Meteorological Events

1014 Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

1362 St Marcellus' Flood

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1607 Bristol Channel Floods

1663 Storm Tide

1735 Great Storm

Meteorological Events is in Natural Events.

Aurora Borealis

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1131. 11 Jan 1131. This year, after Christmas, on a Monday night, at the first sleep, was the heaven on the northern hemisphere (162) all as if it were burning fire; so that all who saw it were so dismayed as they never were before. That was on the third day before the ides of January.
Aurora Borealis, or the northern lights.

Ebb Tide

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. After 04 Mar 1558. The (blank) day of Marche ther was never so low a nebe [an ebb tide], that men myght stand in the mydes [midst] of Tames, and myght a' gone from the brygys to Belynggatt, for the tyd kept not ys course; the wyche was never sene a-fore that tyme.

Great Flood

Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1000-1049. 1014. This year King Sweyne (54) ended his days at Candlemas, the third day before the nones of February; and the same year Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute (19) for king; whereupon advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that they should send after King Ethelred (48); saying, that no sovereign was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his people, saying that he would be their faithful lord—would better each of those things that they disliked—and that each of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or said against him; provided they all unanimously, without treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established, in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England. Then came King Ethelred (48) home, in Lent, to his own people; and he was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of Sweyne (54), sat Knute (19) with his army in Gainsborough until Easter; and it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together and plunder. But King Ethelred (48) with his full force came to Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned, and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute (19), the son of Sweyne (54), went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to Sandwich. There he landed the hostages that were given to his father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses. Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army that lay at Greenwich, of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before, overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.

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St Marcellus' Flood

Around 16 Jan 1362 St Marcellus' Flood was an intense extratropical cyclone, coinciding with a new moon, which swept across the British Isles, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark causing at least 25,000 deaths. In England the town of Dunwich was destroyed.Great Flood

