1305 Execution of William Wallace

1307 Battle of Loch Ryan and the Execution of the Bruce Brothers

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge

1322 Despencer War Executions

1326 Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

1330 Execution of Roger Mortimer

1388 Merciless Parliament

1399 Epiphany Rising

1403 Battle of Shrewsbury

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1417 Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1477 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1477 Execution of Burdett and Stacy

1489 Yorkshire Rebellion

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1516 Evil May Day Riots

1533 Buggery Act

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1541 Executions

1541 Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1552 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1586 Babington Plot

1613 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1650 Battle of Carbisdale

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

1760 Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

Hanged is in Executions.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 850-899. 897. In the summer of this year went the army, some into East-Anglia, and some into Northumbria; and those that were penniless got themselves ships, and went south over sea to the Seine. The enemy had not, thank God, entirely destroyed the English nation; but they were much more weakened in these three years by the disease of cattle, and most of all of men; so that many of the mightiest of the king's thanes, that were in the land, died within the three years. Of these, one was Swithulf Bishop of Rochester, Ceolmund alderman in Kent, Bertulf alderman in Essex, Wulfred alderman in Hampshire, Elhard Bishop of Dorchester, Eadulf a king's thane in Sussex, Bernuff governor of Winchester, and Egulf the king's horse-thane; and many also with them; though I have named only the men of the highest rank. This same year the plunderers in East-Anglia and Northumbria greatly harassed the land of the West-Saxons by piracies on the southern coast, but most of all by the esks which they built many years before. Then King Alfred (48) gave orders for building long ships against the esks, which were full-nigh twice as long as the others. Some had sixty oars, some more; and they were both swifter and steadier, and also higher than the others. They were not shaped either after the Frisian or the Danish model, but so as he himself thought that they might be most serviceable. Then, at a certain turn of this same year, came six of their ships to the Isle of Wight; and going into Devonshire, they did much mischief both there and everywhere on the seacoast. Then commanded the king his men to go out against them with nine of the new ships, and prevent their escape by the mouth of the river to the outer sea. Then came they out against them with three ships, and three others were standing upwards above the mouth on dry land: for the men were gone off upon shore. Of the first three ships they took two at the mouth outwards, and slew the men; the third veered off, but all the men were slain except five; and they too were severely wounded. Then came onward those who manned the other ships, which were also very uneasily situated. Three were stationed on that side of the deep where the Danish ships were aground, whilst the others were all on the opposite side; so that none of them could join the rest; for the water had ebbed many furlongs from them. Then went the Danes from their three ships to those other three that were on their side, be-ebbed; and there they then fought. There were slain Lucomon, the king's reve, and Wulfheard, a Frieslander; Ebb, a Frieslander, and Ethelere, a Frieslander; and Ethelferth, the king's neat-herd; and of all the men, Frieslanders and English, sixty-two; of the Danes a hundred and twenty. The tide, however, reached the Danish ships ere the Christians could shove theirs out; whereupon they rowed them out; but they were so crippled, that they could not row them beyond the coast of Sussex: there two of them the sea drove ashore; and the crew were led to Winchester to the king, who ordered them to be hanged. The men who escaped in the single ship came to East-Anglia, severely wounded. This same year were lost no less than twenty ships, and the men withal, on the southern coast. Wulfric, the king's horse-thane, who was also viceroy of Wales, died the same year.

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On 03 Oct 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales 1238-1283 (45) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Shrewsbury. The first prominent person known to have suffered being hanged, drawn and quartered. Dafydd (45) was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury attached to a horse's tail, then hanged alive, revived, then disembowelled and his entrails burned before him for "his sacrilege in committing his crimes in the week of Christ's passion", and then his body cut into four-quarters "for plotting the king's death". Geoffrey of Shrewsbury was paid 20 shillings for carrying out the act.

Execution of William Wallace

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace -1305 was hanged at Elms Smithfield. His head being displayed on London Bridge.

On 20 Sep 1305 Nigel Bruce 1276-1305 (29) was hanged at Berwick on Tweed.

In 1306 Simon Fraser -1306 was hanged.

After 26 Mar 1306 Christopher Seton 1278-1306 was hanged.

On 04 Aug 1306 John Seton 1278-1306 (28) was hanged at Newcastle upon Tyne following his capture by English forces after the fall of Tibbers Castle, Carronbridge.

On 07 Nov 1306 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 (40) was hanged on a scaffold thirty feet higher than the others to denote his statusin London. His son David Strathbogie 10th Earl Atholl -1326 succeeded 10th Earl Atholl 1C .

Battle of Loch Ryan and the Execution of the Bruce Brothers

On 09 Feb 1307 the Battle of Loch Ryan was a victory of local forces, led by Dungal MacDowall, supporter of King Edward I, over a force consisting of 1000 men and eighteen galleys led by Thomas Bruce 1284-1307 (23) and Alexander Bruce 1285-1307 (22), brothers of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (32), supported by Malcolm McQuillan, Lord of Kintyre, and Sir Reginald Crawford. Only two galleys escaped. Malcolm McQuillan was captured an summarily executed.
Thomas Bruce 1284-1307 (23), Alexander Bruce 1285-1307 (22) and Reginald Crawford were hanged (possibly hanged, drawn and quartered) at Carlisle.

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) was returning from Canterbury to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley 1308-1363 (13), Maud Badlesmere Countess Oxford 1310-1366 (11), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 (8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere 1314-1338 (6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot 1315- (6)), and Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (34), her nephew, were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

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In 1322 William Cheney 1275-1322 (47) was hanged.

