Peak District Neolithic Burials

 Five Wells Chambered Tomb Long Low Barrow Minning Low Chambered Tomb Ringham Low Chambered Cairn Stoney Low Barrow The Bride Stones, Cheshire

Peak District Neolithic Burials is in Prehistoric Peak District, Neolithic Burials.

The Bride Stones, Cheshire [Map] is Neolithic Chambered Cairn constructed in the Neolithic period between 3500–2400 BC. It was described in 1764 as being 120 yards (110 m) long and 12 yards (11 m) wide, containing three separate compartments, of which only one remains today.

Europe, British Isles, North-Central England, Staffordshire, Wetton, Long Low Barrow [Map]

Long Low Barrow is also in Peak District Bronze Age Barrows.

It is a curious fact that Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map] is, within 0.2 of a degree of longitude, north of Stonehenge [Map] - see Five Wells Chambered Tomb and Stonehenge Alignment. Moreover, this line of longitude, give or take 500m, has the highest number of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Monuments on it when compared to other lines of longitude. North to South:

Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map]

Long Low Barrow [Map]

Willersey Barrow [Map]

Farmington Long Barrow [Map]

Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]

East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]

Adam's Grave [Map]

Knap Hill [Map]

Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

Stonehenge.

Thomas Bateman 1846. The other mound was of the kind familiarly known as the "Long Barrow [Map]" being of a lengthened oval form; it was on much less elevated ground, and nearer to the village than the former one; there was no cist, or other receptacle for a body to be found, but at one extremity, upon the surface of the natural soil, was laid a similar jaw-bone to the one just mentioned; on it was a rudely-chipped instrument of light coloured flint, and around it were a few rats' bones. These deposits seem to be of the same nature as that of a bulls head [Map] discovered on Ilam Moor on the 12th of July, 1845, and might possibly have been dictated by some superstition with which we are now entirely unacquainted.

Wetton. Longlow [Map], near Wetton, opened on the 22nd of July, being encompassed by mineral hillocks, much like barrows in form, had also been overlooked by us, but had been disturbed by miners digging in the centre to find a shaft, they having mistaken it for what is locally termed a "groove hillock," i.e., a mound composed of earth and stone accumulated by sinking mines for lead. Having ascertained that there was no interment remaining in that part of the barrow disturbed by the miners, we directed our search to the west side, where we found a skeleton wanting the head surrounded by rats' bones, which lay in a stratum of small stones and gravel, about two feet beneath the surface. The barrow was composed of loose stones to the depth of seven feet, amongst which were fragmentary bones both human and animal; but neither the primary interment nor the interesting nature of this tumulus were discovered on the present occasion.

Wetton. In the first week of April, we made a second effort to open the Longlow Barrow [Map], situated on a mineral vein that has been so extensively worked as to render the extent of the tumulus almost undistinguishable amidst the mine hillocks. Owing to this, we missed the centre, although the mound was excavated to the depth of seven feet at least. We nevertheless foumd parts of two human skulls, one of them infantile, together with bones of the usual animals, calcined flints of good form and workmanship, and the points of a bone spear, and pin.

