Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Greenwich, Eltham Palace [Map]

Eltham Palace, Kent is in Eltham, Greenwich.

1360 Release of King John II of France

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

On 15 Aug 1316 John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall was born to King Edward II of England (age 32) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 21) at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

On 16 Aug 1355 Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster was born to Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 16) and Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence (age 23) at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map]. At the time of her birth she was Heir to the Throne of England since her uncle Edward "Black Prince" (age 25) was yet to be married. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.22%.

Release of King John II of France

On 30 Jun 1360 King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) left the Tower of London [Map] and proceeded to Eltham Palace, Kent [Map] where Queen Philippa (age 46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, Kent [Map], he continued towards Dover, Kent [Map], stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury [Map] on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (age 30) at Dover Castle [Map], and reached English-held Calais [Map] on 08 Jul 1360.

Before 18 Apr 1367 Philippa Guines Duchess Ireland was born to Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 27) and Isabella Countess Bedford and Soissons (age 34) at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map]. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Froissart. The earl of March (age 22) was thunderstruck on hearing this proposal from his uncle (age 41); but, young as he was, he dissembled his real sentiments, and prudently replied, to please his uncle (age 41) and to get away, that he never thought of such things, and they were of such a magnitude as to require his deliberate consideration. The duke (age 41) then, observing the manner of his nephew, desired he would keep what he had said very secret. This he promised faithfully to do, and, taking his leave, hastened from him, and instantly went to his estates in Ireland: he would never listen nor send any answer to all the proposals his uncle (age 41) made to him, excusing himself honourably from taking part in them, as he foresaw they must end badly. The duke of Gloucester (age 41) employed all possible means to stir up troubles in England, and excite the Londoners against the king (age 29). The year that a truce had been signed between England and France, to last for thirty years, king Richard (age 29) and his queen (age 7) came to London, on their return from France: the duke of Gloucester (age 41) whispered the citizens to petition the king (age 29) to abolish all taxes and subsidies which had been imposed for the last twenty years, as it was reasonable they should now cease, since a truce had been signed for so long a term, and they had been levied solely as war-taxes, to pay the men at arms and archers in support of the war. He told the merchants, "it was hard to pay thirteen florins out of every hundred as a tax on merchandise, which were spent in idle dances and feasts: you pay for them, and are sorely oppressed. Add to your petition a remonstrance for the realm to be governed according to ancient custom and usages, and that whenever there shall be any necessity to raise money for the defence of the kingdom, you will tax yourselves with such sums as shall be satisfactory to the king and his council." This advice of the duke of Gloucester (age 41) was followed by the Londoners, and many of the principal towns. They collected together, and went in a body to the king (age 29) at Eltham [Map], where they demanded redress of what they complained of, and that all taxes which had been raised for the support of the war should be instantly abolished. Only two of the king's uncles were present when the citizens presented their petition and remonstrance, namely, the dukes of Lancaster (age 56) and York (age 55). The king (age 29) desired they would answer the Londoners and the other citizens who had accompanied them, but particularly the duke of Lancaster (age 56); who said to them, — "My fair sirs, you will now, each of you, return to your homes, and, within a month from this day, come to the palace of Westminster, when the king, his nobles and prelates of the council, shall be assembled, and your petition and remonstrance be taken into consideration. What shall then be thought right to maintain or abolish will be determined upon, and you may depend on having such redress as ought to satisfy you."