Battle of Boroughbridge

On 16 Mar 1322 the rebel army led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (44) attempted to cross the bridge over the River Ure (between Ripon and York) at Boroughbridge. Their path was blocked by forces loyal to the King led by Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle 1270-1323 (52). Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46), Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (34), John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort 1265-1324 (57) and John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers 1290-1365 (32) fought for the rebels. Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford 1300-1322 (22), Nicholas Longford 1285-1356 (37), Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (44), John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray 1286-1322 (35) were captured.
Warin Lisle 1271-1322 (51) was hanged after the battle at Pontefract.
Following the battle Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester 1291-1347 (31) and his wife Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester -1342 were both imprisoned. He in Nottingham Castle and she in Sempringham Priory.
John Clinton 2nd Baron Clinton 1300-1335 (22), Ralph Greystoke 1st Baron Greystoke 1299-1323 (22), William Latimer 2nd Baron Latimer Corby 1276-1327 (46), Robert Lisle 1st Baron Lisle 1288-1344 (34), Domhnall Mar II Earl Mar 1293- (29) and Peter Saltmarsh 1280-1338 (42) fought for the King.
Adam Everingham 1st Baron Everingham of Laxton 1279-1341 (43) was captured.
Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (46) was killed. His son John Bohun 5th Earl Hereford 4th Earl Essex 1307-1336 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Hereford 6C 1199, 4th Earl Essex 3C 1239.

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Despencer War Executions

On 23 Mar 1322 at York ...
Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford 1300-1322 (22) was hanged. His brother Robert Clifford 3rd Baron Clifford 1305-1344 (16) succeeded 3rd Baron Clifford.
John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray 1286-1322 (35) was hanged. He was buried at Fountains Abbey. His son John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray 1310-1361 (11) succeeded 3rd Baron Mowbray 1C 1283.

Battle of Boroughbridge

On 03 Mar 1323 Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle 1270-1323 (53) was hanged at Carlisle for having negotiated a truce with the Scots despite having successfuly defeated the rebels at the Battle of Boroughbridge a year before for which he was enobled by King Edward II of England (38).

On 27 Oct 1326 Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (65) was hanged at Bristol.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 12 How that sir Hugh Spencer the elder and the earl of Arundel were judged to death. WHEN the queen (31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle as near as they might. The queen (31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (65) the elder and the earl of Arundel (20) to be brought forth before Edward her son (13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that she and her son (13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (65) said, `Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment,1 and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth; wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (65). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?]. And after this execution the king (42) and the young Spencer (40), seeing themselves thus besieged in this mischief, and knew no comfort that might come to them, in a morning betimes they two with a small company entered into a little vessel behind the castle, thinking to have fled to the country of Wales. But they were eleven days in the ship, and enforced it to sail as much as they might; but whatsoever they did, the wind was every day so contrary to them by the will of God, that every day once or twice they were ever brought again within a quarter of a mile to the same castle. At the last it fortuned, sir Henry Beaumont (47), son to the viscount Beaumont (99) in England, entered into a barge and certain company with him, and spied this vessel and rowed after him so long that the ship wherein the kin (42) was could not flee fast before them, but finally they were overtaken, and so brought again to the town of Bristow and delivered to the queen (31) and her son (13) as prisoners. Thus it befell of this high and hardy enterprise of sir John of Hainault (38) and his company. For when they departed and entered into their ships at Dordrecht, they were but three hundred men of arms; and thus by their help and the lords in England, the queen Isabel conquered again all her estate and dignity, and put unto execution all her enemies, whereof all the most part of the realm were right joyous, without it were a few persons such as were favourable to sir Hugh Spencer (40) and of his part. And when the king (42) and sir Hugh Spencer (40) were brought to Bristow by the said sir Henry Beaumont, the king (42) was then sent by the counsel of all the barons and knights to the strong castle of Berkeley, and put under good keeping and honest, and there were ordained people of estate about him, such as knew right well what they ought to do; but they were straitly commanded that they should in no wise suffer him to pass out of the castle. And sir Hugh Spencer (40) was delivered to sir Thomas Wake (29), marshal of the host. And after that the queen (31) departed and all her host toward London, which was the chief city of England, and so rid forth on their journeys, and sir Thomas Wake (29) caused sir Hugh Spencer (40) to be fast bound on the least and leanest 2 horse of all the host, and caused him to wear on a tabard such as traitors and thieves were wont to wear.

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Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

On 24 Nov 1326 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1286-1326 (40) was hanged in Hereford. Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (31) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (39) were present.
He was dragged naked through the streets, for the crowd's mistreatment. He was made a spectacle, which included writing on his body biblical verses against the capital sins he was accused of. Then he was hanged as a mere commoner, yet released before full asphyxiation could happen.
He was then tied firmly to a ladder and his genitals sliced off and burned while he was still conscious. His entrails were slowly pulled out; finally, his heart was cut out and thrown into a fire. His body was beheaded and cut into four pieces. His head was mounted on the gates of London.

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (43) was hanged naked at Tyburn accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March 1328-1360 (2) succeeded 2nd Earl March 1C 1328, 4th Baron Mortimer Wigmore.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of Richard II King England 1367-1400 (21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.
Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.
Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle. He fled to Louvain where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.
On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian Chief Justice -1388 was hanged naked and his throat cut.
On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre Lord Mayor of London -1388 was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars.
On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley (46).
On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp 1319-1388 (69) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral.
Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (26) was attainted.

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Epiphany Rising

On 12 Jan 1400 Thomas Blount 1352-1400 (48) was hanged at Oxford by Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (45).

