Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale [Map]

 Glendale Chillingham Greenhead, Northumberland Magnis aka Carvoran Roman Fort Heaton Castle Norham Castle St Cuthberts Church Norham Ogle Ogle Castle Otterburn Otterburn Castle Site of the Battle of Otterburn Wark Wark Castle

Glendale is in Northumberland.

1344 Creation of the Order of the Garter

1388 Battle of Otterburn

On 12 Mar 1344 Thomas Grey (age 64) died at Glendale [Map].

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Greenhead [Map]

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Greenhead, Magnis aka Carvoran Roman Fort [Map]

East to west Stanegate Roman Road started at Corbridge Roman Fort, Northumberland [Map], then passed through Wall [Map], Fourstones, Northumberland [Map], Newbrough, Northumberland [Map], Vindolandia, Northumberland [Map], Haltwhistle Roman Fort [Map], Magnis aka Carvoran Roman Fort [Map], Nether Denton Roman Fort [Map], Brampton Roman Fort [Map] to Carlisle [Map] where the Roman Fort was located where Carlisle Castle is now. The road may possibly have continued to Kirkbride, Cumberland [Map].

Heaton Castle

On 18 Aug 1266 Thomas Grey was born to John Grey (age 36) at Heaton Castle [Map].

Around 1280 Thomas Grey was born to Thomas Grey (age 13) at Heaton Castle [Map].

Around 1328 Thomas Grey was born to Thomas Grey (age 48) and Agnes Bayles at Heaton Castle [Map].

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Norham

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, St Cuthberts Church Norham [Map]

2022. Photos of St Cuthberts Church Norham [Map].

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Ogle [Map]

Ogle Castle

On 08 Dec 1351 Robert Ogle of Ogle and Bothal was born at Ogle Castle [Map].

In 1566 John Ogle (age 89) died at Ogle Castle [Map].

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Otterburn [Map]

Otterburn Castle

Froissart. The next day the Scots dislodged and returned towards their own country, and so came to a castle and a town called Pontland [Map], whereof sir Edmund of Alphel was lord, who was a right good knight. There the Scots rested, for they came thither betimes, and understood that the knight was in his castle. Then they ordained to assail the castle, and gave a great assault, so that by force of arms they won it and the knight within it. Then the town and castle was brent; and from thence the Scots went to the town and castle of Otterburn [Map], an eight English mile from Newcastle1 and there lodged. That day they made none assault, but the next morning they blew their horns and made ready to assail the castle, which was strong, for it stood in the marish. That day they assaulted till they were weary, and did nothing. Then they sowned the retreat and returned to their lodgings. Then the lords drew to council to determine what they should do. The most part were of the accord that the next day they should dislodge without giving of any assault and to draw fair and easily towards Carlisle. But the earl Douglas brake that counsel and said: 'In despite of sir Henry Percy, who said he would come and win again his pennon, let us not depart hence for two or three days. Let us assail this castle: it is pregnable: we shall have double honour. And then let us see if he will come and fetch his pennon: he shall be well defended2.' Every man accorded to his saying, what for their honour and for the love of him. Also they lodged there at their ease, for there was none that troubled them: they made many lodgings of boughs and great herbs and fortified their camp sagely with the marish that was thereby, and their carriages were set at the entry into the marishes and had all their beasts within the marish. Then they apparelled for to assault the next day: this was their intention.

Note 1. Froissart says 'eight English leagues.' In the next chapter the distanch becomes 'seven little leagues,' and later on, 'a six English miles,' where the original is 'lieues.' The actual distance is about thirty miles. The translator gives the form 'Combur' here, but 'Ottenburge' in the next chapter, as the name of the place. It is remarkable indeed how little trouble he seems to have taken generally to give English names correctly. In this chapter we have 'Nymyche' for 'Alnwick' and 'Pouclan' for 'Pontland,' forms rather less like the real names than those which he found in the French text, viz. Nynich and Ponclau.

