Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414 is in Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38.

Jun 1914. List Of The Long Barrows Of Wiltshire. By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington (age 44).

[Referred to in the previous List of Prehistoric Antiquities, pp. 153—378, as "Appendix, Long Barrows."]

This list of Wiltshire Long Barrows, includes all those known to the writer, and it is hoped that it is fairly complete, but there may be a few small ones that have escaped notice. It is not always possible from the Ordnance Survey maps to decide, whether a barrow is round or long, and to visit all the barrows in Wiltshire would be indeed a very great labour. All those included in this list have been visited within the last year or two, and a note made on their present condition. Many other barrows as to which it was doubtful whether they should be included in the "Long barrow class, have also necessarily been seen, and none have been included that do not appear to be genuinely of that class, and in cases where there may still be a doubt that could only be dispelled by excavation, mention has been made of the fact.

Sir R. Colt Hoare, in Ancient Wilts, (as in vol. 1., p. 169, barrow 118), sometimes speaks of a barrow as a "long barrow" referring apparently to its general shape only, when from the context it is clearly not one of this class, and these have not been included in the list.

It appears that there are 72 Long Barrows, or remnants of Long Barrows, still in Wiltshire, and that 14 others have been destroyed within the last hundred years or so.1 There were, therefore, at one time at least 86 Long Barrows in Wiltshire. These are, or were, strictly within the present administrative boundary of the county, but if we include the area within the county boundary, when Hoare made his survey, we should add at least 5 more.2

Note 1. This does not include 3 unidentifiable Long Barrows mentioned by Stukeley in the neighbourhood of Avebury.

Note 2. These are Grans Barrow and Knap Barrow, only about a hundred yards apart, on Knowle Hill, one in the parish of Rockbourne, the other in Toyd Farm and Allenford parish: Round Clump Barrow in Whitsbury parish, near Great Yews; Giant's Grave on Breamore Down close to the Maze, in the parish of Breamore; all now in Hants. One now in Dorset in the parish of Martin, close to and north of Bokerly Dyke.

17 of the Long Barrows are known to have been opened by Dr. Thurnam between the years 1855 and 1868; 19 by Hoare3and Wm. Cunnington in the beginning of the 19bh century (8 of these re-opened by Dr. Thurnam are not included in the above 17); 4 have been opened by other excavators, and 32 have not been opened, or if so, there is no record of it.

Note 3. One of these was opened after the publication of Ancient Wilts. See under Nettleton.

Out of the 40 opened, the results of which are more or less known, in 32 cases burials of one or more skeletons were found near the larger end of the barrow, and in 5 of these the bones had been burnt or partially burnt (Old Ditch and Kill Barrow at Tilshead, Winterbourne Stoke No. 53, Bratton, and Knook); in 7 the primary burial does not seem to have been found, and in one case (Lanhill) it was not at the larger end of the mound.

Dr. Thurnam's list of 11 chambered barrows for the county remains unaltered, except that it is very doubtful if the one referred to by him as "Oldbury" should properly be included (see under Cherhill).

The outward characteristics of a "Long Barrow" are that it is long in proportion to its width, that one end is considerably broader and higher than the other, and that a ditch, or trench (usually wider than the ditches of round barrows) is found on both sides of the mound, but never running round the ends. Wherever this latter feature exists it may be taken as a sure sign that the mound is a true Long Barrow; but unfortunately cultivation and other causes, have often obliterated this rnost sure indication, so that in some cases, where other evidence is lacking, there must remain a doubt as to the true character of the mound, But in some cases, especially in the stone-built mounds, there seems never to have been a ditch.

On the other hand, where the ditch is obviously continued round the ends of the mound, there can be little doubt that the barrow is only an oval, or multiple round one, and all mounds that have these continuous ditches, but that otherwise look like "Long" Barrows, have been rejected from this list.

The barrows are listed alphabetically under the names of the parishes in which they are situated. This method has some difficulties, but it seems the only possible way to classify mounds that are, as a rule, nameless, and have no distinctive features by which they may be distinguished. Under each barrow references are given to the original sources of information, but the details of the discoveries that have been made in them are lacking in many cases.

The following abbreviations have been used:—

O.M.=Ordnance Map; the number in every case is of the Wiltshire Sheet of the 6in. scale.

A. W.=" Ancient Wiltshire," by Sir R. Colt Hoare.

Arch. Archælogia.

"W.A.M.= Wilts Archæologica,l Magazine; the reference is to the volume, not the number as published.

Smith "British and Roman Antiquities of North Wiltshire," by the Rev. A. C. Smith.

MS. Cat. This refers to a MS. Catalogue compiled by Dr. Thurnam of the Thurnam Collection of Skulls, now at Cambridge. A large number of these skulls came from Wiltshire barrows, and in several cases the entries give information, or further details, in reference to the discoveries in the barrows that are not included in Dr. Thurnam's published notes. I am indebted to the courtesy of Professor Macalister and Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth for permission to consult the catalogue, and to make extracts therefrom.

After the length of the barrow, its direction is stated, the larger end of the mound being always put first; thus "S. and N." means that the larger end is to the south, and "N. and S." the reverse.

[The numbers after the name of the parish are those in the previous "List Of Prehistoric Antiquities," which are also marked on the set of 6 inch maps in the Society's Library.]

Alton Priors. 1 [Map]. 1 "Adam's Grave," or "Old Adam," on Walker's Hill. Length 130ft. ( Merewether); S.E. and N. W. Chambered. Opened by Thurnam in 1860. Near the east end there was a single chamber built of large sarsen stones; it had been previously disturbed, and he only found traces of human skeletons, and a finely worked leaf-shaped arrowhead of flint. There seems to have been a containing wall round the mound, of which remains were found near the eastern end, built of upright sarsen stones set a little distance apart, with the space between filled in with a dry walling of oolitic stones.2

This large and finely situated barrow has been a good deal disfigured by the various excavations in it, and several of the large sarsens discovered by Thurnam are partly exposed. The ditches on both sides are still quite distinct, but that on the north has been somewhat encroached upon by a chalk quarry. The damage in this direction is, however, not likely to be continued, attention having been called to it. The central ridge of the mound is still unusually sharp, a feature commented on by Hoare. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, p. 98; Smith p. 181, XII H. viii. a; O.M. 35, SW.; A. W. II. 12, 29; Arch. xxxviii. 410 i.; xlii. 203, 230; W.A.M. xi. 45.

Note 1. Referred to by Thurnam as "Walker Hill"

Note 2. The oolitic stone is foreign to this immediate locality. The same kind of walling with oolitic stone was found at West Kennet. See under Avebury.

Amesbury. 14 [Map]. On Normanton Down, No. 165 of Hoare's Normanton Group," close to S. side of road from Stonehenge to Winterbourne Stoke. Length IOOft.; S.S.E. by N. N.W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington, who failed to find interments, and later by Thurnam,who found the primary burial of three skeletons, and some secondary burials, but beyond the reference in the summary list in Arch. xlii. no account of the discoveries seems to have been published3; in the MS. Cat. there are however, the following entries No. 240. From the small long barrow No. 165 of Hoare - this dolichocephalic skull was obtained in 1866 from the primary interment below a stratum of black earth on the natural level. The marks of cleavage on this. skull are very distinct. It is remarkable that there were no bones of upper or lower maxillæ, or any teeth."

240a. Ancient British. Part of calvarium, also with distinct marks of old cleavage found with portions of a third skull, apparently that of a child, close to No. 240. The upper and lower jaws found with it indicate an age of about 15 years. This sepulchral deposit was found nearer the centre of the mound than is usual in Long Barrows, and about 15ft. to the north of the opening made by Mr. Cunnington in 1808, and 20ft or more to the north of that made by myself in 1856. The impression made by the appearance of the deposit was that the bodies had been dismembered and the skulls more or less shattered and broken before their final interment in this place where they were found."

241. Ancient British. From the same barrow, about a foot beneath the surface and nearer to the S. end than Nos. 240 and 240a. No other part of the skeleton, nor even a trace of jaws or teeth, was found with the calvarium, which was of a dark earthy colour when found. It is probably Ancient British of the dolichocephalic Stone Age of Long Barrow type, and brought here after the partial completion of the tumulus."

242. Ancient British. From a secondary interment of a boy or girl, 12 or 15 years of age, l½ft. deep in the same barrow. The skeleton was doubled up, with head to thy south. There was no relic of art with the skeleton, but 2ft, deeper another and also brachycephalic skeleton, also doubled up. The skull was too imperfect to be preserved. There was likewise part of a tibia of Bos tongifrons, and an entire skeleton of a goose, all these above the stratum of black earth. Exhumed April 28th, 1866."

Mound and ditches in very fair condition, but both are now beginning to be attacked by rabbits. Turf. O.M. 54 SW.; A.W.I. 206; Arch. xlii. 180; MS. Cat. 240-2.

Note 3. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Stonehenge No. 165" in the list of barrows opened by himself, but is not included in his list of those opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180.

Amesbury. 42 [Map].1 Close to, and parallel with, the E. end of the c' Cursus," near Stonehenge, Length 265ft. (Thurnam) S. and N. Opened by Thurnam who regarded it as a true Long Barrow, but Hoare and Stukeley seem both to have thought otherwise. Stukeley shows it merely as a bank (Stonehenge Tab. Ill.). Hoare spoke of it thus "The head (of the Cursus),which is towards the east, is marked by a mound of earth, resembling a Long Barrow, which extends across the whole Cursus." The Cursus, Hoare regarded as the "Race course of the Britons," and on the mound he suggests the spectators were seated, and a more eligible post could not have been chosen." Thurnam never seems to have published any account of his discoveries in the mound, and the only mention of it is that in the Summary List in Arch. xlii., where it is stated that secondary burials, but no primary one, were found.

The following is an entry in the MS. Cat. "No. 234:- Ancient British. From a secondary interment in the Long Barrow at the east end of the Cursus' near Stonehenge. I see no reason to doubt this mound being a true Long Barrow, though like some others it lies N. and S., with the broadest end to the S. There are still traces of the ditch at each side. It measures 265ft. long, 55ft. to 70ft. broad, and 4ft. high. It is named by Sir R. C. Hoare as a mound resembling a Long Barrow.' The skeleton from which this brachycephalic calvarium was taken was lying within a foot of the present surface, about 50ft. from the southern skirt of the barrow. It was in the contracted posture, and close to it was the skeleton of an infant. The femur measured 17in., the humerus 12in., though the bones of the skull are very thick I think it female. The skull had been smashed, probably by the plough. Though great labour was bestowed upon it, the true primary interment was not found in the barrow. There were portions however of the skeleton of an infant about 3ft. (deep) and just over the dark stratum. About 21ft. (deep) were parts of the skeletons of at least three individuals of bos longifrons, consisting of several entire carpi and tarsi, every bone, down to the sesamoids, being in situ; and parts of a pelvis and of a skull of the same animal. The greater part of these were presented by me to the Museum of Anatomy, at Oxford. I retain one carpus and two tarsi, the bones of which were perfect enough to be articulated. They had evidently been cut off from the carcases with the hoofs and probably the enteguments entire, and thrown on the incomplete funeral mound, whilst the flesh was probably cooked and eaten on the occasion of a feast and sacrifice. Exhumed by J. T. (John Thurnam) March 29 and April 6, 1866."