Battle of Shrewsbury

On 21 Jul 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36), with his son the future Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16), defeated the rebel army of Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39) at the Battle of Shrewsbury at the site now known as Battlefield Shrewsbury. Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16) took an arrow to the side of his face leaving him severely scarred. John Stanley 1350-1414 (53) was wounded in the throat. Thomas Strickland 1367-1455 (36) fought and was awarded £38 and two of the rebel Henry's horses. Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (21) fought for the King. Walter Blount 1348-1403 (55), the King's Standard Bearer, was killed by Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424 (31).
Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (59) and Edmund Cockayne 1356-1403 (47) were killed.
Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (25) was killed. His son Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 succeeded 6th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 7th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.
Hugh Shirley 1351-1403 (52) was killed; he was one of four knights dressed as Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).
Of the rebels, Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39), Madog Kynaston 1360-1403 (43) and John Clifton -1403 were killed. Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (60) was beheaded after the battle. Richard Vernon 1355-1403 (48) was hanged.
John Rossall -1403 was killed. His sister Eleanor Rossall 1377-1432 (26) inherited a half-share in the Rossall Shrewsbury estates.

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Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

In 1404 William Serle -1404 was hanged at Tyburn for having been one of the murderers of Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 05 Jan 1415. Ande that same yere, on the Twelfe the nyght, were a-restyd certayne personys, called Lollers, atte the sygne of the Ax, whithe owte Byschoppe ys gate, the whyche Lollers hadde caste to have made a mommynge at Eltham, and undyr coloure of the mommynge to have dystryte the kyng (28) and Hooly Chyrche. And they hadde ordaynyde to have hadde the fylde be-syde Syn Gylys. But, thonkyd be God Almyghty, owre kyng (28) hadde warnyng thereof, and he come unto London and toke the felde be syde Syn Jonys in Clerkynwelle; and as they come the kyng (28) toke them, and many othyr. And there was a knyght take that was namy[d] Syr Roger of Acton, and he was drawe and hanggyd be syde Syn Gyly, for the kynge let to be made iiij payre of galowys, the whiche that were i-callyd the Lollers galowys. Al so a preste that hyght Syr John Bevyrlay, and a squyer that hyght John Browne of Oldecastellys, they were hanggyd; and many moo were hanggyd and brent, to the nomber of xxxviij personys and moo.

Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

On 14 Dec 1417 John Oldcastle -1417 was hanged in St Giles' Field Holborn for being a Lollard.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 26 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462 (53) was hanged at Tower Hill. His son John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (19) succeeded 13th Earl Oxford 2C 1141.

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 and John Thursby -1477 were hanged at Myton Gallows Warwick.

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 were hanged at Tyburn for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503.
John Stacy -1477 and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire 1425-1477 were hanged.

Yorkshire Rebellion

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (40) was hanged at York by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax. On 28 Apr 1489 His son Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 8th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 16th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 7th Baron Poynings 1C 1337.
The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy 1459- (30) as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

In Dec 1489 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (11) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham -1530 were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham. The executors of her father Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (40), who had been hanged by rebels during the Northern Rebellion earlier in the year, having paid Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (32) £4000 for the privilege. His father, Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (35), had been hanged for treason in 1483.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 23 Nov 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) was hanged at Tyburn during the Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick.

Evil May Day Riots

On 30 Apr 1516 the Evil May Day Riots were a protest against foreigners living in London. Apprentices attacked foreign residents. Some of the rioters were later hanged.

On 05 Feb 1523 Agnes Cotell 1485-1523 (38) and William Mathewe were hanged at Tyburn for the murder of her first husband John Cotell -1518.

On 21 Apr 1529 John Throckmorton 1529-1556 was hanged at Tyburn.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 02 Jun 1537 Thomas Percy 1504-1537 (33), Francis Bigod 1507-1537 (29), and John Bulmer -1537 and Ralph Bulmer -1537 were hanged at Tyburn.

On 06 Jul 1537 Robert Constable 1478-1537 (59) was hanged in chains from the Beverley Gate in Kingston upon Hull witnessed by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk (64).

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske 1500-1537 (37) was hanged at York.
George aka William Lumley -1537 was hanged at Tyburn.
Nicholas Tempest 1480-1537 (57) was hanged at Tyburn.

In Aug 1540 Giles Heron 1504-1540 (36) was hanged at Tyburn for treason; not clear what his crime was?.

1541 Executions

On 29 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (26) was hanged at Tyburn. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate.

Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 with an inset portrait of husband Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541.

Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

On 10 Dec 1541. At Tyburn ....
Francis Dereham (28) was hanged.
Thomas Culpepper 1514-1541 (27) was beheaded. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 14 Feb 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The 14 of February divers of the rebells were putt to death, that is to saye, Bothe, one of the Queenes footemen, one Vicars, a Yeoman of the Garde, great John Norton, and one Kinge, were hanged at Charinge Crosse. And three of the rebells, one called Pollarde, were hanged at the parke pale by Hide Parke; three allso in Fleet street, one at Ludgate, one at Bishopsgate, one at Newgate, one at Aldgate, three at the Crosse in Cheape, three at Soper Lane ende in Chepe, and three in Smithfield, which persons hanged still all that daye and night tyll the next morninge, and then cutt downe.a And the bodies of them that were hanged at the gates were quartered at Newgate, and the heades and bodies hanged over the gates where they suffred.
a. The Grey Friares Chronicle (p. 88) adds "the whych ware of London that fled from the Dnke of Norfoke."

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The xiiij day of Feybruary wher hangyd at evere gatt and plasse : in Chepe-syd vj; Algatt j, quartered; at Leydynhall iij; at Bysshope-gatt on, and quartered; Morgatt one; Crepullgatt one; Aldersgatt on, quartered; Nuwgat on, quartered; Ludgatt on; Belyngat iij hangyd; Sant Magnus iij hangyd; Towre hyll ij. hangyd; Holborne iij hangyd; Flettstret iij hangyd; at Peper alley gat iij; Barunsaystret iij; Sant Gorgus iij; Charyng crosse iiij, on Boyth the fottman, and Vekars of the gard, and ij moo; at Hydparke corner iij, on Polard a waterbeyrar; theys iij hanges in chynes; and but vij quartered, and ther bodys and heds set a-pon the gattes of London.