Wetton. Several unsuccessful attempts to open the barrow at Longlow [Map], near Wetton, are noticed in the preceding pages, which failed from a great part of the mound being surrounded by mine hillocks, imder which it extended much further than was at first anticipated, in fact, a shaft had been sunk very near the centre of the tumulus. From a careful measurement of part of the barrow still remaining in its original condition, it appears to have had a circumference of ninety yards. It is chiefly composed of flat stones, many of which are large, and set on end, inclining towards each other at the top, by which mode of construction many vacancies are occasioned. Near the surface and at the edge the stones are smaller, and the interstices are filled with gravel and earth; the depth in the highest part was more than seven feet. Convinced that we had not yet found the principal interment, and as the presumed centre had been examined down to the rock, we excavated the S.E. side of the mound in the month of March of the present year, without finding more than detached pieces of human bone, and lumps of flint amongst a quantity of charcoal near the surface; and laying bare at the bottom, a low wall of square stones, altogether about four feet long and eight inches high. At length, on the 8th of June, after having expended part of the preceding day in excavation, we had the satisfaction of discovering a very large cist, or chamber, the first indication of which were two large stones lying parallel to each other in an inclined direction. They had originally constituted one stone only, forming one end of the cist which had been displaced, and each was seven feet long by five broad. At the foot of these appeared the end of another stone of almost equal size placed on edge, which proved to be one side of the sepulchral chamber; It was seven Inches thick. The opposite side was formed by a stone equally long, but about a foot narrower, and eleven inches in thickness. The stone forming the end inclined Inwards, having given way; it was five feet broad by six feet long, thus rendering the chamber, as originally constructed, six feet long, five wide, and about four deep. Excepting at a little vacancy at the end first discovered, where human remains were seen scattered amongst the stones, the chamber was filled In the upper part with earth and stones, below with stones only, which being removed, exposed a well-paved floor, covered from end to end with human bones, which lying altogether in the primitive contracted position, appeared to be in great confusion, though not so in reality. Two skulls lay close together, in contact with the side of the cist, beneath another skull (shortly to be described; In the middle lay the leg bones of one skeleton and the arms of another. One skeleton was situated rather higher up amongst the stones. Bones of the ox, hog, deer, and dog; also three very finely chipped arrow-heads, and many other pieces of calcined flint accompanied the human remains, which, as well as we could ascertain, represented at least thirteen individuals, ranging from infancy to old age, and including several females.

Wetton. By referring to the 8th of June, 1849, it will be seen that we then opened a barrow at Longlow [Map], near Wetton, situated amongst mine hillocks, from which circumstance we overlooked the singular structure of which that barrow forms the termination only. At the distance of 220 yards, S.S.W., is another bowl-shaped barrow [Long Low Bowl Barrow [Map]], sixteen yards diameter, and between the two is an artificial ridge or vallum, running the whole distance and connecting them; its average height is about four feet, but in some parts it increases to six feet. It is constructed by a central wall, built of large stones nearly to the required height of the ridge, against which flat stones of all sizes have been inclined, so as to save material; finally, the whole has been coyered with small stones and earth, so as to form a regular slope from each side to the summit, along which at present runs a high stone wall, which had long prevented us observing the true character of this very remarkable work. Many of the stones used in its construction appear to have been quarried, while others have, no doubt, been collected from the sur&ce of the land. In several places opened at intervals along its course, we found very numerous fragments of human bone, skeletons of rats, weasels, &c., and a substance resembling old mortar, whilst on the undisturbed surface there was a good deal of charcoal which had not been burnt on the spot, but had been scattered about.

On the 27th of September we opened the barrow at the S.S.W. extremity, and found the interior arrangement of its centre to consist of a row of broad flat stones, set on end in the natural soil for the length of about eleven feet, in a line with the connecting ridge, and terminating at the N.N.E. end, in the middle of a wall built at right angles, three yards long and one high. In the western comer, formed by their junction, we found burnt bones scattered all the way down from the top, accompanied by no instrument, and by but few rats' bones.

Europe, British Isles, North-Central England, Derbyshire Dales, Ringham Low Chambered Cairn [Map]

Section I Tumuli 1843. September 27th, 1843, a barrow, called Ringham Lowe [Map], on Middleton Moor, was reopened. It was first examined by the late Mr. William Bateman in 1821, who found only the fragments of two urns and a piece of charcoal; one of the urns was of fine black ware, the other very coarse and of a grayish colour. The second investigation did not prove much more interesting than the first; the particulars are as follows: in the centre were the remains of a fire which had burnt upon the surface of the ground, before the construction of the mound; there remained pieces of charred wood, either oak or ash, near three inches in diameter. About the same place some more fragments of the above-mentioned urns were found; also numerous chippings of flint; but no bones, either human or animal, were seen. Near the surface of the tumulus a carefully-chipped instrument of flint was picked up, on refilling the excavation.