This mound and the whole of the eastern part of the Cursus, is now, as it seems to have been in Thurnam's time, under cultivation; the mound is much lowered and scattered about, and no sign of the ditches referred to by Thurnam can now be seen on the surface. O.M. 54 SE.; Arch. xlii., 180, 182; A. w. 1. 158; MS Cat. No. 239.

Note 1. This is the mound referred to by Thurnam as "Stonehenge, Cursus." Arch. xlii. 180.

Amesbury. 59 [Map]. N. of Amesbury-Andover Road, between New Barn and the second milestone out of Amesbury. Length 125ft; S.S.E. by N.N.W. No recorded opening. A fine barrow with ditches still traceable, but now under cultivation. There is a large round barrow almost touching its fringe at the northern end. O.M. 55 S W. Not shown by Hoare.

For two Long barrows, now destroyed, in Amesbury parish, see end of this list.

Ansty. 1 [Map]. On Whitesheet Hill, at junction of Donhead St. Andrew, Ansty, and Berwick St. John parish boundaries, close to and N. of the old Shaftesbury Road, E. of the 14th milestone to Salisbury. Length 132ft. N.E. by S.W. There is no recorded opening of this barrow, but it appears to have been dug into near the centre. It is otherwise in good condition, and stands on uncultivated ground, and the ditches are well defined. O. M. 69, SE; A. W. I. Map of Fovant Station.

Avebury. 17 [Map]. "Longstone Barrow," at Beckhampton, in a field north of Beckhampton House, and S.W. of the Longstones. Length? N.E. by S.W.1 Much of the material of this once large barrow has been taken away from time to time, and it is now only a large unshapely heap, without any vestige of ditches. There is no record of its ever having been systematically opened, but according to Dean Merewether burials have been found in the course of its partial destruction. He mentions a fragment of a large urn and a piece of bronze knife dagger? as having been found, these no doubt belonging to secondary interments. O.M. 28 S W.; A. W. II. Map of Calne and Swindon Station; Stukeley's Abury, 46; Smith p. 100, VII. F. v. a; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, 109 (Merewether).

Note 1. As shown by Hoare.

Avebury. 22. West Kennet Long Barrow [Map]. Length according to Hoare 344ft., to Thurnam 335ft.; E. and W. Chambered. This barrow was partially opened by Thurnam in 1859. He found one large chamber formed of six upright sarsen stones, covered by three other large sarsens; it measured 8ft. by 9ft., and 8ft. in clear height; the spaces between the large stones were filled in by a dry walling of stones of a calcareous grit, the nearest quarries of which would be about seven miles away near Calne. A similarly constructed gallery about 15ft. in length, led from the chamber to the eastern edge of the mound. Among the rubble with which the chamber was filled were the remains of six skeletons, which seem to have been in a sitting or crouching position; two of the skulls had been cleft before burial, probably before death. Bones of various animals, numerous flakes and worked flints, including one piece ground, several large mullers of flint and sarsen, part of a bone pin, and a hand-made bead of Kimmeridge shale were found. There was also a considerable quantity of pottery all in fragments, "in three of the four angles of the chamber there was a pile of such evidently deposited in a fragmentary state, there being scarcely more than two or three portions of the same vessel." This pottery consists of fragments of "drinking cup" type, and of other vessels of distinctive decoration, possibly round-bottomed, and having a hollow moulding beneath the rim.1

Thurnam thought the chamber had been previously disturbed, possibly during the Roman period. The barrow seems to have had originally a containing wall built of upright sarsens with the spaces between filled in with dry walling of oolitic stones. (For a similar walling see "Adam's Grave [Map]," under Alton Priors.) As to its present condition the chamber and gallery appear to be in a complete state of ruin, the stones lying about promiscuously. For the rest, to quote Thurnam, "Tenants in the present century (the 19th) have stripped it of its verdant turf2, cut a waggon-road through its centre, and dug for flints and chalk rubble in its sides, by which its form and proportions have been much injured." O.M. 28 S W.; A. W. II. 96; Arch. xxxviii. 403; xlii. 203, 211; Cr. Brit. Pl. 50; W.A.M. x. 130; Smith p. 154, XI. G. vi. b.; Devizes Museum Cat. 11. 23.

Note 1. See "The Development of Neolithic Pottery," by Mr. R. A. Smith, Arch. LXII. 340.

Note 2. The result of this is the rank growth of weeds and grass that now cover the mound.

Bishop's Cannings. 44. "Kitchen Barrow [Map]," on Kitchen Barrow Hill, S. of Wansdyke. Length 107ft.; width at broad end 64ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who found skeletons at the N.E. end; they seem to have been previously disturbed, but no details are given. This barrow stands at the extreme end of an outstanding spur of the down, overlooking the Vale of Pewsey. The mound is very broad at one end, and tapers off very narrow at the other. The ditches are quite distinct and untouched, but the mound is in a very untidy and disturbed state; near the wide end there has been a considerable excavation never filled in, and in it a large sarsen stone; in addition to this hole much of the material of the mound has been taken away. The Rev. A. C. Smith speaks of "much broken ground all about, and many pits, as if of hut circles." These, however, appear more like old diggings, either for hard chalk or flint, than "hut circles," and it seems probable that the material from the barrow was carted away when this digging was going on. This barrow is almost certainly the one referred to by Thurnam as "Horton." O.N. 34 NE.; Arch. XLII.; Smith p. 114, Vlll. E. VIII. h.

Bishops Cannings. 65. On Easton Down [Easton Hill Long Barrow [Map]], N. of Wansdyke. Length 132ft.; E. and W. Opened by Thurnam. It had been previously dug into, and Thurnam only found the scattered remains of four individuals (two male adults, and two young persons) near the E. end and a few chippings and fragments of sarsen stones. This barrow stands on uncultivated down, and is a conspicuous object from the road by Beckhampton. The mound has been rather disfigured by the diggings into it that have never been properly filled in; the ditches are distinct. Some rubble seems to have been taken away from the edge of the mound on the S. side. This barrow was referred to by Thurnam as "Easton Hill." O.N. 34 NE.; A.W. 11. Map of Marlborough Station; Arch. XLII. 180; W.A.M. VI. 323; Smith p. 112, VIII. E. VII. g.

For Long Barrow in Bishops Cannings parish, now destroyed, see end of this list.

Boyton. 1. "Corton Long Barrow [Map]," on Barrow Hill. Length 216ft. (Hoare); E. and W. Opened by Wm. Cunnington 1804; beneath a large heap of flints, marl stones, etc., at the E. end eight skeletons were found "lying in several directions, as though they had been thrown on a heap without ceremony." Seven were those of adults, and one of a child from seven to eight years of age. A secondary burnt burial in a cinerary urn had previously (1801) been found at the W. end by the same explorer. The mound had been reduced in size by the plough even in Hoare's time, and since then it has been reduced still more, and is now only 120ft. in length. Then, as now, it appeared almost as two round barrows from earth having been taken away from about the middle of the mound for agricultural purposes. There are beech trees of considerable age growing on the barrow, but the ground round it has been until recently under cultivation and there is no trace of the ditches. 0.M. 58 NW.; A.W. I. 102; Arch. XV. 338 (Cunnington); XLII. 180.

Bratton. 1. [Bratton Long Barrow [Map]] In Bratton Camp. Length 230ft. (Thurnam); E. and W. Opened by Wm. Cunnington, who found a secondary burial of three skeletons near the top of the larger end, but failed to find the primary one. Thurnam, who re-opened it in 1866, seems to have found the primary burial on the floor of the barrow, consisting of "a heap of imperfectly burnt, or rather charred, human bones, apparently those of one or two adults"1 This barrow is now a rather unshapely heap and much cut about; the mound is not ploughed but it stands on cultivated ground and all trace of the ditches is obliterated. O.M. 45, NW.; A.W. I. 55; Arch. XLII. 180, 192; W.A.M. XIII. 341.

Note 1. In Gough's Camden I. 146 it is said that "many human bones mixed vith stag's horns, fragments of urns, and pieces of iron weapons, and mill-stones," have been found "under the mound."

Brixton Deverill. 2. On Cold Kitchen Hill [Cold Kitchen Hill Long Barrow [Map]], W. of one ditch and N of another, and almost due N". of Kingston Deverill Church [Map]. Length 174ft.; S.S.E. and N.N.W. There seems to be no record of this barrow; probably unopened. A very fine barrow, in excellent condition, with ditches well defined. There are several slight sinkings in the mound, that may mark places of interment or openings. The mound does not quite fill the space between the ditches at the northern end, leaving a slight platform or berm on either side. For similar berms see below. Brixton Deverill 7. O.M. 57 NE.; A.W. I. Map of Stourton Station.

Brixton Deverill. 7. [Brixton Deverill 7 Long Barrow [Map]] S.E. of Brixton Deverill, and E. of Monkton Deverill, on the down to the N.W. of Lower Pertwood Farm. Length 278ft.; nearly E. and W. There seem to be no records of this barrow; apparently unopened. A very fine barrow, in excellent condition, with unusually well defined deep ditches, standing on unploughed down in a rather remote situation. The ditches are not straight, but curve inwards towards the mound in the middle, and outwards from the mound at both ends. There is also the rather unusual feature of a distinct berm, or level platform, between the fringe of the mound and the inner edges of the ditches. For similar berms see Brixton Deverill 2 and Milston 39. O.M. 57 SE.; A. W. I. Map of Stourton Station.

For Long Barrow in Brixton Deverill parish now destroyed see end of this list.

Bulford. 1. "Longbarrow Clump [Map]," on sloping ground, S. of Bulford village, close to and S. of railway line. Length 133ft.; E. and W. There seem to be no records of this barrow, and it is not shown by Hoare. It is a high mound planted with trees, otherwise in fairly good condition. The ground on which it stands is now down to grass, but it was formerly ploughed right up to the edge of the mound, and the ditches are obliterated. O.M. 54 SE.

Calne Without. 1. [Calne Without 1 Long Barrow [Map]] About ¼ of a mile W. of Cherhill Monument. Length? E. and W. The remains of a long-shaped mound, much cut about at both ends by stone diggers; perhaps the remnant of a Long Barrow; nothing seems to be known of its history. O.M. 27 SE. For the barrow also near Cherhill Monument, referred to by Thurnam as " Oldbury," see under Cherhill.