On 07 Mar 1544 Thomas Larke Dean Martyr 1490-1544 (54) was hanged at Tyburn.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1554. 20 Sep 1544. The xx day of September was ij men dran of ij hyrdles unto Tyburne and un-to hangyng, the ij for qwynnyng [coining] of noythy [naughty] money, and deseyvyng of the quen('s) subjects; the one dwelt in London sum tym.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1554. 27 Sep 1544. The xxvij day of September wher iiij hangyd, on was a Spaneard, at Tyburne: ij wher goodly felows.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1551. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche was hangyd, in Smyth-feld, on John Mosbe and ys syster, for the death of a gentyll man of Feyversham, one M. Arden the custemer, and ys owne wyff was decaul.... and she was burnyd at Canturbery and her sarvand hangyd ther, and ij at Feyversham and on at Hospryng, and nodur in the he way to Canturbery, for the death of M. Arden of Feyversham. [and at Flusshyng was bernyd Blake Tome for the sam deth of M. Arden. [Note. This last line was added to the entry some time after it was written.]

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (51) was had from the Tower of London by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall, and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.
Note a. His judges were Northumberland (47), Northampton (39), Pembroke (50), and the other leading members of the government, — the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, — and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.
Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

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Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570.

Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 27 Jan 1552. The 27 of January Sir Raphe Vane, knight, was arraigned at Westminster, and condempned for felony, and had judgment to be hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 28 Jan 1552. The 28 of January Sir Thomas Arundell (50), knight, was arraigned at Westminster, and condempned for fellonie, and had judgment to be hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 05 Feb 1552. The 5 of February, Sir Myles Patriche, knight, was arraigned at Westminster and condempned for fellonie, and had judgment to be hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 09 Feb 1552. The 9 of February Sir Michaell Stanope (45), knight, was arraigned at Westminster and condempned for felonie, and had judgment to be hanged.

John Stow's Annales of England 1552. 26 Feb 1552. The 26. of February, Sir Ralph a Vane and Sir Miles Partridge were hanged on the tower hill, Sir Michael Stanhope (45) with Sir Thomas Arundel (50) were beheaded there: all which foure persons tooke on their death that thep never offended against the kings maiestie, nor against any of his counfell.

On 26 Feb 1552 Miles Partridge Courtier -1552 and Ralph Fane -1552 were hanged. Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) and Michael Stanhope 1507-1552 (45) were beheaded at Tower Hill for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (48).
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1552. 02 May 1552. The ij day of May was a proclamasyon for haledaye[s and] fastyng days to be observyd and kept, and alle othur fe[asts;] and for korears and lethers sellers and tynkares, and pe[dlars.]
The sam day was hangyd at Tyborne ix fello[ns.]

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1552. 11 Jul 1552. The xj day of July hangyd one James Ellys, the grett pykke purs that ever was, and cutt-purs, and vij more for theyfft, at Tyburne.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1552. 21 Dec 1552. The xxj day of Desember rod to Tyborne to be hangyd for a robery done on Honsley heth, iij talmen and a lake.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1553. 03 Jan 1553. [Note. Probably February] The iij day of January was cared from the Marshalleshe unto saynt Thomas of Wateryng a talman, and whent thedur with the rope a-bowt ys neke, and so he hangyd a whylle, and the rope burst, and a whylle after and then th[ey went f] or a-nodur rope, and so lyke-wyss he burst yt [and fell] to the grond, and so he skapyd with ys lyffe.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1553. 25 Apr 1553. The xxv day of Aprell wher hangyd at saynt T[homas] of Wateryng, of saynt Marke day, vj feylons; iiij [were] hangyd with ij altars [halters] a-pese, and the ij wher pore (?) with one.
[Having discontinued his diary during May, and left half a page blank, Machyn subsequently inserted this memorandum: "The stylle that ys sett forth by owre nuw kyng Phelype and Mare by the grace of God kyng and quene of England, Franse, Napuls, Jerusalem, and Ierland, deffenders of the fayth, and prynsses of Spayne and Ses[ily,] archesdukes of Austherege, dukes of Melayn, Burgundye, and Brabantt, contes of Haspurge, Flandurs, and Tyrole."

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche, iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall, one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill, ii at Tyburne, and at 4 places in Sowthwerke 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston and other places.
Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.
Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (18) and her husband (19), the Duke of Suffolk's (37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (27) has been sent back to the Tower, where are also the Duke of Suffolk (37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey -1554 and John Grey 1524-1564 (30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.
They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.
Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.
Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.

