Biography of Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle 1373-1415

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: María González Henestrosa Lady Villagera 1356

1377 Coronation of Richard II

1385 Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

1392 Death of Isabella of Castile

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

1399 Richard II's Last Will

1399 Epiphany Rising

1401 Parliament Henry IV 2: 31 The Names of the Lords Present

1415 Battle of Agincourt

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

In 1362 [his father] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 20) was created 1st Earl Cambridge.

On 11 Jul 1372 [his father] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 31) and [his mother] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 17) were married at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map]. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of [his aunt] Constance (age 18) who had married Edmund's older brother [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) a year before. An example of Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. She the illegitmate daughter of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile and Maria Padilla. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 59) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

Around 1373 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle was born to Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 31) and Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 18) at King's Langley, Hertfordshire [Map]. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

Coronation of Richard II

On 16 Jul 1377 King Richard II of England (age 10) was crowned II King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 61).

Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 31) carried the Crown.

Guichard d'Angle 1st Earl Huntingdon was created 1st Earl Huntingdon for life.

John Mowbray 1st Earl Nottingham (age 11) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 4) and Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington (age 21) were knighted.

Roger Scales 4th Baron Scales (age 23) attended.

In or before 1381 1369 John Strange 6th Baron Strange Knockin (age 18) and [his future sister-in-law] Maud Mohun Baroness Strange Knockin (age 23) were married. She by marriage Baroness Strange Knockin. They were fourth cousins.

In 1381 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 8) and Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 8) were married. She the daughter of Ferdinand I King Portugal (age 35) and Leonor Teles Meneses Queen Consort Portugal. He the son of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 39) and Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 26). They were second cousin once removed. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1382 [his brother-in-law] Afonso Burgundy died.

In 1383 [his sister-in-law] Unamed Burgundy died.

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 [his father] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 44) was created 1st Duke York by King Richard II of England (age 18). [his mother] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 30) by marriage Duchess York.

In 1385 [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, and around the same time, 1st Duke Gloucester. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Gloucester (age 19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duchess Gloucester.

In May 1387 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 14) was appointed 76th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 20).

On 25 Feb 1390 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 17) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. [his wife] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 17) by marriage Countess of Rutland.

Death of Isabella of Castile

On 23 Dec 1392 [his mother] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 37) died. She the wife of [his father] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister [his aunt] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 38) who had married Edmund's elder brother [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 40) who may have been the father of [his brother] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 7) progenitor of the House of York.

On 04 Nov 1393 [his father] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 52) and [his step-mother] Joan Holland Duchess York (age 13) were married. She by marriage Duchess York. The difference in their ages was 38 years. She the daughter of Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent (age 43) and Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent (age 43). He the son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England. They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

In 1394 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 21) was created 1st Earl Cork. [his wife] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 21) by marriage Countess Cork.

In 1395 [his sister-in-law] Isabella Burgundy (age 31) died.

Froissart. 1397. The late duke of Gloucester (age 41) was by inheritance constable of England; but the king (age 29) deprived his heir (age 16) of it, and gave it to his cousin the earl of Rutland (age 24). The king (age 29) now assumed a greater state than ever king of England had done before, nor had there been any one who had expended such large sums by one hundred thousand nobles. He also took the wardship of the heir (age 15) of Arundel (age 51), son to the late earl whom he had beheaded in London, as has been related, and forced him to live with him. And because one of the knights of the late duke of Gloucester, named Cerbec, had spoken too freely of the king and council, he was arrested and instantly beheaded. Sir John Lacquingay was likewise in some peril; but, when he saw the turn affairs had taken, he quitted the service of the duchess of Gloucester (age 31), and fixed his abode elsewhere. At this period there was no one, however great, in England, that dared speak his sentiments of what the king did or intended doing. He had formed a council of his own from the knights of his chamber, who encouraged him to act as they advised. The king had in his pay full two thousand archers, who were on guard day and night, for he did not think himself perfectly safe from his uncles or the Arundel family.1

Note 1. For more ample particulars respecting the murder of the duke of Gloucester, I must refer the reader to Mr. Gough's History of Pleshy.