Cherhill. 1a. [Oldbury Long Barrow [Map]] Just outside the ramparts of Oldbury Camp, W. of the monument, on the Cherhill — Calne Without parish boundary. Length 60ft. ( Wm. Cunnington1 ); E. and W. This barrow has been practically destroyed by flint diggers, only a confused heap now remaining. During this digging in 1864 some human bones were found, and Wm. Cunnington visited the spot and further examined the mound. Three skeletons were found " lying with their heads towards the E. in a large shallow grave surrounded by small blocks of sarsen stone."2 A second grave was found empty, and in the mound a worn mealing stone of sarsen (Devizes Museum Cat. II. X. 96a) and charcoal. O.M. 27 SE.; Arch. xlii. 203, 218; Mem. Anthrop. Soc. I. 473; W.A.M. xiii. 103 (Cunnington); Smith p. 50, III. C. v. d.: MS. Cat. No. 198.

The barrow is not shown on the O.M. The site may be found by prolonging the curve of the ditch of the outer rampart of the camp to the point where it cuts the parish boundary, just N. of the track. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Oldbury."

Note 1. To avoid confusion it is perhaps as well to explain that there are two William Cunningtons referred to in this list. The elder and contemporary of Sir R. Colt Hoare died in 1810, the younger, who was his grandson, died in 1906.

Note 2. Thurnam has included this among his list of chambered barrows, but this account by Wm. Cunnington, who himself examined the mound, hardly seems to justify its description as a "chambered" barrow.

Chippenham. 1. "Lanhill Barrow [Map]," on Barrow Hill, sometimes called "Hubba's Low." Length about 160ft. (Thurnam); E. and W. chambered. This large stone-built barrow has been long used more or less as a quarry. In 1855 Thurnam made some excavations in it, and found two chambers with remains of skeletons, but they seem to have been previously disturbed. In 1909 a chamber was accidentally discovered by men digging stone from the mound; it was built of six large slabs of stone, with the spaces between them filled in with dry walling, and a corbelled roof of. similar stones. Lying in a confused heap within the chamber were the remains of not fewer than eleven individuals. Steps have been taken to protect this chamber, and it may be seen still intact.

Thurnam's description, written in 1866, of this once fine barrow, applies to it equally well to-day. " At present the mound has the appearance of several irregular hillocks, in part grown over with thorns and briars, resembling somewhat the site of an old quarry." O.M. 19 SE; A. W. II. 99; Arch. xlii. 203; W.A.M. iii. 67 (Thurnam 1856); xxxvi. 300,(1909). This barrow was described by Aubrey about the middle of the 17th century in his manuscript "Monumenta Britannica."

Collingbourne Kingston. 21. [Collingbourne Kingston Long Barrow [Map]]. On Fairmile Down. Length 137ft.; E. and W. There is no recorded opening of this barrow, but it appears to have been dug into in four separate places. The mound is otherwise in good condition and stands on unploughed down land. The ditches on either side are unusually deep and well defined. O.M. 42, SE.; W.A.M. viii. 156 (et passim). Not shown by Hoare.

Donhead St. Mary. 4. [Donhead St Mary Long Barrow [Map]] S.W. of Wingreen, near the Dorset border. N.W. of Abbot's Copse, and S. of the Ridgeway. Length 132ft.; N.E. and S.W. There is no record of the opening of this barrow, but it appears to have been dug into. The mound is in fair condition, and does not appear to have been ploughed over although the ground round it is under cultivation. Ditches indistinct. O.M. 74 N.W. Not shown by Hoare.

For Long Barrow in Donhead St. Mary parish now destroyed see end of this list.

Downton. 2. [Downton Long Barrow aka Giant's Grave [Map]]. "Giant's Grave," S.E. of Clearbury Rings [Map]. Length about 150ft.; S. and N. This barrow does not appear to have been opened; there is a slight sinking at the larger end, possibly over a cist. The mound is a fine one, in excellent condition, and apparently never disturbed, although the ground round it has been cultivated. Ditches indistinct as a result of cultivation. O.M. 71 SE. Not shown by Hoare.

Durrington. 24. [Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]]. On Durrington Down, S.S.W. of Knighton Long Barrow [Map], within a few feet, and N. of, the new military cross-road from Lark Hill to the Devizes —Salisbury Road. Length 142ft.; S.E. and N.W. There is no record of any opening of this barrow. It is planted with trees, and now stands in the middle of a military camping ground, and is in a poor state of preservation. The ditch on the northerly side is still discernible, but that on the other side has been disfigured and obscured by sheds erected by the military. O.M. 54 SW. Not shown by Hoare.

Durrington. 63. E. of the road from Rushall to Amesbury, on Durrington — Amesbury parish boundary. Length about 200ft. This is shown on the O.M. as three distinct mounds, but although of peculiar shape and construction it was regarded by Hoare as a true Long Barrow, and he describes it thus: — " A very singular tumulus, appearing like three barrows rising from one large base, but certainly a Long Barrow. It stands from south-west to north-east1, and has its wide end towards the west; on the small end, and also on the centre, are mounds resembling two circular barrows. We opened that on the small end, and found only a few ashes and charred wood; but in the central mound we discovered near the top, a skeleton and a drinking cup, both of which had been disturbed. On reaching the floor of the Long Barrow, we found a circular cist like a little well, but it contained no interment." It seems clear that the primary interment, if there is one, was not reached. The barrow is, and has been for many years, under cultivation, and is much scattered and levelled, but the irregular outline as described by Hoare is still clear; no ditches are visible. O.M. 54 SE.; A. W. I. 170.

This appears to be the barrow referred to by Stukeley as "along barrow, which I suppose, the Archdruids' who lived at Eadfyn." Stonehenge, 38 Tab. xxv. This barrow is not included in Thurnam's list of those opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. It is shown on the O.M. as due E. and W

Edington. 7. "Tinhead Barrow [Map]," on Tinhead Hill. Length 220ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who states that "it had evidently been rifled at some unknown period "; he only found "traces of human remains in the usual situation at the east end, with a fragment or two of rude black pottery." It stands on ploughed ground, and its E. end is ploughed over, but the greater part of the mound is planted with trees. The ditches are obliterated, and material has been dug out of the mound in more than one place, many years ago, for large trees are now growing in the hollows. O.M. 45 NE.; A. W. I. 88; Arch. xlii. 180, 194—5.

Figheldean. 27. "Knighton Barrow [Map],"1 on Knighton Down. Length 182ft.; E. and W. There seems to be no record of this barrow ever having been opened, but it looks as if it had been dug into in more than one place. Although not of great length this is a very fine barrow, and the most conspicuously situated of any in the county, being a landmark for many miles across the Plain in every direction. The mound is of great height and the ditches unusually deep and well defined. It has been much disfigured of late years by the military, who have chosen the southern ditch as a convenient spot in which to put a series of water tanks. O.M. 54 NE.; A. W. I. 175—6.

Note 1. Referred to by Stukeley as "North Long Barrow."

Figheldean. 31. [Robin Hood's Ball Long Barrow [Map]] S. of Robin Hood Ball (clump of trees) and E. of circular earthwork. Length 148ft. S.E. and N.W. Opened by Thurnam Sept. 8th, 1864, who found the primary interment, consisting of the bones of a single individual, hot in their natural order, but forming a pile, very little to the east of the centre of the mound. He also found a secondary burial of a skeleton with a "drinking cup."1 The following account is from the M.S. Cat.: — "The primary interment consisted of a skeleton doubled up in the black earth at the base of the barrow, within a space of not more than 1½ft. square. There was reason for thinking that the bones had been separated in part before interment, the head of one tibia being in apposition with the malleolus of the other, though lying side by side. The primary interment in this barrow (which is in sight of Stonehenge) though lying towards the east, was much nearer the centre than usual2, and was only found (after making four distinct excavations) about 55ft. from the east end, the entire length being 150ft. The skeleton was in the usual stratum of dry brown earth, the bones and especially the skull being remarkable for their peculiarly eroded character. Within ljft. to the east of the skeleton was an oblong hole or cist in the chalk rock, 2ft. 9in. (long?) and 1ft. deep, with nothing in it but dry brown earth." The secondary interment was "about a foot below the surface, about 40ft. from the east end of the same barrow; the skeleton was in a moderately contracted posture, with head to N.W. Near the hips a fine drinking cup of red ware much broken, but since restored."

The whole of the central part of this barrow has been carted away, leaving practically only the fringe of the mound. This most regretable destruction seems to have been perpetrated during the last four or five years by the military on the Plain, apparently for the purpose of making a shelter hut. O.M. 54 N W.; A. W. I. 176; Arch. xlii. 180, 184, 197, 198; Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop. 2 S. ii. 357, GT7,fig. Men. Anthrop. Soc. iii.; MS. Cat. 233—4.

This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as " Figheldean."

Note 1. This vessel is now in the British Museum.

Note 2. See Warminster 6.

Fittleton.1 5. [Weather Hill Long Barrow [Map]] On Weather Hill, S. of Everley and W of the old Marlborough — Salisbury Road. Length about 150ft. N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who does not seem to have published any account of the excavations beyond that in the summary list in Arch. xlii. The following entry, however, appears in the MS. Cat.: — "255. Ancient British. Part of a very dolichocephalic calvarium obtained from the north broad end of a long barrow on Fittleton Down, near Chidbury Camp, Oct. 6, 1866. The barrow had been previously disturbed. There were indications of one skull only, and that apparently a female. Remains of bos longifrons and horns of Cervus elaphus? scattered."

The barrow stands on an uncultivated down in good condition with well defined ditches. It shows where it has been dug into, no doubt by Thurnam. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Fittleton."2 O.M. 48 N W.; A. W. I. Map of Everley Station; Arch. xlii. 180; MS. Cat. No. 255.

For Long Barrows in Fittleton parish now destroyed see end of this list.

Note 1. This is not the barrow opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1851, referred to in W.A.M. xxviii. 172. For that see below, List of barrows now destroyed, under Fittleton.

Note 2. Hoare shows two Long Barrows lying near each other on Weather Hill but there is no trace of the second barrow to be found now, and only one is shown on the O.M. As the down does not appear to have been under recent cultivation this was possibly an error of Hoare's.

Grafton. 5. [Tow Long Barrow [Map]] On Wexcombe Down, to the N.E. of Jubilee Plantation. Length 83ft. N. and S. In excellent condition, standing on uncultivated down land, and apparently unopened; the ditches are unusually well defined and end abruptly at both ends of the mound in the orthodox way. The mound is rather flat and broad, with one or two depressions in it that may mark the place of interments— perhaps secondary ones. It appears rather as an oval mound on the O.M., and does not seem to have been previously noticed as a "Long" barrow. O.M. 43 N.W.

Heddington. 3. [King's Play Hill Long Barrow [Map]] On King's Play Down. Length 101ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened 1907 and found to cover one crouched skeleton of typical "Long" barrow character. Turf, in good condition, with well-defined ditches. The skull, etc., in Devizes Museum. O.M. 34 N W.; A. W. II. Map of Calne and Swindon Stations; W.A.M. xxxvi. 311; Smith p. 62 IV. A vii. c.

