Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 is in Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII.

1529 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1529 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 January

20 Jan 1529. R. O. 5191. D. Halnath (?) to the Prior of the Charterhouse, London.

Condoles with him on the great mortality they have sustained by the pestilence, in which they have lost four priests and two lay brethren. Hopes they died devoutly, as he has known divers since he entered the Order, "which hath specially caused me to make this great labor to come to London again." Wrote to the Prior at Michaelmas, by the prior of Shene, to have leave to come to London, or else to Shene, to be professed, or else to be bound by the general chapter. Offered them two years' probation. Thinks the prior of Shene would have taken him, but was prevented by the priors of Hinton and Axholme. If these wishes are not complied with, desires to go to Witham, where several cells are vacant. Would prefer this to being made officer of any house in the North country, as he cannot stand cold, "and aparty Northern men's conditions." Begs the prior and father vicar to make no more labor to make him an officer in a strange house, for they make all the monks envy him, "and when the charter cometh, then I am put in ad ordinis voluntatem, which is a sentence rather of tyranny than of charity." Complains that Spencer wrote untruly. If they will not call him home, begs that he be sent to Shene or else to Witham, or, as a last resource, to Bevall. "I love to be southwards, and I hate bondage." Axholme, 20 Jan. 1528.

Hol., p. 1. Add. With a heading, stating that the letter was written before the prior of Hinton's servant came to Axholme.

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 April

04 Apr 1529. R. O. Burnet, v. 444. 5422. Anne Boleyn (age 28) to Gardiner (age 46).

Thanks him for his letter, showing his willing and faithful mind. Trusts he will not repent it, and that the end of this journey will be more pleasant to her than his first, "for that was but a rejoysyng hope, whiche causyng [the like] of it dose put me to the more payn, and they that ar parta[kers] with me, as you do knowe; and therefore I do trust that this herd begynn[ing] shall make the better endyng." Sends cramp-rings for him, Master Gregory, and Master Peter, to whom she desires to be recommended. Greenwich, 4 April. Signed.

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 June

04 Jun 1529. Theiner, p. 582. 5636. Campeggio To Salviati.

After the departure of Francesco Campano on 26 May, I received your letters of the 1st, 6th, and 8th of May. Owing to the protests and citations made by the Imperial ambassadors to the ambassadors of this King, the latter dispatched [the cavalier Casale] hither in great haste, and I believe the cavalier arrived in ten days. We had much discussion respecting the citation, as they (the King and Wolsey) are unacquainted with the customs and forms of the (Papal) court. At length they were made to understand the case, and became satisfied both with the citation and with the non-concession of their demands touching the brief. Nevertheless, on the receipt of your said letters, being at Richmond with the Cardinal, I again explained the matter to his Lordship; and by his advice I sent my secretary to Windsor to do the like with the King, and to communicate the news which you and your reverend son (in France) write to me.

04 Jun 1529. 5636. My secretary reports to me that the King was not much appeased with regard to the citation made at Rome to his ambassadors, and said he was informed that it is not customary to cite the ambassadors of princes. To this it was replied that he was wrongly informed, and that the Pope could not prohibit it, as the serjeants (cursori) did this office, without the Pope's licence or knowledge, as public officials. At my next interview with the King I will not fail to set the matter right. A copy was given them of the petition produced for signature, and of the protest; and they were made to understand that, as the Imperialists, before the coming of Francesco, had frequently urged the citation of the cause, and were still doing the same with protestations, it was sufficient that the Pope, up to the present time, had not made this citation, as you prudently write. Yet the Cardinal frequently inquires what I think about this citation, and is persuaded that the Pope will not make it on any account. I reply that I find the reasons alleged are very telling, and that the importunity made is infinite, so that I do not know what may be the result. Thus I leave them between hope and fear. The Cardinal says he cannot believe that the Pope is sending back Dr. Stephen (Gardiner).

04 Jun 1529. 5636. They have firmly resolved that the cause shall be proceeded with. On the last day of May we performed the first act, which was to cause the bull of the commission to be presented to us, to accept the charge laid upon us by the Pope, to appoint notaries and messengers to cite (the parties); and the citation was peremptorily decreed for the 18th inst., Friday. The King and Queen have been cited by the bishops of Lincoln and Bath, the messengers appointed and sworn for this purpose. It appears that their learned men are of opinion that we are bound by our office to proceed to execute the first portion of the bull, and you may be sure they will use all diligence to secure the speedy conclusion (of the trial). I understand, though I do not know for certain, that they are consulting the theologians of the University of Paris about the case.

