seventy-two feet, but comprehending the base and all it is 108 feet high, and rests on four lions of gilded copper, so as you may see through the base of the obelisk and plinth of the pedestal.
Upon two faces of the obelisk is engraven.
DIVO CAES. DIVI.
IVLII F. AVGVSTO.
TI. CAES. DIVI AVG.
F. AVGVS. SACRVM.
It now bears on the top a cross in which it is said that Sextus V. inclosed some of the holy wood; and under it is to be read by good eyes:
SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX.
E. PRIORE SEDE AVVLSVM.
ET CAESS. AVG. AC TIB.
I. L. ABLATUM M.D.LXXXVI.
On the four faces of the base below:
1. CHRISTVS VINCIT. CHRISTVS REGNAT. CHRISTVS IMPERAT. CHRISTVS AB OMNI MALO PLEBEM SVAM DEFENDAT.
2. SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX. OBELISCVM VATICANVM DIIS GENTIVM IMPIO CVLTV DICATVM AD APOSTOLORVM LIMINA OPEROSO LABORE TRANSTVLIT AN. M.D.LXXXVI. PONT. II
3. ECCE CRVX DOMINI FVGITE PARTES ADVERSAE VINCIT LEO DE TRIBV IVDA.
4. SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX. CRVCI INVICTAE OBELISCVM VATICANVM AB IMPIA SVPERSTITIONE EXPIATVM IVSTIVS ET FELICITVS CONSECRAVIT AN. M.D.L.XXXVI. PONT. II
A little lower:
DOMINICVS FONTANA EX PAGO MILIAGRI NOVOCOMENSIS TRANSTVLIT ET EREXIT.
It is reported to have taken a year in erecting, to have cost 37,975 crowns, the labor of 907 men, and 75 horses: this being the first of the four Egyptian obelisks set up at Rome, and one of the forty-two brought to the city out of Egypt, set up in several places, but thrown down by the Goths, Barbarians, and earthquakes. Some coaches stood before the steps of the ascent, whereof one, belonging to Cardinal Medici, had all the metal work of massy silver, viz, the bow behind and other places. The coaches at Rome, as well as covered wagons also much in use, are generally the richest and largest I ever saw. Before the facciata of the church is an ample pavement. The church was first begun by St. Anacletus, when rather a chapel, on a foundation, as they give out, of Constantine the Great, who, in honor of the Apostles, carried twelve baskets full of sand to the work. After him, Julius II took it in hand, to which all his successors have contributed more or less.
The front is supposed to be the largest and best-studied piece of architecture in the world; to this we went up by four steps of marble. The first entrance is supported by huge pilasters; the volto within is the richest possible, and overlaid with gold. Between the five large anti-ports are columns of enormous height and compass, with as many gates of brass, the work and sculpture of Pollaivola, the Florentine, full of cast figures and histories in a deep relievo. Over this runs a terrace of like amplitude and ornament, where the Pope, at solemn times, bestows his Benediction on the vulgar. On each side of this portico are two campaniles, or towers, whereof there was but one perfected, of admirable art. On the top of all, runs a balustrade which edges it quite round, and upon this at equal distances are Christ and the twelve Disciples of gigantic size and stature, yet below showing no greater than the life. Entering the church, admirable is the breadth of the volto, or roof, which is all carved with foliage and roses overlaid with gold in nature of a deep basso-relievo, à l'antique. The nave, or body, is in form of a cross, whereof the foot-part is the longest; and, at the internodium of the transept, rises the cupola, which being all of stone and of prodigious height is more in compass than that of the Pantheon (which was the largest among the old Romans, and is yet entire) or any other known. The inside, or concave, is covered with most exquisite Mosaic, representing the Celestial Hierarchy, by Giuseppe d'Arpino, full of stars of gold; the convex, or outside, exposed to the air, is covered with lead, with great ribs of metal double gilt (as are also the ten other lesser cupolas, for no fewer adorn this glorious structure), which gives a great and admirable splendor in all parts of the city. On the summit of this is fixed a brazen globe gilt, capable of receiving thirty-five persons. This I entered, and engraved my name among other travelers. Lastly, is the Cross, the access to which is between the leaden covering and the stone convex, or arch-work; a most truly astonishing piece of art! On the battlements of the church, also all overlaid with lead and marble, you would imagine yourself in a town, so many are the cupolas, pinnacles, towers, juttings, and not a few houses inhabited by men who dwell there, and have enough to do to look after the vast reparations which continually employ them.