Froissart. The king (age 29) remained at Eltham [Map], very melancholy at the words he had heard. He retained near his person his two brothers, and such of his friends as he had the greatest confidence in; for he began to doubt the affection of his uncles, from observing they now chiefly resided at their country-seats. He was, in consequence, very suspicious of them, especially of the duke of Gloucester (age 41), whom he feared more than the dukes of Lancaster (age 56) and York (age 55), and kept up a constant guard, night and day, of one thousand archers. The king of England had received positive information that the duke of Gloucester (age 41) and the earl of Arundel (age 50) had plotted to seize his person, and that of the queen (age 7), and carry them to a strong castle, where they should be confined under proper guards, but allowed sufficiently for their table and other necessary expenses. That four regents should be appointed over the kingdom, of whom the dukes of Lancaster (age 56) and York (age 55) were to be the chief, and have under them the government of all the northern parts, from the Thames to the Tyne, and as far as the Tweed, that runs by Berwick, comprehending all Northumberland, and the borders of Scotland. The duke of Gloucester (age 41) was to have for his government London, Essex, and that part of the country to the mouth of the Humber, and likewise all the coast from the Thames to the water of Southampton, and westward comprehending Cornwall. The earl of Arundel (age 50) was to have Sussex, Kent, Surrey, Berkshire, and all the country from the Thames to Bristol and the river Severn, that divides England from Wales, where there are very extensive lordships, with power of punishing by death all offenders. But their chief design was to find out some means of rekindling the war with France; and, if the king of France (age 28) wished to have his daughter (age 7) again, it might be done, for she was still very young, not more than eight years and a half old, and, perchance, when she was marriageable, she might repent of this connexion, for she was innocently, and without her being able to judge for herself, married and, beside, it was unjust to break off her match with the heir of Brittany; but should she wish to abide by her marriage, she would in justice remain queen of England, and enjoy her dower, but she should never be the companion of the king of England. Should the king die before she was of a proper age, she was to be sent back to France.

Froissart. 1397. The king (age 29) at this time resided at Eltham [Map], whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother sir John Holland (age 45), the earl marshal (age 28), the earl of Salisbury (age 47), with many other great barons and knights. The king (age 29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the duke of Lancaster (age 56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the earl of Derby (age 29), as did the duke of York (age 55) with his son the earl of Rutland (age 24). The king loved the earl of Rutland (age 24) and the earl marshal (age 28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the duke of Gloucester (age 41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his late uncle (age 41) had on several occasions treated the king (age 29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the duke of Gloucester (age 41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

Thomas Mowbray Duel

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (age 31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham [Map]. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of Lancaster (age 58) and York (age 57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (age 56), Salisbury (age 48) and Huntingdon (age 46). The earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (age 31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,- "Well then, I order that the earl marshal (age 30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (age 31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (age 30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (age 31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's1, he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (age 25) and of Portugal (age 38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be happily to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (age 31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (age 30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without hope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by him and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. - Ed.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (age 31) had it proclaimed that he would hold a solemn feast at his palace [Map] at Eltham on Palm Sunday, and sent particular invitations to the dukes of Lancaster (age 58) and York (age 57) and their children, who, not suspecting any mischief, came thither. When the day of the feast was arrived, and all the lords had retired after dinner with the king to his council-chamber, the earl marshal (age 30), having settled in his own mind how to act and what to say, cast himself on his knees before the king (age 31), and thus addressed him "Very dear and renowned lord, I am of your kindred, your liege man and marshal of England; and I have beside sworn on my loyalty, my hand within yours, that I would never conceal from you anything I might hear or see to your prejudice, on pain of being accounted a disloyal traitor. This I am resolved never to be, but to acquit myself before you and all the world." The king, fixing his eyes on him, asked, "Earl marshal (age 30), what is your meaning in saying thus? We will know it." "Very dear lord," replied the earl, "as I have declared, I will not keep any secret from you: order the earl of Derby (age 31) to come to your presence, and I will speak out." The earl of Derby (age 31) was called for, and the king made the earl marshal (age 30) rise, for he addressed him on his knees. On the earl of Derby's (age 31) arrival, who thought no harm, the earl marshal (age 30) spoke as follows: "Earl of Derby (age 31), I charge you with having thought and spoken disrespectfully against your natural lord the king of England, when you said he was unworthy to hold his crown: that without law or justice, or consulting his council, he disturbed the realm; and that, without any shadow of reason, he banished those valiant men from his kingdom who ought to be its defenders, for all of which I present my glove, and shall prove, my body against yours, that you are a false and wicked traitor."

On 03 Apr 1403 King Henry IV of England (age 35) and Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 33) were married by proxy at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map] with Antoine de Riczi representing Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 33).