Froissart. 1397. The king (age 29) at this time resided at Eltham [Map], whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother sir John Holland (age 45), the earl marshal (age 28), the earl of Salisbury (age 47), with many other great barons and knights. The king (age 29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the duke of Lancaster (age 56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the earl of Derby (age 29), as did the duke of York (age 55) with his son the earl of Rutland (age 24). The king loved the earl of Rutland (age 24) and the earl marshal (age 28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the duke of Gloucester (age 41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his late uncle (age 41) had on several occasions treated the king (age 29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the duke of Gloucester (age 41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Calendars. 32. The king (age 30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (age 24), knight, son of our beloved uncle [his uncle] John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (age 56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (age 44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and [his father] Edmund of York (age 55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (age 77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (age 53), bishops; Henry of Derby (age 29), Edward of Rutland (age 24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (age 28), earls; Reginald Grey (age 35), Ralph Neville (age 33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (age 54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (age 30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms, possibly for their part in downfall of Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (deceased), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 59) and Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (deceased) ...

His older half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 45) was created 1st Duke Exeter. Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk. Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk (age 31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale. [his wife] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset, 1st Marquess Dorset. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence (age 12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset, Marchioness Dorset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Westmoreland. Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 18) by marriage Countess of Westmoreland.

Thomas Mowbray Duel

On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (age 31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (age 31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30). the future Henry IV (age 31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (age 31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (age 31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. The future Henry IV (age 31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) forever.

On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) left England never to return.

See The Chronicles of Froissart Book 4 Chapter 94.

Before 07 Oct 1398 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 25) and Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York (age 31) were married. He the son of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 57) and Isabella of Castile Duchess York. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. King Richard (age 31), notwithstanding he had suffered this challenge and appeal to arms to be made in his presence, was uncertain how to act, and whether to allow the combat to take place or not. And although he was the king of England the most feared of any who had worn the crown, he was guarded day and night by two thousand archers, who were regularly paid weekly, and had confidence only in his brother the earl of Huntingdon (age 46), and the earls of Salisbury (age 48) and Rutland (age 25), his cousin, who were highly in his favour. He paid no regard to others, except a few of the knights of his chamber, who were his advisers. When the day for the combat was approaching, and the two lords had made their preparations, waiting only for the king's commands, king Richard's secret advisers asked, "Sire, what is your intention respecting this combat between your two cousins, the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30)? Will you permit them to proceed?" "Yes," replied the king: "why not? I intend to be present myself and to see their prowess. We may perhaps learn, from the issue of this combat, what we are now ignorant of, although it may be very important for us to know, that we may provide accordingly: for there is no one so great in England, but, if he anger me, he shall dearly pay for it. Should I allow myself to be any way governed by my subjects, they would soon overpower me; I know for certain that some of my kinsmen have held secret meetings respecting my government; but the most dangerous among them was the duke of Gloucester, for in all England there was none more wrong-headed. lie is now at peace, and henceforward we shall manage the rest well enough. But tell me, I pray you, why you ask the question?" "Sire," replied they, "we are bound to advise you to the best of our knowledge and abilities. We sometimes hear and observe what you cannot, for you are in your apartments, and we abroad in the fields, or in London, where many conversations are held that nearly touch you, as well as us. There is yet time to provide a remedy, and we earnestly advise you not to delay it." "What do you mean?" said the king: "speak out, and do not spare me; for I wish to act rightly, and to maintain justice in my kingdom." "Sire, the common report throughout England, but especially in London, is, that you are the cause of this combat, and that you have induced the earl marshal (age 30) to challenge the earl of Derby (age 31). The Londoners in general, and many of the prelates and nobles, say, that you are in the direct road to destroy all your kindred and kingdom, but that they will not suffer it to be done. Now, were the citizens to rise and be joined by the nobility, who could oppose them? You have no power but from your vassals; and they are now more suspicious of you than ever, from your marriage with a princess of France; and you are less beloved by your subjects on this account. Know, that if you allow these two earls to meet in arms, you will not be lord of the field, but the Londoners, united with the earl of Derby's (age 31) great connexions by blood, who are all much attached to him. The earl marshal (age 30) is become very unpopular, particularly with the citizens of London, who would willingly put him to death. Three parts of the people of England say, that when you heard the charge of the earl marshal (age 30), you should have acted otherwise than yon did, and checked the quarrel by telling them, "You are both my cousins and liege men, and I command that peace be henceforward between you;" and that you should have taken the earl of Derby (age 31) by the hand, and led him to your chamber with every token of affection. Because you did not this, the common report is, that you warmly take the part of the earl marshal (age 30) against the earl of Derby (age 31). Weigh well what we have said, for we have told you the truth, and you never had more occasion for good advice than at this moment."

