Religious Terms

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1503 Lying in State of Elizabeth of York

Religious Terms is in English.

Alb

Alb. A full-length, long-sleeved, usually white linen tunic secured at the waist by a cord or belt called a cincture.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 07 May 1554. [The morrow after was a great mass at the same place, by the same fraternity, when every clerk offered a halfpenny. The mass was sung by divers of the queen's chapel and children. And, after mass done, every clerk went their procession two and two together, each having] a surples and a ryche cope, and a garland; [after them] iiijxx standards, stremars, and baners; and evere on that bare them had a nobe or elles a surples; and ij and ij together; [then came] the waytes playng, and then be-twyn xxx clarkes, a qwre syngyng Salve fasta dyes; so ther wher iiij qweres. [Then cam] a canepe borne by iiij of the masters of the Clarkes [over the] sacrament, with a xij stayff-torchys bornyng; [up sa]nt Laurans lane, and so to the farther end of Chep, then back a-gayn up Cornhylle, and so to Ledynhalle; and so down to Byshopegatt unto sant Albrowsse chyrche; and ther they dyd put off ther copes and so to dener evere man, and ther evere on that bare a stremar had monay, as they wher of bygnes ther.

Amice

Amice. A liturgical vestment. The amice consists of a white cloth connected to two long ribbon-like attachments by which it is fastened. The garment is draped over the shoulders with the ribbons crossed over the chest, brought around to the back, and then brought forward again to be tied in front around the waist. The results can vary from being tight around the neck to leaving a deep v-neck opening.

Apostolic Nuncio

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (29) and queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV (44), who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

An Apostolic Nuncio is generally equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, although in Catholic countries the nuncio often ranks above ambassadors in diplomatic protocol.

Chancel

Chancel. The part of a church near the altar, reserved for the clergy and choir, and typically separated from the nave by steps or a screen. Chancels were often under the jurisdiction of the local Lord hence chancel's containing large number of monuments.

Eucharist

Eucharist. The Christian service, ceremony, or sacrament commemorating the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed.

Festum Loci

Festum Loci. The Feast of the Title of a Church. To be more precise, the feast of the local saint whose relics were enshrined in the church. At Salisbury the cathedral is dedicated to St. Mary, but the feast of the place is St. Osmund (from 1457).

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 18 Aug 1554. 18 Aug 1554. Saterdaye the 18 of August, in the after-noone, the King (27) and Queenes (38) Majesties rode throughe Sowthwerke, over the bridge, and so throughe London; where they were with great provision receaved of the citizens, pageants in places accustomed, the crosse in Cheape new gilte, &c.

Memorandum: In the moneth of September the Duke of Norfolke (81) died at Framlingham in Norfolke, and there was honorablye buried amongst his auncestors.

Allso this moneth the Bishop of London (54) visited all his dioces, and had sermons in everie parishe and place where he satt, and sett owt divers goodlye articles in print for the true religion.

Allso he commaunded that the feast of everie saynte that was patrone of the churche, called Festum loci in everie parishe, should be kept holiedaye in everie parishe throughe his diocesse as a principall feast used in olde tyme, after the custome of the churche.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Legate de Latere

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (29) and queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV (44), who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

A Legate de Latere is the highest rank of Papal Legate literally meaning 'on the Pope's side'.De Latere.

Papal Legate

Before 28 Oct 1216 Cardinal Guala Bicchieri 1150-1227 was appointed Papal Legate.

A Legate de Latere is the highest rank of Papal Legate literally meaning 'on the Pope's side'.De Latere.

A Papal Legate (see legate) is a personal representative of the Pope to foreign nations.

Pontificalibus

Pontificalibus. The attire or vestments of one's office.

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. And after that the corps (37) was could the Serjeant of the Chandry with such officers that belong to that Office had the Charge of baumeing with other serimonies theirto belonging and were allowed xl. Ells of lynning holland Cloth of Ell bredth with there gomes baumes Spices sweet wines and other as thereto belongeth and was thereto according.

Item after that she was sered by the Kings Plumer Closed her in lead with an Epitaph of lead what she was and then all that was Chested in borcle sufficiently Coverd for bearing of the same which was covered with white and black velvet with a Crosse of white damaske.

Item in the quire of the Chappell of the Tower was ordeyned a hearse of fine prncipills with Renninge lights about the Church and all the windowes rayled about a good heighte furnish'd with burninge tapers and also hanged with black Cloth furnish'd with scochins of her Armes.

The Sunday next following the corps (37) was removed from her Chamber to the Chappcll in manner that followeth.