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Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554.Around 1555. Attributed Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564 of the English School. Portrait of Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 20 Feb 1554. The sam day was Mans gohyng in-to-Kent, to Canboroke, and fochyd a-gayn, and browth to sant Gorgeus cyrche, and ther he was hangyd by iiij of the cloke at nyght, for he was a ryche man.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1554. 26 Oct 1554. The xxvj day of October was hangyd at Charynge-crosse a Spaneard that kyld a servant of ser Gorge Gefford, the wyche was slayne with-owt Tempull-bare.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 18 Jan 1555. The xviij day of January wher hangyd at Tyborne ij men and iiij women.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1556. 07 Mar 1555. The vij day of Marche was hangyd at Tyborne x theyffes for robere and odur thynges.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1555. 26 Apr 1555. The xxvj day of Aprell was cared from the Marselsee in a care thrugh London unto Charyng-crosse to the galows, and ther hangyd, iij men for robyng of serten Spaneardes of tresur of gold owt of the abbay of Vestmynster.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1555. 06 Jul 1555. The vj day of July rod to Tyburne to be hangyd iij men, and on drane [drawn] upon a hyrdyll unto Tyburne for qwynnyng [coining] of money.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1555. 28 Oct 1555. The xxviij day of October in the mornyng was set up in Fletstrett, be-syd the well, a payre of galaus, and ij men hangyd, for the robere of a Spaneard, (and they were) hangyng aganst the Spaneardes gate be-tyme in the mornyng, and so hangyng alle the day in the rayne.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1556. 27 Mar 1556. The xxvij day of Marche was hangyd be-yonde Huntyngtun in cheynes [chains] on Spenser, for the deth of master Rufford of Bokyngham-shyre, by ys fellow Conears hangys.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1556. 07 Jul 1556. The vij day of July was hangyd on the galaus on Towre-hylle for tresun a-gaynst the quen, on master Hare Peckham, and the thodur master John Daneell, and after cutt downe and heded, and ther hedes cared unto Londune bryge and ther sett up, and ther bodys bered at Allalows-barkyng.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1556. 08 Jul 1556. The viij day of Julii was on of the laborars of Bryd-welle for brykyng upon of a chest was hangyd in the mydes of the furst courtt apon a jubett.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1556. 31 Jul 1556. The xxxj day of July was raynyd at the Yeld-halle .... robars of the see a vj, and the morow after thay wher hangyd at Wapyng at the low-water marke.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1556. 30 Oct 1556. The xxx day of October was hanged at the [palace gate] at sant James iiij men for robyng [at the] courte of one of the quen('s) maydes, and ij for robyng [of the] knyght marshall('s) servandes.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell hangyd at Tyborne viij f ....

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell was hangyd at the low-water marke at Wapyng be-yond santt Katheryns vij for robyng on the see.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1560. 12 Jan 1560. The sam day was sessyons at Nuwgatt, and ther ... wher cast xij, and vj was bornyd in ther hand, and the .... was iij [3] cared to Tyburne, and ther hangyd, and on [one] rep[rieved].

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1560. 08 Mar 1560. The sam day of Marche [rode to hanging] xj; vij wer men, and iiij women; on woman the sam woman that kyllyd the man in Turnagayne lane; and on man was a gentyllman; and a-nodur [a priest,] for cuttyng of a purse of iij s. but he was [burnt] in the hand afore, or elles ys boke [Note. A reference to the 'benefit of clergy' by which he would have been judged in an ecclesiatical court.] would have [saved] hym,—a man of liiij [54] yere old.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1560. 29 Apr 1560. The xxix day of Aprell whent to hangyng ix men and one woman to Tyburne.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1561. 20 Apr 1561. The XX day of Aprell begane at xij of the cloke at none the grettest thondur, lyghtenyng and gretest rayne, and the grett halle-stones as has bene sene.
The sam day wher ij hangyd at Wapyng, ij for robyng of the see.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1561. 21 Apr 1561. The xxj day of Aprell wher hangyd ix, at Hyd parke korner iij, and vj at Tyborne.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1562. 27 Jun 1562. The xxvij day of June whent to Tyburne v men and iiij women for to hange for thefte.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1562. 10 Aug 1562. The x day of August was drane from .... unto Tyborne Phelype Furney gold-smyth d[welling in] sant Barthelmuwe in Smythfeld for cowyning [coining], and hangyd after, and (blank) Walker was cared in a care to Tyburne, and hangyd for robere.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1563. 08 Mar 1563. The viij day of Marche wher hangyd at Tyburne x men; [one] was Brutun, and (blank) after browth bake to sant Pulkurs ther to be bered, and ther master Veron the vecar mad a sermon for them.

Babington Plot

On 20 Sep 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24), John Ballard -1586, Henry Donn -1586, Thomas Salusbury 1564-1586 (22) and Chideock Tichbourne 1562-1586 (24) were hanged at St Giles' Field Holborn for their involvement.

On 14 Feb 1601 Thomas Lee 1551-1601 (50) was hanged at Tyburn.

In 1594 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Thomas Lee 1551-1601.

On 03 May 1606 Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50) was hanged in St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard.

On 29 Jun 1612 Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612 was hanged in Westminster Palace Yard for having arranged the murder of his fencing Master John Painter Turner who had previously disfigured him during practice. At his trial Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (51) read the charges.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time.In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 20 Nov 1616 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (55) was hanged at Tower Hill. He gave a speech to the crowd ...
... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman (35), making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.
Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill, rather than in the place of common Execution, where every base Malefactor dyeth.
Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.
It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.
My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. (35) trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.
And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.
I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.
I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.
The summe of his Prayer.
O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.
Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.
After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.
Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any vnrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.

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Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634.1593. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634.Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter.In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

1533 Buggery Act

On 05 Dec 1640 John Atherton Bishop 1598-1640 (42) was hanged at St Stephen's Green for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act a law he had pushed for in Ireland.

Battle of Carbisdale

On 21 May 1650 James Graham 1st Marquess Montrose 1612-1650 (37) was hanged at Edinburgh following his capture at the Battle of Carbisdale. His body was dismembered following his death. His son James Graham 2nd Marquess Montrose 1631-1669 (19) succeeded 2nd Marquess Montrose.

In 1660 John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697 (34) was imprisoned for supporting James Guthrie the Scottish Presbyterian minister who was exempted from the general pardon at the restoration of the monarchy and hanged in Edinburgh 01 Jun 1661.

