Biography of Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691

1664 Transit of Mercury

1667 Raid on the Medway

1680 Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

On 25 Jul 1603 [his father] Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork 1566-1643 (36) and Catherine Fenton Countess Cork 1585-1629 (18) were married.

On 26 Oct 1620 [his father] Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork 1566-1643 (54) was created 1st Earl Cork. Catherine Fenton Countess Cork 1585-1629 (35) by marriage Countess Cork.

In 1627 Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691 was born to [his father] Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork 1566-1643 (60) and Catherine Fenton Countess Cork 1585-1629 (42).

On 16 Feb 1629 [his mother] Catherine Fenton Countess Cork 1585-1629 (44) died.

On 15 Aug 1630 George "Fairy Earl" Fitzgerald 16th Earl Kildare 1612-1660 (18) and [his sister] Joan Boyle Countess Kildare 1611-1657 (19) were married.

In 1631 David Barry 1st Earl Barrymore 1604-1642 (26) and [his sister] Alice Boyle Countess Barrymore 1607-1667 (24) were married. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Barrymore.

On 05 Jul 1635 [his brother] Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington 1612-1698 (22) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington 1613-1691 (21) were married at Skipton Castle. She by marriage Countess Burlington.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington 1612-1698. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington 1613-1691.

On 21 Jul 1641 Charles Rich 4th Earl Warwick 1615-1673 (26) and [his sister] Mary Boyle Countess Warwick 1625-1678 (15) were married at the Church of St Nicholas Shepperton. Her father strongly disapproved due to her husband's lack of fortune.

On 29 Sep 1642 David Barry 1st Earl Barrymore 1604-1642 (37) died in Castlelyons County Cork. He was buried in Youghal, Cork. His son [his nephew] Richard Barry 2nd Earl Barrymore 1630-1694 (11) succeeded 2nd Earl Barrymore.

On 15 Sep 1643 [his father] Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork 1566-1643 (76) died. His son Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington 1612-1698 (30) succeeded 2nd Earl Cork.

Around 1655 [his nephew] Wentworth Fitzgerald 17th Earl Kildare 1634-1664 (21) and Elizabeth Holles Countess Kildare were married.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 April 1656. 12 Apr 1656. Mr. Berkeley (7) and Mr. Robert Boyle (29) (that excellent person and great virtuoso), Dr. Taylor (43), and Dr. Wilkins (42), dined with me at Sayes Court, when I presented Dr. Wilkins (42) with my rare burning-glass. In the afternoon, we all went to Colonel Blount's (52), to see his newly-invented plows.

In 1657 [his sister] Joan Boyle Countess Kildare 1611-1657 (46) died.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 September 1659. 01 Sep 1659. I communicated to Mr. Robert Boyle (32), son to the [his father] Earl of Cork (92), my proposal for erecting a philosophic and mathematic college.

On 29 May 1660 George "Fairy Earl" Fitzgerald 16th Earl Kildare 1612-1660 (48) died. His son [his nephew] Wentworth Fitzgerald 17th Earl Kildare 1634-1664 (26) succeeded 17th Earl Kildare. Elizabeth Holles Countess Kildare by marriage Countess Kildare.

On 05 Sep 1660 [his brother] Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery 1621-1679 (39) was created 1st Earl Orrery. Margaret Howard Countess Orrery 1622-1689 (38) by marriage Countess Orrery.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1660. 07 Sep 1660. I went to Chelsea to visit Mr. Boyle (33), and see his pneumatic engine perform divers experiments. Thence, to Kensington, to visit Mr. Henshaw (42), returning home that evening.

In 1661 Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691 (34) wrote of The Sceptical Chymist. Considered to be the father of modern chemistry.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 March 1661. 09 Mar 1661. I went with that excellent person and philosopher, Sir Robert Murray (53), to visit Mr. Boyle (34) at Chelsea, and saw divers effects of the eolipile for weighing air.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 May 1662. 07 May 1662. I waited on Prince Rupert (42) to our Assembly where were tried several experiments in Mr. Boyle's (35) VACUUM. A man thrusting in his arm, upon exhaustion of the air, had his flesh immediately swelled so as the blood was near bursting the veins: he drawing it out, we found it all speckled.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1662. 10 Jun 1662. I returned to London, and presented my "History of Chalcography" (dedicated to Mr. Boyle (35)) to our Society.

11 Jun 1662 Royal Society Meeting Minutes. 11 Jun 1662. 82. Royal Society Meeting Minutes.

Sir Robert Moray (54) President.

Dr Petty's (51) brother (42) showed the Society a draft of the pleasure boat he is to make for the King (32).