04 Jun 1529. 5636. It is rumored that my lady Margaret and the French king's mother will meet at Cambray to negotiate peace about the middle of this month. The Cardinal denies the truth of this, and says they will first of all arrange the particulars, and that he himself is to go there, but he will not go until this cause is expedited. The French secretary who came hither has returned.

04 Jun 1529. 5636. A Polish gentleman, returning from Constantinople to the French king's service, reports that the Turk intends to invade Hungary and Germany, having an understanding with many German princes, and that the Archduke Ferdinand was in great straits, and had intended to repair to the Emperor in disguise, but was dissuaded from so doing.

04 Jun 1529. 5636. Here we are still wearing our winter clothing, and use fires as if it were January. Never did I witness more inconstant weather. The plague commences to rage vigorously, and there is some fear of the sweating sickness. I am no longer compelled to remain in bed groaning, and therefore I consider myself in good health. London, 4 June 1529.


After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

A set of depositions as to Catharine's marriage with Prince Arthur.

1. of George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), seneschal of the King's household, at the Coldherbar, on Monday, 28 June 1529. Is 59 years of age. Was present at the marriage of Henry VII. at Westminster, and at the creation of Arthur prince of Wales and Henry Duke of York (age 38). They were always considered as brothers, and he never heard it contradicted. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St. Paul's, in Nov. 17 Henry VII. 1521 (sic). Believes that Arthur was then 14 or more. Saw the Queen Elizabeth and him a month after his birth, at Winchester [Map], in 2 Henry VII. Believes that Catharine was more than 14. Thinks that Arthur must have been nearer 15 than 14. At night, with the Lord of Oxford (age 58) and others, conducted Prince Arthur to the lady Catharine's (age 43) bedchamber, and left him there. Supposes that the Prince consummated the marriage,as he did so, being only 15 years when he was married. They were always considered lawfully married during the life of Prince Arthur. Saw the funeral of Prince Arthur at Worcester, and the marriage of the King and Queen at Greenwich. Cannot answer the 6th and 7th articles, but leaves them to the laws. Never heard what is contained in the 8th article. As to the 9th, knows that the King and Queen cohabited and treated each other as husband and wife, but cannot say whether lawfully or not. Can say nothing from his own knowledge as to the 10th, 11th, and 12th articles. Has made this deposition without being instructed or corrupted in any way, only for the sake of truth.

Vit. B. XII. 80. B. M.

2. of Thomas marquis of Dorset (age 52). Is 52 years of age. The 1st and 2nd articles contain the truth. Was present at the baptism of Arthur and Henry, the former at Winchester, and the latter at Greenwich. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St Paul's, on a Sunday in Nov. 1501, 17 Henry VII. Believes Arthur was about 15, for he has seen in the book in which are written the births of the King's children that he was born 20 Sept. 1486. Was present when Prince Arthur went to bed after his marriage, where the lady Catharine (age 43) lay under the coverlet, "as the manner is of Queens in that behalf." Thinks that he used the princess as his wife, for he was of a good and sanguine complexion, and they were commonly reputed as man and wife during Prince Arthur's life. As to the 5th article, he can depose nothing to the first part, as he was then prisoner at Calais; but the remainder, touching cohabitation and reputation, is true. Can say nothing to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. The 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th contain the truth, as he believes.

Vit. B. XII. 85. B. M.

3. of Sir Antony Willoughby. Has lived 15 years in Hampshire, for 12 years previously in Wiltshire. Was five years in the service of Prince Arthur, for five years before that in the service of the Bishop of Durham, and before that time in his father's household. Believes the 1st and 2nd articles to be true. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur and lady Catharine. By favor of his father, Lord Broke, steward of the King's household, was present when Prince Arthur went to bed on his marriage night in the palace of the Bishop of London. In the morning the prince, in the presence of Mores St. John, Mr. Cromer, Mr. William Woddall, Mr. Griffith Rice, and others, said to him, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain;" and afterward said openly, "Masters, it is good pastime to have a wife." He, therefore, supposes that the marriage was consummated; and he heard that they lay together the Shrovetide following at Ludlow.