First there was The Abbott of Westminster (39) in pontificalibus with the Dean of the kings Chappell (63) and the whole company of the same fowr knights bearing the Canapye with great Number of Gentlemen which went two and two together on every syde of the prossion great Number of torches brening borne by the Kings and the Queens servants after them the Officers of Armes and the Greatest estates and other Lords their present layd their hands to the Corps the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (24) was that day principall Mourner and all the other Laides followed her two and two together in such most sadd and simplest Clothing that they had on their heads thredden kierchiefs hanging on their shoulders and close under their Chins and this daily until their slopps mantells hoodes and paris were made and Ordyned. And when the Corps was sett under the hearse in the Chapell Coverd with a rich Cloth of black velvet with a Crosse of Cloth of Gold. And an Officer of Armes in an high voice said for Queen EHzebeth soule and all Xtn souls Pater noster and every ...... and atoremus before the Collect Aminabus inlykewise.

That night and every Night following was ordyned a goodly watch both of men and Gentlewomen at the lest iiij gentlewomen ij officers of Armes and vij yeomen and grooms. The gentlewomen were relieved with vj ladies which continually did knele about the Corps.

Then the kings Chaplin began and Redd the sawter that done to the laudes and Commendations.

After that the Deane of the kings Chappell (63) all the nobles officers of Armes other gentle and honest persons went to the great chamber for the Ladys to the Masse of Requiem.

Then was the Lady Catherin (23) sister of the noble Queene (37) Cheif mourner led by the Earle of Surry (60) and Earle of Essex her train borne by the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (24) accompanied also with all the other Laidies and Gentlewomen of the Court And when they were comen to the quier the foresaid vj Laides gave roome to there betters in tyme masse was done after which they continued their watch.

The Cheif Mourner (23) kneled at the heade alone then an officer of Arms began for the Queene &c And so began the masse songen by the Abbot of Westminster (39) at the Offringe the Lady was led by ij of the greatest Estates there present and the lest gave her the offring having before her the Chamberlain and the Officers of Arms passing always by the Corps did their obeysance as before.

Then offered the other six Laides before any Estate ij and ij together then the greatest estates and all the Laides and Gentlewomen then all the other Laides and knights and squires with other Gentlemen So this order as before was dayly kept as long as she was in the Tower every day in pontificalibus by a Bishop or an Abbott at the least as the next day by the Abbott of Barmsey The iij11 by the Abbott Albones The iiijth by the Abbott of Winchcomb The vth by the Abbott of Towerhill The vj'h by the Abbott of Stratford The vij"1 day there was iij solempne masses The first of our lady sungen by the Abbott of Redyng att that masse offered a piece of Gold of xld for the masse pennye the principle Mourner and no other person The second masse songen by the bishop Landaffe and Likewise at the masse none offered but she and then offered a piece of Gold of 5s. The iijd Masse songen by the bishop of Norwigge and att that Masse she offered a Noble Then offered the Laides and the Nobles as before The viijth day the service was done by the Bishop of Bangor The ixth day by the Bishop of Exeter the xll> day by the Bishop of Lincolne.

That Masse done the Lords and Laides went to breakfast and in meane tyme the Corps was conveyd into the Chaire which was eniparralled as followeth:

First all the bayles sydes and Coffers were covered with black velvett and over all along of a prety depnes a Cloth of black velvett with a Crosse of White Cloth of gould well frindged drawn with vi horses traped with black velvett and all the draught of the same.

And when the Corps was in the Chest there was Ordeyned an Image or a personage like a Queene Clothed in the very Roabes of Estate of the Queene having her very rich Crowne on her Head her heire about her shoulders her septer in her right Hand and her fingers well garnished with Gould and precious Stones.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 1st Year 1547-1548. The 29th daie of June there was a solempne obsequie kept in Poules [for] the French Kinge Frances (52) latelie departed, where was a sumptuous herse made, and the quire and the bodie of the church hanged with blacke and sett with schuchions of the armes of France, and tow hundreth torch bearers having new blacke gownes and hoodes with badges of the armes of France on their sholders, the Archbishop of Canterbery (57) begining the derige in his pontificalibus, the Archbishop of Yorke (65) and other 8 bishopps and suffragans being also in their pontificalibus, six erles and lordes of the Kinges Majestie being the cheife mourners, the Emperours Embassadour, and the French Kinges Embassadoure, and the Secretarie of Venice in their blacke mourning gownes being also there present at the same, the major and aldermen with tow hundred citizens in their best lyveries with their hoodes on their sholders present at the same also; and on the morrow also at the requiem masse, which the Archbishopp of Canterberie (57) songe in his pontificalibus, with the other bishopps in their pontificalibus also; and there preached at the said masse the Bishop of Rochester (70) [Note. Possibly Nicholas Ridley Bishop Martyr 1500-1555 (47) who became Bishop of Rochester in 1547], who greatlie commended in his sermon the said French King departed, for setting fourth of the Bible and New Testament in the French tonge to be reade of all his subjectes; also all the parish churches in London kept a solempne obett with knill, the bells ringing, and a herse with tow great tapers, in everie parish church.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Rood

Rood. A crucifix, especially one positioned above the rood screen of a church or on a beam over the entrance to the chancel.

