Biography of Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358

Paternal Family Tree: Capet

Maternal Family Tree: Marie Swabia Duchess Brabant

1301 Edward II Created Prince of Wales

1307 Death of Edward I

1308 Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

1308 King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

1308 Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

1315 Funeral of Piers Gaveston

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1322 Despencer War Executions

1326 Return of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer

1326 Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

1327 Coronation of Edward III

1327 Death of Edward II

1328 Death of Charles IV of France Sucession of Philip VI

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1328 Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

1328 Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

1328 Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

1328 Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

1330 Battle of Teba

1330 Edward III arrests Roger Mortimer

1330 Execution of Roger Mortimer

1338 French Raid on Southampton

1358 St Georges Day Celebrations

1358 Death of Isabella of France Queen Consort

On 22 Jul 1274 [her grandfather] Henry I King Navarre (age 30) died. His daughter [her mother] Joan Blois I Queen Navarre (age 1) succeeded I Queen Navarre.

On 16 Aug 1284 [her father] Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 16) and [her mother] Joan Blois I Queen Navarre (age 11) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Henry I King Navarre and Blanche Capet Queen Navarre (age 36). He the son of Philip "Bold" III King France (age 39) and Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France. They were second cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 05 Oct 1285 [her grandfather] Philip "Bold" III King France (age 40) died. On 05 Oct 1285 His son [her father] Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 17) succeeded IV King France: Capet. [her mother] Joan Blois I Queen Navarre (age 12) by marriage Queen Consort of France.

In 1295 Isabella of France Queen Consort England was born to Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 26) and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre (age 21). Coefficient of inbreeding 2.10%.

Edward II Created Prince of Wales

On 07 Feb 1301 [her future husband] King Edward II of England (age 16) was created Prince of Wales by his father King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 61); the first English heir to receive the title. He was created 1st Earl Chester the same day.

On 02 Apr 1305 [her mother] Joan Blois I Queen Navarre (age 32) died.

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 68) died at Burgh by Sands [Map] whilst on his way north to Scotland. His son [her future husband] King Edward II of England (age 23) succeeded II King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Edward (age 68) had gathered around him [her uncle] Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 35), Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 23) didn't return from exile.

Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

On 25 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Boulogne sur Mer [Map]. She the daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 39) and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre. He the son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England. They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

Calendars. On 07 Feb 1308 [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 23) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 13) returned from their wedding in Boulogne sur Mer [Map] to Dover, Kent [Map].

07 Feb 1308. Be it remembered that on Wednesday after the Purification, Edward II (age 23), the king, returning from beyond seas, to wit, from Boulogne sur Mer [Map], where he took to wife Isabel (age 13), daughter of the [her father] king of France (age 39), touched at Dover, Kent [Map] in his barge about the ninth hour [1500], Hugh le Despenser (age 46) and the lord of Castellione of Gascony being in his company, and the Queen a little afterward touched there with certain ladies accompanying her, and because the great seal which had been taken with him beyond seas then remained in the keeping of the keeper of the wardrobe who could not arrive on that day, no writ was sealed from the hour of the king's coming until Friday following on which day the bishop of Chichester, chancellor, about the ninth hour [1500] delivered to the king in his chamber in Dover castle [Map] the seal used in England during the king's absence, and the king, receiving the same, delivered it to William de Melton (age 33), controller of the wardrobe, and forthwith delivered with his own hand to the chancellor the great seal under the seal of J. de Benstede, keeper of the wardrobe, and Master John Painter Fraunceis, in the presence of [her uncle] Thomas, Earl of Lancaster (age 30), Peter, Earl of Cornwall (age 24), and Hugh le Despenser (age 46), William Martyn and William Inge, knights, and Adam de Osgodby, clerk; and the chancellor on that day after lunch in his room (hospicio) in God's House, Dover, sealed writs with the great seal.

Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

On 25 Feb 1308 [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 23) was crowned II King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Henry Woodlock, Bishop of Winchester. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 13) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24) carried the Royal Crown.

William Marshal 1st Baron Marshal (age 30) carried the Gilt Spurs.

Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 32) carried the Royal Sceptre.

[her uncle] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster (age 27) carried the Royal Rod.

[her uncle] Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 30) carried the sword Curtana (the sword of Edward the Confessor).

Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 20) carried the table bearing the Royal Robes.

Thomas Grey (age 28) and Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter (age 61) attended.

On 13 Nov 1312 [her son] King Edward III of England was born to [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 28) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 17) at Windsor Castle [Map]. He was christened on 17 Nov 1312 with Archbishop Walter Reynolds being one of his godfathers. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

On 29 Nov 1314 [her father] Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 46) died. On 29 Nov 1314 His son [her brother] Louis X King France I Navarre (age 25) succeeded X King France: Capet. Margaret of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 24) by marriage Queen Consort of France although she was in prison for adultery at the time and died four months later.

Funeral of Piers Gaveston

On 02 Jan 1315 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was buried at King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire [Map] some two and a half years after his murder. The ceremony was attended by [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 30) and his wife Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 20) as well as Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 39), Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 40), [her brother-in-law] Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 14), Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 39), Hugh Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 7) and his son Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 29).

On 15 Aug 1316 [her son] John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall was born to [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 32) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 21) at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

Letters. 10 Oct 1316. Letter XXIII. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 21) to her nephew [her son] John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall.

Most dear and beloved nephew,.

We have well understood what you have sent us word by your letters; and, as to our estate, we give you to know that we are even in great trouble of heart, but, considering the condition we are in, we were in good health of body at the setting forth of these letters, which our Lord ever grant to you. Dearest nephew, we pray you that you will leave off all excuses, and come to the king our son in the best manner you can, and as he commands you more fully by his letters. For you well know, dearest nephew, if you come not, considering the necessity that now exists, it will be greatly talked of, and will be a great dishonour to you. Wherefore make an effort to come at this time as hastily as you can, and you know well, dearest nephew, that we shall ever be ready to counsel you as well as we can in all things that shall be to your honour and profit. Most dear and beloved nephew, our Lord have you in his keeping. Given at Nottingham [Map], the 10th day of October.

On 18 Jun 1318 [her daughter] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet was born to [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 34) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 23) at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map]. She was named for her paternal grandmother Eleanor of Castile. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

On 05 Jul 1321 [her daughter] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland was born to [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 37) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) at the Tower of London [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

In Oct 1321 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) refused entry to Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) at Leeds Castle, Kent [Map].

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) was returning from Canterbury, Kent [Map] to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle, Kent [Map] which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (age 37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 13), Maud Badlesmere Countess of Oxford (age 13), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere (age 6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot (age 6)), and her nephew Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 34), were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Despencer War Executions