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon afterward, the king (age 31) called to him his uncles [Note. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 58) and Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 57)], and demanded from them how he was to act on this occasion. "Sire, order your constable hither, and we will tell you." The earl of Rutland (age 25), constable of England, being sent for, came, and he was told, - "Constable go to the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30), and oblige them to promise not to quit the kingdom without the king's permission." The constable obeyed the order, and returned to the king's apartment. You may believe the whole court was greatly troubled by this event, and many barons and knights were much displeased, who blamed the earl marshal (age 30) for his conduct; but what he had said he could not now retract, and he showed by his manners that he made light of it, so arrogant and swollen with pride was his heart. The lords now separated, each for his own home. The duke of Lancaster (age 58), in spite of appearances, was much vexed at what had passed, and his opinion was, that the king should not have listened to such a charge, but instantly have annihilated it; and in this he was joined by the more sensible barons of the country.

Richard II's Last Will

On 16 Apr 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) wrote his Last Will from which the following extracts are taken … Also we bequeath to our beloved nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25) ten thousand marks and to our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) two thousand marks and to our beloved brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) three thousand marks and to our faithful and beloved William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) two thousand marks ... we ordain and set aside for the fulfilment of all and singular the premises the sum of ninety-one thousand marks, of which sixty-five thousand marks are in the keeping of Sir John Ikelyngton and twenty-four thousand marks in the hands and keeping of our dear nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25).

Of this our royal testament we nominate make and depute executors the venerable fathers in Christ Bishop Richard Mitford, Bishop Edmund Stafford (age 55), Bishop Robert Tideman of Winchcombe, Bishop Thomas Merke and Bishop Guy Mone Aka Mohun; our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26), our nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25), our brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) and William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) to each of whom we bequeath a gold cup of the value of twenty pounds and our beloved and faithful clerks Master Bishop Richard Boteville Keeper of our Privy Seal, Master Richard Maudeleyn, Master William Fereby and Master John Painter Ikelyngton clerks and John Lufwyk and William Serle laymen, to each of whom we will shall be paid their expenses and necessary costs while it shall happen that they or any of them are employed about the execution of our present last will, but according to the discretion of their said co-executors ...

Whom all and singular we have charged and charge that they shall do as much as in them is for the due execution and fulfilment of this our last will as they shall wish to answer before God. We create ordain depute and make overseers of this our will the reverend fathers in Christ Archbishop Roger Walden and Archbishop Richard Scrope (age 49), William bishop of Winchester and William abbot of the monastery of Westminster Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) our uncle and Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) our cousin.

Epiphany Rising

On 17 Dec 1399 the conspirators met at Abbey House Westminster Abbey [Map] including Thomas Blount (age 47), Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester (age 26), Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25), John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47), Ralph Lumley 1st Baron Lumley (age 39), John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury (age 49), Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26), Bernard Brocas (age 45). They plotted to capture Henry IV King England (age 32) at a Tournament in Windsor [Map] on the Feast of Epiphany hence the Epiphany Rising.

Before 07 Jan 1400 Henry IV King England (age 32) was forewarned, probably by Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 27), and began to raise an army in London.

On 20 Sep 1400 [his sister-in-law] Maud Mohun Baroness Strange Knockin (age 43) died.

Parliament Henry IV 2: 31 The Names of the Lords Present

After 07 Jan 1401. The names of the lords who were present at the said declaration are as follows:

Henry, prince of Wales (age 14).

[his father] Edmund, duke of York (age 59).

Edward, earl of Rutland (age 28).

Thomas, earl of Arundel (age 19).

John, earl of Somerset (age 28).

Edmund, earl of Stafford (age 22).

Henry, earl of Northumberland (age 59).

Ralph, earl of Westmorland (age 37).

Thomas, earl of Worcester (age 58).

Michael, earl of Suffolk (age 40).

Richard, Lord Grey of Codnor (age 30).

Thomas, Lord Berkeley (age 49).

John, Lord Charlton.

Reginald, Lord Grey of Ruthin (age 39).

Thomas, Lord Camoys (age 50).

Thomas, Lord Furnivall (age 39).