Around 1728 William Aikman Painter 1682-1731. Portrait of John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 February 1660. 18 Feb 1660. Saturday. A great while at my vial and voice, learning to sing "Fly boy, fly boy", without book. So to my office, where little to do. In the Hall I met with Mr. Eglin and one Looker, a famous gardener, servant to my Lord Salsbury (68), and among other things the gardener told a strange passage in good earnest.... Home to dinner, and then went to my Lord's lodgings to my turret there and took away most of my books, and sent them home by my maid. Thither came Capt. Holland to me who took me to the Half Moon tavern and Mr. Southorne, Blackburne's clerk. Thence he took me to the Mitre in Fleet Street, where we heard (in a room over the music room) very plainly through the ceiling. Here we parted and I to Mr. Wotton's, and with him to an alehouse and drank while he told me a great many stories of comedies that he had formerly seen acted, and the names of the principal actors, and gave me a very good account of it. Thence to Whitehall, where I met with Luellin and in the clerk's chamber wrote a letter to my Lord. So home and to bed. This day two soldiers were hanged in the Strand for their late mutiny at Somerset-house.

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn ...
Daniel Axtell Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall.
Francis Hacker Regicide -1660 was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 November 1660. 06 Nov 1660. In the morning with Sir W. Batten (59) and Pen (39) by water to Westminster, where at my Lord's I met with Mr. Creed. With him to see my Lord's picture (now almost done), and thence to Westminster Hall, where we found the Parliament met to-day, and thence meeting with Mr. Chetwind, I took them to the Sun, and did give them a barrel of oysters, and had good discourse; among other things Mr. Chetwind told me how he did fear that this late business of the Duke of York's (27) would prove fatal to my Lord Chancellor (51). From thence Mr. Creed and I to Wilkinson's, and dined together, and in great haste thence to our office, where we met all, for the sale of two ships by an inch of candle1 (the first time that ever I saw any of this kind), where I observed how they do invite one another, and at last how they all do cry, [To cry was to bid.] and we have much to do to tell who did cry last. The ships were the Indian, sold for £1,300, and the Half-moon, sold for £830. Home, and fell a-reading of the tryalls of the late men that were hanged for the King's death, and found good satisfaction in reading thereof. !At night to bed, and my wife and I did fall out about the dog's being put down into the cellar, which I had a mind to have done because of his fouling the house, and I would have my will, and so we went to bed and lay all night in a quarrel. This night I was troubled all night with a dream that my wife was dead, which made me that I slept ill all night.
Note 1. The old-fashioned custom of sale by auction by inch of candle was continued in sales by the Admiralty to a somewhat late date. See September 3rd, 1662.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 December 1660. 04 Dec 1660. To Whitehall to Sir G. Carteret's (50) chamber, where all the officers met, and so we went up to the Duke of York (27), and he took us into his closet, and we did open to him our project of stopping the growing charge of the fleet by paying them in hand one moyety, and the other four months hence. This he do like, and we returned by his order to Sir G. Carteret's (50) chamber, and there we did draw up this design in order to be presented to the Parliament.
From thence I to my Lord's, and dined with him and told him what we had done to-day. Sir Tho. Crew (36) dined with my Lord to-day, and we were very merry with Mrs. Borfett, who dined there still as she has always done lately. After dinner Sir Tho. (36) and my Lady to the Playhouse to see "The Silent Woman". I home by water, and with Mr. Hater in my chamber all alone he and I did put this morning's design into order, which being done I did carry it to Sir W. Batten (59), where I found some gentlemen with him (Sir W. Pen (39) among the rest pretty merry with drink) playing at cards, and there I staid looking upon them till one o'clock in the morning, and so Sir W. Pen (39) and I went away, and I to bed. This day the Parliament voted that the bodies of Oliver (61), Ireton (49), Bradshaw (58), &c., should be taken up out of their graves in the Abbey, and drawn to the gallows, and there hanged and buried under it: which (methinks) do trouble me that a man of so great courage as he was, should have that dishonour, though otherwise he might deserve it enough.

