1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes

1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes is in 14th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, St George's Day Jousting

On 23 May 1390, St George's Day, a Jousting Tournament was held at London Bridge [Map]. David Lindsay 1st Earl Crawford so easily unhorsed the King's Champion John Welles 5th Baron Welles as to make the crowd suspect Lindsay of foul play by fastening himself to his saddle. To prove the crowd wrong David Lindsay 1st Earl Crawford leapt from his horse in full armour, then back again. Realising John Welles 5th Baron Welles was injured he rushed to his aid. He visited Welles every day until he recovered. The two became firm friends.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Death of Isabella of Castile

On 23 Dec 1392 Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 37) died. She the wife of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 40) who may have been the father of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 7) progenitor of the House of York.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Death and Funeral of Anne of Bohemia

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. 07 Jun 1394. In the year of our Lord 1394, on Whitsun-day (7th June), died that most gracious lady Ann, queen of England (age 28), at the manor of Shene [Map], which lies on Thames near to Brentford. Which manor, though a royal one and very fair, did king Richard, by reason that that lady’s death happened therein, command and cause to be utterly destroyed. After the ceremony of her funeral, which was carried out with becoming honours on the morrow of Saint Peter ad Vincula (2nd August), the king, clad, with his train, in weeds of mourning, straightway passed over into Ireland with & great power, to subdue the rebellion of the Irish1. Yet he gained but little; for the Irish, then feigning submission to his will, straightway after his departure were in revolt, as all men know.

Note 1. Richard sailed for Iréland early in September, 1394, and returned in May of the next year.

On 07 Jun 1394 Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 28) died of plague (probably) at Sheen Palace [Map]. King Richard II of England (age 27) was so distraught at her death he ordered the destruction of Sheen Palalce [Map].

On 03 Aug 1394 Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England was buried at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map] with Archbishop Thomas Fitzalan aka Arundel (age 41) presiding. King Richard II of England (age 27) attended. Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel (age 48), brother of the presiding Archbishop, and his wife Philippa Mortimer Countess Pembroke, Arundel and Surrey (age 18), arrived late causing Richard, in a rage, to snatch a wand and strike FitzAlan in the face drawing blood.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Bal de Ardents

On 28 Jan 1393 the Bal de Ardents (aka Ball of the Burning Men or Ball of the Wild Men) was a masquerade ball held at the Hôtel Saint Pol [Map] in Paris by Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 24) who performed with five members of the French nobility. The performers were dressed as wild men of the woods; four were killed when their costumes caught fire.

Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 24) was rescued by his aunt Joan II Countess of Auvergne Duchess Berry (age 15) who smothered him in her dress.

Sieur de Nantouillet jumped into an open vat of wine and remained there until the flames were extinguished.

Count de Joigny died.

Yvain de Foix, son of Gaston Fébus, Count of Foix died after two days.

Aimery Poitiers, son of the Count of Valentinois died after two days.

Huguet de Guisay died after three days.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Richard II Travels to Ireland

In Oct 1394 King Richard II of England (age 27) travelled to Ireland with William Hankford (age 44).

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Battle of Nicopolis

On 25 Sep 1396 at the Battle of Nicopolis ...

Henry of Bar (age 32) was captured.

Philippe of Bar (age 24) was killed. His brother Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 19) succeeded III Duke Bar.

Philip Artois Count Eu (age 39) was captured.

On 18 Feb 1397 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 57) died whilst a prisoner following the Battle of Nicopolis without male issue. Earl Bedford extinct. His daughter Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons (age 30) succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. May 1395. The next year, at the end of May, the king returned to England, landing at Bristol; and forthwith he sent envoys into France to contract his second marriage, of which more anon. And so, a matter for wonder, he took to wife [Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 5)] a child not yet seven years old, rejecting the daughter and heiress of the king of Aragon, though very fair and of marriageable years1, But why he chose this young child,—and though a child she was married to him at Calais with much outlay of money and show—they say was that, eager to pour forth his pent-up venom, he thought by help and favour of the king of France to destroy his enemies. Yet this in the end turned to the ruin of himself and his confederates, as will afterwards appear2.