Heytesbury. 1. "Bowl's Barrow [Map]," on Salisbury Plain overlooking the Wylye Valley. Length 150ft. (Cunnington, 1801); E. and W. Opened by Wm. Cunnington 1801; he found several secondary interments, and "at the base of the barrow was a floor of flints regularly laid, and on it the remains of several human bodies deposited in no regular order. It appeared therefore that they had been thrown promiscuously together, and a great pile of stones raised lengthways along the centre of the barrow over them." At this time fourteen skulls were counted. Later Wm. Cunnington made a second attempt both at the E. and W. ends; at the former he found the heads and horns of seven or more oxen and a large cist (or grave) close to the skeletons. Reopened by Thurnam, 1864, who found the remains of the skeletons as left by Wm. Cunnington. He also found a secondary interment of a skeleton "near the summit of the tumulus — probably of the Anglo-Saxon period." MS. Cat. 214. Again opened J 885 — 6 by Wm. and Henry Cunnington, who found some skeletons of the primary interment hitherto undisturbed, in all six skulls.

This barrow has unfortunately suffered much disfigurement of late years. A pond has been made close to the edge of the mound, obliterating the ditch on the north side, and a large and unsightly iron tank has been erected on the eastern end of the mound. It is much to be regretted that this fine barrow should have been so defaced. O.M. 52 NE.; A. W. I. 87; Arch. xlii. 180; W.A.M. xxiii. 118; xxiv. 104; Natural Review, 1865; MS. Cat. 210—214.

Heytesbury. 4. On Heytesbury North Field [Map], E. of Scratchbury Camp, and N.E. of Cotley Hill. Length 160ft.; S. and N. Opened in 1800 by Wm. Cunnington without success, and again later when, as well as the usual stratum of black earth, he found near the south and broad end "the remains of a great many human skeletons crossingeach other in every direction, but the decayed state of the bones prevented him from ascertaining the number of bodies."

This mound has been much spread about as a result of cultivation, and the ditches have been obliterated; it is still under cultivation. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as "Heytesbury."

Kennet. 1. "East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]." Length 344ft.; S.E. and N.W. Included by Thurnam in his list of chambered barrows. Not opened.1Planted with trees, no ditches visible, standing on ploughed ground. O.M. 35 NW.; A.W. II. Map of Marlborough Station; Arch. xlii. 203; Smith p. 179, XII. H. vii. a; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 98; Stukeley, Abury, 46.

For Kennet, West, see wider Avebury.

Note 1. It is stated by Wm. Long (W.A.M. iv. 343, 1854) that "It was opened, a few years ago, by the Rev. M. Connor, of East Kennet." Nothing seems to be known of this "opening," and Dr. Thurnam speaks of it as "only attempted." Arch. xlii. 203.

Knook. 2. "Knook Barrow [Map]," on Knook Down, E. of the "British Village." Length 90ft. (Hoare); a recent measurement 100ft.; nearly N. and S. Opened by Wm. Cunnington 1801 — 2, when he found under a heap of flint and marl stones, and on a pavement of flints, a number of charred human and other animal bones, and charred wood; the bones seemed to be those of seven or eight individuals. A secondary burial of four headless skeletons was also found near the centre of the mound, at a depth of about 18in. The barrow was reopened by Thurnam without further result. This barrow stands on uncultivated down land and is in fair condition, but with some rabbits in it; the ditches are distinct. O.M. 52 NE.; A. W. I. 83; Arch. xlii. 180, 192; xv. 345. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as " Knook a."

Knook. 5.. [Knook Castle Long Barrow [Map]] On Knook Down, NE. of "Knook Barrow," E. of Bowl's Barrow, and N. of " Old Ditch." Length 78ft; E. and W. Opened in 1801. Under the usual stratum of black earth three skeletons were found near the E. end, and a little to the W. of these another skeleton. This barrow stands on uncultivated down and is in fair condition. It is a small mound, flat, low, and broad; the ditches are fairly well defined. O.M. 52 NE.; A. W. I. 86; Arch. xlii. 180. Referred to by Thurnam as "Knook b."

Knoyle, East, [1a.] [East Knoyle Long Barrow [Map]] N. of road from Willoughby Hedge to Amesbury, about | mile E. of the 18th milestone. Length? S.E. and N.W. No opening recorded. Now down to grass, but shows every sign of having been formerly under the plough for many years. Much spread about and levelled, and now very inconspicuous. Not marked on the OM., the oblong mound shown on the site being the remnant of a round barrow shown by Hoare, which has also suffered much under the plough. O.M. 63, NE.; A. W. I. Map of Stourton Station.

Laverstock. 3. "Hand Barrow [Map]," about a mile N.E. of Old Sarum, ¾ mile N. of Ford, on the S. side of the Portway. Length 148ft.; N.N.E. and S.S. W. Nothing known of any opening. It is shown on Hoare's maps as two round barrows, but he speaks of it as "a tumulus called Hand Barrows, as if there were two mounds, but I am inclined to think they originally formed one long barrow." A. W. II. Roman Æra, 46. There are now dwarfish trees growing on the mound, but it is otherwise probably much in the same condition as when Hoare saw it. The ground round it is ploughed up to the edge of the mound, so that the ditches, if any, are entirely obliterated. A quantity of material has been taken away from the central part of the mound, giving somewhat the appearance of two distinct mounds, as at Corton Long Barrow (see under Boyton), but it is nowhere levelled down to the natural surface; material has also been taken from the larger end, leaving a hollow. In spite of these disfigurements, however, the mound still has decidedly the appearance of a "Long" barrow; it is considerably wider at one end than the other and tapers off regularly almost to a point. O.M. 66 N.E.; A. W. I. Station V., South, map only; II. Roman Æra 46.

Luckington. 1. "Giant's Caves [Map]." Length 123ft. 1; E. and W. Chambered. Apparently rifled at some unknown period and the cists or chambers left uncovered. This barrow now appears as a mere untidy shapeless heap in a grass field, covered with bushes; there are several large stones placed edgeways, half buried in the ground, that appear to be the ruins of at least three chambers; one of these, oblong in shape, seems to be fairly complete except for any covering stones it may have had. O.M. 12 NW.; A. W. II. 101—2 (quotes Aubrey and Childrey); Arch. xlii. 203.

Milston. 1. [Milston 1 Long Barrow [Map]] On Brigmerston (or Brigmilston) Field, S. of Silk Hill. Length 1; N.E. and S.W. No recorded opening. Now down to grass, but formerly much ploughed over and thrown about; ditches obliterated. O.M. 55 NW.; A. W. I. Map of Everley Station.

Milston. 22. [Milston 22 Long Barrow [Map]] On Brigmerston Down, E. of source of 9 mile river, and W. of the big "Ditch." Length about 100ft.; S.E. and N. W. Does not appear to have been opened. Turf, in fair condition, apparently never ploughed. Ditch on S.W". side well defined, but on the other side obscured by an old trackway. O.M. 55 NW. Not shown by Hoare.

Milston. 31. On Milston Down, to the N.W. of barrows 39, 40. Length 106ft. S.S. E. and N.N. W. No record of opening. Perhaps a doubtful "Long " barrow. It is a wide rather flat mound, some 66ft. in width, rather larger at the southern end; it can hardly be said that any ditch is distinguishable, but the fact that rabbits have burrowed a good deal on both sides, and not at the ends, suggests that there were side ditches only. It stands in a thin plantation, but there are no trees growing actually on the barrow. O.M. 55 NW.

Milston. 39. [Milston 39 Long Barrow [Map]] On Milston Down, near the Hants border, close to, and N. of new military road from Bulford to Tedworth. Length 173ft; E. and W. No recorded opening. Fine mound with well-defined ditches. The ground round it, though now down to grass, was formerly under cultivation, but the barrow itself does not appear to have been cultivated. It is now badly infested by rabbits that have disfigured it a good deal. There is a distinct berm, or level space, between the inner edges of the ditches and the fringe of the mound.1 O.M. 55 NW.; A.W. I., Map of Everley Station; Arch. xlii. 171.

Milston. 40. On Milston Down, close to the last. Length 87ft; E. and W. No recorded opening. This smaller barrow lies parallel with, and only 52 yards, measured from the nearest edges of their respective ditches, N. of the preceding one. Its ditches are quite evident, but the whole barrow seems to have been under cultivation for a short time; it is now down to grass. It has, like the last, suffered much dilapidation from rabbits. It is unusual to find two Long Barrows close together; these two are the closest on record. O.M. 55 NW.; Arch. xlii. 171. Not shown by Hoare.

Note 1. This is an unusual feature that occurs in only a few other of the Wiltshire Long Barrows. See Brixton Deverill 2 and 7.

Milton Lilbourne. 7.2 "Giant's Grave [Map]," on Fyfield Down, S. of the village of Milton Lilbourne. Length 315ft. (Thurnam); E.N.E. and W.S. W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865. "On the natural level, near the east end, a heap of three or four skeletons was found, the only perfect skull from which is of a remarkably long and narrow form. One of the other skulls had been forcibly cleft before burial. The only object found with the skeletons was a finely-worked leaf-shaped arrowhead of flint, close to one of the skulls."

Thurnam also says "A moderately wide trench runs along each side, but is not continued round the ends of the barrow." There is now really no sign of a ditch on the S. side; on the N. side it is quite evident, and very irregular in shape; there is also the very unusual feature of a slight but distinct counterscarp on the outer edge of this ditch.3

A very fine barrow and placed in a commanding situation overlooking the Vale of Pewsey. In perfect preservation except for a large hole at the E. end, no doubt not filled up after Thurnam's excavation. O.M. 42, NW.; A.W. I. 190; Arch. xlii. 180, 182, 194; Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2 S., III. 170; W.A.M. xi. 47; MS. Cat. 225.

Note 2. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Fyfield."

Note 3. I have never noticed this feature in any other Long Barrow.

Netheravon. 6. [Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]] On Netheravon Down, E. of Netheravon Bake, N.E. of the clump of trees known as Robin Hood Ball. Length 111ft.; S.S.E. and N.N.W. Opened by Thurnam, who does not seem to have published any account of his discoveries beyond that in the summary list in Arch. xlii. The following entry, however, appears in the MS. Gat.: — "No. 236. Ancient British. From a long barrow much degraded by the plough in the parish of N etheravon, and about ½ a mile from the one in the parish of Figheldean. Excavated by Dr. Thurnam, Sept. 21, 1865. Near the east end and about a foot below the surface on the chalk rock were the broken scattered bones of one or perhaps two skeletons from which I picked out the fragments from which this calvarium has been restored, also the lower jaw almost perfect. With these was the cleft fragment of a second skull, and a portion of a small female jaw."

The mound is now very low, flat, and broad, and the ditches indistinct.

It is turfed, and looks as if it had been down to grass for many years.

O.M. 54 N.W.; A. W. I. Map only, of Amesbury Station; Arch. xlii. 180; MS. Cat. 236.