Froissart. 1322. THE foresaid [her husband] king Edward the second (age 37), father to the noble [her son] king Edward the third (age 9), on whom our matter is founded, this said king governed right diversely his realm by the exhortation of sir Hugh Spencer (age 36), who had been nourished with him sith the beginning of his yongth; the which sir Hugh (age 36) had so enticed the king (age 37), that his father and he were the greatest masters in all the realm, and by envy thought to surmount all other barons of England; whereby after the great discomfiture that the Scots had made at Stirling [Map] great murmuring there arose in England between. The noble barons and the king's council, and namely against sir Hugh Spencer (age 36). They put on him that by his counsel they were discomfited, and that he was favourable to the king of Scots. And on this point the barons had divers times communication together, to be advised what they might do, whereof [her uncle] Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was uncle to the king, was chief. And anon when sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) had espied this, he purveyed for remedy, for he was so great with the king (age 37) and so near him, that he was more beloved with the king (age 37) than all the world after. So on a day he came to the king (age 37) and said, 'Sir, certain lords of your realm have made alliance together against you, and without ye take heed thereto betimes, they purpose to put you out of your realm': and so by his malicious means he caused that the king made all the said lords to be taken, and their heads to be stricken off without delay, and without knowledge or answer to any cause. First of all sir Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was a noble and a wise, holy knight, and hath done sith many fair miracles in Pomfret, where he was beheaded, for the which deed the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) achieved great hate in all the realm, and specially of the queen (age 27) and of the [her brother-in-law] earl of Kent (age 20), brother to the king (age 37). And when he perceived the displeasure of the queen (age 27), by his subtle wit he set great discord between the king and the queen (age 27), so that the king (age 37) would not see the queen nor come in her company, the which discord endured a long space. Then was it skewed to the queen (age 27) secretly and to the earl of Kent (age 20), that without they took good heed to themselves, they were likely to be destroyage to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, and so to Winchelsea [Map], and in the night went into a ship that was ready for her, and her young son Edward (age 9) with her, and the earl of Kent (age 20) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 34), and in another ship they had put all their purveyance, and had wind at will, and the next morning they arrived in the haven of Boulogne [Map].

On 19 May 1322 [her brother] Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) and Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) marriage annulled as a consequence of her adultery. In 1313 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 18) gave gifts of coin-purses to her sisters-in-law Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) and Margaret of Burgundy Queen Consort France. The coin-purses were subsequently seen by Isabella to be in the possession of the Norman knights Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay. When Isabella visited her father [her father] Philip "The Fair" IV King France again in 1314 she informed him she suspected the two sisters to be having affairs with the two knights. The two knights were arrested, confessed to adultery under torture, and were executed. The two women were sentenced to life imprisonment at Château Gaillard [Map]. Margaret's husband [her brother] Louis X King France I Navarre became King in Nov 1314 whilst she was in prison; she became Queen of France by marriage. Somewhat conveniently she died five months later. Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) remained in prison until her husband Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) became King in 1322 at which time he had their marriage annulled.

In Aug 1323 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 36) escaped to France and to Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 28) at Tower of London [Map].

Froissart. 1324. When queen Isabel (age 29) was arrived at Boulogne [Map], and her [her son] son (age 11) with her and the [her brother-in-law] earl of Kent (age 22), the captains and abbot of the town came against her and joyously received her and her company into the abbey, and there she abode two days: then she departed and rode so long by her journeys that she arrived at Paris [Map]. Then [her brother] king Charles (age 29) her brother, who was informed of her coming, sent to meet her divers of the greatest lords of his realm, as the lord sir Robert de Artois (age 37), the lord of Coucy, the lord of Sully, the lord of Roye and divers other, who honourably did receive her and brought her into the city of Paris to the king her brother (age 29). And when the king (age 29) saw his sister (age 29), whom he had not seen long before, as she should have entered into his chamber he met her and took her in his arms and kissed her, and said, ' Ye be welcome, fair sister, with my fair nephew your son,' and took them by the hands and led them forth. The queen, who had no great joy at her heart but that she was so near to the king her brother, she would have kneeled down two or three times at the feet of the king, but the king would not suffer her, but held her still by the right hand, demanding right sweetly of her estate and business. And she answered him right sagely, and lamentably recounted to him all the felonies and injuries done to her by sir Hugh Spencer (age 38), and required him of his aid and comfort. When the noble King Charles of France (age 29) had heard his sister's lamentation, who weepingly had shewed him all her need and business, be said to her: ' Fair sister, appease yourself, for by the faith I owe to God and to Saint Denis I shall right well purvey for you some remedy.' The queen then kneeled down, whether the king would or not, and said: 'My right dear lord and fair brother, I pray God reward you.' The king then took her in his arms and led her into another chamber, the which was apparelled for her and for the young Edward her son, and so departed from her, and caused at his costs and charges all things to be delivered that was behoveful for her and for her son. After it was not long, but that for this occasion Charles king of France (age 29) assembled together many great lords and barons of the realm of France, to have their counsel and good advice how they should ordain for the need and besynes of his sister queen of England. Then it was counselled to the king that he should let the queen his sister to purchase for herself friends, whereas she would, in the realm of France or in any other place, and himself to feign and be not known thereof; for they said, to move war with the [her husband] king of England (age 39), and to bring his own realm into hatred, it were nothing appertinent nor profitable to him nor to his realm. But they concluded that conveniently he might aid her with gold and silver, for that is the metal whereby love is attained both of gentlemen and of poor soldiers. And to this counsel and advice accorded the king, and caused this to be shewed to the queen privily by sir Robert d'Artois (age 37), who as then was one of the greatest lords of all France.

Froissart. 1326. THUS was sir John of Hainault (age 38) moved in his courage and made his assembly, and prayed the Hainowes to be ready at Hal, and the Brabances at Breda, and the Hollanders to be at Dordrecht at a day limited. Then the queen of England (age 31) took leave of the earl of Hainault (age 40) and of the countess (age 32), and thanked them greatly of their honour, feast and good cheer that they had made her, kissing them at her departing. Thus this lady (age 31) departed and her [her son] son (age 13) and all her company with Sir John of Hainault (age 38), who with great pain gat leave of his brother, saying to him: 'My lord and brother, I am young and think that God hath purveyed for me this enterprise for mine advancement. I believe and think verily that wrongfully and sinfully this lady hath been chased out of England, and also her son. It is alms and glory to God and to the world to comfort and help them that be comfortless, and specially so high and so noble a lady as this is, who is daughter to a king and descended of a royal king; we be of her blood and she of ours. I had rather renounce and forsake all that I have and go serve God over the sea and never to return into this country, rather than this good lady should have departed from us without comfort and help. Therefore, dear brother, suffer me to go with your good-will, wherein ye shall do nobly, and I shall humbly thank you thereof, and the better thereby I shall accomplish all the voyage.' And when the good earl of Hainault had well heard his brother (age 38), and perceived the great desire that he had to his enterprise, and saw well it might turn him and his heirs to great honour hereafter, said to him: 'My fair brother, God forbid that your good purpose should be broken or let: therefore in the name of God I give you leave'; and kissed him, straining him by the hand in sign of great love. Thus he departed and rode the same night to Mons in Hainault with the queen of England (age 31). What should I make long process? They did so much by their journeys that they came to Dordrecht in Holland, whereas their special assembly was made. And there they purveyed for ships great and small, such as they could get, and shipped their horses and harness and purveyance, and so commended themselves into the keeping of God and took their passage by sea. In Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Vertaing, the lord of Potelle, the lord Villers, the' lord of Hennin, the lord of Sars, the lord of Bousies, the lord of Aubrecicourt, the lord of Estrumel, and sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, and divers other knights and squires, all in great desire to serve their master. And when they were all departed from the haven of Dordrecht, it was a fair fleet as for the quantity, and well ordered, the season was fair and clear and right temperate, and at their departing with the first flood they came before the dikes of Holland; and the next day they drew up their sails and took their way in coasting Zealand; and their intents were to have, taken land at Dongport;1 but they could not, for a tempest took them in the sea, that put them so far out of their course that they wist not of two days where they were: of the which God did them great grace, for if they had taken land at the port whereas they had thought, they had been all lost, for they had fallen in the hands of their enemies, who knew well of their coming, and abode them there to have put them all to death. So it was that about the end of two days the tempest ceased, and the mariners perceived land in England and drew to that part right joyously, and there took land on the sands without any right haven or port at Harwich [Map], as the English chronicle saith, the 24th day of September, the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., and so abode on the sands three days with little purveyance of victual, and unshipped their horses and harness, nor they wist not in what part of England they were in, other in the power of their friends or in the power of their enemies. On the fourth day they took forth their way in the adventure of God and of Saint George, as such people as had suffered great disease of cold by night and hunger and great fear, whereof they were not as then clean rid. And so they rode forth by hills and dales on the one side and on the other, till at the last they found villages and a great abbey of black monks, the which is called SaintEdmund [Map], whereas they three days refreshed themselves.