Knows that they lived together as man and wife during the remainder of the Prince's life.

Believes the 5th article to be true. Can depose nothing to the 6th, 7th and 8th. Believes the 9th, 10th and 11th to be true. The 12th contains law; to which he is not bound to reply. To the second additional interrogatory he replies, that it contains the truth, for he has been present twenty times at the solemnization of marriage, and the said form of words is always used.

After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

Vit. B. XII. 130. B. M.

6. Deposition of Nicholas Bishop of  Ely (age 68).

Is 68 years of age.

Princes Arthur and Henry were legitimate sons of Henry VII. and his Queen Elizabeth. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur, but can say nothing as to the words used, on account of the tumult and multitude of people there. Can say nothing as to the consummation, but he doubts of it, because the Queen has often told him, on the testimony of her conscience, "quod [non] fuit carnaliter a dicto Arthuro cognita," [Translation. That she had not known Arthur conjugally] but they were both of sufficient age. As to the 5th article, believes the marriage was contracted both de facto and de jure, by reason of the dispensation; but he cannot depose to the time mentioned in the article. To the 6th article, has always believed that it is true as to jus divinum, and believes that it is also true as to jus ecclesiasticum. The 7th article would be true if there had not been a legitimate dispensation. Can depose nothing to the 8th article. Has heard the archbishop of Canterbury say that he had a dispute with the late Bishop of Winchester on the subject. To the 9th, the present King and Queen were lawfully married, as he believes. Believes the 10th to be true, as the Pope affirms it in a rescript. Believes the 11th to be true. To the 12th, does not consider that the legates are competent judges, as an appeal has been made.

After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

Cott. App. XXVII. 135. B. M.

9. Deposition of Robert Viscount Fitzwater (age 46). Is 46 years of age, or thereabouts. To the 1st and 2nd articles, agrees with Thomas marquis of Dorset. Was in the service of Henry VII. from the death of Prince Arthur to the death of the King. Princes Arthur and Henry were always considered as the natural and lawful sons of Henry and Elizabeth. Was assigned by the King to the service of Arthur as his eldest son, and served him till his death.

To the 3rd and 4th articles, was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur and lady Catharine. Believes Arthur was then 15 years of age, as he heard from credible witnesses, and that Catharine was older. Was with the earls of Oxford (age 58) and Shrewsbury (age 61), and others, at the Bishop of London's palace, waiting on Prince Arthur going from his own chamber to that of the Princess, and left him in the bed, where, he believeth surely, the Princess lay. They dwelled together at Ludlow till the Prince's death. As to public report, agrees with the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61). To the 5th article, cannot depose, except as to reputation, cohabitation, and offspring, in which he agrees with the marquis of Dorset. To the 6th, 7th and 8th, cannot depose. The 9th contains the truth. Believes the 10th, 11th and 12th to be true. Has not been influenced by force, fear, or the like.

After 28 Jun 1529. Cott. App. XXVII. 139. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

10. Deposition of Thomas Lord Darcy (age 62).

Is 60 years of age or thereabouts.

To the 1st and 2nd articles, Henry VII. and Elizabeth lived together for many years as husband and wife, to his knowledge, as he was in their service. Arthur and Henry were always considered as their lawful sons, to which he never heard the contrary. To the 3rd and 4th, cannot depose, as he was absent on the King's service in the North of England, but he believes that Arthur and Catharine were lawfully married, from public report. To the 5th, cannot depose concerning the marriage; but as to cohabitation, &c., believes it to be true. To the 6th, 7th and 8th, cannot depose. Believes that the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th contain the truth. Is not influenced by force, &c.

After 28 Jun 1529. Cott. App. XXVII. 141. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

11. Deposition of William Lord Mountjoy (age 51).

Is 52 years of age or thereabout.

To the 1st and 2nd articles, agrees with Lord Darcy. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of Arthur and Catharine, at St. Paul's. Believes Arthur was more than 14 years of age. Knows nothing of Catharine's age, nor of the consummation, except from report. To the 5th, agrees with Thomas marquis of Dorset as to cohabitation, offspring, and reputation, but cannot depose about the marriage. To the 6th and 7th, cannot depose. To the 8th, never heard of any great murmur or scandal in consequence of this marriage, among either the clergy or laity. The 9th contains the truth. To the 10th, 11th and 12th, cannot depose. Is not influenced by fear, &c.