Robert, Lord Scales (age 29).

John, Lord Beaumont.

William, Lord Willoughby (age 31).

Hugh, Lord Burnell (age 54).

William, Lord Ferrers of Groby (age 28).

William, Lord Bergavenny (age 58).

John, Lord Lovell (age 60).

Robert, Lord Harrington (age 45).

Richard Lescrope (age 74).

On 01 Aug 1402 [his father] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 61) died at King's Langley, Hertfordshire [Map]. His son Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 29) succeeded 2nd Duke York, 2nd Earl Cambridge and inherited his estates which included Conisbrough Castle [Map]. [his wife] Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York (age 35) by marriage Duchess York.

In 1406 [his step-son] Walter Fitzwalter 5th Baron Fitzwalter (age 38) died. His son Humphrey Fitzwalter 6th Baron Fitzwalter (age 8) succeeded 6th Baron Fitzwalter.

In 1408 [his wife] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 35) died.

In 1414 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 41)resigned the Earldom of Cambridge. It appears he took this action so that his brother [his brother] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 28) could be created Earl Cambridge (of the third creation) later that year.

Battle of Agincourt

On 25 Oct 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) defeated the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. King Henry V of England (age 29) commanded the Main Battle. Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) commanded the Rearguard.

Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 30) commanded. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 25) was wounded, and was protected by his brother King Henry V of England (age 29).

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42), commander of the Vanguard, was killed; the most senior English casualty. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Earl of Rutland and Earl Cork extinct. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 4) inherited his estates including Conisbrough Castle [Map].

John Fortescue (age 35), Dafydd Gam Brecon (age 35) and Edward Burnell (age 44) and Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) were killed.

Michael de la Pole 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 21) was killed. His brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) succeeded 4th Earl Suffolk.

The English included: Louis Robbessart (age 25), Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux (age 26), William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41), John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 51), Edward Courtenay (age 30), Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 12), Thomas Dutton (age 19), Edmund Ferrers 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 29), Roger Fiennes (age 31), Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh (age 57), John Grey (age 28), John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 31), William Harrington (age 42) as the King's Standard Bearer, Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 37), Piers Legh (age 26) (wounded), Alfred Longford, Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27), Thomas Morley 6th Baron Marshal 5th Baron Morley (age 22), John Rodney, Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22), Robert Strelley (age 18), James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 17), Robert Umfraville (age 52), Thomas West 2nd Baron West (age 35), Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30). Thomas Erpingham (age 60) commanded the archers. Thomas Rempston (age 26) was present. Thomas Strickland (age 48) carried the Banner of St George.

Thomas Tunstall (age 57) was killed.

The Welsh included: William ap Thomas "Blue Knight of Gwent" Herbert (age 35), Walter Sais (age 95), Roger Vaughan (age 70) and his son Roger Vaughan (age 5). Owen Tudor (age 15) is believed to have been present as a squire.

The French army suffered significant casualties. Charles Albret (age 46), Philip Valois II Count Nevers (age 26), John of Bar (age 35), Jacques Chatillon (age 48), David Rambures (age 51) and his three sons: Jean Rambures, Hugues Rambures, Philippe Rambures, Waleran Luxemburg (age 60) and Hector de Chartres were killed.

Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 20) was captured by Richard Waller (age 20) for which he was knighted on the battlefield by King Henry V of England (age 29).

John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 34) and Charles Artois Count Eu (age 21) were captured.

Robert of Bar Count Soissons Count Marle (age 25) was killed. His daughter Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 38) was killed. His brother Cardinal Louis of Bar (age 38) succeeded I Duke Bar.

John Valois I Duke Alençon was killed. His son John Valois II Duke Alençon (age 6) succeeded II Duke Alençon.

Frederick Metz I Count Vaudémont (age 47) was killed. His son Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 15) succeeded Count Vaudémont.

Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 31) was killed. His son John Valois IV Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded IV Duke Brabant. Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester (age 14) by marriage Duchess Brabant.

Jean II Le Maingre "Boucicaut" (age 49) was captured.