Froissart. 1326. When the Queen (age 31) heard this tidings, she knew not what to say nor what advice to take; for as then the barons of the realm of France were withdrawn from her by the commandment of the king of France, and so she had no comfort nor succour, but all only of her dear cousin Sir Robert de Artois (age 39); for he secretly did counsel and comfort her as much as he might, for otherwise he durst not, for the king had defended him. But he knew well that the Queen (age 31) was chased out of England and also out of France for evil will and by envy, which grieved him greatly. Thus was Sir Robert de Artois (age 39) at the queen's commandment; but be durst not speak nor be known thereof, for he had heard the king and the [her brother-in-law] Earl of Kent (age 24) and Sir Roger Mortimer (age 38), and to put them all in the hands of the king and of Sir Hugh Spencer (age 40). Wherefore he came on a night and declared all this to the queen (age 31), and advised her of the peril that she was in. Then the queen (age 31) was greatly abashed, and required biro all weeping of his good counsel. Then he said: 'Madam, I counsel you that ye depart and go into the Empire, whereas there be many great lords, who may right well aid you, and specially the earl Guilliam of Hainault (age 40) and sir John of Hainault (age 38) his brother. These two are great lords and wise men, true, drad and redoubted of their enemies.' Then the queen (age 31) caused to be made ready all her purveyance, and paid for everything as secretly as she might, and so she and [her son] her son (age 13), the Earl of Kent (age 24) and all her company departed from Paris and rode toward Hainault, and so long she rode that she came to Cambresis; and when she knew she was in the Empire, she was better assured than she was before, and so passed through Cambresis and entered into Ostrevant in Hainault, and lodged at Bugnicourt, in a knight's house who was called sir d'Aubrecicourt, who received her right joyously in the best manner to his power, insomuch that afterward the queen of England (age 31) and her son (age 13) had with them into England for ever the knight and his wife and all his children, and advanced them in divers manners. The coming thus of the queen of England (age 31) and of her son and heir into the country of Hainault was anon well known in the house of the good earl of Hainault, who as then was at Valenciennes; and sir John of Hainault (age 38) was certified of the time when the queen arrived at the place of sir d'Aubrecicourt, the which sir John (age 38) was brother to the said earl Guilliam (age 40), and as he that was young and lusty, desiring all honour, mounted on his horse and departed with a small company from Valenciennes, and came the same night to Bugnicourt, and did to the queen all honour and reverence that he could devise. The queen, who was right sorrowful, began to declare (complaining to him right piteously) her dolours; whereof the said sir John (age 38) had great pity, so that the water dashed in his eyen, and said, ' Certainly, fair lady, behold me here your own knight, who shall you into your estates in England, by the grace of God and with the help of your friends in that parts: and I and such other as I can desire shall put our lives and goods in adventure for your sake, and shall get men of war sufficient, if God be pleased, without the danger of the king of France your brother.' Then the queen would have kneeled down for great joy that she had, and for the good-will he offered her, but this noble knight took her up quickly in his arms and said: 'By the grace of God the noble queen of England shall not kneel to me; but, madam, recomfort yourself and all your company, for I shall keep you faithful promise; and ye shall go see the earl my brother (age 40) and the countess his wife (age 32) and all their fair children, who shall receive you with great joy, for so I heard them report they would do.' Then the queen said: 'Sir, I find in you more love and comfort than in all the world, and for this that ye say and affirm me I thank you a thousand times; and if ye will do this ye have promised in all courtesy and honour, I and my son shall be to you for ever bound, and will put all the realm of England in your abandon; for it is right that it so should be.' And after these words, when they were thus accorded, sir John of Hainault (age 38) took leave of the queen (age 31) for that night, and went to Denaing and lay in the abbey; and in the morning after mass he leapt on his horse and came again to the queen (age 31), who received him with great joy. By that time she had dined and was ready to mount on her horse to, depart with him; and so the queen departed from the castle of Bugnicourt, and took leave of the knight and of the lady, and thanked them for their good cheer that they bad made her, and said that she trusted once to see the time that she or her son should well remember their courtesy. Thus departed the queen in the company of the said sir John to the countess his wife, and feasted her right nobly. And as then this earl (age 40) had four fair daughters, Margaret (age 14), [her future daughter-in-law] Philippa (age 11), Jane (age 11) and Isabel (age 3), among whom the young Edward (age 13) yet most his love and company on Philippa (age 11), and also the young lady in all honour was more conversant with him than any of her sisters. Thus the queen Isabel (age 31) abode at Valenciennes by the space of eight days with the good earl (age 40) and with the countess Jane de Valois. In the meantime the queen apparelled for her needs and business, and the said sir John wrote letters right affectuously unto knights and such companions as he trusted best in all Hainault, in Brabant and in Bohemia, and prayed them for all amities that was between them, that they would go with him in this enterprise into England; and so there were great plenty, what of one country and other, that were content to go with him for his love. But this said sir John of Hainault (age 38) was greatly reproved and counselled the contrary both of the earl his brother (age 40) and of the chief of the council of the country, because it seemed to them that the enterprise was right high and perilous, seeing the great discords and great hates that as then was between the barons of England among themselves, and also considering that these Englishmen most commonly have ever great envy at strangers. Therefore they doubted that the said sir John of Hainault and his company should not return again' with honour. But howsoever they blamed or counselled him, the gentle knight would never change his purpose, but said he had but one death to die, the which was in the will of God; and also said that all knights ought to aid to their powers all ladies and damosels chased out of their own countries, being without counsel or comfort.

Froissart. Oct 1326. AND then this tiding spread about the realm so much, that at the last it came to the knowledge of the lords by whom the queen (age 31) was called again into England. And they apparelled them in all haste to come to [her son] Edward (age 13) her son, whom they would have to their sovereign lord. And the first that came and gave them most comfort was [her uncle] Henry earl of Lancaster (age 45) with the wry neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to [her uncle] Thomas earl of Lancaster, beheaded as ye have heard herebefore, who was a good knight and greatly recommended, as ye shall hear after in this history. This earl Henry (age 45) came to the queen (age 31) with great company of men of war, and after him came from one part and other earls, barons, knights and squires, with so much people that they thought them clean out of perils, and always increased their power as they went forward. Then they took counsel among them that they should ride straight to the town of Bristow [Map], whereas the [her husband] king (age 42) was, and with him the Spencers. The which was a good town and a strong, and well closed, standing on a good port of the sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating round about it. And therein was the king (age 42) and Sir Hugh Spencer the elder (age 65), who was about ninety of age, and Sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) his son, who was chief governour of the king (age 42) and counselled him in all his evil deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel (age 20), who had wedded the daughter (age 14) of sir Hugh Spencer (age 40), and di at Bristow, and besieged the town round about as near as they might: and the king (age 42) and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40) held them in the castle [Map], and the old sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and the earl of Arundel (age 20) held them in the town. And when the people of the town saw the great power that the queen (age 31) was of (for almost all England was of her accord), and perceived what peril and danger evidently they were in, they took counsel among themselves and determined that they would yield up the town to the queen (age 31), so that their lives and goods might be saved. And so they sent to treat with the queen and her council in this matter; but the queen nor her council would not agree thereto without she might do with sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and with the earl of Arundel (age 20) what it pleased her. When the people of the town saw they could have no peace otherwise, nor save the town nor their goods nor their lives, in that distress they accorded to the queen (age 31) and opened the gates, so that the queen (age 31) and sir John of Hainault (age 38), and all her barons, knights and squires, entered into the town and took their lodgings within, as many as might, and the residue without. Then sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and the earl of Arundel (age 20) were taken and brought before the queen (age 31), to do her pleasure with them. Then there was brought to the queen her own children, [her son] John her son (age 10) and her two daughters [Note. [her daughter] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet (age 8) and [her daughter] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland (age 5)], the which were found there in the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 65), whereof the queen had great joy, for she had not seen them long 'before. Then the king (age 42) might have great sorrow and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40), who were fast enclosed in the strong castle, and the most part of all the realm turned to the queen's part and to Edward (age 13) her eldest son.