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Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 January 1661. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.
Where we walked up and down, and at last found Sir G. Carteret (51), whom I had not seen a great while, and did discourse with him about our assisting the Commissioners in paying off the Fleet, which we think to decline. Here the Treasurer did tell me that he did suspect Thos. Hater to be an informer of them in this work, which we do take to be a diminution of us, which do trouble me, and I do intend to find out the truth.
Hence to my Lady, who told me how Mr. Hetley is dead of the smallpox going to Portsmouth with my Lord. My Lady went forth to dinner to her father's, and so I went to the Leg in King Street and had a rabbit for myself and my Will, and after dinner I sent him home and myself went to the Theatre, where I saw "The Lost Lady", which do not please me much. Here I was troubled to be seen by four of our office clerks, which sat in the half-crown box and I in the 1s. 6d.
From thence by link, and bought two mouse traps of Thomas Pepys, the Turner, and so went and drank a cup of ale with him, and so home and wrote by post to Portsmouth to my Lord and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 January 1661. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (60), the Comptroller (50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 January 1661. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (63) and thence to the Theatre, where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.
He do still continue his expressions of respect and love to me, and tells me my brother John (20) will make a good scholar. Thence to see the Doctor at his lodging at Mr. Holden's, where I bought a hat, cost me 35s. So home by moonshine, and by the way was overtaken by the Comptroller's (50) coach, and so home to his house with him. So home and to bed. This noon I had my press set up in my chamber for papers to be put in.
Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn, and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".—Rugge's Diurnal.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 January 1661. 30 Jan 1661. Fast Day. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon "Lord forgive us our former iniquities;" speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors. Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him £30 for my Lady, and after that Sir W. Pen (39) and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.
Back to the Old James in Bishopsgate Street, where Sir W. Batten (60) and Sir Wm. Rider met him about business of the Trinity House.
So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John (20), a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion. Then to my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn. Then I home1.
Note 1. "Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn, and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails".—Rugge's Diurnal.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1662. 31 Dec 1662. Lay pretty long in bed, and then I up and to Westminster Hall, and so to the Swan, sending for Mr. W. Bowyer, and there drank my morning draft, and had some of his simple discourse. Among other things he tells me how the difference comes between his fair cozen Butler and Collonell Dillon (35), upon his opening letters of her brother's from Ireland, complaining of his knavery, and forging others to the contrary; and so they are long ago quite broke off.
Thence to a barber's and so to my wife, and at noon took her to Mrs. Pierces by invitacion to dinner, where there came Dr. Clerke and his wife and sister and Mr. Knight, chief chyrurgeon to the King (32) and his wife. We were pretty merry, the two men being excellent company, but I confess I am wedded from the opinion either of Mrs. Pierces beauty upon discovery of her naked neck to-day, being undrest when we came in, or of Mrs. Clerke's genius, which I so much admired, I finding her to be so conceited and fantastique in her dress this day and carriage, though the truth is, witty enough.
After dinner with much ado the doctor and I got away to follow our business for a while, he to his patients and I to the Tangier Committee, where the Duke of York (29) was, and we staid at it a good while, and thence in order to the despatch of the boats and provisions for Tangier away, Mr. Povy (48), in his coach, carried Mr. Gauden and I into London to Mr. Bland's, the merchant, where we staid discoursing upon the reason of the delay of the going away of these things a great while. Then to eat a dish of anchovies, and drink wine and syder, and very merry, but above all things pleased to hear Mrs. Bland talk like a merchant in her husband's business very well, and it seems she do understand it and perform a great deal.
Thence merry back, Mr. Povy (48) and, I to White Hall; he carrying me thither on purpose to carry me into the ball this night before the King (32). All the way he talking very ingenuously, and I find him a fine gentleman, and one that loves to live nobly and neatly, as I perceive by his discourse of his house, pictures, and horses. He brought me first to the Duke's chamber, where I saw him and the Duchess at supper; and thence into the room where the ball was to be, crammed with fine ladies, the greatest of the Court.
By and by comes the King (32) and Queen (24), the Duke and Duchess, and all the great ones: and after seating themselves, the King (32) takes out the Duchess of York (25); and the Duke, the Duchess of Buckingham; the Duke of Monmouth (13), my Baroness Castlemaine's (22); and so other lords other ladies: and they danced the Bransle1.
After that, the King (32) led a lady a single Coranto [swift and lively] and then the rest of the lords, one after another, other ladies very noble it was, and great pleasure to see. Then to country dances; the King (32) leading the first, which he called for; which was, says he, "Cuckolds all awry", the old dance of England. Of the ladies that danced, the Duke of Monmouth's (13) mistress, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), and a daughter of Sir Harry de Vicke's, were the best. The manner was, when the King (32) dances, all the ladies in the room, and the Queen (24) herself, stand up: and indeed he dances rarely, and much better that the Duke of York (29). Having staid here as long as I thought fit, to my infinite content, it being the greatest pleasure I could wish now to see at Court, I went out, leaving them dancing, and to Mrs. Pierce's, where I found the company had staid very long for my coming, but all gone but my wife, and so I took her home by coach and so to my Lord's again, where after some supper to bed, very weary and in a little pain from my riding a little uneasily to-night in the coach.

Thus ends this year with great mirth to me and my wife: Our condition being thus:—we are at present spending a night or two at my Lord's lodgings at White Hall. Our home at the Navy-office, which is and hath a pretty while been in good condition, finished and made very convenient. My purse is worth about £650, besides my goods of all sorts, which yet might have been more but for my late layings out upon my house and public assessment, and yet would not have been so much if I had not lived a very orderly life all this year by virtue of the oaths that God put into my heart to take against wine, plays, and other expenses, and to observe for these last twelve months, and which I am now going to renew, I under God owing my present content thereunto. My family is myself and wife, William, my clerk; Jane, my wife's upper mayde, but, I think, growing proud and negligent upon it: we must part, which troubles me; Susan, our cook-mayde, a pretty willing wench, but no good cook; and Wayneman, my boy, who I am now turning away for his naughty tricks. We have had from the beginning our healths to this day very well, blessed be God! Our late mayde Sarah going from us (though put away by us) to live with Sir W. Pen (41) do trouble me, though I love the wench, so that we do make ourselves a little strange to him and his family for it, and resolve to do so. The same we are for other reasons to my Lady Batten and hers. We have lately had it in our thoughts, and I can hardly bring myself off of it, since Mrs. Gosnell cannot be with us, to find out another to be in the quality of a woman to my wife that can sing or dance, and yet finding it hard to save anything at the year's end as I now live, I think I shall not be such a fool till I am more warm in my purse, besides my oath of entering into no such expenses till I am worth £1000. By my last year's diligence in my office, blessed be God! I am come to a good degree of knowledge therein; and am acknowledged so by all—the world, even the Duke himself, to whom I have a good access and by that, and my being Commissioner with him for Tangier, he takes much notice of me; and I doubt not but, by the continuance of the same endeavours, I shall in a little time come to be a man much taken notice of in the world, specially being come to so great an esteem with Mr. Coventry (34). The only weight that lies heavy upon my mind is the ending the business with my uncle Thomas about my-dead uncle's estate, which is very ill on our side, and I fear when all is done I must be forced to maintain my father myself, or spare a good deal towards it out of my own purse, which will be a very great pull back to me in my fortune. But I must be contented and bring it to an issue one way or other. Publique matters stand thus: the King (32) is bringing, as is said, his family, and Navy, and all other his charges, to a less expence. In the mean time, himself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) being publique, every day, to his great reproach; and his favouring of none at Court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet (44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (32); which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth (13) is in so great splendour at Court, and so dandled by the King (32), that some doubt, if the King (32) should have no child by the Queen (24) (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow upon it between the Duke of York (29) and him; which God prevent! My Chancellor (53) is threatened by people to be questioned, the next sitting of the Parliament, by some spirits that do not love to see him so great: but certainly he is a good servant to the King (32). The Queen-Mother (53) is said to keep too great a Court now; and her being married to my Lord St. Albans (57) is commonly talked of; and that they had a daughter between them in France, how true, God knows. The Bishopps are high, and go on without any diffidence in pressing uniformity; and the Presbyters seem silent in it, and either conform or lay down, though without doubt they expect a turn, and would be glad these endeavours of the other Fanatiques would take effect; there having been a plot lately found, for which four have been publickly tried at the Old Bayley and hanged. My Lord Sandwich (37) is still in good esteem, and now keeping his Christmas in the country; and I in good esteem, I think, as any man can be, with him. Mr. Moore is very sickly, and I doubt will hardly get over his late fit of sickness, that still hangs on him. In fine, for the good condition of myself, wife, family, and estate, in the great degree that it is, and for the public state of the nation, so quiett as it is, the Lord God be praised!
Note 1. Branle. Espece de danse de plusieurs personnes, qui se tiennent par la main, et qui se menent tour-a-tour. "Dictionnaire de l'Academie. A country dance mentioned by Shakespeare and other dramatists under the form of brawl, which word continued to be used in the eighteenth century. "My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls; The seals and maces danced before him". Gray, 'A Long Story.'