Georges de La Trémoille (age 33) was captured.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 25 Oct 1415. And the kyng (age 29) sawe he myght not passe whythe out batayle, and thenne he sayde unto hys lytylle mayne, "Serys and felowys, yendyr maynye wylle lette us of oure waye, and they wylle not come unto us. But nowe lette every man preve hym-selfe a goode man thys day and a-vance hys baner in the beste tyme of the day and yere." Ande the kyng (age 29) roode ande hys basnet in hys hede, and alle othyr men wente on hyr foote a-passe in hyr hoole araye and18 Englysche myle or that they assemblyde. And thorowe Goddys grace the kynge (age 29) made hys way thoroughe the thyckyste of alle the batayle; and ther was slayne on the kyngys syde the Duke of Yorke (age 42), the Erle Southeffolke (deceased), and ij knyghtys, and Davy Gam (age 35), and of the gentylle men no moo, and of alle maner of Englysche men hyt passyd not xxviij personys. And on the Fraynysche syde was slayne the Duke of Launsonne, the Duke of Barre (age 38), the Duke of Braban (age 31), ande vij erlys, and the Constabylle of Fraunce, and the Senschalle of Henowde, and the Mayster Alblester19, and many moo lordys, and knygtys and squyers v Ml and moo. And there was take the Duke of Orlyaunce (age 20), the Duke of Burbon (age 34), the Counte of Rychemounde, and the Counte of Ewe (age 21), [th]e Marchalle of Fraunsce, Syr Bursegaunte, and many moo othyr knyghtys and squyers. And whanne thys was done the kyng (age 29) bode alle nyghte in a vyllage faste be-syde ther that the batelle was done. And on the morowe he toke hys waye unto Calys whythe hys lordys and hys presoners, whythe hys owne mayne.

Note 18. So in MS.

Note 19. Thomas Arblastier. He was one of the retinue of Sir William Bourchier. See Nicolas's Battle of Agincourt, 360.

After 25 Oct 1415 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42) was buried at St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map].

On 17 Jul 1431 [his former wife] Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York (age 64) died at Carisbrooke Castle [Map]. She was buried at Chapel of St Nicholas, Westminster Abbey [Map]. Her nephew Richard Strange 3rd Baron Dunster 7th Baron Strange Knockin (age 49) succeeded 3rd Baron Mohun of Dunster as a result of her death bring the title out of abeyance.

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, Richard of York and his younger brother Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay [Map] in a ceremony attended by King Edward IV of England (age 34), George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 36).

Thomas Whiting, Chester Harald wrote:

n 24 July [1476] the bodies were exhumed, that of the Duke, "garbed in an ermine furred mantle and cap of maintenance, covered with a cloth of gold" lay in state under a hearse blazing with candles, guarded by an angel of silver, bearing a crown of gold as a reminder that by right the Duke had been a king. On its journey, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, with other lords and officers of arms, all dressed in mourning, followed the funeral chariot, drawn by six horses, with trappings of black, charged with the arms of France and England and preceded by a knight bearing the banner of the ducal arms. Fotheringhay was reached on 29 July, where members of the college and other ecclesiastics went forth to meet the cortege. At the entrance to the churchyard, King Edward waited, together with the Duke of Clarence, the Marquis of Dorset, Earl Rivers, Lord Hastings and other noblemen. Upon its arrival the King 'made obeisance to the body right humbly and put his hand on the body and kissed it, crying all the time.' The procession moved into the church where two hearses were waiting, one in the choir for the body of the Duke and one in the Lady Chapel for that of the Earl of Rutland, and after the King had retired to his 'closet' and the princes and officers of arms had stationed themselves around the hearses, masses were sung and the King's chamberlain offered for him seven pieces of cloth of gold 'which were laid in a cross on the body.' The next day three masses were sung, the Bishop of Lincoln preached a 'very noble sermon' and offerings were made by the Duke of Gloucester and other lords, of 'The Duke of York's coat of arms, of his shield, his sword, his helmet and his coursers on which rode Lord Ferrers in full armour, holding in his hand an axe reversed.' When the funeral was over, the people were admitted into the church and it is said that before the coffins were placed in the vault which had been built under the chancel, five thousand persons came to receive the alms, while four times that number partook of the dinner, served partly in the castle and partly in the King's tents and pavilions. The menu included capons, cygnets, herons, rabbits and so many good things that the bills for it amounted to more than three hundred pounds.

In 1566 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32) visited St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map]. Upon discovering the tombs of her Yorkist ancestors were damaged and exposed to the elements following the destruction of the choir in the Reformation. The remains of Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle were reburied in newly consytucted tombs. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York. Presumably the remains of his wife Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York and their son Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland were also reburied.