Note 2. Froissart says, 'if he comes, it shall be defended.' The translator perhaps means 'he shall be prevented.'

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Site of the Battle of Otterburn [Map]

Site of the Battle of Otterburn [Map].

On either 05 Aug 1388 or 19 Aug 1388 a Scottish army commanded by John Swinton defeated an English army commanded by Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 24) during the Battle of Otterburn at Otterburn [Map]. Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 24) and his brother Ralph Percy (age 29) were captured as was Matthew Redman (age 60). The English suffered 1000 killed, 2000 captured. The Scottish 100 killed, 200 captured.

On the Scottish side James Douglas 2nd Earl Douglas (age 30) was killed. His sister Isabel Douglas Countess Mar (age 28) succeeded Countess Mar.

John Dunbar 1st Earl Moray (age 46) fought.

The River Rede rises near the border of Scotland and England by the Carter Bar Boundary Marker [Map] from where it flows past Catcleugh, Northamptonshire [Map], Cottonshopeburnfoot [Map], Rochester [Map] near the Bremenium [Map] Roman Fort, past Horsley [Map], Elishaw [Map], past Percy's Cross at the Site of the Battle of Otterburn [Map], Otterburn [Map], East and West Woodburn [Map] to Redesmouth [Map] where it joins the River North Tyne.

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Wark [Map]

The River North Tyne flows from Kielder Water [Map] past Greystead [Map], Bellingham [Map] to Redesmouth [Map] where it is joined by the River Rede.

It continues past Wark [Map], Nunwick [Map], Barrasford [Map], Chollerton [Map], Wall [Map] to Warden [Map] where it joins the River South Tyne to become the River Tyne.

Europe, British Isles, North-East England, Northumberland, Glendale, Wark on Tweed

Wark Castle

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1138. On his return, the king of Scots, in order to encourage his adherents and console himself, laid siege with all his force, and various engines and machines, to the castle of Wark [Map], or Carron, belonging to Walter d'Epec, from which he had been driven by the earl of Mellent; but the garrison making a stout and desperate resistance, he had no success, for they made frequent sallies, and either cut in pieces or burnt his engines, besides killing many of his soldiers; wherefore, at last, he despaired of being able to take it.

In 1269 Robert Ros 1st Baron Ros Werke (age 63) died at Wark Castle [Map].

On 23 Apr 1344. The date somewhat unclear; it may have been before. King Edward III of England (age 31) formed the Order of the Garter. The date is somewhat unclear. The first reliable record occurs in autumn of 1348 when the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits being issued. The Order may have been formed before then with some traditions such as the mantle, and the garter and motto, possibly being introduced later. The Garter refers to an event at Wark Castle [Map] at which King Edward III of England (age 31) picked up the Countess of Salisbury's fallen garter and saying to the crowd "Honi soit qui mal y pense" ie Shame on him who thinks badly of it, or possibly, he brings shame on himself who thinks badly of it. The Countess of Salisbury could refer to his future daughter-in-law Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 15) or her former mother-in-law Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 40). The event has also been drescribed as taking place at @@Calias.Creation of the Order of the Garter

Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury: Around 1304 she was born to William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison at Ashford, Herefordshire. Around 1320 William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury and she were married. She by marriage Baroness Montagu. On 23 Nov 1349 Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury died at Bisham Abbey.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter LXXXII. Nov 1522. Lord Surrey (age 49) to King Henry the Eighth (age 31).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. B. VI. fol. 304. Orig.]