Nettleton, 1. "Littleton Drew Barrow [Map],"1 or "Lugbury," on the Nettleton — Littleton Drew parish boundary. Length 185ft. (Hoare); E. and W. A chambered, stone-built barrow, with two large upright stones and a third large flat stone leaning up against them, near the E. end of the mound. In 1821 Hoare2 cut a trench 150ft. in length down the mound to the west of the standing stones, and found a burial of a single crouched skeleton on the floor of the barrow about 30ft. from them, with a small pointed flint implement. After this the field came under cultivation, and in 1854 a stone cist or chamber was brought to light by the plough, and subsequently Mr. Poulett Scrope, the then owner, made a "complete examination " of the mound, when three other chambers, all on the south side, were found. In these there were nine, seven, and ten skeletons respectively, the fourth chamber being empty.

The field is now down to grass, but the mound has been much spread about by cultivation, and the ditches are scarcely discernible. O.M. 19 NW.; A. W. II. 99, Roman Æra, 101—2; Arch. xlii. 200, 203, 209; W.A.M. iii. 164 (Thurnam); Cr. Brit. PL 24; Gent. Mag. 1822, xcii. 160; Hoare 's MS. (Devizes Museum), Pt. I. p. 160; MS. Cat. 56—65.

Note 1. As Dr. Thurnam remarks both Aubrey and Sir B. C. Hoare connected the barrow with Littleton Drew rather than with Nettleton, because they had'an idea that the name "Drew" had some Druidical connection.

Note 2.Sir B. C. Hoare opened this barrow after his second volume of An. Wilts was published, and his account of the work is contained in a letter from him to the Gentleman's Magazine for 1822, referred to above; practically the whole of this letter is reprinted as an appendix to Poulett Scrope's History of Castle Combe (p. 391). The fullest account of the barrow and of its contents is to be found in the paper by Thurnam in the Wilts Arch. Mag., also referred to above.

Norton Bavant. 13. [Norton Down Long Barrow aka Norton Bavant 13 [Map]] On Norton Down. Length 180ft.: E. and W. Opened by Thurnam, and the following note is from his MS. Cat.: "The barrow chiefly of chalk rubble appears to have contained no secondary interments, which were extensively searched for. There was no stratum of black earth, but under the eastern apex, on the floor of the barrow, was a confused mass of skeletons spread over a space about 8ft. long and 3ft. broad. Above these the flints were larger and more numerous, and mixed with an occasional small block of sarsen stone and of the ' Warminster burr ' of the upper greensand. The portions of skulls indicated at least 18 skeletons, though whether they had been buried here entire seemed doubtful from the small number of the long bones. Of the 18 I computed 8 of males, 5 of females, and 5 children. So far as can be made out, all were decidedly dolichocephalic, and 9 of the more perfect calvaria which have been preserved (at Cambridge) have a cephalic index varying from '63 to '73, and averaging '68. The only other relics found with these human remains consisted of a round battered nodule of flint weighing 3f lbs., the greater part of a curious rude shallow vase of black pottery with two handles. The paste is mixed with particles of small fossil oyster shells from the tertiary clay beds, it is thought of Hampshire. There was also one large horn of red deer with the human remains. The broken vase was in their midst, and had probably been deposited entire, though no part of the base was found. The flint nodule lay close to one of the skulls, nearly all of which present traces of having been broken, some of them perhaps with this very nodule. One skeleton lay rather apart from the others to the north, and the skull of this is the most perfect of the series, and remarkable as presenting no trace of having been cleft. The lower jaw is nearly perfect, the upper too much decayed to be restored. Excavated June 8th, 1866." This fine barrow stands on uncultivated down land; the ditches are very well defined, and contrary to the usual rule are slightly longer at both ends than the mound itself. The mound shows in several places where it has been dug into. O.M. 52 NW.; A. W. I. 67; Arch. xlii. 180, 182, 184, 194—5; Bull, de la Soc. d' Anthrop. 2 S. ii. 357, 677, fig.; Mem. Anthrop. Soc. iii. 71; MS. Gat. 245—253. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as "Norton Bavant.

Norton Bavant. 14. [Norton Bavant 14 [Map]] On Middleton Down, N.E. of Middle Hill, and N. of Scratchbury Camp. Length 84ft.; S.E. and N.W. No recorded opening. It is planted with young trees and thickly covered with undergrowth; the ground' round it is under cultivation, and the ditches have been obliterated. It has probably been shortened by ploughing round it in former years. O.M. 52 N W.; A. W. I. 67.

Preshute. 1.1 [Preshute aka Rockley Long Barrow [Map]] On Manton Down, S.W. of Rockley, and N.W. of Manton House. Length 57ft.; S.E. and N.W. Chambered. The chamber seems to have been uncovered, and probably rifled at some unknown period. Hoare speaks of the barrow as "a small long barrow, covered with heath and furze, having a fallen kistvaen at the east end. The mound appears to have been set round with stones." The Rev. A. C. Smith also describes it as being so covered with heath and furze as "to be not easily discovered." This growth has now disappeared, the mound is grass-grown, and the partially-ruined chamber, or "kistvaen," as Hoare calls it, is quite clear. Most, if not all, the stones that once formed the chamber are still in situ, but several have fallen down. It was oblong in shape, with one large stone, that still stands, forming its back, or westernmost wall; the side walls were formed by two stones, one on each side, and it was no doubt the collapse inwards of the one on the northern side that let down the large covering stone into the leaning position in which it now lies. Immediately in front of the two stones forming the side walls, i.e., to the eastward of them, are two fallen stones, so much buried in the ground, that it is not possible to see their size or shape; it seems not improbable that these formed portals to the chamber. Of the stones that once stood round the mound three, or perhaps four, may still be seen lying partially buried. There is now what looks like a wide crack in the covering stone, and the stone is actually in two pieces. The Rev. A. 0. Smith states that this stone was split by workmen preparatory to breaking it up into building stone, but that fortunately he arrived on the scene in time to prevent further damage. O.M. 28 NE.; A. W. II. 43; Arch. xlii. 203; Smith p. 198, xiv. K. iv. a; Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd S. II. 309.

Note 1. This barrow was referred to by Thurnam as " Rockley."

Preshute. 3a. The Dolmen known as the "Devil's Den [Map]," in Clatford Bottom. No recorded opening. This may be the chamber of a long barrow, or an erection never intended to be wholly covered, such as the standing stones at Littleton Drew (see under Nettleton).

It was considered to be the remnant of a barrow by the Eev. W. C. Lukis, and by Sir R. C. Hoare. The latter says of it: "From the elevated ground1 on which this monument is placed, it is evident that it was intended as a part annexed to the sepulchral mound, and erected probably at the east end of it, according to the usual custom of primitive times." It consists of a massive covering stone resting on several uprights, which appear to have given somewhat under the weight imposed upon them. There are also several other recumbent sarsen stones which no doubt formed a part of the monument, whatever its exact character may have been. 0.31. 28 SE.; A. W. II. 43; Smith p. 202—3, XV. K. v. a; Stukeley, Abury 49.

Note 1. This must refer to the artificial rising (the remnant of the mound) for it lies in a combe or "Bottom."

Shalbourne, 5. [Shalbourne 5 Long Barrow [Map]] In Great Botley Copse, N. of Tidcombe. Length 170ft.; S. and N. No recorded opening. Now in a wood and thickly covered with undergrowth; there is a large circular cavity at the south end that may show where it has been dug into. O.M. 43; A. W. I. 187.

Shalbourne. [5a.] [Shalbourne 5a Long Barrow [Map]] On Smay Down, E. of "The Hassock " and W. of old chalk pit. Length about 162ft.; S.E. and N.W. It is said that this barrow has been opened and that skeletons were found, but there is no record of the opening, and no particulars seem to be known. Now down to grass, but it was formerly under cultivation and has been much levelled and flattened. Not on O.M. 43 N W. or in A. W.

Sherrington. I.1 Sherrington Barrow [Map], about ½ mile E. of Sherrington Church, and about 100 yards south of the River Wylye. Length, according to Hoare, 108ft., at present 86ft.; W.N.W. and E.S.E. (Hoare). Opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1804, when several secondary interments were found, but no primary interment. Re-opened by Thurnam and the Rev. A. Fane in 1856 without further result. This mound has suffered much injury in the last 100 years from cultivation and other causes. It seems too high to have been ploughed over, but ploughing round it has |much reduced its size. There is a large crater-like hole at the east end, and the whole surface of the mound is irregular, much cut about, and untidy looking; the field is now down to grass; there is no sign of ditches. On the O.M. it appears as an almost circular mound, as now in fact it is. O.M. 58 NE.; A. W. I. 100; Arch. xv. (Cunnington, 1805); xlii. 180.

Note 1. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam and Hoare as " Sherrington.'

Sherrington. 4. [Boyton Down Long Barrow [Map]] On the Boyton — Sherrington parish boundary, S. of Boyton Church, E. of Boyton Field Barn, on a conspicuous ridge of down. Length 150ft.; E. and W. No recorded opening. It is shown on Hoare's Map of Wylye Station (S. of the village of Boyton) as opened, but there seems to be no mention of it in the text. It is not included in Thurnam's list of long barrows opened by Hoare and Cunnington, and there is only an incidental mention of it in Wm. Cunnington's account of "Barrows opened on the Manors of Corton, Boyton, and Sherrington " (Arch. xv. 338) although a sketch of the barrow is given on Pl. XVI. fig. 2. Only the fringe and a few feet at the western end of the mound remain, but it must once have been a very fine barrow, and very conspicuously situated. The mound appears to have been wide and high for its length, the width at the east end being now 64ft. It stands on cultivated ground with no trace of the ditches above ground. Labourers on the spot stated that the material of the mound had been taken away from time to time to mend the adjacent trackway. O.M. 58 NE.; Arch. xv. 340, PL VI. fig. 2; A.W. I. Map of Wylye Station.

Stockton. 1. "Stockton Barrow [Map]," N. of Stockton Works, S. of Sherrington Clump. Length about 120ft.; nearly N. and S. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington, who presumably found skeletons, as Hoare only says " a long barrow, which we opened, and found similar to those of the same class." It stands on ploughed ground, but the barrow itself does not appear to have been cultivated; it is planted with trees but otherwise in good condition, and the ditches are still distinct. O.M. 58 SE.; A. W. I. 107; Arch. xlii. 180.

Sutton Veny. 2. [Sutton Veny Long Barrow [Map]] In grass field to the N.N.W. of the old Church of St. Leonard. Hoare shows a " Long " barrow in this position. The O.M. shows it as a large circular mound, and in its present condition it has no resemblance to a "Long" barrow, but in deference to Hoare, who saw it in a more perfect condition, it must be regarded as one. It is of great size, and level on top, and now looks more like a "motte" mound than anything else. It is shown by Hoare as unopened, and as lying S. and N. O.M. 52 SW.; A. W. I. Map of Wylye Station.