Return of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer

In Oct 1326 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 31) landed at Orford, Suffolk [Map] with Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 39), John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers (age 36) and Nicholas Abrichecourt (age 36).

Bishop Henry Burghesh (age 34) joined her shortly afterwards.

Froissart. WHEN the queen (age 31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle [Map] as near as they might. The queen (age 31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) the elder and the earl of Arundel (age 20) to be brought forth before [her son] Edward her son (age 13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that she and her son (age 13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) said, 'Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment1, and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (age 29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty1, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth;3 wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow [Map] in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (deceased). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?].

Note 1. This should be, 'God give us a good judge and good judgment ' ; but Verard's edition, from which the translation was made, has 'vous' for 'nous.'

Note 2. This appears to mean, ' To the intent that he should find him guilty on the charge' ('fauty' for 'faulty'); but the original means, 'To the intent that he should declare upon his fealty (féaulté) what should be done with such persons,' etc.

Note 3. Or rather as follows: ' That the accused had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds which they had heard in that place rehearsed, and held them for true and manifest.'

Froissart. Thus it befell of this high and hardy enterprise of sir John of Hainault (age 38) and his company. For when they departed and entered into their ships at Dordrecht, they were but three hundred men of arms; and thus by their help and the lords in England, the queen Isabel conquered again all her estate and dignity, and put unto execution all her enemies, whereof all the most part of the realm were right joyous, without it were a few persons such as were favourable to sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) and of his part. And when the [her husband] king (age 42) and sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) were brought to Bristow [Map] by the said sir Henry Beaumont, the king (age 42) was then sent by the counsel of all the barons and knights to the strong castle of Berkeley [Map], and put under good keeping and honest, and there were ordained people of estate about him, such as knew right well what they ought to do; but they were straitly commanded that they should in no wise suffer him to pass out of the castle. And sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) was delivered to sir Thomas Wake (age 29), marshal of the host. And after that the queen (age 31) departed and all her host toward London, which was the chief city of England, and so rid forth on their journeys, and sir Thomas Wake (age 29) caused sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) to be fast bound on the least and leanest 2 horse of all the host, and caused him to wear on a tabard such as traitors and thieves were wont to wear.

Froissart. At the last it fortuned, sir Henry Beaumont (age 47), son to the viscount Beaumont in England, entered into a barge and certain company with him, and spied this vessel and rowed after him so long that the ship wherein the [her husband] king (age 42) was could not flee fast before them, but finally they were overtaken, and so brought again to the town of Bristow [Map] and delivered to the queen (age 31) and her [her son] son (age 13) as prisoners.

Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

On 24 Nov 1326 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 40) was hanged in Hereford [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 31) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 39) were present.

He was dragged naked through the streets, for the crowd's mistreatment. He was made a spectacle, which included writing on his body biblical verses against the capital sins he was accused of. Then he was hanged as a mere commoner, yet released before full asphyxiation could happen.

He was then tied firmly to a ladder and his genitals sliced off and burned while he was still conscious. His entrails were slowly pulled out; finally, his heart was cut out and thrown into a fire. His body was beheaded and cut into four pieces. His head was mounted on the gates of London.

Baron Despencer forfeit.

Froissart. 24 Nov 1326. WHEN this feast was done, then sir Hugh Spencer (age 40), who was nothing beloved, was brought forth before the queen (age 31) and all the lords and knights, and there before him in writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against the which he could give no manner of answer. And so he was then judged by plain sentence, first to be drawn on an hurdle with trumps and trumpets through all the city of Hereford [Map], and after to be brought into the market-place [Map], whereas all the people were assembled, and there to be tied on high upon a ladder that every man might see him; and in the same place there to be made a great fire, and there his privy members cut from him, because they reputed him as an heretic and so deemed, and so to be burnt in the fire before his face; and then his heart to be drawn out of his body and cast into the fire, because he was a false traitor of heart, and that by his traitor's counsel and exhortation the [her husband] king (age 42) had shamed his realm and brought it to great mischief, for he had caused to be beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, by whom the realm ought to have been sustained and defended; and he had so induced the king (age 42) that he would not see the queen his wife nor Edward his [her son] eldest son (age 14), and caused him to chase them out of the realm for fear of their lives; and then his head to be stricken off and sent to London. And according to his judgment he was executed. Then the queen (age 31) and all her lords took their way toward London, and did so much by their journeys that they arrived at the city of London, and they of the city with great company met them and did to the queen and to her son great reverence, and to all their company, as they thought it best bestowed. And when they had been thus received and feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights strangers, and namely sir John of Hainault (age 38), had great desire to return again into their own countries, for they thought they had well done their devoir and achieved great honour, and so took their leave of the queen and of the lords of the realm: and the queen and the lords required them to tarry longer a little space, to see what should be done with the king (age 42), who was in prison; but the strangers had so great desire to return into their own countries that to pray them the contrary availed not. And when the queen and her council saw that, they yet desired sir John of Hainault (age 38) to tarry till it was past Christmas, and to retain with him such of his company as pleased him best. The gentle knight would not leave to perform his service, but courteously granted the queen to tarry as long as it pleased her, and caused to tarry such of his company as he could get that was but a few, for the remnant would in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. When the queen and her council saw that they would not abide for no prayers, then they made them great cheer and feasts. And the queen made to be given to them plenty of gold and silver for their costs and services, and did give great jewels to each of them according to their degrees, so as they all held themselves right well content. And over that they had silver for their horses, such as they would leave behind them, at their own estimation without any grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault (age 38) abode still with a small company among the Englishmen, who always did him as much honour as they could imagine, and to all his company. And in likewise so did the ladies and damosels of the country; for there were great plenty of countesses and great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who were come thither to accompany the queen. For it seemed well to them that the knight sir John of Hainault (age 38) had well deserved the cheer and feast that they made him.

Coronation of Edward III

Froissart. 01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (age 39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the queen (age 32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the [her husband] king (age 42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (age 42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that [her son] Edward (age 14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (age 42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster [Map] beside London the young king Edward the third (age 14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (age 39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (age 39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (age 30) and the earl of Hainault (age 41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde [Map] at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (age 14) by the counsel of the queen (age 32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges [Map], and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place [Map], and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, Kent [Map], and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the queen (age 32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, Kent [Map], they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde [Map].