Plesith it your Highnes to be advertised that upon Satirdaye at night the Duke of Albany (age 38) with a greate puysance brought his ordynaunce unto Werk [Map], on the fer side of Twede, upon Scotland side, and began to shote right sore upon Sondaye by the breke of daye, and So contynued all that daye and Mondaye. At whiche tyme I being at Holy Island, vij. myles from Berwike, was advertised of the same at seven a clok at night the said Sondaye; and incontynente sent Lettres to my lord Cardynalls company, my lord of Northumberland, my lord of Westmoreland at Sainte Cutberts baner lying at Anwike and thereabouts, and in likewise to my lord Dacre and other lords and gentilmen lying abrode in the countre, too mete me at Barmer wood, fyve myles from Werk on Mondaye, who so ded. And the seid Monday at iij, a cloke at aftir none, the water of Twede being soo high that it could not be riden the Duke sent over ij M. Frenche men in bootisa to gif assault to the place, who with force entred the bas courte, and by Sir William Lizle (age 35) captain of the Castell with a hundred with him were right manfully defended by the space of one houre and an half, without suffring theym t'entre the Inner Ward ; but fynally the seid Frenchemen entred the Inner warde, whiche perceived by the seid Sir William and his company frely set upon theym, and not onely drove theym oute of the Inner warde, but alsoo oute of the Uttir warde, and slewe of the seid Frenche men x. personys. And so the seid Frenche men wente over the water ; and incontynent the seid Sir William advertised me of the said assaulte, desiering too have reskue this daye, or els the place wold be no lenger kepte : whereof I being advertised by thre a clok this mornyng, avaunced foreward with the hole army by the breke of daye. And the Duke hering that I cam towards hym toke away his ordynance, and in likewise departed hymself with his hoole company, but as yet I cannot advertise your Grace of trouth howe fer he is goon, but tomorrowe I doubte not I shall knowe the certentie. Sir I doubte moche that if he here that I breke this army that he woll retorne with his ordynance unto Werk, whiche I feare woll not hold long againste hym ; for and if I had not made newe fortifications of bulwerks of erthe, it had not be tenable one half daye. I wold it were in the See, for I knowe not how to get men to remayne in it. Sir undoubtedly ther was never man departed with more shame nor with more feare than the Duke hath doon this daye : and notwithstanding the greate Assemble that he hath made in Scotland he hath not doon x s . worth of hurte within your Grace's realme, nor never durste hymself entre the same. Sir I feare me it shall not be possible for me to kepe this Army no longer togidder ; for suche as come oute of the bisshopriche, this contre, and other places, at their own costs, have spent all that they have; and with moche difficulte and faire words have kepte theym here thus long. Notwithstanding I shall doo my beste to kepe theym togidder unto the tyme that I shall knowe the Duks army bee perspoiled. Assuering your Grace that maister Magnus hath but iij. M. marks lefte; and if th'army shuld be discharged tomorrowe next, I think x M. marks woll not paye that is owing and conduyte money home. And considering howe paynefully and with howe good will they have served, it were pitie they shuld departe withoute having that was promysed theym, wherfore mooste humble I beseche your Highnes that convenyent money maye be sente hither with diligence. And if it come not bifore the departing hens of th'army, to tlVentente they shuld not goo hens groudging and speking shrodly, I shall delyver theym asmoche as is here with asmoche more as I maye borowe. And also I shall bynd myself by my bill signed with myn hand to paye theym asmoche as shalbe due for the reste; mooste humble besechyng your Highnes to see me dischardged of the same with convenyente diligence, or els I shalbe uttirly undoon for ever. Also I beseche your Grace to send thankfull lettres to suche as have doon good servyce at this tyme, whos names be conteyned in a bill herein closed : also Ix. iiij x . x blanks to be written here to suche as I doo not remembre the names of : assuering your Grace that in all my lif I never sawe somany Englishmen in none army nor so well willed as thees were fro the higheste to the loweste, nor never was gentilman so moche bounde as I have been this Jorney to all noblemen, gentilmen, and souldiors ; whiche favor they have shewed me for the greate love they bere to your Highnes, and the desierous myende they have to doo your Grace service. Written in the Campe ij. myles from Wark this Tuysday at night.

Your most humble subject and servant


To the Kings most noble Grace.

Note a. boats.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter LXXXIII. 12 Nov 1522.King Henry the Eighth (age 31) to the Earl of Surrey (age 49).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. B. i. fol. 30?. Grig.]