Note 1. The actual age of Isabella of France was eight years. The marriage took place at Calais, on the Ist November, 1396. The daughter of the king of Aragon, referred to above, appears to have been Yolande, daughter of John I (age 44). She married, in 1400, Louis II (age 17), titular king of Naples and count of Provence, and thus became grandmother to Margaret of Anjou, the wife of Henry VI.

Note 2. The surrender by Richard, in 1393 and 1397, of Cherbourg and Brest, which were held in pawn of the king of Navarre and duke of Brittany, was most distasteful to the English. Men recalled the conquests of Edward III. and their speedy loss, and had come to look upon even the givitig up of towns held in pledge as a national wrong. This, added to the French marriage, gave rise to various rumours of Richard’s designs in favour of the French: among others, that Calais, too, was to be handed over to them. See the story of Richard’s quarrel, on this score, with the duke of Gloucester, as told in the Chronique de la Tratson et Mort de Richart II., ed. B. Williams (English Hist. Soc.), 1846.

On 31 Oct 1396 King Richard II of England (age 29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 6) were married. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 27) and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 26). He the son of Edward "Black Prince" and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 26) attended.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Thomas Haxey's Case Free Speech in Parliament

In Jan 1397 Thomas Haxey presented a bill to Parliament criticising the costs of King Richard II of England's household. King Richard II of England (age 29) took offence and had Haxby charged with treason and sentenced to be executed. On appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 44) Haxey was released into the Archbishop's care.

Calendars. 23. Be it remembered that on the Wednesday after Candlemas [7 February 1397], immediately after the judgment rendered against Thomas Haxey, clerk, who was adjudged to death in parliament as a traitor, there came before the king in parliament with great humility the archbishop of Canterbury and all the other prelates, and made full protestation that their whole and full intent was, and always would be, that the royal estate and regality of the king should be be forever saved and kept from blemish; and they humbly prayed of the king that it might please him of his grace to have pity and mercy for the said Thomas, and of his high and royal benignity to remit and release the execution of the said Thomas's death and grant and give him his life.

And the king thereupon, at the prayer of the said prelates, of his royal pity and of his special grace, remitted and released the execution of the said Thomas's death and granted him his life. Whereupon the said prelates, thanking the king for his great kindness and mercy he had shown, prayed humbly of the king that it might please him of his most abundant grace, to the reverence of God and for the honour of holy church, to grant them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas, the said prelates protesting thereon that they did not make that request nor prayer, nor demand such great grace of the keeping of his said body, for any right or due which pertained or might pertain to them in the cause, but only of the special grace and will of the king himself. Whereupon the king, only of his special grace and for the honour of holy church, and not as any due or right of the said prelates in this matter, granted and released to them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas: and thereupon he ordered Sir Thomas Percy, steward of the king's household, to deliver the body of the said Thomas Haxey to the said archbishop, to keep safely, of the king's grace, as was said above.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Legitimation of the Beauforts

Calendars. 04 Feb 1397. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (age 53), by order of the king (age 30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king (age 30) and his honourable uncle the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (age 56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort (age 24), his brothers [Note. Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 22) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 20)], and his sister (age 18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.


29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said duke (age 56), father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:

Richard (age 30), by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble John (age 24), knight, Henry (age 22), cleric, Thomas (age 20), donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort (age 18), lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man John duke of Lancaster (age 56), our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your father (age 56), we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Calendars. 32. The king (age 30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (age 24), knight, son of our beloved uncle John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (age 56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (age 44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (age 55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (age 77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (age 53), bishops; Henry of Derby (age 29), Edward of Rutland (age 24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (age 28), earls; Reginald Grey (age 35), Ralph Neville (age 33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (age 54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

Calendars. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (age 53) announced by the king's (age 30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the king (age 30) considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin Sir John Beaufort (age 24), son of his uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (age 56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the Earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.