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 July

15 Jul 1529. Cott. App. XXVII. 147. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

14. Deposition of Thomas visc. Rocheford (age 52), 15 July, at the Friars Minors.

Is 52 years of age. To the 1st and 2nd articles, knows that Henry VII. and Elizabeth considered and named Arthur and Henry as their lawful sons, and they were everywhere so considered. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at St. Paul's in Nov. 17 Henry VII. at the wedding of Arthur and Catharine; Henry VII. was present in the consistory place, and a great number of Englishmen and Spaniards in the church. Believes the marriage was lawful. Arthur was above 15 years of age; which he knew from the books in which the births of the children of the kings of England are entered, and from the report of nobles present at his baptism. Heard from Spaniards that Catharine was more than 16, and she has often told him the same herself. After the marriage they dwelled together as man and wife, to his knowledge, at the King's court and at Ludleye [Map]. Believes the marriage was consummated, from their age. Heard from many who were familiar with the Prince, that the day after his marriage he said he had been in the midst of Spain. Believes the 5th, 6th and 7th articles to be true. To the 8th cannot depose. To the 9th, the King and Queen cohabited till about two years ago, when he heard that the King was advised by his confessor to abstain from intercourse with the Queen, so as not to offend his conscience. Believes the 10th, 11th and 12th articles to be true. Has not been subjected to undue influence.

States in answer to a question, that it is customary for brides, especially noble ladies, to be veiled during the blessing of the bed.

15 Jul 1529. Cott. App. XXVII. 152. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

15. Deposition of Sir Richard Sacheverell (age 62), of Leicestershire. Has lived in that county 40 years, and before that in Derbyshire, where he was born. Is 60 years of age and more. To the 1st and 2nd articles, knows that Henry VII. and Elizabeth lived together as King and Queen, and that Arthur and Henry were always considered as their lawful sons. Believes the 3rd, 4th and 5th to be true. Cannot depose to the 6th and 7th. To the 8th, he heard many people say that it was not meet that one brother should marry his brother's wife, referring to the marriage between Henry VIII. and Catharine. Knows the 9th to be true, and believes that the 10th, 11th and 12th are so. Has not been subjected to any undue influence.

16 Jul 1529. 5778. The Divorce. i. Deposition of Mary (age 31) wife of Henry Bourchier Earl of Essex, taken at Stanstede, on Thursday, 15 July 1529, in the presence of Robert Johnson, notary public (of Norwich diocese). Her age is 44 years and over. She says that prince Arthur and Catharine (age 43) lived as man and wife together; that the two occupied the same bed after the wedding, at London House, and were generally reputed as man and wife.

ii. Deposition of Agnes (age 52) widow of Thomas late Duke of Norfolk, taken on Friday, 16 July 1529, in the church of St. Mary [Map], of the Cluniac priory of Thetford, by Sampson Mychell, canon, in the presence of John [Fletcher] and [William] Molyneux, M.A., her chaplain. Her age is 52 years and over. She knew Henry VII. and his Queen Elizabeth from the time she was 15, and remembers Catharine coming from Spain, and the marriage of Arthur and Catharine in St. Paul's. "He was then about the stature that the young [earl of] Derby is now at, but not fully so high as the same Earl is." Also, that the said Prince Arthur and [princess Ka]theryne (age 43), now being Queen, were brought to bed the next night after the said marriage; for this deponent did see them lie... me in one bed the same night, in a chamber within the said palace being prepared for them, and that this deponent left them so [lying to]gether there the said night.