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On 21 Jan 1664 Colonel James Turner 1609-1664 (55) was hanged at St Mary Axe.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 13 Nov 1664. 13 Nov 1664. 93. Wm. Coventry (36) to [Sec. Bennet (46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King’s pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to ‘take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King’s ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (49) and Sir Wm. Berkeley to his own, Mennes (65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert’s (44), Sir George Aiscue (48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King’s declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

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Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685.Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray.Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral George Ayscue 1616-1672. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

On 22 Jan 1673 Mary Moders 1642-1673 (31) was hanged at Tyburn.

In 1691 John Ashton Jacobite -1691 was hanged at Tyburn.

In 1692 Andrew Clench -1692 was murdered between nine and eleven o'clock on the night of Monday by Henry Harrison who was subequently convicted of the murder. On 15 Apr 1692 Henry Harrison -1692 was hanged.

On 06 Apr 1752, Easter Monday, Mary Blandy 1720-1752 (32) was hanged outside Oxford Castle for having murdered her father Francis Blandy -1752 with arsenic.

Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

On 05 May 1760 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers 1720-1760 (39) was hanged at Tyburn (the last peer to be hanged) for having shot his old family steward. His estates were forfeited however in 1763 King George III (21) granted the title Earl Ferrers and the family estates to his brother Washington Shirley 5th Earl Ferrers 1722-1778 (37).

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III.In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III.In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III.In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III.Around 1768. Nathaniel Dance Holland Painter 1735-1811. Portrait of King George III.In 1804. Samuel Woodford Painter 1763-1817. Portrait of King George III.Around 1800. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839. Portrait of King George III.Around 1762. Allan Ramsay Painter 1713-1784. Portrait of King George III.In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of King George III.

On 12 Jun 1786 George Robert "Fighting Fitzgerald" Fitzgerald 1748-1786 (38) was hanged for conspiracy to murder Patrick Randall McDonnell an attorney who had acted for his father in their legal disputes, and with whom in consequence he had a longstanding feud at Castlebar, County Mayo.

1533 Buggery Act

In 1810 two men were hanged and six pilloried, known as the Vere Street Coterie, for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act. The The club had been operating for less than six months.

On 08 Jul 1810 the Bow Street police raided the White Swan on Vere Street in London that had been established as a molly-house in early 1810 by two men, James Cook and Yardley. Twenty-seven men were arrested, but the majority of them were released (perhaps as a result of bribe); eight were tried and convicted. On 27 Sep 1810 six men were pilloried at the Haymarket. On 07 Mar 1811 John Hepburn (46) and Thomas White (16), a drummer boy, were hanged at Newgate Prison despite not being present on the night of the raid.

On 27 Nov 1835 James Pratt 1805-1835 and John Smith 1795-1835 were the last two men to be executed under the 1828 Offences Against the Person Act which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act. They were hanged in front of Newgate Prison.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 March 1646. Having packed up my purchases of books, pictures, casts, treacle, etc. (the making an extraordinary ceremony whereof I had been curious to observe, for it is extremely pompous and worth seeing), I departed from Venice, accompanied with Mr. Waller (the celebrated poet), now newly gotten out of England, after the Parliament had extremely worried him for attempting to put in execution the commission of Array, and for which the rest of his colleagues were hanged by the rebels.
The next day, I took leave of my comrades at Padua, and receiving some directions from Dr. Salvatico as to the care of my health, I prepared for my journey toward Milan.
It was Easter-Monday that I was invited to breakfast at the Earl of Arundel's. I took my leave of him in his bed, where I left that great and excellent man in tears on some private discourse of crosses that had befallen his illustrious family, particularly the undutifulness of his grandson Philip turning Dominican Friar (since Cardinal of Norfolk), and the misery of his country now embroiled in civil war. He caused his gentleman to give me directions, all written with his own hand, what curiosities I should inquire after in my journey; and, so enjoining me to write sometimes to him, I departed. There stayed for me below, Mr. Henry Howard (afterward Duke of Norfolk), Mr. J. Digby, son of Sir Kenelm Digby, and other gentlemen, who conducted me to the coach.

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Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower, Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London. See Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused.

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