Froissart. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (age 39) was departed from [her son] king Edward (age 14), he and the queen (age 32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the [her brother-in-law] earl of Kent (age 25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (age 39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (age 32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (age 30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (age 52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (age 14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old [her husband] king Edward the second (age 42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (age 14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said: therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling [Map], whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (age 14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York [Map], standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (age 39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York [Map], with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (age 39) heard the king's (age 14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant [Map], for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (age 39) was come to Wissant [Map], there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, Kent [Map], and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York [Map], whereas the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (age 39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (age 39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (age 14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (age 28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.

Death of Edward II

On 21 Sep 1327 [her husband] King Edward II of England (age 43) was murdered at Berkeley Castle [Map]. There is speculation as to the manner of his death, and as to whether he died at all. Some believe he may have lived the rest of his life in Europe.

Death of Charles IV of France Sucession of Philip VI

Froissart. 1328. [her brother] King Charles of France (age 33), son to the [her father] fair king Philip, was three times married, and yet died without issue male. The first of his wives was one of the most fairest ladies in all the world, and she was daughter to the earl of Artois. Howbeit she kept but evil the sacrament of matrimony, but brake her wedlock; wherefore she was kept a long space in prison in the castle Gaillard [Map], before that her husband was made king. And when the realm of France was fallen to him, he was crowned by the assent of the twelve douze-peers1 of France, and then because they would not that the realm of France should be long without an heir male, they advised by their counsel that the king should be remarried again; and so he was, to the daughter of the emperor Henry of Luxembourg, sister to the gentle king of Bohemia (age 31); whereby the first marriage of the king was fordone, between him and his wife that was in prison, by the licence and declaration of the pope that was then. And by his second wife, who was right humble, and a noble wise lady, the king had a son, who died in his young age, and the queen also at Issoudun [Map] in Berry. And they both died suspiciously, wherefore divers persons were put to blame after privily. And after this, the same king Charles was married again the third time to the daughter (age 18) of his uncle, the lord [her uncle] Louis earl of Evreux, and she was sister to the king of Navarre (age 21), and was named queen Joan. And so in time and space this lady was with child, and in the mean-time the king Charles her husband fell sick and lay down on his death-bed. And when he saw there was no way with him but death, he devised that if it fortuned the queen to be delivered of a son, then he would that the lord Philip of Valois should be his governour, and regent of all his realm, till his son come to such age as he might be crowned king; and if it fortuned the queen to have a daughter, then he would that all the twelve peers of France should take advice and counsel for the further ordering of the realm, and that they should give the realm and regaly to him that had most right thereto. And so within a while after the king Charles died, about Easter in the year of our Lord Mcccxxviii., and within a short space after the queen was delivered of a daughter.

Note 1. Froissart says simply 'les douze pers.'

Then all the peers of France assembled a council together at Paris, as shortly as they might conveniently, and there they gave the realm by common accord to sir Philip of Valois (age 34), and put clean out the queen Isabel (age 33) of England and [her son] king Edward (age 15) her son. For she was sister-german to king Charles last dead, but the opinion of the nobles of France was, and said and maintained that the realm of France was of so great nobless, that it ought not by succession to fall into a woman's hand. And so thus they crowned king of France Philip Valois at Rheims [Map] on Trinity Sunday next after.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [her son] King Edward III of England (age 15) and [her daughter-in-law] Philippa of Hainault (age 13) were married at York Minster [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She was crowned the same day. She the daughter of William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34). He the son of [her former husband] King Edward II of England and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33). They were second cousins. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

The marriage was the quid pro quo for her father William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) having supported his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) returning to England to usurp the throne of Edward's father King Edward II of England.

Froissart. 24 Jan 1328. It was not long after but that the [her son] king (age 15) and the queen (age 33) his mother, the [her former brother-in-law] earl of Kent (age 26) his uncle, the [her uncle] earl of Lancaster (age 47), sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (age 40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (age 42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (age 42), named [her daughter-in-law] Philippa (age 13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (age 42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (age 15) your prince and the queen (age 33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (age 84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon [Map], to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (age 84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (age 84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant [Map], and arrived with all her company at Dover, Kent [Map]. And sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York [Map] with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of [her former husband] king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (age 13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (age 18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.

Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].

Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. And also they delivered to them again the black cross of Scotland, the which the good king Edward conquered and brought it out of the abbey of Scone [Map], the which was a precious relic; and all rights and interests that every baron had in Scotland was then clean forgiven. And many other things were done at that parliament to the great hurt and prejudice of the realm of England, and in manner against the wills of all the nobles of the realm, save only of Isabel (age 33) the old queen and the bishop of Ely and the lord Mortimer (age 40): they ruled the realm in such wise, that every man was miscontent. So that the earl [her uncle] Henry of Lancaster (age 47) and sir [her former brother-in-law] Thomas Brotherton (age 27), earl marshal, and sir [her former brother-in-law] Edmund of Woodstock (age 26), the king's uncle, and divers other lords and commons were agreed together to amend these faults, if they might. And in that meantime the queen Isabel (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) caused another parliament to be holden at Salisbury, at the which parliament sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) was made earl of March against all the barons' wills of England, in prejudice of king and his realm, and sir [her son] John of Eltham (age 11) the king's brother was made earl of Cornwall. To the which parliament the earl Henry of Lancaster (age 47) would not come, wherefore the king was brought in belief that he would have destroyed his person; for the which they assembled a great host and went toward Bedford [Map], whereas the earl Henry (age 47) was with his company.

Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

On 17 Mar 1328 Robert the Bruce (age 53) signed the Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton bringing to an end the First Scottish War of Independence. The English Parliament signed at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map] on 03 May 1328. The terms of the Treaty included:

Scotland to pay England £100,000 sterling,

The Kingdom of Scotland as fully independent,

Robert the Bruce (age 53), and his heirs and successors, as the rightful rulers of Scotland, and.

The border between Scotland and England as that recognised under the reign of Alexander III (1249-1286).

The Treaty lasted four years only being regarded by the English nobility as humiliating; the work of [her son] Edward's (age 15) mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) rather than King Edward (age 15). Two years after King Edward (age 15) commenced his personal reign he commenced the Second War of Scottish Independence in Aug 1332.

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the [her son] king of England (age 15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle, Cumberland [Map]1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the old queen (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], at the which the king (age 15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.

Note 1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.

Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

On 31 May 1328 the Mortimer family leveraged their new status at a lavish ceremony that celebrated the marriages of two of Roger Mortimer's (age 41) daughters at Hereford [Map].

Edward Plantagenet (age 8) and Beatrice Mortimer (age 6) were married. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) and Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 42). He the son of Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 27) and Alice Hales Countess Norfolk. They were half third cousin once removed. He a grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke (age 9) and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 11) were married. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) and Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 42). He the son of John Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 14th Baron Bergavenny and Juliana Leybourne Countess Huntingdon (age 25). They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

[her son] King Edward III of England (age 15) and his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) attended as well as Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41).

Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

On 17 Jul 1328 [her son-in-law] King David II of Scotland (age 4) and [her daughter] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland (age 7) were married at Berwick on Tweed [Map]. She the daughter of King Edward II of England and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33). He the son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland (age 54) and Elizabeth Burgh Queen Consort Scotland.

After 1330 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35) lived at Castle Rising Castle [Map].

Battle of Teba

Froissart. 25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (age 44) was come to the king of Spain (age 19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (age 44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (age 19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas!' weening to him the king of Spain (age 19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (age 44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young [her son-in-law] king of Scotland (age 4) and dame [her daughter] Joan of the Tower (age 7), sister to [her son] king Edward of England (age 15), at Berwick [Map], as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But queen Isabel (age 35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (age 43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.