30 Jul 1529. Titus, B. I. 286. B. M. 5802. Brian Tuke To Wolsey.

On coming today to the King, found with him Lord Rochford (age 26) and Mr. Stephens. The former had told the King that my Lord of Worcester's letters to Nicholas Rustico had been deciphered last night, which was not so, but the King said nothing about it. Gave him the letter from Mr. Secretary and Sir Francis Brian, which contained nothing but Brian's arrival at the French court, the declaration of his charge to the King, and the good answer he received; viz., that the King said that the money the Emperor should have of him would be spent in a year, and meanwhile he would fortify his frontiers, so that if the Emperor made war on the King for the divorce, he should be the better able to resist him. The King, Lord Rochford (age 26) and Mr. Stephens, liked this well. As to Albany's coming, the French king showed himself contented therewith, and that he would write to pensioners of his in Scotland to dissuade the alliance with the Emperor on pain of losing their pensions; that he had taken a Scot sent from Hungary to the king of Scots; that he would advise with the lady Regent at her return, and answer accordingly. Reckons the peace to be concluded, as the French king supposes the Emperor will spend the said money in a year, and that he will give them answer at my Lady's return. Thinks if the French pensions in Scotland are granted on condition of the holders doing what the King wishes, they are better given than taken away. In this letter was a reference to what Mr. Secretary had written secretly in a former letter, touching the matrimony, "trusting it were surely come to the King's hands." After this delivered the extract of cyphers from Worcester's letters, which was well accepted, "with good lawghyng at themperor's galies furnyshed with sheperds, and not able to be set forthe withoute they shulde be drawen at the taile of Andrewe Doria's galies." After presenting Campeggio's pollicitation, which was well liked, showed the whole discourse of everything, as Wolsey ordered him. Was better heard than Campeggio believed, especially in the point that he had no intelligence with the Queen; but there was not much said to it. Went on to say what Wolsey had done with the ambassadors of Venice and Ferrara. As to the quinqueremes and 50 galleys of the Venetians, Mr. Stephens said they had galleys enough, but no men to row them, and that their land army is not as great as is said. However, the King thinks they will hold their own. The King also heard the Venetian ambas- sador's news, that the Turk is probably in Hungary; and the King believes that Venice will take his side against the Emperor if need be. He then suddenly went away into an inner chamber, and Tuke had no time to ask him when he would see the Venetian ambassador, nor with whom of the Queen's folks Campeggio should speak, nor about his own books. Will find out tonight or tomorrow. Greenwich, 30 July, towards evening.

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 August

04 Aug 1529. R. O. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 345. 5825. Gardiner To Wolsey.

Has read his letter to the King, received last night, except the latter part of it concerning the king of Denmark. Since the King's resolve to visit the More he has heard that the sweat has been thereabouts this year. "The only name and view whereof is too terrible and fearful to his Highness' ears that he dare in no wise approach unto the place where it is noised to have been." He will instead visit Tittenhanger;—intends leaving Barnet for that purpose, Saturday se'nnight. As Wolsey will at that time be removing with his company to St. Alban's, the King thinks that Tittenhanger will be large enough for him. Wolsey's letter to Strangwish was well accepted. Waltham, 4 Aug.

Hol. Add. Endd.

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 September

18 Sep 1529. Le Grand, III. 354. 5945. Du Bellay To Montmorency.

I write to prevent your being anxious, because I mentioned in my last that the Legate had desired me to come and see him. I did so next day, and found him and Campeggio determined to go to the King, for the despatch of the latter, who expects to leave within 10 or 12 days. I think they would like to treat him at his departure rather more graciously than they had intended to do, hoping that there may be some change at Rome, if the Emperor treat the Pope as badly as they expect he will; so that Campeggio might still be of use to them, or at least not do them injury, as he would if ill treated at his departure. Wolsey's object in sending for me was to have another conversation with me about the divorce, urging me most strongly, both on his own part and his master's, to help them to consult with the French divines. He begged I would find an opportunity to cross the sea on some other pretext, and consult with those who can help them, with the permission of Francis and Madame, using the same terms about it to me as he did to my brother. I said that, knowing their wishes, I had already asked leave to go and see my father, who was very ill, and wished my presence to make a division of his goods. He approved of this pretext, and begged I would petition for my congé, and arrange for some one to take my place, in whom I should have confidence. Incidentally, during two days that I was with him, he spoke of the practices of this court, not showing himself so much vexed with them as I am sure he is. I have less hope than before of his influence, from the conversation I have had with him, for I see he trusts in some of his own protégés (aulcuns faits de sa main), who, I am sure, have betrayed him (luy ont tourné la robe). I should never have believed that they would have been so wicked; and the worst is that he does not understand it.

