Biography of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

1605 New Years Honours

1610 Prince Henry invested as Prince of Wales and Earl Chester

1610 Tethy's Festival Masque

1612 Death of Prince Frederick

1613 Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1619 Funeral of Anne of Denmark

1625 Death of James I

1649 Execution of Charles I

On 23 Nov 1589 [her father] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (23) and Anne of Denmark (14) were married at Bishop's Palace. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Anne of Denmark. 1595. Circle of Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of Anne of Denmark.

On 19 Aug 1596 Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 was born to [her father] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (30) and Anne of Denmark (21) at Falkland Palace, Falkland, Fife.

On 28 Nov 1596 Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 was christened at Chapel Royal, Holyrood House, Holyrood.

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [her brother] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. [her brother] He was created Duke Albany 4C 1600.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

In 1603 Anne Keilway Baroness Harington 1554-1620 (49) and her daughter Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627 (23) travelled to Scotland to gain favour with the new Queen [her mother] Anne of Denmark (28). She was subsequently appointed Lady of the Bedchamber and governess to Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (6).

Around 1606 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. 1612. Studio of Isaac Oliver Painter 1565-1617. Miniature Portrait of (probably) Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford 1580-1627. Oliver painted the woman's pearl earrings using Nicholas Hilliard's jewelling technique, which involved laying a raised blob of white lead paint with some shadowing to one side. This form was then crowned with a rounded touch of real silver that was burnished with, to quote Hilliard,

Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (69) died at Richmond Palace around three in the morning.

[her father] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of Mary Queen of Scots (60) who was the daughter of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform [her father] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 24 Mar 1603 [her brother] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 (9) was created as Duke Cornwall.

Before 1619 Robert After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales who died on 07 Feb 1612.

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [her brother] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York 4C 1605 and Knight of the Bath by his father King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38)

Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset 1579-1651 (26) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

In 1610 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (59). Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (13).

Prince Henry invested as Prince of Wales and Earl Chester

On 01 Jun 1610 [her brother] Prince Frederick (16) was created Prince of Wales and Earl Chester 10C 1610. Peregrine Bertie 1584-1639 (26) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Tethy's Festival Masque

On 05 Jun 1610 the Tethy's Festival Masque was performed at Whitehall Palace to celebrate the the investiture of [her brother] Prince Frederick (16) as Prince of Wales. The script was written by Samuel Daniel at the request of the Queen (35), who appeared in person as Tethys a goddess of the sea. Inigo Jones Architect 1573-1652 (36) designed the staging and scenery.

[her brother] Prince Charles (9) took the part of Zephyrus,.

Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (13) appeared as the companion or daughter of Tethys, the "Nymph of Thames",.

Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) took the part of the "Nymph of Trent",.

Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk 1585-1654 (25) as "Nymph of Arun".

Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (34) as "Nymph of Derwent",.

Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 (20) as "Nymph of Lee",.

Anne Clifford Countess Dorset and Pembroke 1590-1676 (20) as "Nymph of Air",.

Susan Vere Countess Montgomery 1587-1628 (23) as "Nymph of Severn",.

Elizabeth Radclyffe Viscountess Haddington -1618 as "Nymph of Rother",.

Elizabeth Talbot Countess Kent 1582-1651 (28) as "Nymph of Medway",.

Four sisters, daughters of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (60) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess Worcester 1546-1621 (64), danced as the rivers of Monmouthshire:

Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (35) the "Nymph of Usk".

Katherine Somerset Baroness Petre 1575-1625 (35) the "Nymph of Olwy".

Elizabeth Somerset 1590-1625 (20) the "Nymph of Dulesse" (Dulas), and.

Mary Wintour the "Nymph of Wye".

Around 1644. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Inigo Jones Architect 1573-1652. Around 1757 William Hogarth Painter 1697-1764. Portrait of Inigo Jones Architect 1573-1652. The portrait was commissioned by Edward Littleton MP 4th Baronet Pillaton Hall 1727-1812 when he was refurbishing his house Teddesley Hall. In 1605 Robert Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632. Around 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Anne Clifford Countess Dorset and Pembroke 1590-1676. In 1621 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628.

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After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (15). Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother [her brother] Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (17) who died on 07 Feb 1612.