Edward III arrests Roger Mortimer

On 19 Oct 1330 John Neville 1299-1335, William Eland, William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 20), William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 26) and William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 29), friends of [her son] King Edward III of England (age 17) secretly entered Nottingham Castle [Map] through tunnels, met with King Edward III of England (age 17), and arrested Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) and his son Geoffrey Mortimer (age 21) in the presence of Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35).

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was hanged naked at Tyburn [Map] accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35) subsequently requested his burial at Wigmore Abbey [Map] and, after firstly refusing, [her son] King Edward III of England (age 18) allowed his remains to be removed to Wigmore Abbey [Map]. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March (age 2) succeeded 2nd Earl March, 4th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore.

Around 1332 [her former sister-in-law] Mary Plantagenet (age 52) died.

In May 1332 [her son-in-law] Reginald "Black" II Duke Guelders (age 37) and [her daughter] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet (age 13) were married at Nijmegen [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Guelders. His second marriage; he had four daughters from his first marriage. He subsequently sent her from court to Deventer Abbey [Map] in 1336 under the pretext that she had leprosy. He subsequently tried to annul the marriage but she contested the annulment by proving she wasn't a leper. The difference in their ages was 23 years. She the daughter of King Edward II of England and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 37). He the son of Reginald I Count Guelders and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Gueders. They were second cousin once removed.

1338 French Raid on Southampton

Froissart. 05 Oct 1338. Upon king Philip's (age 44) receiving the challenges from [her son] king Edward (age 25) and his allies, he collected men at arms and soldiers from all quarters; he sent the lord Gallois de la Bausme, a good knight from Savoy, to the city of Cambray [Map], and made him governor thereof, in conjunction with sir Thibault de Marneil and the lord of Roye: they might be, including Spaniards and French, full two hundred lances. The king seized the county of Ponthieu [Map], which the king of England had before held by right of his mother (age 43); and he also sent and entreated some lords of the empire, such as the count of Hainault his nephew (age 31), the duke of Lorrain (age 18), the Count of Bar (age 23), the bishop of Metz, the bishop of Liege, not to commit any hostile acts against him or his kingdom. The greater part of them answered as he could have wished; but the count of Hainault, in a very civil reply, said that although he should be at all times ready to assist him or his realm against any one, yet as the king of England made war in behalf of the empire, as vicar and lieutenant of it, he could not refuse him aid and assistance in his country, as he held lands under the empire. The king of France appeared satisfied with this answer, not however laying much stress on it, as he felt himself in sufficient strength to oppose his enemies.

As soon as sir Hugh Quiriel, sir Peter Bahucet, and Barbenoire, were informed that hostilities had commenced, they landed one Sunday morning in the harbour at Southampton, Hampshire [Map], whilst the inhabitants were at church: Normans, Picards, and Spaniards entered the town, pillaged it, killed many, deflowered maidens and forced wives; and having loaded their vessels with the booty, they fell down with the tide, and made sail for the coast of Normandy. They landed at Dieppe, and there divided the plunder.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. Oct 1357. It appears, then, that at the beginning of October, when the Account opens, the Queen (age 62) was residing at her Castle of Hertford [Map], having not very long before been at Rising. The first visitor we have mention of is the "Comitissa Garenniæ," who sups with her on the fourth. The lady thus designated was Joan (age 61), daughter of Henry Earl of Barr (age 98), and Eleanor, daughter of Edward I. of England; niece, therefore, to Queen Isabella. She was married to John Earl of Warren and Surrey, in the year 33 Edward I., but appears to have been divorced from her husband, on the plea, of a previous marriage on his part, in the year 1345; and, as Dugdale tells us, she had leave to go beyond sea, in the same year, on some special employment for the King. She was one of the ladies, according to Froissart, who accompanied Isabella to England when she sailed from Flanders to the English shore on the expedition so fatal to her husband; and the frequent mention of her in the Account shows that she was in the closest intimacy with Isabella at this time. She visited her constantly, and nursed her in her last illness.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. Oct 1357. About the middle of October — the actual date is lost by injury of the document - the Queen (age 62) set out from Hertford on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. She rested at Tottenham, London, Eltham, Dartford, and Rochester, in going or returning visited Leeds Castle [Map], and was again at Hertford at the beginning of November.

She gave alms to the nuns minoresses without Aldgate; to the rector of St. Edmund's in London, in whose parish her hostel was situated — it was in Lombard Street; and to the prisoners in Newgate.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 26th of October she entertained the [her son] King (age 44) and Prince of Wales (age 27) in her own house in London; and we have recorded a gift of thirteen shillings and four pence to four minstrels who played in their presence.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 16th of November [1357] after her return to Hertford Castle [Map], she was visited by the renowned Gascon warrior, the Captal de Buche (age 26), cousin of the Comte de Foix. He had recently come over into England with the Prince of Wales, having taken part, on the English side, in the great battle of Poitiers.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 15th of December [1357] the Queen (age 62) was visited by the Countess of Pembroke (age 40), who passed the entire day with her; and, from the frequency of her subsequent visits, it would appear that she was one of Isabella's closest friends. And, again, what can we infer but a clinging on her part to the memory of her lover, when we find that this lady, widow of Lawrence Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, was none other than Agnes, daughter of Mortimer himself; and that we thus have recorded visits received by Isabella of a daughter, the grandson, and grandson's brother-in law of her favourite, within the space of one month?

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 24th of December [1357], and on Christmas Day, the Queen (age 62) entertained the Maréchal Arnould D'Audenham, sometimes written D'Andrehen, and Regnaut Sire D'Aubigny, both French prisoners taken at Poitiers. The former, Marshal of France, and a man of great note of the time, is a very frequent visitor with the Queen, and was probably active in concerting terms for a treaty between the crowns of England and France.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 10th and 11th of January, 1358, Isabella (age 63) is visited by the Countess of Pembroke (age 41), the Countess of Kent (age 28), and Sir John de Wynewyk. Of these, the Countess of Pembroke has been already noticed. The Countess of Kent was Isabella (age 28), daughter of the Marquess of Juliers (age 59), and widow of John Plantagenet, Earl of Kent. Her husband had died in the year 13531; upon which she took the veil at Waverley [Map]; but afterwards, as Dugdale tells us, "quitting her profession, was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace Dabrischecourt." The name of this knight is usually written D'Ambreticourt. He was the son of Sir Sanchez D'Ambreticourt (age 28), Knight of the Garter, and a descendant of the poor knight of Ostrevant, in Hainault, in whose house Isabella found shelter on her dismissal from the court of her brother, Charles IV. of France, and whom, with his whole family, she had invited over into England, and had in various ways advanced. In reference to the Countess of Kent, Froissart says— "This lady was greatly attached to Sir Eustace D'Ambreticourt, for his gallant deeds of arms, which had been related to her: and she sent him coursers, hackneys, and letters full of love; which so much emboldened Sir Eustace, and spurred him to perform such feats of chivalry and of arms, that all those under him made fortunes." Dugdale tells us, in respect of the Countess's breach of her vows, that "she and her said husband, being personally convented before the said Archbishop of Canterbury in his manor house of Maghfeld," the Archbishop imposed on them a certain penance of prayers and alms very skilfully adapted to their offence.

Of Sir John de Wynewyk, I have been unable to learn anything of certainty. He appears to have been attached to the King's court, and was perhaps the medium employed for managing Isabella's affairs. He visited her and exchanged letters with her constantly.