18 Sep 1529. 5945. Even if I had not the above occasion to ask for my recall, I should be obliged to press for it for another cause. Since my brother's departure the plague has broken out among my household; and, in spite of repeated changes of lodging, my principal servants being dead, I have been unable to refuse leave to the others to go home, so that I am now quite alone. Considering the intercourse I have already had with people, I am in no great fear, but you may consider yourselves as having no ambassador here at all. Besides, I was told yesterday by the Grand Esquire (Boleyn) (age 52), who is to leave in 15 days, with the dean of the chapel (Stokesley), to go to the Emperor, that he does not think the King his master will let me speak to him for two months. It would be well, therefore, to send over at once him whom I suppose you have already chosen, with an answer to the despatch of my brother, and that he may come in post, and find me here, letting his train come after him, so that I may put him in the way with the King, and perhaps introduce him to some of the Council, if there are matters to discuss; which, however, I do not imagine, considering the assurance Wolsey has again renewed to me. The new ambassador need be in no fear of the plague, for the danger has much diminished, except in this neighbourhood, and I expect in 15 days it will have altogether abated. I have been this morning with the Emperor's ambassador, who has given me as good a reception as I could have asked for. I had previously asked Wolsey's advice about it. If his master conducts himself towards Francis in as honorable a manner as the ambassador promises, it will be well. London, 18 Sept.

P.S.—Enclosed is a memorandum of the sums furnished by this King, which he wishes to have declared in the despatch which he asks for, through my brother; in addition to which there is the part touching the fleur de lis, which they would like put with the others.

Fr. Add.

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 October

25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

25 Oct 1529. Bradford, 256. 6026. Chapuys (age 39) to Charles V (age 29).

On the receipt of your letter on Thursday the 21st, dated Piacenza, I sent to Windsor to ask for an audience. As the administration has fallen principally into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56), and the communication is more agreeable to him than that of the marriage, I hastened to visit him. The Cardinal (age 56), who was dis-evangelised on the day of St. Luke the Evangelist (18 Oct.), has been deprived of his offices. I was received by the Duke with great distinction, and expressed to him the regard in which you had always held him for his goodwill. He seemed highly pleased, and said that he and his family had always been attached to the house of Burgundy; that no one more lamented the late disagreements than himself, but that all the evil and misunderstanding ought to be attributed to those who formerly directed the King's councils, acting by their own will and authority, with which the King himself was often dissatisfied.

In reply to his remark that he should like to serve your Majesty against the Turk, I praised his virtuous feelings, and told him that was the main object of my communication; but for the better security of peace, which the King had done so much to establish, one unhappy difference between himself and the Queen remained to be settled. I told him that, however strongly he might feel from family considerations, he could not but feel as a true knight, nor act otherwise than if it had been his own daughter, and as conscience directed; and that your Majesty was convinced that he had not been the promoter of this step. He replied that he would sooner have lost one of his hands than that such a question should have arisen; but it was entirely a matter of law and conscience, and he had never been appealed to; that it had been submitted to ecclesiastics and doctors, who had pronounced against the validity of the marriage; that if the dispensation you held was illegal, the King would consider himself the most abused prince in Christendom; and that if you had not declared yourself in it so openly, it might have sooner been brought to a satisfactory issue. I explained to him the constraint under which you acted; and that, as to the king of England not having declared himself a party in the matter, it was clear that he had done so from the proceedings of the English ambassadors at Rome. Finding he remained thoughtful, I changed the subject. Shortly after he turned to me with a laugh, and said, "How glad the Emperor will be to hear of this fall of the Cardinal (age 56), and his loss of office?" I answered, I thought you would, but not from any hatred you had to the Cardinal (age 56); and that he could have done neither good nor ill to you, and was not of such importance as that you would care to be avenged, or trouble yourself about his disgrace; but what you rejoiced at was, that the king of England would now learn who had been his evil counsellors, and leave the management of affairs to men who from birth and circumstances were more competent. I told him that I was the first who had broken through the chain of paying court to the Cardinal (age 56), and addressed myself to him. He thanked me for my good intentions, and said that the government was managed not by an individual but by the Council, where he usually assisted, and would promote Your Majesty's interests.

In order to please the Duke (age 56) I asked him what I should do, although I had already sent one of my secretaries to the King. He told me that the King had ordered that application should be made direct to himself, before any other person was acquainted with the communication. He followed me to the hall, using very courteous language.