Death of Prince Frederick

On 06 Nov 1612 [her brother] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 (18) died. The death of the heir to the throne significant; compare William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy 1103-1120, Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376, Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502, Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751, perhaps Edward York Prince of Wales 1473-1484.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. In 1750 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751. In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751.

Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

On 14 Feb 1613 [her husband] Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (16) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (16) were married at Chapel Royal Whitehall Palace. She a daughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

A grand occasion that saw more royalty than ever visit the court of England. The marriage was an enormously popular match and was the occasion for an outpouring of public affection with the ceremony described as "a wonder of ceremonial and magnificence even for that extravagant age".

It was celebrated with lavish and sophisticated festivities both in London and Heidelberg, including mass feasts and lavish furnishings that cost nearly £50,000, and nearly bankrupted King James. Among many celebratory writings of the events was John Donne's (41) "Epithalamion, Or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St Valentine's Day".

Around 1630 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632. In 1635 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632.

After 20 Feb 1613 [her husband] Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 commenced their journey to his home at Heidelburg. They visited Prince Maurice I of Orange 1567-1625. They arrived in Heidelburg on 12 Jun 1613 amidst widespread celebration.

John Harington 1st Baron Harington 1540-1613 (73) and Anne Keilway Baroness Harington 1554-1620 (59)

Sisters Elizabeth Apsley -1626 and Alice Apsley travelled as Maids of Honour to Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (16).

Before 27 Jun 1641 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of Prince Maurice I of Orange 1567-1625. Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of John Harington 1st Baron Harington 1540-1613.

On 01 Jan 1614 [her son] Frederick Henry Palatinate Simmern 1614-1629 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (17) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (17). He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [her brother] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.

James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (11), brothers Robert Howard 1584-1653 (32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley 1601-1658 (15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (41) and John Cavendish -1618 were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633.

On 22 Sep 1617 [her son] Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern 1617-1680 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (21) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (21) at Heidelburg. He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern 1617-1680.

On 26 Dec 1618 [her daughter] Elisabeth Palatinate Simmern 1618-1680 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (22) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (22). She a granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Elisabeth Palatinate Simmern 1618-1680.

On 02 Mar 1619 [her mother] Anne of Denmark (44) died.

Funeral of Anne of Denmark

On 04 Nov 1619 [her husband] Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (23) was crowned King Bohemia. Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (23) crowned Queen Consort Bohemia.

On 17 Dec 1619 [her son] Prince Rupert was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (23) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (23) at Prague. He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert.

In 1620 Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton 1596-1652 (23) and William Waller 1597-1668 (23) were members of the personal bodyguard for Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (23).

On 16 Jan 1621 [her son] Maurice Palatinate Simmern 1621-1652 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (24) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (24). He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1622 [her daughter] Louise Hollandine Palatinate Simmern 1622-1709 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (25) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (25). She a granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1650 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Louise Hollandine Palatinate Simmern 1622-1709.

In 1623 [her son] Louis Palatinate Simmern 1623-1624 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (26) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (26). He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 [her father] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.

On 05 Oct 1625 [her son] Edward Palatinate Simmern 1625-1663 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (29) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (29) at The Hague. He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Edward Palatinate Simmern 1625-1663.

In 1626 [her daughter] Henriette Marie Palatinate Simmern 1626-1651 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (29) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (29). She a granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Before 1651 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Henriette Marie Palatinate Simmern 1626-1651.

In 1627 [her son] Philip Frederick Palatinate Simmern 1627-1650 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (30) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (30). He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1628 [her daughter] Charlotte Palatinate Simmern 1628-1631 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (31) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (31). She a granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

On 29 May 1630 [her nephew] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. [her nephew] He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 14 Oct 1630 [her daughter] Sophia Palatinate Simmern 1630-1714 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (34) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (34). She a granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1651 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Sophia Palatinate Simmern 1630-1714.

In 1632 [her son] Gustavus Palatinate Simmern 1632-1641 was born to Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (35) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (35). He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

On 29 Nov 1632 [her husband] Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (36) died.