Tidcombe with Fosbury. 1. "Tidcombe Great Barrow [Map]," about ½ mile S. of Tidcombe. Length 195ft.; according to Lukis 188ft.; S. and N. Chambered. Opened by country people in search for treasure about 1750 (Arch. viii. 91, note i.) who found a chamber at the E. end built of large sarsen stones, and it is said, containing only one skeleton. Opened again by the Rev. W. C. Lukis and Dr. Thurnam 1 without apparently further result.

This once fine barrow has been much injured; a large cutting has been made through the mound from end to end, and never filled up; several large sarsen stones (that once formed the chamber?) are exposed at the southern end. The ground is under cultivation up to the fringe of the mound, and there is no sign of the ditches visible on the surface. O.M. 43 N.W.; A. W. 187 (this is only an incidental reference, and the barrow is not marked on the map of Everley "Station," but there are two round barrows shown in its place). A. W. ii. Roman Æra, 69, and Map of Roman Road, p. 67; Arch. viii. 91, note 1; xlii. 203, 229; W.A.M. viii. 155 (Lukis).

Tilshead. 1. "Kill Barrow [Map]," on the Tilshead — Chitterne All Saints parish boundary. Length 170ft. (Thurnam); S.E. and N.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865.1 At one time Thurnam believed this not to be a true "Long" barrow, but an oval one of the Bronze Age; but he subsequently changed his opinion and compared its unusual features with those of the Long Barrow, Winterbourne Stoke 53 (Hoare's No. 3). " Both... yielded deposits of burnt bones covered and intermixed with a substance resembling mortar, many of the bones being tinged of a green colour. At Kill Barrow it was clear that several bodies had been burnt very imperfectly, some of the bones being merely charred. Others were stained a brilliant green and blue, but chemical tests yielded no traces of copper. Under a pile of a white friable substance like half-dried shelly mortar, were curious masses of a sort of ossiferous breccia; the burnt human bones, black, white, blue, and green, being closely cemented by calcareous matter. I am now convinced that both are Long barrows, and not Oval ones, as I had supposed." The MS. Cat. gives some details that may not be published elsewhere: — " The primary interment consisted of piles of burnt bones on the floor of the barrow at the east end. One of these to the east of the other, would have about filled a peck; the other, 6ft. or 7ft. nearer the middle of the barrow, was in much greater quantity. These burnt bones were some of them curiously [mixed] with burnt flints, sarsen chips, &c, into what I have called an ossiferous breccia, and many were stained of a beautifully vivid blue and green colour. These burnt bones were unequally burnt, and many merely charred were quite black. Above the bones the chalk rubble of the barrow was curiously changed into a delicate friable cream-coloured substance like burnt shells. I fancy this an imperfect lime, formed probably from the burnt bones having been deposited whilst hot. This substance was very abundant, and would probably have filled a bushel." Two secondary burials of skeletons were found also. One was "one foot deep, — stretched at length, with head to the north (or N".N".W.) " The other skeleton was "in the same position, nearer the eastern end." It seems that the barrow was opened on two separate occasions. The skull from the first-mentioned secondary burial only, seems to have been sent to Cambridge.

The barrow is unploughed and in good condition, but no distinguishable ditch. O.M. 46 SW.; AAV. I. 89; Arch, xliii. 297, note; Proc. Soc. Ant., 2 S., II. 427; W.A.M. xi. 42; xiv. 259 (name); MS. Cat. 258.

Note 1. This barrow is not included among the list of those opened by Thurnam.

Tilshead. 2. "Old Ditch" Barrow [Map]. Length 377ft. (Hoare); 380ft. (Thurnam); NE. and S.W. Opened, 1802, by Wm. Cunnington, who made a section 85ft. long from the E. end, but failed to find the primary burial; he noticed the usual stratum of black sooty soil, and found two secondary burnt burials near the surface of the mound. He then cut a section at the VV. end and found three skeletons lying on a pavement of flints about 18in. above the floor of the barrow. In 1865 it was re-opened by Thurnam who made a large excavation near the E. end; and only a few feet beyond where Cunnington had left off in 1802, he found the primary interment. The following account of the discovery is from the MS. Cat. " No. 235. Ancient British. From the great Long Barrow at Tilshead, near Old Ditch, excavated by Thurnam, September 29th, 1865. This (the primary interment) was found by us after great labour, and at a depth of ten feet under the highest point of the tumulus close to its eastern end. Here, at or below the base, was a pile of large flints mixed with a stratum of black earth, and below these was a small skeleton well preserved, in the contracted position and with head to the north. The skull was smashed, as I thought at first by the weight of the flints, but from the peculiar character of a contused cleft near the coronal border of the left parietal, it would appear to have been purposely cleaved before interment. Within a foot or two of the skeleton to the east, under the pile of flints, and on a sort of pavement of the same, were a heap of imperfectly burnt bones, in larger pieces than is usual in round barrows. This very exceptional deposit after cremation must have been made contemporaneously with that of the body to which the entire skeleton belonged. The burnt bones, which were unmixed with charcoal, were perhaps buried whilst still hot, many of the flints around them being of a red or blue colour and very brittle as if from the effect of heat. The only relic with them was a rude and heavy opalescent flint; whether the apparently chipped edges were intentionally given to it may be doubtful; it is 2½in. long, 1¾in. wide, and thick. Other extensive excavations were made in the most likely situations without finding anything except in one place the bones of a fox a few feet deep."

This barrow, one of the finest and longest in the county, is in excellent condition. It lies on gently sloping ground, not at the top of a hill, and in spite of its great size is not at all conspicuous. It has lately been planted with a row of trees along its crest. As its name implies it is close to the remarkable bank and ditch known as "Old Ditch" that traverses the down for some miles to E. and W. of the barrow; as noticed by Hoare "Old Ditch" makes a decided curve when it reaches the mound in order to avoid it.

The ditch of the barrow is very well defined on the north side, but not so well on the south, for "Old Ditch" passing the barrow on that side has somewhat obscured it. O.M. 54 NW.; A. W I. 90; Arch, xlii., 175, 180, 191, 192; W.A.M., xiii., 231 [Note. The Page here is incorrect; the page is 341]; Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop., 2 S., ii., 357, 676, fig.; Mem. Anthrop. Soc, iii., 65, PI. i.,fig. i.; MS. Cat. 235.

Tilshead. 4. "White Barrow [Map]." Length 255ft. (Hoare); E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington but without success, only a few pieces of stag's horns and the usual "line of black earth " being found. This barrow, with 2¾ acres of land adjoining, is now the property of the National Trust. Hoare speaks of it as having been "lately covered with a plantation," but this has long since disappeared, and the whole barrow was for some time under cultivation. In spite of this it may happily still be described as in good condition with well-defined ditches; it is now down to grass, and under its present ownership will not be ploughed again. O.M. 53 NE.; A.W. I. 91; Arch. xlii. 180.

Tilshead. 5. "Tilshead Lodge Barrow," W. of Tilshead Lodge, N. of the Tilshead — Chitterne Koad. (This road is not shown on Hoare's Map.) Length 173ft. (Hoare); E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington; they found a secondary burial of a skeleton under the turf near the E. end, and noticed the usual stratum of black earth on the floor of the barrow, but failed to find the primary burial. It was re-opened by Thurnam, who found the primary burial of two skeletons as well as secondary interments, but no details of the discovery seem to have been published.

The following is the entry in the MS. Cat. in reference to this barrow: "No, 230. Ancient British. From Long Barrow near Tilshead Lodge, exhumed by Dr. Thurnam, Sept. 1st, 1865. From a skeleton in the contracted position at the base of the barrow, near the east end. This and the skeleton from which skull 231 was taken no doubt formed the primary interment. No. 231. Ancient British. From the same barrow as No. 230, and from a skeleton forming part of the primary interment, and separated only from that by a space of about one foot. Like it, its doubling up, or contraction, was excessive, the skeleton occupying no more than 1½ cubic feet. There was reason to suppose from the appearance of the left side of the skull, and the position of the long bones in regard to it, that this last had been cleft at the time of death. With neither skeleton was there any relic, but about a foot to the west of the last was a fine skull of Bos longifrons. At the base of the barrow near the west end was a second skull of the same species of Bos somewhat less perfect than the last, though with six or seven of the cervical vertebrae in situ. A foot or so above the first skull of Bos I. were several fine antlers of red deer, and a metatarsal bone and phalanges of Bos I. Note. I (Dr. Thurnam) retain the first skull of Bos l., the second has been presented to the Museum at Oxford, with the remains of Bos I. from other long barrows." No. 232. Anglo-Saxon. From a secondary interment about a foot below the turf near the centre of the same barrow; the skeleton stretched at length, with the head to the west. On the neck and upper part of the chest were the remains of a shield consisting of the umbo, handle, and four studs, all of iron. Close to the head were the decayed remains of a small situla, or bucket, of wood, bound with thin hoops of brass."

This barrow, though now down to grass, appears to have been under cultivation for some time, and to have been considerably lowered in consequence; the ditches, however, are still visible. O.M. 53 NW.; A.W. I. 91; Arch. xlii. 180, 182, 184, 196; Mem. Anthrop.Soc.nl 67; MS. Cat. 230-232.

Tilshead. 7. [Barrow Plantation Long Barrow [Map]] In Barrow Plantation, E. of the village of Tilshead. Length 210ft. (Thurnam). S.E. and N.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1863, who states it was then covered with trees of about twenty years' growth. "Excavating near the east end, a stratum of black earth was found at the depth of about 5ft.; and in and below this a pile of human bones closely packed within a space of less than 4ft.in diameter, and about 18in. in depth. They proved to be the remains of eight skeletons, strangely cemented together, so closely as to show that if not interred after the decay or removal of the flesh, the bodies must have been packed together as closely as possible in the sitting or crouching posture. The lowest skeleton, covered by the others, and most centrally placed, was that of a woman.... The skeletons were those of three men, three women, and two infants, from one to two years of age;... nearly all (the skulls) had been extremely cleft, apparently during life.... The only skull without greater or less trace of violence is that referred to as the deepest and most centrally placed." Mem. Anthrop. Soc. I. 146.

This barrow, referred to by Thurnam as " Tilshead East," and described by Hoare as a "fine Long barrow on a hill," is now quite obscured in a plantation and covered with thick undergrowth and trees; rabbits are also playing havoc with the mound; the ditches are still distinguishable. There is said to be an artificial fox's earth with drain pipes under the mound. O.M. 46 SE.; A. W. I. 93; Arch. xlii. 180; Mem. Anthrop. Soc. I. 146; MS. Cat. 179—184.

Warminster. 11. [Arn Hill Long Barrow [Map]] On the down N. of Arn Hill, and close to and E. of Colloway Clump. Length 132ft; S.W. and N.E. Opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1802. " At the south end was a sarsen stone 5ft. high, terminating almost in a point, and placed in an upright position. Near it lay the bones of three skeletons, which appeared to have been deposited on the south and south-east of the stone, with heads towards the east. They were all placed on a rude pavement of marl, and over them was thrown a pile of large loose stones. There are probably other, and more ancient, interments in this tumulus " A. W. I. 65.