Henry R. By the King.

RIGHT trusty and right welbiloved Cousin we grete you wel; and have receyved your Lettres bearing date the iija and iiijth dayes of this instant moneth, the first mencyonyng the siege laide by the Duke of Albany (age 38) unto the Castel of Werke [Map] with the assaulte geven unto the same, and the valiant defence therof by Sir William Lisle (age 35) capitain of that place ; and how, upon knowlege geven to the said Duke that ye with our hole armye was coming to the rescue, he shamefully and cowardly removed his siege and fled, but to what place ye then knewe not. By the ijde Lettre apperith upon the reaporte of the Priores of Calstreme howe that on Tuesday at nyght last past about mydnyzt the said Duke being then at Eccles informed that our armye passed the Ryver after hym, removed from thens, toke his ordenance away, and is clerely departed ; the truthe wherof ye doubted not to be advertised from diverse wayes by the next daye: at whiche tyme uppon the more knowlege had, ye wolde assemble al the noble men to divise and determyne what ye and they sholde further do, desiring that after the Duks army skaled, we in consideration of your desease and seknes wolde discharge you, geving you licence to retourne: and thinking the lord Dacres aswel for his strenght as experience in those parties most mete to take the charge of offyce of wardyn til suche tyme as that we shal appoint som other therunto; and finally requiryng that bothe money and our lettres of Thanks may be sent, as in the said lettres is conteyned more at large. As herunto we signifie unto you, like as thancked be almyzty God, thise newes be right good, comfortable, and honorable unto us and this our Realme ; so they be and shalbe unto the said Duke of Albany's perpetual reproche, shame, and losse of reputacion bothe in Fraunce, Scotland, and elliswhere, and to the no little abashement and discorage of the Frenche King, besids the alienation percace of the mynds of the Lords of Scotland more facily then afore from the faction of France unto our devotion. And for the grete travaile, labor, studie, payn, and diligence by you with al effect right actively, valiauntly, and with perfite corage, discrecion, and good conduyte taken and used by many substancial, discrete, and politique wayes for resistence of the said Duke of Albany, with deliberation and intent to have geven hym bataile in cace he durst have abyden the same we geve unto you our most cordial and herty thanks; assuring you that amongs many your high and notable^ service done unto us, we shal have this in our contynual and perfite remembrance to your weale, exaltation, honor, and profite as your merits and deserts condignely and worthely do requyre. Praying you also to geve on our behalf special thanks unto all the lords, capitains, and other whiche to their grete payn and travaile have right towardly, benivolently, and conformably served us under you in this Jorney, for whose more corage and comforte, we at this tyme sende suche lettres of thanks as ye desire.

Over this we having tendre respect unto your helthe and comfort, have resolved and determyned that upon advertisement receyved from you of skalinga of the said duks armye, and aunswer therupon geven unto you, with ordre for establishing of suche garnisons and other direction to be taken there as for the suretie and weale of that countrey slialbe thought expedient, ye shal then have our Lettres of discharge of your office there and retorne unto us accordingly ; being myndyd according to your advice and opynyon that our right trusty counsaillor the Lorde Dacres whom we thinke most mete and able therfor, shal exercise also th'office of Wardeyn of our Est and Myddel Marches for a season, to whom we shall then with our lettres sende sufficient commyssion accordingly. Having no doubte but that by suche direction as our most entierly welbeloved counsaillour the Lord Legate Cardinal Archebisshop of Yorke and our Chauncelor hathe advertised you, ye be before this tyme sufficiently furnished of money for defraying of that our Armye as shal appertayn.

Yeven under our Signet at our manor of Woodstok the xijth day of November.

To our right trusty and right welbeloved Cousin and Counsaillor th'Erle of Surrey our Treasorer and Admiralle of England.

Note a. dispersing.

Around Aug 1593 William Grey 1st Baron Grey Werke was born to Ralph Grey (age 41) in either Wark Castle [Map] or Chillingham [Map].