On 14 Oct 1633 [her nephew] King James II was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace. [her nephew] He was created 1st Duke York 5C 1633 at birth by his father.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

On 02 May 1641 William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and [her niece] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married. She a daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. Around 1658 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 May 1641. 27 May 1641. Arrived at Hague, I went first to the Queen of Bohemia's (44) Court, where I had the honour to kiss her Majesty's (44) hand, and several of the Princesses' her daughters. [her son] Prince Maurice (20) was also there, newly come out of Germany, and my Lord Finch (19), not long before fled out of England from the fury of the Parliament. It was a fasting-day with the Queen for the unfortunate death of her husband (44), and the presence-chamber had been hung with black velvet ever since his decease.

In 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Heneage Finch 1st Earl Nottingham 1621-1682.

In 1642 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656 (49). Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (45).

In 1644 [her son] Prince Rupert (24) was created 1st Duke Cumberland 1C 1644, 1st Earl Holderness 2C 1644 by his uncle King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (43).

On 24 Apr 1645 [her son] Edward Palatinate Simmern 1625-1663 (19) and Anne Marie Gonzaga 1616-1684 (29) were married. He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [her brother] Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

On 22 Feb 1650 [her son] Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern 1617-1680 (32) and Charlotte Hesse Kassel 1627-1686 (22) were married. He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

On 14 Apr 1657 [her son] Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern 1617-1680 (39) and Charlotte Hesse Kassel 1627-1686 (29) were divorced.

On 06 Jan 1658 [her son] Charles Louis Palatinate Simmern 1617-1680 (40) and Maria Susanne Luise von Degenfeld 1634-1677 (23) were married morganatically He a grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. She had previously been his mistress. As a result of the marriage being morganatic their children were excluded from the succession.

On 30 Sep 1658 [her son-in-law] Ernest Augustus Hanover Elector Brunswick Lüneburg 1629-1698 (28) and Sophia Palatinate Simmern 1630-1714 (27) were married. She a granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

On 13 May 1659 [her nephew] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 4C 1659, 1st Earl Cambridge 5C 1659 by his father King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (58).

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1660. 14 May 1660. In the morning when I woke and rose, I saw myself out of the scuttle close by the shore, which afterwards I was told to be the Dutch shore; the Hague was clearly to be seen by us. My Lord went up in his nightgown into the cuddy1, to see how to dispose thereof for himself and us that belong to him, to give order for our removal to-day. Some nasty Dutchmen came on board to proffer their boats to carry things from us on shore, &c., to get money by us. Before noon some gentlemen came on board from the shore to kiss my Lord's hands. And by and by Mr. North (24) and Dr. Clerke went to kiss the Queen of Bohemia's' hands, from my Lord, with twelve attendants from on board to wait on them, among which I sent my boy, who, like myself, is with child to see any strange thing. After noon they came back again after having kissed the Queen of Bohemia's (63) hand, and were sent again by my Lord to do the same to the Prince of Orange (9)2.

So I got the Captain to ask leave for me to go, which my Lord did give, and I taking my boy and judge Advocate with me, went in company with them. The weather bad; we were sadly washed when we came near the shore, it being very hard to land there. The shore is, as all the country between that and the Hague, all sand. The rest of the company got a coach by themselves; Mr. Creed and I went in the fore part of a coach wherein were two very pretty ladies, very fashionable and with black patches, who very merrily sang all the way and that very well, and were very free to kiss the two blades that were with them. I took out my flageolette and piped, but in piping I dropped my rapier-stick, but when I came to the Hague, I sent my boy back again for it and he found it, for which I did give him 6d., but some horses had gone over it and broke the scabbard. The Hague is a most neat place in all respects. The houses so neat in all places and things as is possible. Here we walked up and down a great while, the town being now very full of Englishmen, for that the Londoners were come on shore today. But going to see the Prince (9), he was gone forth with his governor, and so we walked up and down the town and court to see the place; and by the help of a stranger, an Englishman, we saw a great many places, and were made to understand many things, as the intention of may-poles, which we saw there standing at every great man's door, of different greatness according to the quality of the person. About 10 at night the Prince comes home, and we found an easy admission. His attendance very inconsiderable as for a prince; but yet handsome, and his tutor a fine man, and himself a very pretty boy. It was bright moonshine to-night. This done we went to a place we had taken to sup in, where a sallet and two or three bones of Mutton were provided for a matter of ten of us which was very strange. After supper the Judge and I to another house, leaving them there, and he and I lay in one press bed, there being two more in the same room, but all very neat and handsome, my boy sleeping upon a bench by me.