Note 1. Possibly a mistake for 1352? John Plantagenet 3rd Earl Kent died 26 Dec 1352.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. From the 30th of January to the 2nd of February, the Comte de Tancarville continues again a visitor at the Castle; and on the 1st of February, the Earl of Richmond, John (age 17), son of Edward III., dined with the Queen (age 63), his grandmother.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 1st of March [1358], the Earl of Ulster, Lionel (age 19), afterwards Duke of Clarence, son of Edward III., takes supper with the Queen (age 63). It will be remembered that Lionel's daughter, Philippa (age 2), subsequently brought a claim to the English crown into the family of the Mortimers, by her marriage with Edmund Earl of March (age 6).

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 21st [Mar 1358], William, Archbishop of Sens, now in England to negotiate a treaty of peace for his Sovereign with the English Monarch, the Maréchal D'Audenham, and the Countess of Pembroke (age 41), spend the entire day with Isabella (age 63); and her grandson, the Earl of Richmond (age 18), arrives to supper.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 6th of April [1358], the Prince of Wales (age 27), attended by four knights, dined with the Queen (age 63).

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the following day, the 16th of April [1358], Isabella (age 63) set out on a journey from Hertford, and the movements of her household are recorded to have been - on the 16th to Tottenham; on the 17th to London; on the 20th to Shene [Map]; on the 21st to Upton ( near Windsor ), the Queen herself going, it is stated, to Chertsey; on the 26th to Shene again; and on the 30th to London, where it remained till the 13th of May.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 19th [Apr 1358], still in London, the Chancellor and Treasurer of England and Sir John de Wynewyk dined with the Queen (age 63); and the Prince of Wales (age 27) and Duke of Lancaster (age 48) visited her after dinner.

1358 St Georges Day Celebrations

On 21 Apr 1358 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 63) attended the St Georges Day Celebrations (1358) wearing a dress made of silk, silver, 300 rubies, 1800 pearls and a circlet of gold.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 26th [Apr 1358], having returned to Shene [Map], doubtless from Windsor, Isabella (age 63) receives her daughter [her daughter] Joan Queen of Scotland (age 36), with her retinue. Joan is stated to have come at this time on a political mission to the court of Edward III.; and from the present document it would appear that she continued a guest with her mother Isabella up to the time of the death of the latter; and that even her own dress and the livery of her retinue were supplied from Isabella's funds.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. The following visits, during her [Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 63)] stay in London, are recorded. On the 30th of April, the Countess of Warren to supper (age 62). On the 1st of May, the Countess of Pembroke (age 41) to dinner; and the King after dinner. On the 2nd of May, the Countesses of Warren (age 62) and Pembroke (age 41) to dinner; and the [her son] King (age 45), the Prince of Wales (age 27), the Earl of March (age 29), and others, after dinner. On the 3rd of May, the Countess of Pembroke (age 41) and the Maréchal D'Audenham to dinner; and the Earl of Arundel (age 52), "et plures magnates Franciæ1," after dinner. On the 4th, the Count of Tancarville to dinner. On the 5th, the Countesses of Warren and Pembroke and the Maréchal D'Audenham again to dinner; and the Chancellor of England and many French noblemen after dinner. On the 6th the Chief Justice and the Barons of the Exchequer to dinner. On the four following days, the Countesses of Warren, Kent, and Pembroke dine with the Queen; and on the last of the four Sir John de Wynewyk comes to supper. On the 11th, [her daughter-in-law] Queen Philippa (age 43) appears to have dined with Isabella, but the entry is partially obliterated; the Earl Marshal and other noblemen came after dinner. On the 12th, the Countess of Pembroke dined, and the Cardinals ( of Périgord and St. Vitalis ), the Archbishop of Sens, and some French noblemen came after dinner. On Sunday the 13th, the Countess of Warren and others from London, as it is expressed, dined; and the King of France, the Chancellor of England, and others, visited the Queen after dinner.

Note 1. and several magnates of France.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 30th of April [1358], Isabella (age 63) returned to London, where she remained till the 11th of May; having her residence in the house of the Archbishop of York.

It must be remembered that at this period anxious efforts were being made by Edward III. to settle terms of a peace with his captive, John of France; and it can hardly be believed that Isabella was inactive in these negotiations. Her presence at Windsor at the festival of St. George, her residence in London, and her frequent communications with the French captives, warrant us in concluding that she did in fact take part in them; and the eager interest with which she watched their progress is proved by an entry in these accounts of a donation on the 10th of May of the considerable sum of six pounds thirteen shillings ( equal in value to about ninety pounds of the present currency ) to a messenger bringing a letter from Sir William de Wynewyk, at Windsor, certifying her of reports of the conclusion of an agreement between the two sovereigns, and of the same sum given by her, the same day, to a courier bearing a letter from Queen Philippa, convey ing the same intelligence.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 14th of May [1358], Isabella (age 63) left London and rested at Tottenham, on her way to Hertford. She was accompanied as far as Tottenham by the Countess of Warren (age 62), who dined with her there. She arrived at Hertford the following day; and a payment is recorded of a gift of six shillings and eight pence to the nuns of Cheshunt, who met the Queen at the Cross in the high road, in front of their house.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 27th [May 1358], the Earl of Douglas (age 35) dined with the Queen (age 63); and the Maréchal D'Audenham came to supper.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 4th of June [1358], Isabella (age 63) set out on a pilgrimage to Canterbury, and a visit of nearly three weeks' duration to Leeds Castle [Map]. She rested at Tottenham on the 4th, at London on the 5th and 6th, where she received the Countess of Warren (age 62) to dinner, and many noblemen after dinner. At Dartford on the 7th; at Rochester on the 8th, the Countess of Warren again dining with her. At Ospringe on the 9th, and at Canterbury on the 10th and 11th; entertaining there the Abbot of St. Augustine's both days. Under the division of "Alms" are recorded the Queen's oblations at the tomb of St. Thomas; the crown of his head ( the part having the tonsure, cut off by his assassins ), and point of the sword (with which he had been slain); and her payment to minstrels playing "in volta;" as also her oblations in the Church of St. Augustine, and her donations to various hospitals and religious houses in the city.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 12th [Jun 1358] she [Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 63)] returned to Ospringe, and on the 13th proceeded to Leeds Castle, where she remained till the 2nd of July; receiving as visitors the Prior of Leeds and Sir Arnold Savage (age 33), and dining in Langley Park, with many strangers, on the 19th of June; and being at Sutton Park, together with the [her daughter] Queen of Scotland (age 36), on the 25th. It is evident, therefore, that her daughter (age 36) had accompanied her from Hertford.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On Monday the 2nd of July [1358], Isabella (age 63) left Leeds on her return to Hertford; which she reached on the 6th; making the daily stages of Rochester, Dartford, London, and Tottenham. Sir John de Wynewyk supped with the Queen in London, and the Countess of Warren (age 62) and the Maréchal D'Audenham at Tottenham. She was accompanied to Hertford by the [her daughter] Queen of Scotland (age 36). Isabella remained without visitors for some days after her return to Hertford. A memorandum is entered that the King was expected on the 13th of July; and on the 17th, strangers were entertained during the day, but they are not named.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 26th [Jul 1358], Isabella (age 63) and her [her daughter] daughter the Queen of Scotland (age 37) spent the day at Almesho Park; and the following day at Madecroft Park.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 30th [Jul 1358], Lord Morley again dined with the Queen (age 63).

Death of Isabella of France Queen Consort

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 21st [Aug 1358] the Countess of Warren (age 62) arrived at the Castle [Map], and remained during the following day, to attend at the death-bed of Queen Isabella (age 63), who expired on the 22nd of August. Sir John de Wynewyk also supped at the castle on the day of the Queen's death.