Thomas Bateman 1846. On the 17th of the same month a very remarkable tumulus was visited, which is situated upon a piece of ground near the village of Monyash, called Ringham Lowe [Map]. The upper portion being removed, it now presents the appearance of an oval elevation of considerable extent and trifling height, bearing in its present state no slight resemblance to the temple at Arbor Lowe, this idea being strengthened by the immense stones of which the kistvaen is composed.

The oval measures about fifty-four yards by thirty-five, and is thickly studded with vaults of the usual construction, many of which radiate from the central part of the barrow, where one of rather superior size is placed. The latter was cleared out on the above-mentioned day, and was found to consist of four large stones; the one employed to form a side of the cell was ascertained to measure four yards in length, from four to five feet in width, and two feet in thickness; within lay the skeleton of a very old man, upon a flooring of flat stones; with him a small piece of gray flint, apparently a part of a knife, and a cow's tooth. These bones retain much of their natural appearance, being hard and sound, excepting at the ends, which are entirely removed by decay. Two other vaults were opened without success, and in no part of this barrow which could be examined were any traces of calcined bone or pottery apparent.

Near one extremity of this oval tumulus is a small barrow, as at Arbor Lowe; it is much flattened by cultivation, and on opening afforded no relics, its contents being merely a disjointed human skeleton amidst a profusion of rats' bones.

Ringham Low. On the 7th of June, we went to the large chambered tumulus near Monyash, called Ringham Low [Map], some of the cists in which had been examined in 1847 (Vestiges, p. 103), for the purpose of investigating a cist that had been accidentally discovered. It was rather north of the centre of the mound, with the ends east and west (No. 1 of the Plan,) and was rhomboidal in shape, measuring eight feet six inches in length, by four feet in width, the sides were mostly formed by four very large stones, one of which was upwards of nine feet long; the bottom was paved with five slabs of limestone pretty well fitted to each other, the average depth was about eighteen indies. It was filled with limestone gravel, and small stones, covering a large quantity of human remains, most of which were in the utmost disorder, though near the bottom they had been less disturbed, and perhaps, in one or two cases, retained their original position. These have since been ascertained to include the remains of twelve individuals, comprising two infants and ten adults, mostly exhibiting the lengthened form of skull I have before observed to be constantly found in tumuli of the same description as the present.

The lower part of the gravel, and the interstices between the paving-stones, abounded with rats' bones; and on removing part of the floor we found that many human bones had been drawn beneath it by these restless creatures. In clearing out these joints we found three very beautiful leaf-shaped arrow points of white-flint, one of which, considering the material, is of wonderful execution; it measures 2¼ inches in length, is an inch broad in the middle, and weighs less than 48 grains, although it is not made from a thin flake, but is elaborately clipped all over both surfaces. We observed fragments of the skulls of oxen, teeth of horses, dogs, &c, but no trace of pottery, although a little charcoal was mixed with the clay on which the pavement rested.

Europe, British Isles, North-Central England, Derbyshire Dales, Hartington, Alsop-en-le-Dale, Stoney Low Barrow [Map]

Thomas Bateman 1845. On the 25th of April, 1845, in the forenoon, was opened a small barrow, called Stoney Lowe [Map], situate upon the more elevated portion of the Cold Eaton Farm, near Biggin [Map]. It was like most of the smaller barrows, composed of nearly equal proportions of earth and small stones; amongst the latter were many pieces of sandstone, which must have been conveyed for the purpose of constructing the mound from a considerable distance, as no rock of the same description of stone is known to exist in the neighbourhood of the tumulus. About the centre of the barrow several very large limestones were found lying upon the level of the natural soil, which in other parts of the barrow had not been disturbed; but upon removing the stones, the contrary was found to be the case in the centre, as about three feet beneath them a cist was discovered, sunk in the ground, and lined with thin flat limestones, placed edgeways; at each end of the cist were considerable remains of decayed wood, whilst instead of the expected interment in the middle was found an iron dagger, to which a knife of the same metal was attached, by the incrustation of rust in which they were enveloped, and which retained a very distinct impression of linen cloth, in which they appeared to have been folded. In one comer of the cist was a small heap of pure charcoal, unmixed with any other substance, and in another comer was one small piece of bone, apparently from some large bird, which was the only relic of organic life found in this tumulus, which, despite of this very unusual circumstance, had certainly never been before investigated.