Rood Screen

Rood Screen. A screen, typically of richly carved wood or stone, separating the nave from the chancel of a church. Rood screens are found throughout western Europe and date chiefly from the 14th–16th centuries.

Salve Festa Dies

Salve Festa Dies. Also known as the Easter Song Salve Festa Dies was sung during the procession before Easter Sunday Mass. The song starts with the words "Salve festa dies" aka "Hello festive day".

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 07 May 1554. [The morrow after was a great mass at the same place, by the same fraternity, when every clerk offered a halfpenny. The mass was sung by divers of the queen's chapel and children. And, after mass done, every clerk went their procession two and two together, each having] a surples and a ryche cope, and a garland; [after them] iiijxx standards, stremars, and baners; and evere on that bare them had a nobe or elles a surples; and ij and ij together; [then came] the waytes playng, and then be-twyn xxx clarkes, a qwre syngyng Salve fasta dyes; so ther wher iiij qweres. [Then cam] a canepe borne by iiij of the masters of the Clarkes [over the] sacrament, with a xij stayff-torchys bornyng; [up sa]nt Laurans lane, and so to the farther end of Chep, then back a-gayn up Cornhylle, and so to Ledynhalle; and so down to Byshopegatt unto sant Albrowsse chyrche; and ther they dyd put off ther copes and so to dener evere man, and ther evere on that bare a stremar had monay, as they wher of bygnes ther.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 25 Jan 1555. [The xxv day of January, being saint Paul's day, was a general procession of saint Paul by every parish, both priests and clarkes, in copes to the number of a hundred and sixty, singing Salve festa dies, with ninety crosses borne. The procession was through Cheap into Leadenhall. And before went the] chyldryn of the Gray-frers and Powlles skolle. [There were eight bishops, and the] bysshope of London myteryd, bayryng the sacre[ment, with .. eym] of torchys bornyng, and a canepe borne [over]; so a-bowtt the chyrch-yerde, and in at the west dore, [with the] lord mayre and the althermen, and all the craftes in ther best leverays. And with-in a wylle after the Kyng (27) cam, and my lord cardenall (54), and the prynsse of Pyamon (26), and dyvers lordes and knyghtes; thay hard masse, and after to the court to dener, and at nyght bone-fyres and grett ryngyng in evere [church].

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip

Surplice

Surplice. A loose white linen vestment varying from hip-length to calf-length, worn over a cassock by clergy and choristers at Christian church services.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 07 May 1554. [The morrow after was a great mass at the same place, by the same fraternity, when every clerk offered a halfpenny. The mass was sung by divers of the queen's chapel and children. And, after mass done, every clerk went their procession two and two together, each having] a surples and a ryche cope, and a garland; [after them] iiijxx standards, stremars, and baners; and evere on that bare them had a nobe or elles a surples; and ij and ij together; [then came] the waytes playng, and then be-twyn xxx clarkes, a qwre syngyng Salve fasta dyes; so ther wher iiij qweres. [Then cam] a canepe borne by iiij of the masters of the Clarkes [over the] sacrament, with a xij stayff-torchys bornyng; [up sa]nt Laurans lane, and so to the farther end of Chep, then back a-gayn up Cornhylle, and so to Ledynhalle; and so down to Byshopegatt unto sant Albrowsse chyrche; and ther they dyd put off ther copes and so to dener evere man, and ther evere on that bare a stremar had monay, as they wher of bygnes ther.

Te Deum

Te Deum, or from its incipit, Te Deum Laudamus aka We Praise You Oh God.

Viaticum

Viaticum. The Eucharist as given to a person near or in danger of death.