Bristol Channel Floods

On 30 Jan 1607 around midday the Bristol Channel suffered from unexpectedly high floodings that broke the coastal defences in several places devastings significant areas of South-Wales and Somerset. It is estimated that 2,000 or more people were drowned, houses and villages were swept away, an estimated 200 square miles (51,800 ha) of farmland inundated, and livestock destroyed, wrecking the local economy along the coasts of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary. The coast of Devon and the Somerset Levels as far inland as Glastonbury Tor, 14 miles (23 km) from the coast, were also affected. The sea wall at Burnham-on-Sea gave way, and the water flowed over the low-lying levels and moors.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 May 1663. 15 May 1663. Up betimes and walked to St. James's, where Mr. Coventry (35) being in bed I walked in the Park, discoursing with the keeper of the Pell Mell, who was sweeping of it; who told me of what the earth is mixed that do floor the Mall, and that over all there is cockle-shells powdered, and spread to keep it fast; which, however, in dry weather, turns to dust and deads the ball.
Thence to Mr. Coventry (35); and sitting by his bedside, he did tell me that he sent for me to discourse upon my Lord Sandwich's (37) allowances for his several pays, and what his thoughts are concerning his demands; which he could not take the freedom to do face to face, it being not so proper as by me: and did give me a most friendly and ingenuous account of all; telling me how unsafe, at this juncture, while every man's, and his actions particularly, are descanted upon, it is either for him to put the Duke upon doing, or my Lord himself to desire anything extraordinary, 'specially the King (32) having been so bountifull already; which the world takes notice of even to some repinings. All which he did desire me to discourse with my Lord of; which I have undertook to do. We talked also of our office in general, with which he told me that he was now-a-days nothing so satisfied as he was wont to be. I confess I told him things are ordered in that way that we must of necessity break in a little time a pieces.
After done with him about these things, he told me that for Mr. Hater the Duke's word was in short that he found he had a good servant, an Anabaptist, and unless he did carry himself more to the scandal of the office, he would bear with his opinion till he heard further, which do please me very much.
Thence walked to Westminster, and there up and down in the Hall and the Parliament House all the morning; at noon by coach to my Lord Crew's, hearing that Lord Sandwich (37) did dine there; where I told him what had passed between Mr. Coventry (35) and myself; with which he was contented, though I could perceive not very well pleased. And I do believe that my Lord do find some other things go against his mind in the House; for in the motion made the other day in the House by my Lord Bruce, that none be capable of employment but such as have been loyal and constant to the King (32) and Church, the General [Monk] and my Lord were mentioned to be excepted; and my Lord Bruce did come since to my Lord, to clear himself that he meant nothing to his prejudice, nor could it have any such effect if he did mean it. After discourse with my Lord; to dinner with him; there dining there my Lord Montagu of Boughton, Mr. William Montagu (45) his brother, the Queen's Sollicitor, &c., and a fine dinner. Their talk about a ridiculous falling-out two days ago at my Lord of Oxford's (36) house, at an entertainment of his, there being there my Lord of Albemarle (54), Lynsey (55), two of the Porters, my Lord Bellasses (48), and others, where there were high words and some blows, and pulling off of perriwiggs; till my Lord Monk (54) took away some of their swords, and sent for some soldiers to guard the house till the fray was ended. To such a degree of madness the nobility of this age is come!
After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (50), Duke of Buckingham (35), Sir H. Bennet (45), my Lord Ashley (41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (41), by my Lord Bristol's (50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (64) keeps as great with the King (32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (29) suffer it, whose lady (26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.
But it is wonderful that Sir Charles Barkeley (33) should be so great still, not [only] with the King (32), but Duke also; who did so stiffly swear that he had lain with her3. And another one Armour that he rode before her on horseback in Holland I think.... No care is observed to be taken of the main chance, either for maintaining of trade or opposing of factions, which, God knows, are ready to break out, if any of them (which God forbid!) should dare to begin; the King (32) and every man about him minding so much their pleasures or profits.
My Lord Hinchingbrooke (15), I am told, hath had a mischance to kill his boy by his birding-piece going off as he was a-fowling. The gun was charged with small shot, and hit the boy in the face and about the temples, and he lived four days.
In Scotland, it seems, for all the newes-books tell us every week that they are all so quiett, and everything in the Church settled, the old woman had like to have killed, the other day, the Bishop of Galloway, and not half the Churches of the whole kingdom conform.
Strange were the effects of the late thunder and lightning about a week since at Northampton, coming with great rain, which caused extraordinary floods in a few hours, bearing away bridges, drowning horses, men, and cattle. Two men passing over a bridge on horseback, the arches before and behind them were borne away, and that left which they were upon: but, however, one of the horses fell over, and was drowned. Stacks of faggots carried as high as a steeple, and other dreadful things; which Sir Thomas Crew (39) showed me letters to him about from Mr. Freemantle and others, that it is very true.