Note. On 10 Feb 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was created 1st Earl Somerset.

Calendars. 31. Whereupon the said Sir John was brought before the king in parliament between two earls, namely Huntingdon and the marshal, dressed in a cloth as a dress of honour, and his sword carried before him, the hilt uppermost. And then the king's charter of the said creation was read aloud before the king, lords, and commons in parliament. And afterwards the king himself girded the said earl with his sword and took his homage, and caused him to sit in his place in parliament, that is to say, between the earls marshal and Warwick. The tenor of which charter follows:

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

On 12 Jul 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel (age 51) was arrested for his opposition to King Richard II of England (age 30).

On 21 Sep 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel (age 51) was tried at Westminster [Map].

He was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] immediately thereafter. Earl Surrey and Earl Arundel Sussex forfeit.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

Froissart. Around 08 Sep 1397. When the duke of Gloucester (age 42) saw himself confined in the castle of Calais [Map], abandoned by his brothers, and deprived of his attendants, he began to be much alarmed. He addressed himself to the earl-marshal (age 29): "For what reason am I thus carried from England and confined here? It seems that you mean to imprison me. Let me go and view the castle, its garrison, and the people of the town." "My lord," replied the earl (age 29), "I dare not comply with your demands, for you are consigned to my guard, under pain of death. The king (age 30) our lord is at this moment somewhat wroth with you; and it is his orders that you abide here a while, in banishment with us, which you must have patience to do, until we have other news, and God grant that it may be soon! for, as the Lord may help me, I am truly concerned for your disgrace, and would cheerfully aid you if I could, but you know the oath I have taken to the king, which I am bound in honour to obey." The duke of Gloucester (age 42) could not obtain any other answer. He judged, from appearances of things around him, that he was in danger of his life, and asked a priest who had said mass, if he would confess him. This he did, with great calmness and resignation, and with a devout and contrite heart cried before the altar of God, the Creator of all things, for his mercy. He was repentant of all his sins, and lamented them greatly. He was in the right thus to exonerate his conscience, for his end was nearer than he imagined. I was informed, that on the point of his sitting down to dinner, when the tables were laid, and he was about to wash his hands, four men rushed out from an adjoining chamber, and, throwing a towel round his neck, strangled him, by two drawing one end and two the other1. When he was quite dead, they carried him to his chamber, undressed him, and placed the body between two sheets, with his head on a pillow, and covered him with furred mantles. They then re-entered the hall, properly instructed what to say and how to act, and declared the duke of Gloucester (age 42) had been seized with a fit of apoplexy as he was washing his hands before dinner, and that they had great difficulty to carry him to bed. This was spoken of in the castle and town, where some believed it, but others not. "Within two days after, it was published abroad that the duke of Gloucester (age 42) had died in his bed at the castle of Calais; and, in consequence, the earl marshal (age 29) put on mourning, for he was nearly related to him, as did all the knights and squires in Calais.

Note 1. He was smothered with pillows, not strangled. Hall, one of the accomplices, made a particular confession of all the circumstances. See Parl Plac[?] viii p. 452. Ed.

Around 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 42) was murdered in Calais [Map] for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Duke Gloucester, Earl Essex forfeit. His son Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham (age 16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham.

Walter Clopton was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

In 1404 William Serle was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for having been one of the murderers of Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (age 30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms, possibly for their part in downfall of Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (deceased), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 59) and Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel (deceased) ...

His older half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 45) was created 1st Duke Exeter. Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk. Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk (age 31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset, 1st Marquess Dorset. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence (age 12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset, Marchioness Dorset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Westmoreland. Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 18) by marriage Countess of Westmoreland.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Thomas Mowbray Duel

Before 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV (age 31) reported to King Richard II (age 31) that Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) had made a treasonous remark regarding Richard's rule. Richard II proposed a duel of honour at Gosford Green Caludon Coventry [Map], neat Mowbray's home Caludon Castle.