Lord Berkeley of Berkely (13) presented the Society with a Bird of Paradise having two feet.

Dr Goddard brought in a moth with feathered wings.

Mr Evelyn (41) presentd the Society with a book called 'The History of Chalcogrphij'.

Mr Ball to be asked to produce his 'Magnetick Instruments',

Mr Boyle presented the Society with a book of the 'Weight and Spring of Air'; and also with a glass tube filled with Minium, wherewith the experiment of filtering was made.

Note. TT. Not clear which Mr Boyle this is since [his nephew] Richard Boyle -1665 was elected 20 May 1663 and Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691 (36) on 22 Apr 1663.

The Amanuensis to enquire about the depth of the water under the arches of London Bridge.

Mr Croone (28) to write to Dr Power about the trial of heat and cold in deep caves.

The Amanuensis to bespeak the long glass tube for the Torricellian Experiment.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706.

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In 1664 [his brother] Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington 1612-1698 (51) was created 1st Earl Burlington 1C 1664.

On 05 Mar 1664 [his nephew] Wentworth Fitzgerald 17th Earl Kildare 1634-1664 (30) died. His son John Fitzgerald 18th Earl Kildare 1661-1707 (3) succeeded 18th Earl Kildare.

1664 Transit of Mercury

John Evelyn's Diary 24 October 1664. 24 Oct 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (47) at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and heir (45) of Dr. James Usher (83), Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's (47), principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord Chancellor (55)), brother to the Lord Chief Justice (69) and that Sir Henry Hyde (59), who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came to visit Lord Cornbury his father (55) being now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (37) (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury [Sheldon (66)], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel.

Thence, to New College, and the painting of Magdalen chapel, which is on blue cloth in chiar oscuro, by one Greenborow, being a Cœna Domini, and a "Last Judgment" on the wall by Fuller, as in the other, but somewhat varied.

Next to Wadham, and the Physic Garden, where were two large locust trees, and as many platani (plane trees), and some rare plants under the culture of old Bobart.

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 1661. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Copy of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 portrait of Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury and his first wife Theodosia Capell.

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In 1665 Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 (22) and [his niece] Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687 (19) were married.

In 1685 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711. Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 wearing his Garter Robes including the Garter Collar and holding his white Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687. One of the Windsor Beauties.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 February 1665. 15 Feb 1665. Up and to my office, where busy all the morning. At noon with Creed to dinner to Trinity-house, where a very good dinner among the old sokers, where an extraordinary discourse of the manner of the loss of the "Royall Oake" coming home from Bantam, upon the rocks of Scilly, many passages therein very extraordinary, and if I can I will get it in writing.

Thence with Creed to Gresham College, where I had been by Mr. Povy (51) the last week proposed to be admitted a member1 and was this day admitted, by signing a book and being taken by the hand by the President, my Lord Brunkard (45), and some words of admittance said to me. But it is a most acceptable thing to hear their discourse, and see their experiments; which were this day upon the nature of fire, and how it goes out in a place where the ayre is not free, and sooner out where the ayre is exhausted, which they showed by an engine on purpose. After this being done, they to the Crowne Taverne, behind the 'Change, and there my Lord and most of the company to a club supper; Sir P. Neale (52), Sir R. Murrey, Dr. Clerke, Dr. Whistler, Dr. Goddard, and others of most eminent worth. Above all, Mr. Boyle (38) to-day was at the meeting, and above him Mr. Hooke (29), who is the most, and promises the least, of any man in the world that ever I saw. Here excellent discourse till ten at night, and then home, and to Sir W. Batten's (64), where I hear that Sir Thos. Harvy intends to put Mr. Turner out of his house and come in himself, which will be very hard to them, and though I love him not, yet for his family's sake I pity him.

So home and to bed.

1. According to the minutes of the Royal Society for February 15th, 1664-65, "Mr. Pepys was unanimously elected and admitted". Notes of the experiments shown by Hooke and Boyle are given in Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 15.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

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In 1667 [his sister] Alice Boyle Countess Barrymore 1607-1667 (60) died.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 May 1667. 26 May 1667. Lord's Day. Up sooner than usual on Sundays, and to walk, it being exceeding hot all night (so as this night I begun to leave off my waistcoat this year) and this morning, and so to walk in the garden till toward church time, when my wife and I to church, where several strangers of good condition come to our pew, where the pew was full.

At noon dined at home, where little Michell come and his wife, who continues mighty pretty.