Calendars. 6. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from Gascony and from other lands and countries overseas, and from the Channel Islands:

The archbishop of York.

[his father] The duke of York.

The Bishop of  Ely.

The Bishop of Chester.

The Abbot of Waltham.

The Earl of Rutland.

The earl marshal.

The Earl of Northumberland.

Lord Despenser.

Lord Grey of Ruthin.

John Hull.

Hugh Huls.

John Markham.

- to act all together, or six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Marcolf Chamber.

And those who wish to submit petitions should hand them in between now and next Friday evening [26 January 1397].

Calendars. 9. Also, on the following Thursday, the commons came before the king and lords in parliament and explained to the king that although the archbishop of Canterbury and the earl of Rutland and the earl marshal had told them that the king had heard that there were some who intended to oppose the expedition of the said earls promised to his honourable compeer of France towards the parts of Lombardy, and had incited and procured the commons to request of the king our lord that the said expedition be prevented, and that he break the promise thereon made by him to his said compeer of France, the same commons excused themselves, for that neither they nor any one of them had ever had such purpose nor intent, nor had they spoken amongst themselves, nor had any others instructed them to make a request about nor to influence our lord the king contrary to the honourable promise aforesaid; but that they thanked him most wholeheartedly for the his honourable bearing, for the honour of himself and his kingdom, both in that matter and in others with his said compeer on his last expedition to France, as is well known to a great part of Christendom. And although the said lords in relating it explained to the said commons the gracious intent of our lord the king, that neither the commons nor the realm would be bound nor charged by virtue of that expedition; nevertheless the said commons prayed and protested that although the king of his own authority and will had granted such an expedition, that neither in this expedition nor in anything else which might arise in future, would they be a party, nor suffer loss, but be wholly excused. To which the king replied in his own words in full parliament, and said to the commons that they should not marvel at the said promise; and he kindly explained to them certain reasons which encouraged him to make the promise of the said expedition.

Calendars. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:

The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, Earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately Earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret Countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime Earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.

Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas Earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.

Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; [his uncle] John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, [his father] Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle 1373-1415 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Henry III of England 1207-1272

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle 1373-1415

Kings Wessex: Great x 10 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 8 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 6 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 2 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Ancestors of Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle 1373-1415

Great x 4 Grandfather: King John "Lackland" of England Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Henry III of England Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso IX King Leon

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Berengaria Ivrea I Queen Castile Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Simon Dammartin

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Montgomery Countess Ponthieu

GrandFather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Louis IX of France Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James I King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandmother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Theobald IV King Navarre 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry I King Navarre 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Capet Count of Artois Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Matilda Reginar Countess Saint Pol 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Father: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Bouchard Avesnes

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Hainault I Count Hainault 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret II Countess Flanders 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Floris Gerulfing IV Count Holland

Great x 3 Grandmother: Adelaide Gerulfing Countess Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mathilde Reginar Countess Holland and Palatine 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry of Bar II Count of Bar 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret of Bar Countess Luxemburg and Namur 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Capet Countess of Bar

GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Louis IX of France Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James I King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandmother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Charles Capet of Sicily Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Charles II King Naples 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Stephen V of Hungary

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary of Hungary Queen Consort Naples

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cuman

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Sancho IV King Castile IV King Leon 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ferdinand IV King Castile IV King Leon 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maria Molina Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon

Great x 1 Grandfather: Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso III King Portugal Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Denis I King Portugal 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice Queen Consort Portugal 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Constance Burgundy Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter III King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elisabeth Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Constance Hohenstaufen Queen Consort Aragon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

GrandFather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso III King Portugal Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Denis I King Portugal 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice Queen Consort Portugal 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Alfonso "Brave" IV King Portugal 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter III King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elisabeth Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Constance Hohenstaufen Queen Consort Aragon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maria Burgundy Queen Consort Castile 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Sancho IV King Castile IV King Leon 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Beatrice Ivrea Queen Consort Portugal 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maria Molina Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon

Mother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Garcia Padilla

Great x 1 Grandfather: Juan García Padilla 1st Lord Villagera

GrandMother: Maria Padilla

Great x 2 Grandfather: Fernán González Henestrosa

Great x 1 Grandmother: María González Henestrosa Lady Villagera