On 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV (age 31) spent the night at Baginton Castle [Map], the home of his friend William Bagot. Thomas Mowbray (age 30) spent the night at his home Caludon Castle [Map].

On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (age 31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (age 31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30). the future Henry IV (age 31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (age 31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (age 31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. The future Henry IV (age 31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) forever.

On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) left England never to return.

See The Chronicles of Froissart Book 4 Chapter 94.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (age 31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham [Map]. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of Lancaster (age 58) and York (age 57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (age 56), Salisbury (age 48) and Huntingdon (age 46). The earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (age 31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,- "Well then, I order that the earl marshal (age 30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (age 31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (age 30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (age 31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's1, he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (age 25) and of Portugal (age 38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be happily to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (age 31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (age 30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without hope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by him and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. - Ed.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The duke of Lancaster (age 58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his son (age 31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (age 31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, - "Earl of Derby (age 31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (age 31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anything can, at his leisure, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

Effigy of Henry IV and his Queen Joan of Navarre. THESE effigies are both on one altar-tomb in the cathedral at Canterbury [Map]. Henry the Fourth, surnamed of Bolingbroke, from the castle in Lincolnshire [Map] where he was born, about the year 1366, was the son of John of Gaunt by his first wife, Blanche, daughter of Henry Duke of Lancaster. Thus in blood he was truly royal; for Edward the Third was his paternal grandfather, and he descended directly, by his mother's side, from Edmund Crouchback, first Earl of Lancaster, the second son of Henry the Third. His first wife, and the mother of all his issue, was Mary, second daughter and coheiress of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, in whose right he was created Duke of Hereford by King Richard the Second, and bore also, after his father's death, the title of Duke of Lancaster, and Earl of Derby. Having taken occasion one day, in conversation with Thomas Mowbray, first Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England, to animadvert somewhat freely on his cousin King Richard's misgovernment, Norfolk denounced him to the King as a traitor. Bolingbroke recriminated on him as a malignant forger of seditious tales, and requested the King to allow him to clear himself by the trial of battle, "by the stroke of a spere and the dent of a sworda." They both in the royal presence interchangeably threw down their gages, and the King appointed a day at Coventry for the adjustment of this quarrel by legal duel. In a work of this character, it may be peculiarly allowable to follow the old chronicles in the description of so chivalrous a ceremony. On the appointed day the Dukes came to Coventry, accompanied by the noblemen and gentlemen of their lineage, who encouraged them to the fight. The Duke of Albemarle, or Aumarle, and the Duke of Surreyb,- the one High Constable and the other High Marshal of England for the day, entered the lists with a numerous body of attendants, each of whom was attired in silke cendal, having a "tipped staff" in his hand to keep the held in order. About the hour of prime (six o'clock in the forenoon) Bolingbroke came to the lists armed at all points, mounted on a white courser, barded with blue and green velvet, embroidered sumptuously with swans and antelopes of goldsmiths' work. The Constable and Marshal demanded of him at the barriers who he was ? "I am," replied the noble appellant, "Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford, who am come hither to do my devoir against Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, as a traitor untrue to God, the King, his Realm, and me!" Then he was immediately sworn upon the Gospels that his quarrel was true and just, and therefore he desired to enter the lists. He then returned his sword to the scabbard, put back his vizor, crossed his forehead, entered within the barriers, alighted from his horse, and sat down in a chair of green velvet, which was placed under a canopy, also of velvet, at one end of the lists. Soon after, King Richard entered the held, in great state, accompanied by the Peers of the Realm, and the Earl of St. Paul, who had journeyed post from France expressly to see this challenge. The King had above ten thousand men in harness with him as a guard. He ascended a stage, royally decorated, and seated himself. A herald forbade, in the Constable's and Marshal's names, ail persons, on pain of death, from touching the lists, except the officers for marshalling the held. Another herald then proclaimed aloud these words: "Behold, Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford, Appellant, is entered the Lists Royal to do his devoir against Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, Defendant, on pain of being proved false and recreant." During this time the Duke of Norfolk, completely armed, was wheeling about before the entrance to the lists on his destrier, barded with crimson velvet embroidered with silver lions (the bearing of his house) intermixed with mulberry-trees. When he had taken the oath that his quarrel was just and true, he rode within the barrier into the held, exclaiming aloud, "God defend the right!" and sat him down in a chair of crimson velvet canopied with white and red damask. The Marshal then measured the spears, to see they were of equal length. He himself delivered one to the Appellant, and sent the other to the Defendant by a knight. At the King's command, the seats of the champions were now removed, they mounted their coursers, closed the beavers of their helms, threw their lances into rest, the trumpets sounded, and the hery steed of Bolingbroke rushed forward to the course. The Duke of Norfolk's horse was not yet at his full pace, when the King cast down his warder. The heralds called "Ho! ho!"— the signal for arresting the combat. The King's Secretary, Sir John Borcy, then read from a roll the decision of the King and Council, publicly declaring that Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford, Appellant, and Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, Defendant, had entered the Royal Lists to "darrain" battle like two valiant knights, but that, because the point in dispute between them was great and weighty, and as Henry Duke of Hereford had displeased the King, he was, within fifteen days, to depart the Realm, not to return for ten years, on pain of death. That Thomas Mowbray, having sown sedition of which he could make no proof, was also to avoid the Realm, never to approach it or its confines again, on pain of deathc. A summary sentence, more intended to adect the revenues of these noblemen than to answer the ends of justice, and of which Bolingbroke gave Richard in a short time ample reason to repent. Bolingbroke retired to France; and Richard, on the death of his father, John of Gaunt, seized his estates into his own hands.