Europe, British Isles, North-Central England, Staffordshire, Biddulph, The Bride Stones [Map]

The Bride Stones, Cheshire [Map] is Neolithic Chambered Cairn constructed in the Neolithic period between 3500–2400 BC. It was described in 1764 as being 120 yards (110 m) long and 12 yards (11 m) wide, containing three separate compartments, of which only one remains today.

Mona Antiqua Restauranta 319 Of the Bride Stones. Of the Bride Stones [Map].

To these Letters it may not be improper to add the following, which contains the description of an ancient Druidical monument, called the Bride Stones; and was communicated to us by the Rev. Mr. Thomas Malbon, rector of Congleton in Cheshire. It is not only curious in itself; but is nearly allied to the subject of this book, and serves to confirm some remarks which our author has made in the foregoing Essays.

The Bride Stones are in the parish of Biddulph in the county of Stafford; and sland on a rising ground in the break or opening between the Cloud and Woof-Lowe — which are two of the chain of hills that run through Staffordshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire, into Scotland.

A A, &c. * are fix upright, free stones, from three to fix feet broad, of various heights and shapes, fixed about six feet from each other in a semicircular form, and two within, where the earth is very black, mixed with ashes and oak-charcoal. It is apprehended the circle was originally complete, and twenty-seven feet in diameter; for there is the appearance of holes where stones have been, and also of two single stones, one standing East of the circle, at about five or six yards distance, and the other at the same disftance from that.

B B are rough, square, tapering stones, four feet three inches broad, and two feet thick. One on the North side is broken off, as is part of the other.

C C is the pavement of a kind of artificial cave. It is composed of broken pieces of stones about two inches and a half thick, and laid on pounded white stones about six inches deep; two inches of the upper part of which are singed with black, supposed from the ashes falling through the pavement, which was covered with them and oak-charcoal, about two inches thick. Several bits of bones were also found, but s small that it could not be discovered whether they were human or not.

The sides of this cave, if I may so call it, were originally composed of two unhewn free stones, about eighteen feet in length, fix in height, and fourteen inches thick at a medium. Each of them is now broken into two.

D is a partition slone slanding across the place, about five feet and a half high, and six inches thick. A circular hole is Cut through this stone, about nineteen inches and a half in diameter.

The whole was covered with long, unhewn, large, flat free ftones, since taken away. The height of the cave from the pavement to the covering is five feet and ten inches.

The entrance was filled up with free stones and earth, supposed to be dust blown by the wind from year to year in dry weather.

There remains another place of the same construction, but smaller, and without any inward partition, about fifty-five yards distant from this. It is two yards and a half long, two feet and a half broad, and three feet two inches high. There is also a part of another.

There was a large heap of stones that covered the whole, an hundred and twenty yards long, and twelve yards broad. These stones have been taken away from time to time by masons and other people, for various purposes. And in the year 1764, several hundred loads were carried away for making a turnpike-road about fixty yards from this place, which laid it open for examination.

This ancient sacred place was probably covered, says Mr. Malbon. with this great heap of stones to conceal and preserve it it the time the Druids were on the decline, But we rather think, as these Carnedde or heaps of stones were a general appurtenance of Druidical worship, that this, though of a different figure from these commonly known made a real part of the original structure.