On the 22nd my secretary returned from Windsor, stating that the King would be at Greenwich on Saturday, and I was to go the day after. On my reaching Greenwich [Map] I found a civil gentleman, named Poller (Bollen?), sent by the King to conduct me to the palace. There I found the bishop of London (age 55), who led me to the King's antechamber, where the Court was assembled, and was received by two dukes and the archbishop of Canterbury (age 79). I conversed with these lords, waiting for the King to go to mass; and we talked of the conference at Bologna. The King, on going to mass, came directly to me, and taking me by the sleeve said, with the utmost graciousness, "You have news from my brother the Emperor." On answering Yes, he asked the date, and then said your Majesty was very careful to give him information. I assured him that you were anxious to make him partaker of all affairs, and thus show your brotherly affection. I then presented your letters, and, as to the particulars of my credentials, he said that the ambassadors in your court were authorised to treat about them. Speaking of your going into Italy I bespoke his good offices.

On his return from mass, he came up to me again, and resumed the subject. When we talked of the necessity of resisting the Turk, and of the Pope's arrival at Bologna on the 5th, I said I thought it advisable that he should commission his ambassadors with the Pope to treat; and I combated his remark that he could do but little against the Turk, seeing he was wealthy, and as absolute in his dominions as the Pope. He urged that this affair was chiefly yours, and if you wished to accomplish it you must make peace with the princes of Italy. I assured him you had never ceased from efforts in this direction. The conversation then turned on the duke Francesco Sforza; and I urged, in opposition to his remark, that your proceedings were as favorable to the Duke as could be. He objected to the cession of Pavia and Alexandria, alleging the cruelties which had taken place at Sienna. I told him Pavia was out of dispute, as it was already given up. "Between ourselves," said he, "I think it is a great shame that whilst the Turk is in Austria, the patrimony of the Emperor, he should not rescue it, but make war upon Christians." On my urging the danger that might be expected from Sforza and the Venetians if your troops were withdrawn, he urged that neither could do anything. Shortly after, changing his tone, he said, with some emphasis, "My brother the king of France has made your Emperor a marvellous offer." This he repeated three times. I said, if it were so, he had now done a virtuous part, and kept his professions. After various other topics it grew late. Not a word was said of the Queen. After dinner he asked me if I had anything more to say.

All here are satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. As for the observance of it, the Queen, as I have already written, has expressed her doubt of its duration. It is supposed to have cost this King 800,000 ducats. He is not therefore likely to break it. People here are not very anxious to repeat the dose, as it is not to their taste. At present they seem on good terms with the French. The ambassador has been only once at court with his brother since my arrival. He has been commanded to deliver his message to the Council, and abstain from communication with the Cardinal; at which he was greatly vexed. Various ambassadors are here. The most in favour is the Milanese, on whom the King has spent money. Those who are now in most credit are the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45). There is not a single person about the King who is not saturated with French money; and though they profess great affection to you, their affection for money is much stronger. I have submitted the proposition to the King respecting the sea being kept free from pirates. He has ordered a good reception for Mons. Rosymbez.

The downfall of the Cardinal (age 56) is complete. He is dismissed from the Council, deprived of the Chancellorship, and constrained to make an inventory of his goods in his own hand, that nothing may be forgotten. It is said that he has acknowledged his faults, and presented all his effects to the King. Yesterday the King returned to Greenwich by water secretly, in order to see them, and found them much greater than he expected. He took with him "sa mye" (his darling-Ann Boleyn (age 28)), her mother (age 49), and a gentleman of his chamber (Norris?) The Cardinal, notwithstanding his troubles, has always shown a good face, especially towards the town, but since St. Luke's Day all has been changed to sighs and tears night and day. The King, either moved by pity, or for fear if he should die the whole extent of his effects would not be found, sent him a ring for his comfort. He has withdrawn with a small attendance to a place ten miles off. They have sent for his son from Paris. People say execrable things of him, all which will be known at this Parliament. But those who have raised the storm will not let it abate, not knowing, if he returned to power, what would become of them. The ambassador of France commiserates him most. It was feared the Cardinal (age 56) would get his goods out of the country, and therefore a strict watch was kept at the ports, and the watch insisted on opening the coffers of cardinal Campeggio (age 54), notwithstanding his passport, and, on his refusal, broke open the locks. He said they had done him great wrong to suppose that he could be corrupted by the Cardinal, since he had been proof against the innumerable presents offered him by the King.