Note a. Hall, reprint, p. 3.

Note b. Edward Plantagenet, son of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, was created Duke of Albemarle, and Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, Duke of Surrey, by Richard the Second; both were deprived of these dignities by King Henry the Fourth.

Note c. With what a faithful adherence to Hall's Narrative, and with what spirit has Shakspeare dramatised this scene! Richard thus pronounces sentence on Norfolk in the play.

"Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier doom,

Which I with some unwillingness pronounce.

The fly-slow hours shall not determinate

The hateless limit of thy dear exile;

The hopeless word of Never to return,

Breathe 1 against thee, upon pain of life!"

Richard 11. act i. scene 3.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Richard II's Second Trip to Ireland

In 1398 King Richard II of England (age 30) travelled to Ireland with Rhys ap Tudor and Gwilym ap Tudor Tudor.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 58) died at Leicester Castle [Map]. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 48) was by his side. He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral [Map] with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. His son King Henry IV of England (age 31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster, 7th Earl of Leicester.

King Richard II of England (age 32) witheld the future Henry IV's (age 31) inheritance from him giving Henry (age 31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Richard II's Last Will

On 16 Apr 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) wrote his Last Will from which the following extracts are taken … Also we bequeath to our beloved nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25) ten thousand marks and to our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) two thousand marks and to our beloved brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) three thousand marks and to our faithful and beloved William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) two thousand marks ... we ordain and set aside for the fulfilment of all and singular the premises the sum of ninety-one thousand marks, of which sixty-five thousand marks are in the keeping of Sir John Ikelyngton and twenty-four thousand marks in the hands and keeping of our dear nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25).

Of this our royal testament we nominate make and depute executors the venerable fathers in Christ Bishop Richard Mitford, Bishop Edmund Stafford (age 55), Bishop Robert Tideman of Winchcombe, Bishop Thomas Merke and Bishop Guy Mone Aka Mohun; our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26), our nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25), our brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) and William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) to each of whom we bequeath a gold cup of the value of twenty pounds and our beloved and faithful clerks Master Bishop Richard Boteville Keeper of our Privy Seal, Master Richard Maudeleyn, Master William Fereby and Master John Painter Ikelyngton clerks and John Lufwyk and William Serle laymen, to each of whom we will shall be paid their expenses and necessary costs while it shall happen that they or any of them are employed about the execution of our present last will, but according to the discretion of their said co-executors ...