After dinner I by water alone to Westminster, where, not finding Mrs. Martin within, did go towards the parish church, and in the way did overtake her, who resolved to go into the church with her that she was going with (Mrs. Hargrave, the little crooked woman, the vintner's wife of the Dog) and then go out again, and so I to the church, and seeing her return did go out again myself, but met with Mr. Howlett, who, offering me a pew in the gallery, I had no excuse but up with him I must go, and then much against my will staid out the whole church in pain while she expected me at home, but I did entertain myself with my perspective glass up and down the church, by which I had the great pleasure of seeing and gazing at a great many very fine women; and what with that, and sleeping, I passed away the time till sermon was done, and then to Mrs. Martin, and there staid with her an hour or two, and there did what I would with her, and after been here so long I away to my boat, and up with it as far as Barne Elmes, reading of Mr. Evelyn's (46) late new book against Solitude, in which I do not find much excess of good matter, though it be pretty for a bye discourse. I walked the length of the Elmes, and with great pleasure saw some gallant ladies and people come with their bottles, and basket, and chairs, and form, to sup under the trees, by the waterside, which was mighty pleasant. I to boat again and to my book, and having done that I took another book, Mr. Boyle's (40) of Colours, and there read, where I laughed, finding many fine things worthy observation, and so landed at the Old Swan, and so home, where I find my poor father newly come out of an unexpected fit of his pain, that they feared he would have died.

They had sent for me to White Hall and all up and down, and for Mr. Holliard (58) also, who did come, but W. Hewer (25) being here did I think do the business in getting my father's bowel, that was fallen down, into his body again, and that which made me more sensible of it was that he this morning did show me the place where his bowel did use to fall down and swell, which did trouble me to see. But above all things the poor man's patience under it, and his good heart and humour, as soon as he was out of it, did so work upon me, that my heart was sad to think upon his condition, but do hope that a way will be found by a steel truss to relieve him.

By and by to supper, all our discourse about Brampton, and my intentions to build there if I could be free of my engagement to my Uncle Thomas (72) and his son, that they may not have what I have built, against my will, to them whether I will or no, in case of me and my brothers being without heirs male; which is the true reason why I am against laying out money upon that place, together with my fear of some inconvenience by being so near Hinchingbroke; being obliged to be a servant to that family, and subject to what expence they shall cost me; and to have all that I shall buy, or do, esteemed as got by the death of my uncle, when indeed what I have from him is not worth naming. After supper to read and then to bed.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 June 1667. 02 Jun 1667. Lord's Day. Up betimes, and down to my chamber without trimming myself, or putting on clean linen, thinking only to keep to my chamber and do business to-day, but when I come there I find that without being shaved I am not fully awake, nor ready to settle to business, and so was fain to go up again and dress myself, which I did, and so down to my chamber, and fell roundly to business, and did to my satisfaction by dinner go far in the drawing up a state of my accounts of Tangier for the new Lords Commissioners.

So to dinner, and then to my business again all the afternoon close, when Creed come to visit me, but I did put him off, and to my business, till anon I did make an end, and wrote it fair with a letter to the Lords to accompany my accounts, which I think will be so much satisfaction and so soon done (their order for my doing it being dated but May 30) as they will not find from any hand else. Being weary and almost blind with writing and reading so much to-day, I took boat at the Old Swan, and there up the river all alone as high as Putney almost, and then back again, all the way reading, and finishing Mr. Boyle's (40) book of Colours, which is so chymical, that I can understand but little of it, but understand enough to see that he is a most excellent man. So back and home, and there to supper, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 June 1667. 04 Jun 1667. Up, and to the office, and there busy all the morning putting in order the answering the great letter sent to the office by the new Commissioners of the Treasury, who demand an account from the King's coming in to this day, which we shall do in the best manner we can.

At noon home to dinner, and after dinner comes Mr. Commander to me and tells me, after all, that I cannot have a lease of the ground for my coach-house and stable, till a suit in law be ended, about the end of the old stable now standing, which they and I would have pulled down to make a better way for a coach. I am a little sorry that I cannot presently have it, because I am pretty full in my mind of keeping a coach; but yet, when I think on it again, the Dutch and French both at sea, and we poor, and still out of order, I know not yet what turns there may be, and besides, I am in danger of parting with one of my places, which relates to the Victualling, that brings me by accident in £800 a year, that is, £300 from the King (37) and £500 from Prince (47). I ought to be well contented to forbear awhile, and therefore I am contented.

To the office all the afternoon, where I dispatched much business to my great content, and then home in the evening, and there to sing and pipe with my wife, and that being done, she fell all of a sudden to discourse about her clothes and my humours in not suffering her to wear them as she pleases, and grew to high words between us, but I fell to read a book (Boyle's (40) Hydrostatiques)1 aloud in my chamber and let her talk, till she was tired and vexed that I would not hear her, and so become friends, and to bed together the first night after 4 or 5 that she hath lain from me by reason of a great cold she had got.