Hoare speaks of the barrow as "recently planted," and there are now large beech trees, evidently of considerable age, growing on it; it stands on ploughed ground, and the ditches have disappeared, but the mound itself, in spite of the trees and bushes, is still in good condition; it is of a considerable height and width at the S. end. but tapers very much, ending almost in a sharp ridge. O.M. 51 N E.; A. W. I. 65; Arch, xliii. 189.

Note 1. Thurnam refers to this barrow as "Arn Hill."

Warminster1. 6. [Oxendean Long Barrow [Map]] By Oxendean, N. of Battlesbury Camp, W. of the Imber — Warminster road. Length 106ft.; S.E. and N.W. Opened by Cunnington and Hoare, who found "an interment of a skeleton near the centre2, in a cist cut in the native soil beneath the floor of the barrow; and over it, near the surface, was a small cup of rude British pottery."3 It was re-opened by Thurnam, who found the remains of the skeleton but with no further result. This barrow is on unploughed ground, in good condition, with ditches well defined, especially on the N.E. side. O.M. 52 NW.; A. W. I. 66; Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. Thurnam refers to this barrow as "Warminster."

Note 2. Thurnam remarks that the burial was nearer the E. end than this description implies.

Note 3. Stourhead Catalogue. Number 202.

Warminster1. 14. "King Barrow [Map]," in the grounds of Bishopstrow House, on the boundary of Warminster and Bishopstrow parish. Length 206ft. (Hoare); N. and S. Opened on two occasions by Hoare and Cunnington in the beginning of the 19th century. They found secondary interments, but apparently failed to find the primary one. Hoare states that a great deal of the mound was carted away in his time, and that the then occupier of the land intended to level the whole of it. Happily this was not done, and the mound now measures in length the same as in Hoare's time (206ft.), and is still high and steep. It is planted with trees and bushes, a large cedar tree standing on its northern end. O.M. 52 N W.; A. W. I. 72; Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. Thurnam refers to this barrow as " Boreham."

Wilsford. 3. (N.Wilts) "Ell Barrow [Map]," on Black Heath, near the Wilsford — Charlton parish boundary. Length 170ft.; E. and W. Opened by Thurnam, but it had been rifled before, and he only found the remains of skeletons. No particulars are given. He also found a secondary Saxon burial of a large male skeleton at full length, a foot or so under the turf. The skull was cleft, but the wound was of a different character from the breakages of skulls in primary burials in "Long" barrows, and had apparently been inflicted by a sword. (Arch. xlii. 196, note).

This conspicuously situated barrow stands on un ploughed down, and its ditches are still quite distinct. It has been much trampled about in the last few years by mounted soldiers, who seem to use it as a look-out post. A flagstaff for flying the danger signal of the artillery range has been planted in the mound. O.M. 46 NE; A. W. I. 175; Arch. xlii. 180, 196, note; MS. Cat. 148 (the entry is that of the secondary interment only).

Wilsford (S. Wilts). 13. [Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]] On Normanton Down, S. of Stonehenge. No. 151 of Hoare's Normanton Group Length 65ft.; S.W. and N.E. There is no record of this barrow having been opened, but it rather looks as if it might have been. It is a small, but judging by external appearances a true "Long" barrow; the ditch on the S. side is quite distinct and does not appear to be continued round the ends of the mound; on the other side it is not so clear, but as it is within a few feet of a large disc-shaped barrow, the making of the latter may have obscured the ditch of the former. O.M. 54 SW.; A. W. I. 201.

Wilsford. 30.1 [Normanton Barrow 173 G30 [Map]] On Normanton Down, S.W. of Stonehenge. No. 173 of Hoare's Normanton group. Length 126ft.; E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington, who made a section in the broad end and found a secondary burial of a skeleton, and "on reaching the floor of the barrow, four other skeletons strangely huddled together." This barrow lies on unploughed down, and is in good condition with very fairly well-defined ditches. O.M. 60 NVV.; A. W. I. 206; Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as "Normanton No. 173."

Wilsford. 34. [Normanton Barrow 170 G34 [Map]] On Wilsford Down, S.W. of Stonehenge. No. 170 of Hoare's Normanton group. Length 117ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865 — 6, who found at least five skeletons, all apparently secondary burials; but as no primary burial was found, he seems, in the end, to have been a little doubtful as to whether the five burials were all secondary or not. Unfortunately there seems to be no consecutive or published account of the discoveries in this barrow, and the following notes are taken from the MS. Catalogue. At the extreme W. end of the barrow, at a depth of about 2ft., was found the skeleton of a boy, lying on its back, with head to the S.S.W.; "with legs doubled up, knees not drawn up." A second skeleton was found, near the summit of the barrow, also near the W. end, but to the E. of the last; it was in a contracted position and without relics. A third skeleton was found to the E. of the other two; it was that of a girl, and was "doubled up with head to the N.N. W. and the hand applied to the head." A. fourth skeleton was also near the summit of the barrow, and E. of the other three; it was contracted "with a fine British drinking cup near the hips." The fifth skeleton was "almost exactly at the centre of the barrow (but E. of the other four?), at a depth of 1½ft.; it was doubled up, with head to the east, and without relics.

In reference to the third burial, that of the girl's skeleton, Thurnam says "Just above this skeleton, and perhaps dropped when it was interred, was a piece of a finely-grained stone implement of micaceous sandstone, like the altar stone of Stonehenge (a mile distant). This was of the "finger biscuit " sort, and not perhaps intended for a whet-stone." This stone was examined later by Wm. Cunnington, F.G.S., who states "It is of fine micaceous sandstone, it is true, and so far resembles the 'altar' stone at Stonehenge; but it is of lighter colour, and so does not 'precisely agree' with the altar stone. It is an implement, probably a whetstone." W.A.M. xvi. 93, note. This stone is now in the British M useum. Still in reference to the same burial Dr. Thurnam adds "The above skull considered as that of a secondary British interment in a Long Barrow is in my experience exceptionally dolichocephalic. I feel a doubt whether this barrow is not excep- tional as to the place of deposit of the bodies, and whether some of these interments are not really of the Long Barrow — or Stone Period. Certainly that with the fine drinking cup must be referred to the Kound Barrow Period — or that of bronze..... The eastern half of this barrow has been completely searched down to the floor, and the primary interment not found. -.. Altogether sixteen holes have been sunk into this barrow without certainly meeting with the primary interment, the hope of which must be abandoned Oct. 20th, 1866."

This barrow is in excellent preservation, and shows little sign of the extensive excavations that have been made in it; the ditches are fairly well defined on both sides. O.M. 60 NW.; A. W. I. 206; Arch. xlii. 196, 198; xliii. 425, note; W.A.M. xvi. 93, note; MS. Cat. Nos. 228—9, 243, 256-7.

Wilsford. 41. [Lake Group Barrow 1 [Map]] S.W. of Stonehenge. No. 1 of Hoare's Lake Group. Length 169ft.; S.E. and N.W. No recorded opening. It is now in a plantation, but is otherwise in fair condition. O.M. 63 N W.; A. W. I. 209.

Winterbourne Monkton. 8. [Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]] On Monkton Down. Length 80ft.; E. and W. Opened by Dean Merewether but no burial found. Not ploughed; in good condition and apparently not touched since Dean Merewether's time; there are four sarsen stones still to be seen at the western end; there is no sign of ditches. O.M. 28 NW.; Smith p. 126, X. H. iii. b.; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 104 (barrow No. 26).

Winterbourne Stoke1. 1. [Winterbourne Stoke Barrow 1 G1 [Map]] At the cross roads on the Winterbourne Stoke — Wilsford parish boundary. No. 1 of Hoare's Winterbourne Stoke Group. Length 240ft. (Thurnam); N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1863. Under the highest part of the mound he found, either on or below the floor "the remains of the original interment, viz., the skeleton of a man laid on its right side, with the knees drawn up in a closely contracted posture, and the head to the S.W. Close to the right arm lay a natural bludgeon-shaped flint, about 8in. long, well adapted for being grasped in the hand; from one end numerous flakes have been knocked off." A secondary burial of six crouched skeletons was found, about 2ft. from the surface of the mound, and with them an empty vase of very coarse British pottery and an oval flint knife.

This barrow is down to grass and in a good state of preservation; but it has been disfigured on the N.W. side, where a few years ago they began to utilise the mound as a quarry for chalk.2 O.M. 54 SW.; A.W. I. 121; Arch. xlii. 180, 194, 197; Mem. Anthrop Soc. i. 140; MS. Cat. Nos. 159, 162 (in reference to the skull of the primary and three skulls of the secondary burial).3

Note 1. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as "Winterbourne Stoke."

Note 2. About 1900, see W.A.M. xxxii. 175.

Note 3. Thurnam speaks of one of these skulls as "one of the most brachycephalic British skulls yet described."

Winterbourne Stoke. 53. [Winterbourne Stoke Down Barrow 3 G53 [Map]] On Winterbourne Stoke Down. Hoare's No. 3. Length 104ft.; E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington. They found a large pile of flints that had been "imbedded in a kind of mortar made of the marly chalk dug near the spot"; the flints were "raised upon a floor, on which had been an intense fire, so as to make it red like brick." Under the flints were "several pieces of burnt bones intermixed with the great masses of mortar, a circum- stance extremely curious, and so novel, that we did not know how to decide upon the original intent of this barrow." Hoare expresses some doubt as to whether they had found the primary interment. This barrow is a rather shapeless mass, wide and flat; the ditches are ill defined. Hoare says "that it has been much mutilated, partly by former antiquaries, and partly by cowherds or shepherds, who had excavated the eastern end by making huts for shelter." O.M. 54 S.W.; A. W. 1.117.

Compare Kill Barrow, under Tilshead. This barrow is not included in Thurnam's list of Long Barrows opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180.

Woodford. 2. [Woodford 2 Long Barrow [Map]] S. of Druid's Lodge, on the E. side of Devizes — Salisbury Road, and about one-fifth of a mile S. of 6th milestone from Salisbury. Length 64ft.; S. and N. No recorded opening, but it looks as if it had been dug into in more than one place. It is short and broad, and lies on a steep slope on an uncultivated down; the ditches are fairly distinct. On the O.M. it appears as an almost round barrow. O.M. 60 SW.; Arch. xlii. 173, note b. Not shown by Hoare.


The following 14 Long Barrows, mentioned by Hoare and others, or shown on the Station Maps in A.W., are known to have been destroyed, or cannot now be found, and are not marked on the Ordnance Survey Maps:—

Amesbury. [10a.] Hoare's No. 17, near to, and west of, Stonehenge. Hoare refers to this "as a long barrow in which we made no discovery." It is practically ploughed out, and is not shown on the O.M. 54 SW; A. W. I. 128 (17).

Amesbury, West. A chambered barrow. W.A.M. viii. 155. This is perhaps the barrow shown by Hoare on the map of Amesbury North Station, as between Amesbury Church and Vespasian's Camp, E. of the Church. It is not shown on the large map of the Environs of Stonehenge.