Whom all and singular we have charged and charge that they shall do as much as in them is for the due execution and fulfilment of this our last will as they shall wish to answer before God. We create ordain depute and make overseers of this our will the reverend fathers in Christ Archbishop Roger Walden and Archbishop Richard Scrope (age 49), William bishop of Winchester and William abbot of the monastery of Westminster Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) our uncle and Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) our cousin.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Richard II's Third Trip to Ireland

In May 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) travelled to Ireland with Bishop Thomas Merke, Rhys ap Tudor and Gwilym ap Tudor Tudor.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Henry IV lands at Ravenspur

On 07 Jul 1399 Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 58) appointed William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49), Henry Green (age 52) and John Bussy to protect Kent against invasion by Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (age 32).

After 07 Jul 1399 Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (age 32) landed at Ravenspur [Map] with Thomas Rempston.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 29) joined Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (age 32) with a large retinue.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Execution of Richard II's Favourites

On 28 Jul 1399 William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49), Henry Green (age 52) and John Bussy were captured at Bristol Castle, Gloucestershire [Map].

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Abdication of Richard II

On 24 Jul 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) landed at Milford Haven having travelled from Ireland.

On 12 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) negotiated with Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) at Conwy Castle [Map].

On 19 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) surrendered to Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (age 32) at Flint Castle [Map]. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 29) was present [Note. Wikipedia states Berkeley Castle?]

On 30 Sep 1399 King Henry IV of England (age 32) usurped IV King England. He had usurped his cousin Richard II (age 32) and Richard's heir the seven year old Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March (age 7) who was descended from Edward III's second son Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence. This second usurption was to have far reaching consequences since it subsequently became the descent by which the House of York claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster being one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 35) was appointed Earl Marshal.

Around 1401. Jean Creton Chronicler. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England, standing in black and red, negotiating Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 59) at Conwy Castle [Map].

Around 1401. Jean Creton Chronicler. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England (standing in black and red) surrendering to King Henry IV of England (age 33) (holding the white staff) at Flint Castle [Map].

Around 1401. Jean Creton Chronicler. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England delivered to the citizens of London.

Richard II Act 3 Scene 3. Synopsis: Bolingbroke, approaching Flint Castle [Map], learns that Richard is within. In answer to Bolingbroke’s trumpets, Richard and Aumerle appear on the battlements. Northumberland presents Bolingbroke’s demand that Richard yield Bolingbroke’s "lineal royalties" and lift the sentence of banishment. Richard agrees. Northumberland returns and asks that Richard descend to Bolingbroke, who awaits him in the outer court. The cousins meet and Richard expresses willingness to yield to Bolingbroke and accompany him to London.

2nd Millennium, 14th Century Events, 1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes, Coronation of Henry IV

On 13 Oct 1399 King Henry IV of England (age 32) was crowned IV King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Archbishop Thomas Fitzalan aka Arundel (age 46).

Bishop Robert Braybrooke carried the sacraments and said mass. Duke Lancaster and Earl of Leicester Merged with the Crown.

The future King Henry V of England (age 13) carried the Sword Curtana. Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 61) and/or John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 26) carried a sword wrapped in red and bound with golden straps symbolising two-fold mercy. Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) carried the Lancaster Sword.

Thomas Percy 1st Earl of Worcester (age 56) carried the Steward's baton. Thomas Erpingham (age 44) carried a Sword.

Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford (age 21) was appointed Knight of the Bath. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 10), John Arundell (age 33) and Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 17) were knighted.

Archbishop Richard Scrope (age 49) attended.

Earl Derby and Earl Lancaster merged with the Crown.