1. "Hydrostatical Paradoxes made out by New Experiments" was published by the Hon. Robert Boyle (40) in 1666 (Oxford).

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1667 Raid on the Medway

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 June 1667. 10 Jun 1667. Up; and news brought us that, the Dutch are come up as high as the Nore; and more pressing orders for fireships. W. Batten (66), W. Pen (46), and I to St. James's; where the Duke of York (33) gone this morning betimes, to send away some men down to Chatham.

So we three to White Hall, and met Sir W. Coventry (39), who presses all that is possible for fire-ships. So we three to the office presently; and thither comes Sir Fretcheville Hollis (25), who is to command them all in some exploits he is to do with them on the enemy in the River.

So we all down to Deptford, and pitched upon ships and set men at work: but, Lord! to see how backwardly things move at this pinch, notwithstanding that, by the enemy's being now come up as high as almost the Hope, Sir J. Minnes (68), who has gone down to pay some ships there, hath sent up the money; and so we are possessed of money to do what we will with.

Yet partly ourselves, being used to be idle and in despair, and partly people that have been used to be deceived by us as to money, won't believe us; and we know not, though we have it, how almost to promise it; and our wants such, and men out of the way, that it is an admirable thing to consider how much the King (37) suffers, and how necessary it is in a State to keep the King's service always in a good posture and credit. Here I eat a bit, and then in the afternoon took boat and down to Greenwich, where I find the stairs full of people, there being a great riding1 there to-day for a man, the constable of the town, whose wife beat him. Here I was with much ado fain to press two watermen to make me a galley, and so to Woolwich to give order for the dispatch of a ship I have taken under my care to see dispatched, and orders being so given, I, under pretence to fetch up the ship, which lay at Grays (the Golden Hand)2, did do that in my way, and went down to Gravesend, where I find the Duke of Albemarle (58) just come, with a great many idle lords and gentlemen, with their pistols and fooleries; and the bulwarke not able to have stood half an hour had they come up; but the Dutch are fallen down from the Hope and Shell-haven as low as Sheernesse, and we do plainly at this time hear the guns play. Yet I do not find the Duke of Albemarle (58) intends to go thither, but stays here to-night, and hath, though the Dutch are gone, ordered our frigates to be brought to a line between the two blockhouses; which I took then to be a ridiculous thing.

So I away into the town and took a captain or two of our ships (who did give me an account of the proceedings of the Dutch fleete in the river) to the taverne, and there eat and drank, and I find the townsmen had removed most of their goods out of the town, for fear of the Dutch coming up to them; and from Sir John Griffen, that last night there was not twelve men to be got in the town to defend it: which the master of the house tells me is not true, but that the men of the town did intend to stay, though they did indeed, and so had he, at the Ship, removed their goods.

Thence went off to an Ostend man-of-war, just now come up, who met the Dutch fleete, who took three ships that he come convoying hither from him says they are as low as the Nore, or thereabouts.

So I homeward, as long as it was light reading Mr. Boyle's (40) book of Hydrostatics, which is a most excellent book as ever I read, and I will take much pains to understand him through if I can, the doctrine being very useful. When it grew too dark to read I lay down and took a nap, it being a most excellent fine evening, and about one o'clock got home, and after having wrote to Sir W. Coventry (39) an account of what I had done and seen (which is entered in my letter-book), I to bed.

1. It was an ancient custom in Berkshire, when a man had beaten his wife, for the neighbours to parade in front of his house, for the purpose of serenading him with kettles, and horns and hand-bells, and every species of "rough music", by which name the ceremony was designated. Perhaps the riding mentioned by Pepys was a punishment somewhat similar. Malcolm ("Manners of London") quotes from the "Protestant Mercury", that a porter's lady, who resided near Strand Lane, beat her husband with so much violence and perseverance, that the poor man was compelled to leap out of the window to escape her fury. Exasperated at this virago, the neighbours made a "riding", i.e. a pedestrian procession, headed by a drum, and accompanied by a chemise, displayed for a banner. The manual musician sounded the tune of "You round-headed cuckolds, come dig, come dig!" and nearly seventy coalheavers, carmen, and porters, adorned with large horns fastened to their heads, followed. The public seemed highly pleased with the nature of the punishment, and gave liberally to the vindicators of injured manhood. B.

2. The "Golden Hand" was to have been used for the conveyance of the Swedish Ambassadors' horses and goods to Holland. In August, 1667, Frances, widow of Captain Douglas and daughter of Lord Grey, petitioned the King (37) "for a gift of the prize ship Golden Hand, now employed in weighing the ships sunk at Chatham, where her husband lost his life in defence of the ships against the Dutch" (Calendar of State Papers, 1667, p. 430).