The Portugalls have choused us4, it seems, in the Island of Bombay, in the East Indys; for after a great charge of our fleets being sent thither with full commission from the King (32) of Portugall to receive it, the Governour by some pretence or other will not deliver it to Sir Abraham Shipman, sent from the King (32), nor to my Lord of Marlborough (45); which the King (32) takes highly ill, and I fear our Queen (24) will fare the worse for it. The Dutch decay there exceedingly, it being believed that their people will revolt from them there, and they forced to give over their trade. This is talked of among us, but how true I understand not. Sir Thomas showed me his picture and Sir Anthony Vandike's (64), in crayon in little, done exceedingly well.
Having thus freely talked with him, and of many more things, I took leave, and by coach to St. James's, and there told Mr. Coventry (35) what I had done with my Lord with great satisfaction, and so well pleased home, where I found it almost night, and my wife and the dancing-master alone above, not dancing but talking. Now so deadly full of jealousy I am that my heart and head did so cast about and fret that I could not do any business possibly, but went out to my office, and anon late home again and ready to chide at every thing, and then suddenly to bed and could hardly sleep, yet durst not say any thing, but was forced to say that I had bad news from the Duke concerning Tom Hater as an excuse to my wife, who by my folly has too much opportunity given her with the man, who is a pretty neat black man, but married. But it is a deadly folly and plague that I bring upon myself to be so jealous and by giving myself such an occasion more than my wife desired of giving her another month's dancing. Which however shall be ended as soon as I can possibly. But I am ashamed to think what a course I did take by lying to see whether my wife did wear drawers to-day as she used to do, and other things to raise my suspicion of her, but I found no true cause of doing it.
Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).
Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (24) Catherine, then living"..
Note 3. The conspiracy of Sir Charles Berkeley (33), Monsieur Blanfort aka Lord Arran, Jermyn, Talbot, and Killigrew to traduce Anne Hyde (26) was peculiarly disgraceful, and the conduct of all the actors in the affair of the marriage, from Lord Clarendon downwards, was far from creditable (see Lister's "Life of Clarendon", ii. 68-79).
Note 4. The word chouse appears to have been introduced into the language at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In 1609, a Chiaus sent by Sir Robert Shirley, from Constantinople to London, had chiaused (or choused) the Turkish and Persian merchants out of £4,000, before the arrival of his employer, and had decamped. The affair was quite recent in 1610, when Jonson's "Alchemist" appeared, in which it is alluded to.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 October 1663. 04 Oct 1663. Lord's Day. Up and to church, my house being miserably overflooded with rayne last night, which makes me almost mad. At home to dinner with my wife, and so to talk, and to church again, and so home, and all the evening most pleasantly passed the time in good discourse of our fortune and family till supper, and so to bed, in some pain below, through cold got.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1667. 23 May 1667. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning.
At noon home, and with my father dined, and, poor man! he hath put off his travelling-clothes to-day, and is mighty spruce, and I love to see him cheerful.
After dinner I to my chamber, and my wife and I to talk, and by and by they tell Mrs. Daniel would speak with me, so I down to the parlour to her, and sat down together and talked about getting her husband a place .... I do promise, and mean to do what kindness I can to her husband. After having been there hasti je was ashamed de peur that my people pensait.... de it, or lest they might espy us through some trees, we parted and I to the office, and presently back home again, and there was asked by my wife, I know not whether simply or with design, how I come to look as I did, car ego was in much chaleur et de body and of animi, which I put off with the heat of the season, and so to other business, but I had some fear hung upon me lest alcuno had sidi decouvert.
So to the office, and then to Sir R. Viner's (36) about some part of my accounts now going on with him, and then home and ended my letters, and then to supper and my chamber to settle many things there, and then to bed. This noon I was on the 'Change, where I to my astonishment hear, and it is in the Gazette, that Sir John Duncomb (44) is sworn yesterday a Privy-councillor.
This day I hear also that last night the Duke of Kendall, second son of the Duke of York (33), did die; and that the other, Duke of Cambridge (3), continues very ill still. This afternoon I had opportunity para jouer with Mrs. Pen (16), tokendo her mammailles and baisando elle, being sola in the casa of her pater, and she fort willing.
Note 1. During a very high flood in the meadows between Huntingdon and Godmanchester, something was seen floating, which the Godmanchester people thought was a black pig, and the Huntingdon folk declared it was a sturgeon; when rescued from the waters, it proved to be a young donkey. This mistake led to the one party being styled "Godmanchester black pigs", and the other "Huntingdon sturgeons", terms not altogether forgotten at this day. Pepys's colt must be taken to be the colt of an ass. B.