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England Book 5 Chapter 14 How another in like manner being at the point of death saw the place of punishment appointed for him in Hell.. 704 to 709. I myself knew a brother, would to God I had not known him, whose name I could mention if it were of any avail, dwelling in a famous monastery, but himself living infamously. He was oftentimes rebuked by the brethren and elders of the place, and admonished to be converted to a more chastened life; and though he would not give ear to them, they bore with him long and patiently, on account of their need of his outward service, for he was a cunning artificer. But he was much given to drunkenness, and other pleasures of a careless life, and more used to stop in his workshop day and night, than to go to church to sing and pray and hear the Word of life with the brethren. For which reason it befell him according to the saying, that he who will not willingly humble himself and enter the gate of the church must needs be led against his will into the gate of Hell, being damned. For he falling sick, and being brought to extremity, called the brethren, and with much lamentation, like one damned, began to tell them, that he saw Hell opened, and Satan sunk in the depths thereof; and Caiaphas, with the others that slew our Lord, hard by him, delivered up to avenging flames. "In whose neighbourhood," said he, "I see a place of eternal perdition prepared for me, miserable wretch that I am." The brothers, hearing these words, began diligently to exhort him, that he should repent even then, whilst he was still in the flesh. He answered in despair, "There is no time for me now to change my course of life, when I have myself seen my judgement passed.".

Whilst uttering these words, he died without having received the saving Viaticum, and his body was buried in the farthest parts of the monastery, nor did any one dare either to say Masses or sing psalms, or even to pray for him. Oh how far asunder hath God put light from darkness! The blessed Stephen, the first martyr, being about to suffer death for the truth, saw the heavens opened, and the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God; and where he was to be after death, there he fixed the eyes of his mind, that he might die the more joyfully. But this workman, of darkened mind and life, when death was at hand, saw Hell opened, and witnessed the damnation of the Devil and his followers; he saw also, unhappy wretch! his own prison among them, to the end that, despairing of salvation, he might himself die the more miserably, but might by his perdition afford cause of salvation to the living who should hear of it. This befell of late in the province of the Bernicians, and being noised abroad far and near, inclined many to do penance for their sins without delay. Would to God that this also might come to pass through the reading of our words!

Chronica Majora: The wretched death of Earl Gilbert marshal. "Whilst the mutability of time was thus sporting with and deluding the world with its variable occurrences, Earl Gilbert, marshal (44), had, with some other nobles, arranged a sort of tilting-match, called by some a " venture," but wliich might rather be called a " misadventure;"" they tried their strength about a crossbow-shot from Hertford; where he by his skill in knightly tactics, gained for himself the praise of military science, and was declared by all, considering his small size of body, to have justly distinguished himself for his valour. This was what the said earl chiefly aimed at; for he was, in the first place, destined to clerical orders, and was reported to be weak and unskilful in warlike exercises. He was, at this tournament, mounted on a noble horse, an Italian charger, to which he was not accustomed, accoutred in handsome armour, and surrounded by a dense body of soldiers, who soon afterwards, however, left him, and dispersed, intent on gain. Whilst the earl, then, was amusing himself by checking his horse at full speed, and anon goring his sides with his sharp spurs, to urge him to greater speed, and, as the case required, suddenly drew rein, both the reins suddenly broke off at the junction with the bit. By this accident the horse became unmanageable, and tossing up his head, struck his rider a violent blow on the breast. Some there were who imhesitatingly asserted that the bridle had been treacherously cut by some jealous person, in order that, being thus left at the mercy of his horse, he might be dashed to pieces and killed; or, at least, that he might be taken by his adversaries at will. Moreover, he had dined, and was nearly blinded by the heat, dust, and sweat, and his head was oppressed by the weight of his heavy helmet. His horse, too, could not be restrained by him, or any one else; but he, at the same time, fainted away, began to totter in his saddle, and soon after fell, half-dead, from his horse—with one foot, however, fixed in the stirrup; and in this manner he was dragged some distance over the field, by which he suffered some internal injuries, which caused his death. He expired in the evening of the 27th of June, amidst the deep and loudly-expressed sorrow of those who beheld him, at a house of the monks of Hertford. When he was about to breathe his last, having just received the viaticum, he made a bequest to the church of the blessed Virgin at Hertford, for the redemption of his soul. His body was afterwards opened, when his liver was discovered to be black and broken, from the force of the blows he had received. His entrails were buried in the said church, before the altar of St. Mary, to whom he had committed his spirit when dying. On the following day, his body—preceded by his brother (42), and accompanied by the whole of his family — was carried to London, to be buried near his father (95). At this same tournament, also, was killed one of the earl's retinue, named Robert de Saye, and his bowels were buried with those of the earl. Many other knights and men-at-arms were also wounded and seriously injured with maces, at this same tournament, because the jealousy of many of the parties concerned had converted the sport into a battle. The affairs of the cross and the interests of the Holy Land suffered great loss by the death of the said earl, for he had intended to set out for Jerusalem in the next month, without fail, having collected money from all in the country who had assumed the cross; for permission to do which, he had paid two hundred marks to the pope; following the prudent example of Earl Richard (32).