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 July 1667. 24 Jul 1667. At noon home to dinner, where my wife mighty musty, [Dull, heavy, spiritless] but I took no notice of it, but after dinner to the office, and there with Mr. Harper did another good piece of work about my late collection of the accounts of the Navy presented to the Parliament at their last session, which was left unfinished, and now I have done it which sets my mind at my ease, and so, having tired myself, I took a pair of oares about five o'clock, which I made a gally at Redriffe, and so with very much pleasure down to Gravesend, all the way with extraordinary content reading of Boyle's (40) Hydrostatickes, which the more I read and understand, the more I admire, as a most excellent piece of philosophy; as we come nearer Gravesend, we hear the Dutch fleete and ours a-firing their guns most distinctly and loud. But before we got to Gravesend they ceased, and it grew darkish, and so I landed only (and the flood being come) and went up to the Ship and discoursed with the landlord of the house, who undeceives me in what I heard this morning about the Dutch having lost two men-of-war, for it is not so, but several of their fire-ships. He do say, that this afternoon they did force our ships to retreat, but that now they are gone down as far as Shield-haven: but what the event hath been of this evening's guns they know not, but suppose not much, for they have all this while shot at good distance one from another. They seem confident of the security of this town and the River above it, if the enemy should come up so high; their fortifications being so good, and guns many. But he do say that people do complain of Sir Edward Spragg (47), that he hath not done extraordinary; and more of Sir W. Jenings, that he come up with his tamkins1 in his guns. Having discoursed this a little with him, and eat a bit of cold venison and drank, I away, took boat, and homeward again, with great pleasure, the moon shining, and it being a fine pleasant cool evening, and got home by half-past twelve at night, and so to bed.

1. Tamkin, or tampion, the wooden stopper of a cannon placed in the muzzle to exclude water or dust.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 November 1667. 21 Nov 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon home, where my wife not very well, but is to go to Mr. Mills's child's christening, where she is godmother, Sir J. Minnes (68) and Sir R. Brookes (30) her companions. I left her after dinner (my clerks dining with me) to go with Sir J. Minnes (68), and I to the office, where did much business till after candlelight, and then my eyes beginning to fail me, I out and took coach to Arundell_House, where the meeting of Gresham College was broke up; but there meeting Creed, I with him to the taverne in St. Clement's Churchyard, where was Deane Wilkins (53), Dr. Whistler, Dr. Floyd (40), a divine admitted, I perceive, this day, and other brave men; and there, among other things of news, I do hear, that upon the reading of the House of Commons's Reasons of the manner of their proceedings in the business of my Chancellor (58), the Reasons were so bad, that my Lord Bristoll (55) himself did declare that he would not stand to what he had, and did still, advise the Lords to concur to, upon any of the Reasons of the House of Commons; but if it was put to the question whether it should be done on their Reasons, he would be against them; and indeed it seems the Reasons—however they come to escape the House of Commons, which shews how slightly the greatest matters are done in this world, and even in Parliaments were none of them of strength, but the principle of them untrue; they saying, that where any man is brought before a judge, accused of Treason in general, without specifying the particular, the judge do there constantly and is obliged to commit him. Whereas the question being put by the Lords to my Lord Keeper, he said that quite the contrary was true: and then, in the Sixth Article (I will get a copy of them if I can) there are two or three things strangely asserted to the diminishing of the King's power, as is said, at least things that heretofore would not have been heard of. But then the question being put among the Lords, as my Lord Bristoll (55) advised, whether, upon the whole matter and Reasons that had been laid before them, they would commit my Lord Clarendon (58), it was carried five to one against it; there being but three Bishops against him, of whom Cosens (72) and Dr. Reynolds were two, and I know not the third. This made the opposite Lords, as Bristoll (55) and Buckingham (39), so mad, that they declared and protested against it, speaking very broad that there was mutiny and rebellion in the hearts of the Lords, and that they desired they might enter their dissents, which they did do, in great fury.

So that upon the Lords sending to the Commons, as I am told, to have a conference for them to give their answer to the Commons's Reasons, the Commons did desire a free conference: but the Lords do deny it; and the reason is, that they hold not the Commons any Court, but that themselves only are a Court, and the Chief Court of judicature, and therefore are not to dispute the laws and method of their own Court with them that are none, and so will not submit so much as to have their power disputed. And it is conceived that much of this eagerness among the Lords do arise from the fear some of them have, that they may be dealt with in the same manner themselves, and therefore do stand upon it now. It seems my Lord Clarendon (58) hath, as is said and believed, had his horses several times in his coach, ready to carry him to the Tower, expecting a message to that purpose; but by this means his case is like to be laid by.