Note 1. "A sort of cabin or cook-room, generally in the fore-part, but sometimes near the stern of lighters and barges of burden".—Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book.

Note 2. Son of the Prince of Orange (33) and [her niece] Mary (28), eldest daughter of Charles I afterwards William III He was then in his tenth year, having been born in 1650.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

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On 03 Sep 1660 [her nephew] King James II (26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married in secret He a son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. She by marriage Duchess York.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

On 13 Sep 1660 [her nephew] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 [her nephew] he was buried at south side of the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey.

On 24 Dec 1660 [her niece] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (29) died of smallpox.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 July 1661. 02 Jul 1661. To Westminster Hall and there walked up and down, it being Term time. Spoke with several, among others my cozen Roger Pepys (44), who was going up to the Parliament House, and inquired whether I had heard from my father since he went to Brampton, which I had done yesterday, who writes that my uncle is by fits stupid, and like a man that is drunk, and sometimes speechless.

Home, and after my singing master had done, took coach and went to Sir William Davenant's (55) Opera; this being the fourth day that it hath begun, and the first that I have seen it. To-day was acted the second part of "The Siege of Rhodes". We staid a very great while for the King and the Queen of Bohemia (64). And by the breaking of a board over our heads, we had a great deal of dust fell into the ladies' necks and the men's hair, which made good sport. The King being come, the scene opened; which indeed is very fine and magnificent, and well acted, all but the Eunuch, who was so much out that he was hissed off the stage. Home and wrote letters to my Lord at sea, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 August 1661. 17 Aug 1661. At the Privy Seal, where we had a seal this morning. Then met with Ned Pickering (43), and walked with him into St. James's Park (where I had not been a great while), and there found great and very noble alterations. And, in our discourse, he was very forward to complain and to speak loud of the lewdness and beggary of the Court, which I am sorry to hear, and which I am afeard will bring all to ruin again.

So he and I to the Wardrobe to dinner, and after dinner Captain Ferrers and I to the Opera, and saw "The Witts" again, which I like exceedingly. The Queen of Bohemia (64) was here, brought by my Lord Craven (53).

So the Captain and I and another to the Devil tavern and drank, and so by coach home. Troubled in mind that I cannot bring myself to mind my business, but to be so much in love of plays. We have been at a great loss a great while for a vessel that I sent about a month ago with, things of my Lord's to Lynn, and cannot till now hear of them, but now we are told that they are put into Soale Bay, but to what purpose I know not.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of William Craven 1st Earl Craven 1608-1697.

On 13 Feb 1662 Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (65) died of pneumonia shortly after midnight. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 February 1662. 13 Feb 1662. After musique comes my cozen Tom Pepys the executor, and he did stay with me above two hours discoursing about the difference between my uncle Thomas and me, and what way there may be to make it up, and I have hopes we may do good of it for all this.

Then to dinner, and then came Mr. Kennard, and he and I and Sir W. Pen (40) went up and down his house to view what may be the contrivance and alterations there to the best advantage.

So home, where Mr. Blackburne (whom I have not seen a long time) was come to speak with me, and among other discourse he do tell me plain of the corruption of all our Treasurer's officers, and that they hardly pay any money under ten per cent.; and that the other day, for a mere assignation of £200 to some counties, they took £15 which is very strange.

So to the office till night, and then home and to write by the post about many businesses, and so to bed. Last night died the Queen of Bohemia (65).

John Evelyn's Diary 17 February 1662. 17 Feb 1662. I went with my Lord of Bristol (49) to see his house at Wimbledon, newly bought of the Queen-Mother (52), to help contrive the garden after the modern. It is a delicious place for prospect and the thickets, but the soil cold and weeping clay. Returned that evening with Sir Henry Bennett (44).

This night was buried in Westminster Abbey the Queen of Bohemia (65), after all her sorrows and afflictions being come to die in the arms of her nephew, the [her nephew] King (31); also this night and the next day fell such a storm of hail, thunder, and lightning, as never was seen the like in any man's memory, especially the tempest of wind, being southwest, which subverted, besides huge trees, many houses, innumerable chimneys (among others that of my parlor at Sayes Court), and made such havoc at land and sea, that several perished on both. Divers lamentable fires were also kindled at this time; so exceedingly was God's hand against this ungrateful and vicious nation and Court.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677. Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685.