Having seen this, we descended into the body of the church, full of collateral chapels and large oratories, most of them exceeding the size of ordinary churches; but the principal are four incrusted with most precious marbles and stones of various colors, adorned with an infinity of statues, pictures, stately altars, and innumerable relics. The altar-piece of St. Michael being of Mosaic, I could not pass without particular note, as one of the best of that kind. The chapel of Gregory XIII., where he is buried, is most splendid. Under the cupola, and in the center of the church, stands the high altar, consecrated first by Clement VIII., adorned by Paul V., and lately covered by Pope Urban VIII.; with that stupendous canopy of Corinthian brass, which heretofore was brought from the Pantheon; it consists of four wreathed columns, partly channelled and encircled with vines, on which hang little puti birds and bees (the arms of the Barberini), sustaining a baldacchino of the same metal. The four columns weigh an hundred and ten thousand pounds, all over richly gilt; this, with the pedestals, crown, and statues about it, form a thing of that art, vastness, and magnificence, as is beyond all that man's industry has produced of the kind; it is the work of Bernini, a Florentine sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, who, a little before my coming to the city, gave a public opera (for so they call shows of that kind), wherein he painted the scenes, cut the statues, invented the engines, composed the music, writ the comedy, and built the theater. Opposite to either of these pillars, under those niches which, with their columns, support the weighty cupola, are placed four exquisite statues of Parian marble, to which are four altars; that of St. Veronica, made by Fra. Mochi, has over it the reliquary, where they showed us the miraculous Sudarium indued with the picture of our Savior's face, with this inscription: "Salvatoris imaginem Veronicæ Sudario exceptam ut loci majestas decentèr custodiret, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. Marmoreum signum et Altare addidit, Conditorium extruxit et ornavit"..
Right against this is that of Longinus, of a Colossean magnitude, also by Bernini, and over him the conservatory of the iron lance inserted in a most precious crystal, with this epigraph: "Longini Lanceam quam Innocentius VIII. à Bajazete Turcarum Tyranno accepit, Urbanus VIII. statuâ appositâ, et Sacello substructo, in exornatum Conditorium transtulit"..
The third chapel has over the altar the statue of our countrywoman, St. Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great; the work of Boggi, an excellent sculptor; and here is preserved a great piece of the pretended wood of the holy cross, which she is said to have first detected miraculously in the Holy Land. It was placed here by the late Pope with this inscription: "Partem Crucis quam Helena Imperatrix è Calvario in Urbem adduxit, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. è Sissorianâ Basilicâ desumptam, additis arâ et statuâ, hìc in Vaticano collocavit"..
The fourth hath over the altar, and opposite to that of St. Veronica, the statue of St. Andrew, the work of Fiamingo, admirable above all the other; above is preserved the head of that Apostle, richly enchased. It is said that this excellent sculptor died mad to see his statue placed in a disadvantageous light by Bernini, the chief architect, who found himself outdone by this artist. The inscription over it is this:
St. Andreæ caput quod Pius II ex Achaiâ in Vaticanum asportandum curavit, Urbanus VIII. novis hic ornamentis decoratum sacrisque statuæ ac Sacelli honoribus coli voluit.
The relics showed and kept in this church are without number, as are also the precious vessels of gold, silver, and gems, with the vests and services to be seen in the Sacristy, which they showed us. Under the high altar is an ample grot inlaid with pietra-commessa, wherein half of the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul are preserved; before hang divers great lamps of the richest plate, burning continually. About this and contiguous to the altar, runs a balustrade, in form of a theater, of black marble. Toward the left, as you go out of the church by the portico, a little beneath the high altar, is an old brass statue of St. Peter sitting, under the soles of whose feet many devout persons rub their heads, and touch their chaplets. This was formerly cast from a statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. In another place, stands a column grated about with iron, whereon they report that our Blessed Savior was often wont to lean as he preached in the Temple. In the work of the reliquary under the cupola there are eight wreathed columns brought from the Temple of Solomon. In another chapel, they showed us the chair of St. Peter, or, as they name it, the Apostolical Throne. But among all the chapels the one most glorious has for an altar-piece a Madonna bearing a dead Christ on her knees, in white marble, the work of Michael Angelo. At the upper end of the Cathedral, are several stately monuments, especially that of Urban VIII. Round the cupola, and in many other places in the church, are confession seats, for all languages, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, English, Irish, Welsh, Sclavonian, Dutch, etc., as it is written on their friezes in golden capitals, and there are still at confessions some of all nations. Toward the lower end of the church, and on the side of a vast pillar sustaining a weighty roof, is the depositum and statue of the Countess Matilda, a rare piece, with basso-relievos about it of white marble, the work of Bernini. Here are also those of Sextus IV. and Paulus III., etc. Among the exquisite pieces in this sumptuous fabric is that of the ship with St. Peter held up from sinking by our Savior; the emblems about it are the Mosaic of the famous Giotto, who restored and made it perfect after it had been defaced by the Barbarians. Nor is the pavement under the cupola to be passed over without observation, which with the rest of the body and walls of the whole church, are all inlaid with the richest of pietra-commessa, in the most splendid colors of polished marbles, agates, serpentine, porphyry, calcedon, etc., wholly incrusted to the very roof. Coming out by the portico at which we entered, we were shown the Porta Santa, never opened but at the year of jubilee. This glorious foundation hath belonging to it thirty canons, thirty-six beneficiates, twenty-eight clerks beneficed, with innumerable chaplains, etc., a Cardinal being always archpriest; the present Cardinal was Francisco Barberini, who also styled himself Protector of the English, to whom he was indeed very courteous.