From this we fell to other discourse, and very good; among the rest they discourse of a man that is a little frantic, that hath been a kind of minister, Dr. Wilkins (53) saying that he hath read for him in his church, that is poor and a debauched man, that the College' have hired for 20s. to have some of the blood of a sheep let into his body; and it is to be done on Saturday next1. They purpose to let in about twelve ounces; which, they compute, is what will be let in in a minute's time by a watch. They differ in the opinion they have of the effects of it; some think it may have a good effect upon him as a frantic man by cooling his blood, others that it will not have any effect at all. But the man is a healthy man, and by this means will be able to give an account what alteration, if any, he do find in himself, and so may be usefull. On this occasion, Dr. Whistler told a pretty story related by Muffet, a good author, of Dr. Caius, that built Keys College; that, being very old, and living only at that time upon woman's milk, he, while he fed upon the milk of an angry, fretful woman, was so himself; and then, being advised to take it of a good-natured, patient woman, he did become so, beyond the common temper of his age. Thus much nutriment, they observed, might do. Their discourse was very fine; and if I should be put out of my office, I do take great content in the liberty I shall be at of frequenting these gentlemen's company. Broke up thence and home, and there to my wife in her chamber, who is not well (of those), and there she tells me great stories of the gossiping women of the parish—what this, and what that woman was; and, among the rest, how Mrs. Hollworthy is the veriest confident bragging gossip of them all, which I should not have believed; but that Sir R. Brookes (30), her partner, was mighty civil to her, and taken with her, and what not. My eyes being bad I spent the evening with her in her chamber talking and inventing a cypher to put on a piece of plate, which I must give, better than ordinary, to the Parson's child, and so to bed, and through my wife's illness had a bad night of it, and she a worse, poor wretch!

1. This was Arthur Coga, who had studied at Cambridge, and was said to be a bachelor of divinity. He was indigent, and "looked upon as a very freakish and extravagant man". Dr. King, in a letter to the Hon. Robert Boyle (40), remarks "that Mr. Coga was about thirty-two years of age; that he spoke Latin well, when he was in company, which he liked, but that his brain was sometimes a little too warm". The experiment was performed on November 23rd, 1667, by Dr. King, at Arundel House, in the presence of many spectators of quality, and four or five physicians. Coga wrote a description of his own case in Latin, and when asked why he had not the blood of some other creature, instead of that of a sheep, transfused into him, answered, "Sanguis ovis symbolicam quandam facultatem habet cum sanguine Christi, quia Christus est agnus Dei" [Note. "Sheep’s blood has some symbolic power, like the blood of Christ, for Christ is the Lamb of God."] (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., pp. 214-16). Coga was the first person in England to be experimented upon; previous experiments were made by the transfusion of the blood of one dog into another. See November 14th, 1666 (vol. vi., p. 64).

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

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Before 1668 Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 and [his niece] Elizabeth Fitzgerald Countess Clancarty 1642-1698 were married. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Clancarty.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 June 1668. 22 Jun 1668. Up, and with Balty (28) to St. James's, and there presented him to Mr. Wren (39) about his being Muster-Master this year, which will be done. So up to wait on the Duke of York (34), and thence, with W. Coventry (40), walked to White Hall good discourse about the Navy, where want of money undoes us.

Thence to the Harp and Ball I to drink, and so to the Coffee-house in Covent Garden; but met with nobody but Sir Philip Howard (37), who shamed me before the whole house there, in commendation of my speech in Parliament, and thence I away home to dinner alone, my wife being at her tailor's, and after dinner comes Creed, whom I hate, to speak with me, and before him comes Mrs. Daniel about business....[Note. Missing text "and yo did tocar su cosa with mi mano"] She gone, Creed and I to the King's playhouse, and saw an act or two of the new play ["Evening's Love"] again, but like it not. Calling this day at Herringman's, he tells me Dryden (36) do himself call it but a fifth-rate play.

Thence with him to my Lord Brouncker's (48), where a Council of the Royall Society; and there heard Mr. Harry Howard's (39) noble offers about ground for our College, and his intentions of building his own house there most nobly. My business was to meet Mr. Boyle (41), which I did, and discoursed about my eyes; and he did give me the best advice he could, but refers me to one Turberville (56), of Salsbury, lately come to town, which I will go to1.

Thence home, where the streets full, at our end of the town, removing their wine against the Act begins, which will be two days hence, to raise the price. I did get my store in of Batelier this night.

So home to supper and to bed.