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1735 Great Storm

In Jan 1735 a great storm occurred in London and elsewhere causing significant damage.
From London Prints:
Yesterday Morning the Wind being at W. and W.S.W. it blew hard; and in the Afternoon we had one of the strongest Storms that has been known for many Years, in which several Lighters and Boats in the River were sunk, and others dashed to Pieces; but all the Ships in the River rode out with Safety. On Shore, great Damage was done in the Houses, by ripping off the Tiles, blowing down Stacks of Chimneys, &c. and many People were killed and wounded; particularly, Five Houses were blown down in St. Giles's Parish, and another in Hartshorn Lane in the Strand, by which two Persons lost their Lives. A Stack of Chimneys fell upon a Footman near Gray's-Inn, and killed him. A House in the Broad-Way, Westminster, was blown down, and a Man and Boy killed. And Mr. Lancashire, a Carpenter in Two-Swan-Yard near Bishopsgate, was blown from the Top of a Twelve-Foot Ladder, by which he fractured his Skull, and died on the Spot.
It likewise blew up by the Roots several large Trees in St. James's Park, and did incredible Damage to a great many Houses, in all Parts of the Cities of London and Westminster.
From Tunbridge-Wells we have an Account that the Land-Floods came down upon them so suddenly, that all the Bridges upon the Brook which runs by the Walks, were carried away by the Torrent, and great Damages done besides, so that the like has not been known before in any one's Memory.
They write from [illegible] Abbey in Yorkshire that [several words illegible] happened such a Storm as had not been known in the Memory of Man; tho' it lasted no longer than three quarters of an Hour, yet four Houses were blown down, and several others damaged, and a great Number of large Trees were either broken or blown up by the Roots.
Moulsey in Surrey, Jan. 9. The River Thames is now rising here, and yet it is already so high, we are forced to live above Stairs; and when the Land Waters come down from the Hills in the West-Country, God knows the Consequence: The Thames rose between 5 and 12 this Morning, very near a Foot in Height.
On the 8th Instant there were near 100 Elm Trees (and other Sorts) blown up by the Roots in this Parish during the violent Storm, all fine tall Sticks, and of a load of Timber in a Stick one with another; which will afford the Navy a fine Opportunity of furnishing the Stores in his Majesty's Dockyard this Year.
Extract of a Letter from Dover, dated Jan. 10. Our Accounts from Deal yesterday bring that 40 Sail were missing, that there is scarce a Ship but has met with Damage, and most people think the Gale of Wind little inferior to the November Storm, and lasted longer.
From several LONDON PRINTS Jan. 11. We have received further Accounts of the Misfortunes occasioned by the terrible Storm on Wednesday last: It was observed to be at the highest at 12 o'Clock, about which Time a Stack of Chimnies fell upon a Coachman near Golden-Square, and fractured his Skull: At Barnet, and the Villages adjacent, they perceived three loud Claps of Thunder, accompanied by Lightning; several Barns were blown down in that Neighbourhood; and in several of the Roads near London, the Trees lie in the Highway in such manner, that it is difficult to pass: The Seat was blow from the Mount in Kensington Gardens. At all Parts of the Town are seen Houses untiled, stript of their Lead, and the Chimnies demolish'd.
The Kitchen Chimney of the Lord Bruce was blown down, which broke thro' the Stables of his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, and did very considerable Damage, some of the Servants narrowly escaping with their Lives.
36 Trees were broke down, and tore up by the Roots, in St. James's Park, particularly the large Tree entering the Mall, from St. James's Palace, under which stood a Centry-Box, which was blown down at the same Time, with the Soldier in it, who narrowly escaped with his Life.
About 300 Weight of Lead was blown off the House of Arundel, Esq; in Burlington Gardens, Surveyor of his Majesty's Roads.
About 500 Wt. of Lead was ript off the Parish Church of St. Laurence Jewry, by Guild-Hall.
At the Marquis de Montandre's House in Brook-street, a large Stack of Chimnies was blown down, which demolished an Office in the back Part of the House, dashing in Pieces a Table at which 9 Servants were to dine a quarter of an Hour after.
At Riskins, the seat of the Lord Bathurst (50) in Buckinghamshire, above 40 large Trees in his Lordship's Grounds were blown down.
At Fulham 2 or 3 Houses were blown down, and a Barn belonging to Mr. Gray, a Farmer.
A great many Wallnut-trees in the Park of Tryon, Esq; at Mickleham, were destroyed. We hear he has made above 300£. per Annum of the Wallnuts which the said Trees produced.
The same Day, as a Servant of Messieurs Frame and Berkley was going along the North Side of St. Paul's, he was thrown down by the Violence of the Winds, at which time his Letter-Case fell from his Side, and the Wind blew his Notes about; all which he found again, except one of £300. one of £139. 16s one of £40. and one of £25. for which Notes a Reward is offered.

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Great Storm

Hurricane

John Evelyn's Diary 09 August 1692. 09 Aug 1692. A fast. Came the sad news of the hurricane and earthquake, which has destroyed almost the whole Island of Jamaica, many thousands having perished.

John Evelyn's Diary 26 November 1703. 26 Nov 1703 and 27 Nov 1703. The effects of the Hurricane and tempest of wind, rain, and lightning, through all the nation, especially London, were very dismal. Many houses demolished, and people killed. As to my own losses, the subversion of woods and timber, both ornamental and valuable, through my whole estate, and about my house the woods crowning the garden mount, the growing along the park meadow, the damage to my own dwelling, farms, and outhouses, is almost tragical, not to be paralleled, with anything happening in our age. I am not able to describe it; but submit to the pleasure of Almighty God.