Respecting Isabella's death, she is stated by chroniclers to have sunk, in the course of a single day, under the effect of a too powerful medicine, administered at her own desire. From several entries however in this account, it would appear that she had been in a state requiring medical treatment for some time previous to her decease.

As early as the 15th of February a payment had been made to a messenger going on three several occasions to London, for divers medicines for the Queen, and for the hire of a horse for Master Lawrence, the physician; and again for another journey by night to London. On the same day a second payment was made to the same messenger for two other journeys by night to London, and two to St. Alban's, to procure medicines for the Queen. On the 1st of August a payment was made to Nicholas Thomasyn apothecary, of London, for divers spices and ointment supplied for the Queen's use. On the 12th of August messengers were paid for several night journeys to London for medicines. On the 20th of August, two days only before the Queen's death, payment was made to a messenger who had been sent to London to fetch Master Simon de Bredon "ad videndum statum Reginæ1." Increased alarm for the Queen's health is now visible, for by a payment made on the 24th of August, two days after her death, it appears that a messenger had been sent to Canterbury "cum maxima festinatione2" with letters of the Queen, to bring Master Lawrence, the physician, to see the Queen's state. And another entry occurs of a payment made on the 12th of September to Master Lawrence, of forty shillings, for attendance on the Queen and the Queen of Scotland, at Hertford, for an entire month. Finally an allowance is made to the accountant, on the 6th of December, in terms which, as they are somewhat obscure, I prefer to quote in the original words, "Magistro Johanni Gateneys, de dono, in precio xv. florenorum de xl. denariis, sibi liberatorum in vita Reginæ, ad decoquend' cum medicinis pro corpore Reginæ3, l. s."

It is evident that the body of the Queen remained in the chapel of the Castle until the 23rd of November, as a payment is made to fourteen poor persons for watching the Queen's corpse there, day and night, from Saturday the 25th of August to that date, each of them receiving two pence daily, besides his food. The body was probably removed from Hertford Castle on the 24th of November, as we find, by the continuation of the Account of the expenses of the household, that on the 22nd and 23rd the Bishop of Lincoln, the Abbot of Waltham (? ), the Prior of Coventry, and "plures extranei4" were there for the performance of a solemn mass in the chapel; and the daily expenditure on those days, and on the 24th, rises from the average of six pounds to fifteen and twenty-five pounds. Moreover, from the 25th to the 28th of November the household is in London, after which it returns again to Hertford. The statement, therefore, of chroniclers that the Queen's funeral took place on the 27th is confirmed. She was interred in the choir of the church of the Grey Friars [Map], within Newgate, now Christ Church, the Archbishop of Canterbury officiating, and the [her son] King (age 45) himself being present at the ceremony. Just twenty-eight years before, on nearly the same day, the body of her paramour Mortimer was consigned to its grave in the same building

Note 1. "to see the state of the Queen".

Note 2. "with the greatest haste".

Note 3. "to see the state of the Queen's Master John Gateneys, of the gift, at the price of xv. 40 florins denarii, which had been delivered to him during the Queen's lifetime, to be decoctioned together with the medicines for the Queen's body".

Note 4. "many strangers".

On 22 Aug 1358 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 63) died at Hertford Castle [Map]; see Archaeologia Vol. 35 XXXIII. She was buried in Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

The funeral was performed by Archbishop Simon Islip. She was buried in the mantle she had worn at her wedding and at her request, [her former husband] Edward's heart, placed into a casket thirty years before, was interred with her.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 28th of November [1357], and two following days, the Queen entertained the Earl of Tancarville, a member of the royal family of France, and at this time in England, as one of the captives of Poitiers; and with him the Earl of Salisbury. Of this latter nobleman, William de Montacute, second Earl, it is noticeable that he too was connected with the Mortimers, being, as we have already stated, brother-in-law to the existing Earl of March2, although his father had personally acted a principal part in arresting Isabella's paramour in Nottingham Castle.

Note 1. Possibly John Melun 1st Count Tancarville although he not a member of the royal family of France?

Note 2. Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March had married William's sister Philippa Montagu Countess March.

The Bard. 1757.The Bard: A Pindaric Ode. By Thomas Gray.

This poem includes, in Stanza 2.3, the first use of the term "She-Wolf", used before by Shakespeare to describe Queen Margaret of Anjou, to describe Queen Isabella of France, former wife of King Edward II.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. Now it must be observed that the Queen separated herself from her household on the 21st, and the account shows, that from the 22nd to the 25th, inclusive, the weekly expenses of the household fell to about half their usual amount. Moreover, an entry under the head of "Alms" makes mention, in reference to this period, of the Queen's journey to Windsor. There is no room for doubt therefore ( though Chroniclers make no mention of the circumstance ) that the object of Isabella's journey was to be present at the festivities held at Windsor by Edward III. in celebration of St. George's Day, the 23rd of April — festivities set forth with unwonted magnificence, in honour of the many crowned heads and noble foreigners then in England, and to which strangers from all countries were offered letters of safe conduct.

Froissart. This king Edward the second was married to Isabel, the daughter of [her father] Philip le Beau king of France, who was one of the fairest ladies of the world. The king had by her two sons and two daughters. The first son was the noble and hardy [her son] king Edward the third, of whom this history is begun. The second was named [her son] John, and died young. The first of the daughters was called [her daughter] Isabel, married to the young king David of Scotland, son to king Robert de Bruce, married in her tender youth by the accord of both realms of England and Scotland for to make perfect peace. The other [her daughter] daughter was married to the earl Raynold, who after was called duke of Gueldres, and he had by her two sons, Raynold and Edward, who after reigned in great puissance.

Froissart. Now sheweth the history that this [her father] Philip le Beau king of France had three sons and a fair daughter named Isabel, married into England to king Edward the second; and these three sons, the eldest named [her brother] Louis, who was king of Navarre in his father's days and was called king Louis Hutin, the second had to name [her brother] Philip the Great or the Long, and the third was called [her brother] Charles; and all three were kings of France after iheir father's decease by right succession each after other, without having any issue male of their bodies lawfully begotten. So that after the death of Charles, last king of the three, the twelve peers and all the barons of France would not give the realm to Isabel the sister, who was queen of England, because they said and maintained, and yet do, that the realm of France is so noble that it ought not to go to a woman, and so consequently to Isabel, nor to the [her son] king of England her eldest son for they determined the son of the woman to have no right nor succession by his mother, since they declared the mother to have no right: so that by these reasons the twelve peers and barons of France by their common accord did give the realm of France to the lord Philip of Valois, nephew sometime to Philip le Beau king of France, and so put out the queen of England and her son, who was as the next heir male, as son to the sister of Charles, last king of France. Thus went the realm of France out of the right lineage, as it seemed to many folk, whereby great wars hath moved and fallen, and great destructions of people and countries in the realm of France and other places, as ye may hereafter [see]. This is the very right foundation of this history, to recount the great enterprises and great feats of arms that have fortuned and fallen. Sith the time of the good Charlemagne king of France there never fell so great adventures.

Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198-1245

Royal Ancestors of Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358

Kings Wessex: Great x 9 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Great x 4 Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 7 Grand Daughter of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 4 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358

King Edward III of England x 1

Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Ancestors of Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Louis IX of France Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: James I King Aragon

GrandMother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France

Great x 1 Grandmother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon

Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Theobald IV King Navarre 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

GrandFather: Henry I King Navarre 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Mother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Robert Capet Count of Artois Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Matilda Reginar Countess Saint Pol 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England