1. Daubigny Turberville (56), of Oriel College; created M.D. at Oxford,1660. He was a physician of some eminence, and, dying at Salisbury on the 21st April, 1696, aged eighty-five, he was buried in the cathedral, where his monument remains. Cassan, in his "Lives of the Bishops of Sarum", part iii., p. 103, has reprinted an interesting account of Turberville, from the "Memoir of Bishop Seth Ward", published in 1697, by Dr. Walter Pope. Turberville (56) was born at Wayford, co. Somerset, in 1612, and became an expert oculist; and probably Pepys received great benefit from his advice, as his vision does not appear to have failed during the many years that he lived after discontinuing the Diary. The doctor died rich, and subsequently to his decease his sister Mary, inheriting all his prescriptions, and knowing how to use them, practised as an oculist in London with good reputation. B.

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1693. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1697. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1665 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1672 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684. Around 1669 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684.

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John Evelyn's Diary 28 February 1676. 28 Feb 1676. [Note. Date adjusted to 28 Feb since original entry stated 29 Feb when it isn't a leap year.] I dined with Mr. Povey (62), one of the Masters of Requests, a nice contriver of all elegancies, and exceedingly formal. Supped with Sir J. Williamson, where were of our Society Mr. Robert Boyle (49), Sir Christopher Wren (52), Sir William Petty (52), Dr. Holden, subdean of his Majesty's (45) Chapel, Sir James Shaen, Dr. Whistler, and our Secretary, Mr. Oldenburg (57).

In 1711 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Christopher Wren 1632-1723.

In 1678 [his sister] Mary Boyle Countess Warwick 1625-1678 (52) died.

On 16 Oct 1679 [his brother] Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery 1621-1679 (58) died. His son Roger Boyle 2nd Earl Orrery 1646-1692 (33) succeeded 2nd Earl Orrery. Mary Sackville Countess Orrery 1648-1710 (31) by marriage Countess Orrery.

Around 1650. Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary Sackville Countess Orrery 1648-1710.

In 1680 William Davys Lord Chief Justice of Ireland 1633-1687 (47) and [his niece] Elizabeth Fitzgerald Countess Clancarty 1642-1698 (38) were married.

Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

John Evelyn's Diary 30 November 1680. 30 Nov 1680. The anniversary election at the Royal Society brought me to London, where was chosen President that excellent person and great philosopher, Mr. Robert Boyle (53), who indeed ought to have been the very first; but neither his infirmity nor his modesty could now any longer excuse him. I desired I might for this year be left out of the Council, by reason my dwelling was in the country. The Society according to custom dined together.

The signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) of my Lord Viscount Stafford (66), (for conspiring the death of the King (50), second son to my Lord Thomas Howard (95), Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk (52), whom I so well knew, and from which excellent person I received so many favors. It was likewise his birthday, The trial was in Westminster Hall, before the King (50), Lords, and Commons, just in the same manner as, forty years past, the great and wise Earl of Strafford (87) (there being but one letter differing their names) received his trial for pretended ill government in Ireland, in the very same place, this Lord Stafford's father being then High Steward. The place of sitting was now exalted some considerable height from the paved floor of the hall, with a stage of boards. The throne, woolsacks for the Judges, long forms for the Peers, chair for the Lord Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of Lords. The sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof for the members of the House of Commons. At the upper end, and on the right side of the King's (50) state, was a box for his Majesty (50), and on the left others for the great ladies, and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public ministers. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and place for the prisoner (66), the Lieutenant of the Tower of London, the ax-bearer and guards, my Lord Stafford's two daughters, the Marchioness of Winchester being one; there was likewise a box for my Lord to retire into. At the right hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood the witnesses; at the left, the managers, in the name of the Commons of England, namely, Serjeant Maynard (76) (the great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause against the Earl of Strafford (87) forty years before, being now near eighty years of age), Sir William Jones (49), late Attorney-General, Sir Francis Winnington (46), a famous pleader, and Mr. Treby, now Recorder of London, not appearing in their gowns as lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, as representing the Commons of England: to these were joined Mr. Hampden, Dr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel Titus (57), Sir Thomas Lee (45), all gentlemen of quality, and noted parliamentary men. The first two days, in which were read the commission and impeachment, were but a tedious entrance into matter of fact, at which I was but little present. But, on Thursday, I was commodiously seated among the Commons, when the witnesses were sworn and examined. The principal witnesses were Mr. Oates (31) (who called himself Dr.), Mr. Dugdale (40), and Turberville (32). Oates (31) swore that he delivered a commission to Viscount Stafford (66) from the Pope, to be Paymaster-General to an army intended to be raised; Dugdale (40), that being at Lord Aston's, the prisoner dealt with him plainly to murder his Majesty (50); and Turberville (32), that at Paris he also proposed the same to him.