Rainbow

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche, iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall, one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill, ii at Tyburne, and at 4 places in Sowthwerke 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston and other places.
Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 May 1645. 05 May 1645. We took coach, and went fifteen miles out of the city to Frascati, formerly Tusculum, a villa of Cardinal Aldobrandini, built for a country house; but surpassing, in my opinion, the most delicious places I ever beheld for its situation, elegance, plentiful water, groves, ascents, and prospects. Just behind the palace (which is of excellent architecture) in the centre of the inclosure, rises a high hill, or mountain, all over clad with tall wood, and so formed by nature, as if it had been cut out by art, from the summit whereof falls a cascade, seeming rather a great river than a stream precipitating into a large theatre of water, representing an exact and perfect rainbow, when the sun shines out. Under this, is made an artificial grot, wherein are curious rocks, hydraulic organs, and all sorts of singing birds, moving and chirping by force of the water, with several other pageants and surprising inventions. In the centre of one of these rooms, rises a copper ball that continually dances about three feet above the pavement, by virtue of a wind conveyed secretly to a hole beneath it; with many other devices to wet the unwary spectators, so that one can hardly step without wetting to the skin. In one of these theaters of water, is an Atlas spouting up the stream to a very great height; and another monster makes a terrible roaring with a horn; but, above all, the representation of a storm is most natural, with such fury of rain, wind, and thunder, as one would imagine oneself in some extreme tempest. The garden has excellent walks and shady groves, abundance of rare fruit, oranges, lemons, etc., and the goodly prospect of Rome, above all description, so as I do not wonder that Cicero and others have celebrated this place with such encomiums. The Palace is indeed built more like a cabinet than anything composed of stone and mortar; it has in the middle a hall furnished with excellent marbles and rare pictures, especially those of Gioseppino d'Arpino; the movables are princely and rich. This was the last piece of architecture finished by Giacomo della Porta, who built it for Pietro Cardinal Aldobrandini, in the time of Clement VIII.29.
We went hence to another house and garden not far distant, on the side of a hill called Mondragone, finished by Cardinal Scipio Borghese, an ample and kingly edifice. It has a very long gallery, and at the end a theatre for pastimes, spacious courts, rare grots, vineyards, olive-grounds, groves and solitudes. The air is so fresh and sweet, as few parts of Italy exceed it; nor is it inferior to any palace in the city itself for statues, pictures, and furniture; but, it growing late, we could not take such particular notice of these things as they deserved.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 May 1664. 13 May 1664. Up before three o'clock, and a little after upon the water, it being very light as at noon, and a bright sunrising; but by and by a rainbow appeared, the first that ever in a morning I saw, and then it fell a-raining a little, but held up again, and I to Woolwich, where before all the men came to work I with Deane (30) spent two hours upon the new ship, informing myself in the names and natures of many parts of her to my great content, and so back again, without doing any thing else, and after shifting myself away to Westminster, looking after Mr. Maes's business and others.
In the Painted Chamber I heard a fine conference between some of the two Houses upon the Bill for Conventicles. The Lords would be freed from having their houses searched by any but the Lord Lieutenant of the County; and upon being found guilty, to be tried only by their peers; and thirdly, would have it added, that whereas the Bill says, "That that, among other things, shall be a conventicle wherein any such meeting is found doing any thing contrary to the Liturgy of the Church of England", they would have it added, "or practice". The Commons to the Lords said, that they knew not what might hereafter be found out which might be called the practice of the Church of England; for there are many things may be said to be the practice of the Church, which were never established by any law, either common, statute, or canon; as singing of psalms, binding up prayers at the end of the Bible, and praying extempore before and after sermon: and though these are things indifferent, yet things for aught they at present know may be started, which may be said to be the practice of the Church which would not be fit to allow. For the Lords' priviledges, Mr. Walter told them how tender their predecessors had been of the priviledges of the Lords; but, however, where the peace of the Kingdom stands in competition with them, they apprehend those priviledges must give place. He told them that he thought, if they should owne all to be the priviledges of the Lords which might be demanded, they should be led like the man (who granted leave to his neighbour to pull off his horse's tail, meaning that he could not do it at once) that hair by hair had his horse's tail pulled off indeed: so the Commons, by granting one thing after another, might be so served by the Lords. Mr. Vaughan (60), whom I could not to my grief perfectly hear, did say, if that they should be obliged in this manner to, exempt the Lords from every thing, it would in time come to pass that whatever (be [it] never so great) should be voted by the Commons as a thing penall for a commoner, the contrary should be thought a priviledge to the Lords: that also in this business, the work of a conventicle being but the work of an hour, the cause of a search would be over before a Lord Lieutenant, who may be many miles off, can be sent for; and that all this dispute is but about £100; for it is said in the Act, that it shall be banishment or payment of £100. I thereupon heard the Duke of Lenox (25) say, that there might be Lords who could not always be ready to lose £100, or some such thing: They broke up without coming to any end in it. There was also in the Commons' House a great quarrel about Mr. Prin (64), and it was believed that he should have been sent to the Towre, for adding something to a Bill (after it was ordered to be engrossed) of his own head—a Bill for measures for wine and other things of that sort, and a Bill of his owne bringing in; but it appeared he could not mean any hurt in it. But, however, the King (33) was fain to write in his behalf, and all was passed over.
But it is worth my remembrance, that I saw old Ryly the Herald, and his son; and spoke to his son, who told me in very bad words concerning Mr. Prin (64), that the King (33) had given him an office of keeping the Records; but that he never comes thither, nor had been there these six months: so that I perceive they expect to get his imployment from him. Thus every body is liable to be envied and supplanted.
At noon over to the Leg, where Sir G. Ascue (48), Sir Robt. Parkhurst (61) and Sir W. Pen (43) dined. A good dinner and merry.
Thence to White Hall walking up and down a great while, but the Council not meeting soon enough I went homeward, calling upon my cozen Roger Pepys (47), with whom I talked and heard so much from him of his desire that I would see my brother's debts paid, and things still of that nature tending to my parting with what I get with pain to serve others' expenses that I was cruelly vexed.
Thence to Sir R. Bernard (63), and there heard something of Pigott's delay of paying our money, that that also vexed me mightily.
So home and there met with a letter from my cozen Scott, which tells me that he is resolved to meddle no more with our business, of administering for my father, which altogether makes me almost distracted to think of the trouble that I am like to meet with by other folks' business more than ever I hope to have by my owne. So with great trouble of mind to bed.