On 10 Nov 1480 Bridget York was born to King Edward IV of England (age 38) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 43) at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1556. The xxj day of July the Quen('s) (age 40) grace removyd from sant James in the ffelds unto Heltem [Map] thrugh the parke and thrugh Whyt-alle, and toke her barge, and so to Lambeth unto my lord cardenoll('s) place; and there here grace toke here charett, and so thrugh sant Gorge('s) ffeld unto Nuhyngton, so over the feldes to-wherd Eltem at v of the cloke at after-none; and ther wher of pepull a-boyff x m. pepull to se her grace; and my lord cardinoll (age 56) rod with her, and my lord of Penbroke (age 55) and my lord Montyguu (age 27) and dyvers lordes and knyghtes and mony lades and gentyll women a grett nombur rod with her grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Aug 1559. The v day of August the Quen('s) (age 25) grace removyd from Eltham [Map] unto Non-shyche [Map], my lord of Arundell('s) (age 47), and ther her grace had as gret cher evere nyght, and bankettes [banquets]; but the sonday at nyght my lord of Arundell('s) howse mad her a grett bankett [banquet] at ys cost, the wyche kyng Henry the viij byldyd, as ever was sene, for soper, bankett, and maske, with drumes and flutes, and all the mysyke that cold be, tyll mydnyght; and as for chere has nott bene sene nor hard. [On monday] the Quen('s) grace stod at her standyng [in the further park,] and ther was corse [coursing] after; and at nyght the Quen .... and a play of the chylderyn of Powlles and ther master Se[bastian], master Phelypes, and master Haywod, and after a grett bankett as [ever was s[ene, with drumes and flutes, and the goodly banketts [of dishes] costely as ever was sene and gyldyd, tyll iij in mornyng; and ther was skallyng of yonge lordes and knyghtes of the ....

Note. P. 206. Master Sebastian, Phdips, and Haywood. "Sebastian scolemaister of Powles" gave queen Mary on new-year's day 1557 "a book of ditties, written." (Nichols's Progresses, &c. of Q. Elizabeth, 1823, vol. i. p. xxxv.) Mr. Collier supposes his surname to have been Westcott (Annals of the Stage, i. 155).—Robert Phelipps was one of the thirtytwo gentlemen of the chapel to king Edward VI. (Hawkins's History of Music, vol. iii. p. 481.—Of John Heywood as an author of interludes and master of a company of "children" players various notices will be found in Mr. Collier's wor

Note. P. 206. The Queen's grace stood at her standing in the further park. "Shooting at deer with a cross-bow (remarks Mr. Hunter in his New Illustrations of Shakespeare) was a favourite amusement of ladies of rank; and buildings with flat roofs, called stands or standings, were erected in many parks, as in that of Sheffield, and in that of Pilkington near Manchester, expressly for the purpose of this diversion." They seem to have been usually concealed by bushes or trees, so that the deer would not perceive their enemy. In Shakspere's Love-Labours Lost, at the commencement of the fourth Act, the Princess repairs to a Stand—

Then, Forester my friend, where is the bush

That we must stand and play the murtherer in?

Forester. Here-by, upon the edge of yonder coppice,

A Stand where you may make the fairest shoot.

Mr. Hunter further remarks that they were often made ornamental, as may be concluded from the following passage in Goldingham's poem called "The Garden Plot," where, speaking of a bower, he compares it with one of these stands—

To term it Heaven I think were little sin,

Or Paradise, for so it did appear;

So far it passed the bowers that men do banquet in,

Or standing made to shoot at stately deer.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1656. Came to see Mr. Henshaw (age 38) and Sir William Paston's (age 46) son (age 24), since Earl of Yarmouth. Afterward, I went to see his Majesty's (age 25) house at Eltham [Map], both palace and chapel in miserable ruins, the noble woods and park destroyed by Rich (age 68), the rebel.

Froissart. The king of England left the Tower of London [Map] at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham [Map], where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower [Map] by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, - "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of Lancaster and of York, brothers to the duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."