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 and wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641. Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641. Around 1712. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641.

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Before 20 Nov 1682 Arthur Chichester 3rd Earl Donegal 1666-1706 and [his niece] Barbara Boyle Countess Donegall 1662-1682 were married.

On 20 Nov 1682 [his niece] Barbara Boyle Countess Donegall 1662-1682 (20) died.

On 12 Apr 1687 [his niece] Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687 (41) died.

In 1689. John Riley Painter 1646-1691 (43). Portrait of Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691 (62).

On 31 Dec 1691 Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691 (64) died.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 January 1692. 01 Jan 1692. This last week died that pious, admirable Christian, excellent philosopher, and my worthy friend, Mr. Boyle (65), aged about 65,—a great loss to all that knew him, and to the public.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 January 1692. 06 Jan 1692. At the funeral of Mr. Boyle (65), at St. Martin's, Dr. Burnet (48), Bishop of Salisbury, preached on Eccles. II 26. He concluded with an eulogy due to the deceased, who made God and religion the scope of all his excellent talents in the knowledge of nature, and who had arrived to so high a degree in it, accompanied with such zeal and extraordinary piety, which he showed in the whole course of his life, particularly in his exemplary charity on all occasions,—that he gave £1,000 yearly to the distressed refugees of France and Ireland; was at the charge of translating the Scriptures into the Irish and Indian tongues, and was now promoting a Turkish translation, as he had formerly done of Grotius "on the Truth of the Christian Religion" into Arabic, which he caused to be dispersed in the eastern countries; that he had settled a fund for preachers who should preach expressly against Atheists, Libertines, Socinians, and Jews; that he had in his will given £8,000 to charitable uses; but that his private charities were extraordinary. He dilated on his learning in Hebrew and Greek, his reading of the fathers, and solid knowledge in theology, once deliberating about taking Holy Orders, and that at the time of restoration of King Charles II, when he might have made a great figure in the nation as to secular honor and titles, his fear of not being able to discharge so weighty a duty as the first, made him decline that, and his humility the other. He spoke of his civility to strangers, the great good which he did by his experience in medicine and chemistry, and to what noble ends he applied himself to his darling studies; the works, both pious and useful, which he published; the exact life he led, and the happy end he made. Something was touched of his sister, the Lady Ranelagh, who died but a few days before him. And truly all this was but his due, without any grain of flattery.

This week a most execrable murder was committed on Dr. Clench, father of that extraordinary learned child whom I have before noticed. Under pretense of carrying him in a coach to see a patient, they strangled him in it; and, sending away the coachman under some pretense, they left his dead body in the coach, and escaped in the dusk of the evening.

Around 1675 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of Gilbert Burnet Bishop of Salisbury 1643-1715. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Gilbert Burnet Bishop of Salisbury 1643-1715.

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John Evelyn's Diary 13 February 1692. 13 Feb 1692. Mr. Boyle (65) having made me one of the trustees for his charitable bequests, I went to a meeting of the Bishop of Lincoln (55), Sir Rob.... wood, and serjeant, Rotheram, to settle that clause in the will which related to charitable uses, and especially the appointing and electing a minister to preach one sermon the first Sunday in the month, during the four summer months, expressly against Atheists, Deists, Libertines, Jews, etc., without descending to any other controversy whatever, for which £50 per annum is to be paid quarterly to the preacher; and, at the end of three years, to proceed to a new election of some other able divine, or to continue the same, as the trustees should judge convenient. We made choice of one Mr. Bentley, chaplain to the Bishop of Worcester (Dr. Stillingfleet) (56). The first sermon was appointed for the first Sunday in March, at St. Martin's; the second Sunday in April, at Bow Church, and so alternately.

Around 1680 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of Edward Stillingfleet Bishop of Worcester 1635-1699 when Dean of St Pauls. Around 1690 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Edward Stillingfleet Bishop of Worcester 1635-1699.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 April 1692. 04 Apr 1692. Mr. Bentley preached Mr. Boyle's (65) lecture at St. Mary-le-Bow. So excellent a discourse against the Epicurean system is not to be recapitulated in a few words. He came to me to ask whether I thought it should be printed, or that there was anything in it which I desired to be altered. I took this as a civility, and earnestly desired it should be printed, as one of the most learned and convincing discourses I had ever heard.

[his brother] Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery 1621-1679 and Margaret Howard Countess Orrery 1622-1689 were married.

[his nephew] Roger Boyle 2nd Earl Orrery 1646-1692 and Mary Sackville Countess Orrery 1648-1710 were married. They were third cousins.