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Snow

John Evelyn's Diary 07 February 1692. 07 Feb 1692. An extraordinary snow fell in most parts.

Storm Tide

1663 Storm Tide

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 December 1663. 07 Dec 1663. Up betimes, and, it being a frosty morning, walked on foot to White Hall, but not without some fear of my pain coming.
At White Hall I hear and find that there was the last night the greatest tide that ever was remembered in England to have been in this river: all White Hall having been drowned, of which there was great discourse.
Anon we all met, and up with the Duke (30) and did our business, and by and by my Lord of Sandwich came in, but whether it be my doubt or no I cannot tell, but I do not find that he made any sign of kindnesse or respect to me, which troubles me more than any thing in the world.
After done there Sir W. Batten (62) and Captain Allen (51) and I by coach to the Temple, where I 'light, they going home, and indeed it being my trouble of mind to try whether I could meet with my Lord Sandwich (38) and try him to see how he will receive me.
I took coach and back again to Whitehall, but there could not find him. But here I met Dr. Clerke, and did tell him my story of my health; how my pain comes to me now-a-days. He did write something for me which I shall take when there is occasion. I then fell to other discourse of Dr. Knapp, who tells me he is the King's physician, and is become a solicitor for places for people, and I am mightily troubled with him. He tells me he is the most impudent fellow in the world, that gives himself out to be the King's physician, but it is not so, but is cast out of the Court. From thence I may learn what impudence there is in the world, and how a man may be deceived in persons: Anon the King (33) and Duke (30) and Duchesse (26) came to dinner in the Vane-roome, where I never saw them before; but it seems since the tables are done, he dines there all together. The Queene (54) is pretty well, and goes out of her chamber to her little chappell in the house.
The King of France (25), they say, is hiring of sixty sail of ships of the Dutch, but it is not said for what design.
By and by, not hoping to see my Lord, I went to the King's Head ordinary, where a good dinner but no discourse almost, and after dinner by coach, home, and found my wife this cold day not yet out of bed, and after a little good talk with her to my office, and there spent my time till late.
Sir W. Warren two or three hours with me talking of trade, and other very good discourse, which did please me very, well, and so, after reading in Rushworth, home to supper and to bed.

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