Bishops Cannings. Included in Thurnam's list of nnchambered Long Barrows, Arch, xlii., and he gives as reference to it Stukeley's "Abury" 45? There are several much ploughed down barrows in the locality,!but the particular one cannot now be identified. "There are likewise about Abury some pyriform barrows, longish, but broad at one end; some composed of earth thrown into a tumulus. Of this sort a very long one in the valley from Bekamton to Runway." Abury p. 45. This, no doubt, is the reference Thurnam had in mind.

Brixton Deverill. A barrow that seems to have been ploughed out is thus referred to by Hoare: — "Near Rodmead Penning we opened a small long barrow, in which were the remains of several skeletons that had been disturbed before." A. W. I. 47. This would be on O.M. 57 SE.

Bromham. 3. On the Map of Calne and Swindon Stations Hoare shows a Long Barrow on the down, S. of Heddington Church, and N. of Oliver's Camp. In its approximate position there is on the O.M. a barrow shown as round, but even this cannot now be found. The ground is under cultivation and the barrow has no doubt been ploughed out since the survey of 1884, but what the surveyors then saw may have been a remnant of the Long Barrow seen by Hoare. O.M. 34 NW. It is not shown by Smith.

Donhead St. Mary. [4a.] Hoare shows an unopened Long Barrow west of Wingreen, close to, and north of, the Ridgeway, and near the western limit of the map of Hindon and Fovant Stations. No trace of this could be found, nor is it shown on the O.M.

Fittleton.? Wm. Cunnington, F.G.S., in 1851 partially opened a Long Barrow which he describes as situated "east of Combe, about a mile from Beech's Barn, and nearly south-west of Everley Church." In 1894 he visited the neighbourhood again, and tried to find the barrow but failed to do so. It had been much ploughed down even in 1851. He describes it as undoubtedly a true Long Barrow about 118ft. in length and 86ft. wide at the eastern and larger end. At this end, under a large pile of flints were "a great quantity of human bones, very much broken, and interred in complete confusion." W.A.M. xxviii. 172; and MS. letter written in 1851.

Fittleton. [5a.] On Weather Hill, Map of Everley Station, west of the old Marlborough— Salisbury Koad, between the first and second milestones, south of East Everley. Hoare here shows two Long Barrows lying near each other, but there is now only one to be found. See under Fittleton.

Imber. [4a.] A. W. I., Map of Heytesbury Station. Near to and S. of Imber Church, shown as unopened. This ground is now under cultivation, and the barrow seems to have been ploughed out.

Ogbourne St. Andrew. 19. At Temple Bottom,' or Temple Farm,2 is the site of a chambered Long Barrow, now entirely destroyed. The ruined chamber was examined by the Rev. W. C. Lukis, and the Rev. A. C. Smith in 1861. The former writes:— "It is very certain that originally the chamber was enclosed in a tumulus of earth and stones, and that near the base of the mound was a circle of upright stones... but whether it had a covered passage — or more than one roofing slab cannot now be determined." On the floor of the chamber was found charcoal, burnt human bones, fragments of coarse pottery, and apparently just outside the chamber, some unburnt human bones, and a bone implement described as a chisel (now in Devizes Museum). O.M. 28 NE. (the site is shown); A. W. II. 42; Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. iii., 213; Smith p. 195, XIV. K. iii. a.; Arch. xlii. 203.

Preshute. At " Old Chapel," on Temple Down, N.E. of "Glory Ann." Stukeley and Hoare mention a Long Barrow now entirely disappeared and the exact site unknown. See List of Antiquities by the Rev. E. H. Goddard, under Preshute, Megalithic.

Fitton and Farley, [1a.] Hoare shows an unopened Long or Oval barrow on the E. side of the knoll that he calls "Crow's Rump," N. of Pitton and close to, and S. of the Roman Road. On the O.M the site is now called "Piccadilly Clump," and no barrow is marked, nor did a visit to the site discover any trace of it. The ground appears to have been under cultivation and is now a thick plantation, and the barrow has no doubt been levelled. O.M. 67, NW.; A. W. I. Map of Salisbury Station.

Hoare also shows two round barrows on the site W. of the Long one, and although not shown on the O.M. traces of these are still discernible in the wood on top of the knoll.

Note 1. In the Rev. E. H. Goddard's "List" this barrow is, by an oversight, identified as Fittleton 5.

Note 2. Referred to by Thurnam as " Temple Farm." The remains of the chambered barrow at Rockley are only | of a mile to the south.

Winterbourne Monkton. [17a.] Millbarrow, or "King's Mill Barrow." This large chambered barrow formerly stood in a field to the N. of Windmill Hill, Avebury, but now all trace of it has disappeared. It is said to have been 215ft. in length, set round with great stones, the broad end to the E. Stukeley's Abury 46; A. W. II. 94; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 93; W.A.M. iv. 343; v. 188, note; Arch. xlii. 211, 218; Smith p. 84, VI. F. iii. f.

Thurnam dug on the site of the barrow in 1863 but without result. The farmer who finally levelled it only found a few human teeth, a jaw bone, and some horses' teeth. Arch. xlii. 201, note d.

Winterbourne Monkton. [17b.] The "Shelving Stones," now totally destroyed, mentioned by Aubrey and Stukeley, were probably the remains of a Long Barrow. Aubrey thus described them:— "In Monkton Fields is a long pitched stone seven foot and more: it leaneth eastward upon two stones. It is called Shelving Stone."

Stukeley says:— "In Monkton Fields, directly north-east from Abury, is a monument of four stones, which is probably a kistvaen.... I believe it was a sepulchral monument, set on a barrow, though chiefly now ploughed up; and that the great covering stone is luxated." Hoare agreed with Stukeley, and writes:— "I perfectly agree with this author in supposing it to have been a sepulchral monument set on a barrow, such as those before mentioned in Clatford bottom, and at Temple farm." The fact recorded by Long that no trace of bones was found on the site is in no way convincing that the stones had not once formed a part of a barrow; no bones were found in digging round the standing stones at Littleton Drew see Nettleton, though they are indisputably part of a Long Barrow. Aubrey's Monumenta Britannica, (as quoted by Long and Smith); Stukeley's Abury 49; A. W. II. 94; W.A.M. iv. 343 (Long); Smith p. 83, VI. F. iii. e.

Note 1. W.A.M. iii. 169—70.

Stukeley's description of Long barrows round Abury is as follows:—

Abury, p. 45, "There are likewise about Abury some pyriform barrows longish, but broad at one end; some composed of earth thrown into a tumulus. Of this sort a very long one in the valley from Bekamton to Runway Hill." (This apparently is the one referred to by Thurnan as "Bishops Cannings." See Barrows no longer in existence under that parish.)

"Another set with stones among the furze bushes south of Silbury Hill, which Farmer Green carried away." (This refers to the stones of West Kennet Long Barrow, also called by Stukeley " South Long Barrow.")

p. 46. "Another such south of Silbury Hill." (Another reference to West Kennet?) "Another pyriform made only of earth under Runway Hill." (Another reference to "Bishops Cannings"?). "Another to the south-west from Bekamton cut thro with some later division dyke." (This cannot be identified.) "One very large at East Kennet" (East Kennet Long Barrow, see under Kennet.) " Another not far off points to the Snake's Head Temple, being at a right angle to the former." (This cannot be identified unless it be the twin barrow Avebury 30a referred to below.) "By Horslip Gap is another considerable long barrow of a large bulk, length, and height; it regards the Snake Head temple though here not in sight." (This cannot be identified.)

[Stukeley]. "By Bekamton Cove another, a vast body of earth." (This is the Longstone Barrow [Map]; see under Avebury.)

Stukeley then describes Milbarrow [Map] (see "Barrows now Destroyed," under Winterbourne Monkton; and "South Long Barrow [Map]" (West Kennet), which latter he says is 180 cubits in length.

Again on p. 47 he describes a Long Barrow at Old Chapel, on Temple Down, now destroyed (see under Preshute), and on p. 49 the Shelving Stones, and the Devil's Den.

The following 5 barrows, thought by Hoare and others to have been true " Long " Barrows, have now been proved not to be so.

Avebury. 30a. On the Map of Calne and Swindon Station Hoare shows tan unopened Long Barrow E. of Avebury Temple, and W. of the Ridgeway; it is also shown on the O.M. 28 SW. This is really a twin barrow enclosed within one ditch, and was opened without success by Dean Merewether in 1849. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisb. p. 91.Smith, p. 148, XI. H. v. f. g.

Brixton Deverill. 1. Between Bidcombe and Cold Kitchen Hill, Hoare shows as opened a long barrow close to and S. of three small round ones. This is shown on O.M. 57 N.W., as on Whitecliff Down, east of a rectangular earthwork, and south of Woodcombe Wood. The mound was opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1803, when he "found pieces of an urn, burnt bones, and a pin or bodkin, mixed indiscriminately with the soil," p. 40. It was re-opened by Mr. Wm. Stratton, of Kingston Deverill, in 1893, and again in 1893, with the assistance of the Kev. E. H. Goddard. A considerable quantity of pottery and other relics, chiefly of Romano-British date, were found, and parts of two skeletons near the surface of the mound, but nothing to identify it as a Long Barrow. It stands, indeed, on the site of an ancient settlement, and the mound seems to consist largely of rubbish from the settlement. O.M. 57 NW.; A. W. I. 40; W.A.M, xxvii. 379.

Roundway. 5. In A. W. II., Map of Calne and Swindon Station, Hoare shows a Long Barrow N.of Roundway Hill, and E. of Oliver's Camp. This is really a double barrow and was opened by Wm. Cunnington, F.G.S., in 1858. O.M. 34 NW.; W.A.M. vi. 162 (No. 6).

Wilcot. 3.On Draycot Hill, above Huish, south of Gopher or (Goffer) Wood. This barrow, described by Hoare as a Long Barrow, was opened by Thurnam in 1863, when "two simple deposits of burnt bones were found in cists in the chalk rock," proving that it is an oval barrow of the Bronze Age. O.M. 35 NE.; A. W. II. 11; W.A.M. xi. 42 (Thurnam); Smith p. 211, XVI. K. VIII. d.; Arch, xliii. 296,. note c.

Winterbourne Stoke. 35. At W. end of the Little Cursus. Hoare's No. 49. Described by Hoare as a Long Barrow, and opened by Thurnam in 1864, when he proved it to be an oval barrow of the Early Bronze Age. Near the E. end he found a crouched skeleton with a drinking cup, "the skull being decidedly brachycephalic; near the W. end was another crouched skeleton, that of a tall man, with four very beautiful leaf-shaped "javelin" heads of flint. No other burial was found, but near the centre of the mound a "cup" of coarse thick pottery. O.M. 54 SW.; A.W. I. 165; W.A.M. xi. 40; xvi. 201, note; Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. ii. 427.