The Chancellor's seal has remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56) till this morning, when it was transferred to Sir Thomas More (age 51). Every one is delighted at his promotion, because he is an upright and learned man, and a good servant of the Queen. He was Chancellor of Lancaster, an office now conferred on the Sieur Villeury (Fitzwilliam). Richard Pace, a faithful servant of your Majesty, whom the Cardinal had kept in prison for two years, as well in the Tower of London as in a monastery (Syon House), is set at liberty. Unless his mind should again become unsettled, it is thought he will rise in higher favour at Court than ever.

There is a young man here, sent by the duke of Saxony, who has much business with the King and the bishop of London (age 55).

Of the King's affair there is nothing new to communicate, except what the bishop of London (age 55) has told me, that Dr. Stokesley (age 54) had been sent to France to consult the doctors of Paris. The Queen begs your Majesty will send some respectable person there to do the same, for without some definitive sentence the King will remain obstinate in his opinions. She thinks that delay will be more dangerous than profitable, and therefore we have thought it desirable not to consent to the postponement demanded. To avoid creating suspicion in the mind of the King, she thinks I had better cease to visit her, but she will provide means for my speaking with her in private. London, 25 Oct. 1529.

P.S.-Two days after I had written the above, the Cardinal (age 56) was definitively condemned by the Council, declared a rebel, and guilty of high treason for having obtained a legatine bull, whereby he had conferred many benefices in the King's patronage. He has been deprived of his dignities, his goods confiscated, and himself sentenced to prison until the King shall decide. This sentence was not given in his presence, but to his two proctors. This he will not find easy of digestion, but worse remains behind (mais encoures ne serat il quicte pour le prix).

Books, Calendars, Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII 1529 December

01 Dec 1529 R. O. St. P. VII. 219. 6073. Embassy to France.

Instructions to George Boleyn (age 26), gentleman of the Privy Chamber, and John Stokesley, D.D. (age 54), sent to the French king (age 35).

On their arrival at the French court they shall confer with Sir Francis Brian on the repair of Albany into Scotland, to interrupt the alliance between Scotland and the Emperor; on which subject, though Brian has been continually solicitous, the King has received from him no direct answer. They shall tell Francis that Brian is recalled to look after his own causes, and they are sent in his place; and they shall say that, considering the inconvenience like to ensue to France by the proposed alliance, the King has been anxious to learn what chance there might be of good effect by Albany's passing into Scotland, and they shall desire a consultation to be held with the Duke on the subject, guarding themselves from the supposition that the King wishes for it upon any other grounds than the benefit of France. If it be resolved on, it must be kept as secret as possible, taking care it does not come to the knowledge of the French king.

They shall also advise upon the question of a General Council, which is to be by them mutually prevented, considering the influence the Emperor has over the Pope. Upon the King's great matter they shall say, the King has sent Stokesly (age 54), who shall declare his opinion and that of other learned men, and shall say that, as De Langy at his late being here had said that divers in those parts were of similar opinion, he had special charge to consult them, and he shall do his best to obtain opinions favorable to the King. They shall also desire the French king to allow them to see the originals of the treaties and conventions made at Cambray, as copies only have reached England, sent to the French ambassadors here, containing many contradictions; and the same secresy has been observed in the court of the lady Margaret. Signed by the King at beginning and end.

29 Dec 1529. R. O. 6115. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Grant by Wolsey to George Boleyn (age 26), knt., Viscount Rochford, son and heir apparent of Thomas Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond (age 52), of an annuity of £200 out of the lands of the Bishopric of Winchester, with power to distrain for nonpayment.

ii. Similar grant of an annuity of 200 marks out of the abbey lands of St. Albans.

29 Dec 1529. R. O.6134. [Sir Rob. Wingfield to Henry VIII.] John Bartelett, of your Highness' retinue, has presented to me, your deputy, and the council of this town, your letters patent granting him the passage between this and Dover. The mayor and his brethren complain that this is contrary to a charter granted to them by Edward III., and confirmed by the King, which they showed to the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Rochford (age 26), and Master Pallett, your controller. They have written about it to the King.

Draft, with corrections in Wingfield's hand, p. 1. Endd.