Biography of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Cuman

Descendants Family Tree: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

1361 Death of Henry of Grosmont

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1367 Battle of Nájera

1376 Good Parliament

1377 Death of Edward III

1381 Peasants' Revolt

1389 Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

1392 Death of Isabella of Castile

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1397 Legitimation of the Beauforts

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1415 Southampton Plot

1485 Birth of Catherine of Aragon

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 [his grandfather] King Edward II of England (age 42) abdicated II King England. His son [his father] King Edward III of England (age 14) succeeded III King England.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [his father] King Edward III of England (age 15) and [his mother] Philippa of Hainault (age 13) were married at York Minster [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She was crowned the same day. She the daughter of [his grandfather] William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34). He the son of [his grandfather] King Edward II of England and [his grandmother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33). They were second cousins. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

The marriage was the quid pro quo for her father William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) having supported his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) returning to England to usurp the throne of Edward's father King Edward II of England.

On 06 Mar 1340 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster was born to King Edward III of England (age 27) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Prinsenhof Palace [Map] in Ghent aka Gaunt. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

In 1342 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 1) was created 1st Earl Richmond. It isn't clear whether his older brothers [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" (age 11) and [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 3) had been created Earls before this time.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. From the 30th of January to the 2nd of February, the Comte de Tancarville continues again a visitor at the Castle; and on the 1st of February, the Earl of Richmond, John (age 17), son of Edward III., dined with the [his grandmother] Queen (age 63), his grandmother.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 21st [Mar 1358], William, Archbishop of Sens, now in England to negotiate a treaty of peace for his Sovereign with the English Monarch, the Maréchal D'Audenham, and the Countess of Pembroke (age 41), spend the entire day with [his grandmother] Isabella (age 63); and her grandson, the Earl of Richmond (age 18), arrives to supper.

Double Royal Wedding

In May 1359 [his father] King Edward III of England (age 46) and his son [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" (age 28) took part in a tournament in London. For the amusement of the citizens both Edwards and their friends dressed as the mayor and aldermen of London. The tournament possibly in celebration of the two Royal marriages of his children John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) on 19 May 1359.

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey [Map] whereby two children of King Edward III of England (age 46) were married:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 39). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) were married. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) was a ward of King Edward III of England (age 55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). He the son of Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 42). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

On 31 Mar 1360 [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 20) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 15) at Leicester Castle [Map]. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1361 [his father] King Edward III of England (age 48) created three of his sons as Garter Knights ...

35th [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 22).

36th John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 20).

37th [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 19).

38th Edward Despencer 1st Baron Despencer, Baron Burghesh (age 25).

Death of Henry of Grosmont

On 23 Mar 1361 [his father-in-law] Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 51) died at Leicester Castle [Map]. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark [Map].

Duke Lancaster, Earl Lincoln extinct.

[his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 15) succeeded 5th Countess Lancaster and 2nd Countess Derby. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 21) by marriage Earl Lancaster, Earl Derby.

[his sister-in-law] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria (age 21) succeeded 5th Countess of Leicester.

In 1362 [his son] John Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 21) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 16). He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 10 Apr 1362 [his sister-in-law] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria (age 23) died. Her sister [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 17) succeeded 6th Countess of Leicester. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 22) by marriage Earl of Leicester adding a fourth Earldom to the ones he already held: Earl Richmond, Earl Lancaster and Earl Derby.

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, [his father] King Edward III of England (age 50) created two sons as Dukes ...

[his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 23) was created 1st Duke Clarence. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence (age 30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster. [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Before 21 Feb 1363 [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 22) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 17) at Burford, Shropshire [Map]. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1365 [his son] Edward Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 24) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 19). In 1365 Edward Lancaster died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark [Map]. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1365 [his son] John Lancaster (age 3) died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark [Map].

In 1366 [his son] John Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 25) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 20). In 1367 John Lancaster (age 1) died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark [Map]. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

In or before 1367 Hugh Swynford and [his future wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 16) were married.

After 1367 John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 42) transferred his allegiance to the new duke, John of Gaunt (age 26), becoming a member of the latter's affinity, at a fee of £20 a year during this period. In return for his annuity he took part in at least three expeditions to France.

Battle of Nájera

On 03 Apr 1367 the forces of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile (age 32) commanded by [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" (age 36) defeated the army of Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile (age 33) at the Battle of Nájera at Nájera. The English forces included John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 27), William Scrope, Peter Courtenay (age 21), John Devereux 1st Baron Devereux (age 30), John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 42), Bernard Brocas (age 37) and Thomas Banastre (age 33).

The forces of Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile (age 33) included Bertrand Geusclin (age 47). The battle achieved little since Bertrand Geusclin (age 47) escaped.

John Ferrers 4th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 36) was killed. His son Robert Ferrers 5th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 9) succeeded 5th Baron Ferrers of Chartley. Margaret Despencer Baroness Ferrers of Chartley by marriage Baroness Ferrers of Chartley.

Edward "Black Prince" (age 36) thereafter returned home, taking Peter's daughters [his future wife] Constance (age 13) and [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Isabella (age 12) as hostages to ensure Peter would pay the money owed to Edward. Constance (age 13) married John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 27), Isabella (age 12) married [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 25).

On 15 Apr 1367 [his son] Henry IV King England was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 27) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 22) at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire [Map]. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1368 [his daughter] Isabel Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 27) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 22). She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1368 [his daughter] Isabel Lancaster died. She was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark [Map].

On 12 Sep 1368 [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 23) died at Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire [Map]. Her last words were said to be "Souveyne vous de moi" ("Don't forget me") the 'S' of which was possibly subsequently represented on the Lancastrian Esses Collar. She was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. Her son [his son] Henry IV King England (age 1) succeeded 3rd Earl Derby and 6th Earl Lancaster.

On 15 Aug 1369 [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 55) died at Windsor Castle [Map]. Her husband [his father] King Edward III of England (age 56) and youngest son [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 14) were present. She was given a state funeral six months later on 09 Jan 1370 at which she was interred at on the northeast side of the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map] at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was executed by sculptor Jean de Liège.

In 1370 Sir Godfrey Foljambe (age 26) the younger (son of the eminent lawyer and retainer of John of Gaunt (age 29)) confirmed him in possession of part of the manors of Over Haddon [Map], Rowsley [Map], Wardlow [Map], Monyash [Map] and Chelmorton [Map] in Derbyshire, which were to Gaunt (age 29) himself.

On 21 Sep 1371 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 31) and Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 17) were married at Roquefort, Landes. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 30) married Constance's sister in July 1372. An example of Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. She the illegitmate daughter of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile and Maria Padilla. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 58) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

After 21 Sep 1371 [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 16) accompanied her sister [his wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 17) to England after her marriage to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 31).

On 09 Feb 1372 [his wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 18), the wife of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 31) made a ceremonial entryin London.

On 11 Jul 1372 [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 31) and [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 17) were married at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map]. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of [his wife] Constance (age 18) who had married Edmund's older brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) a year before. An example of Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. She the illegitmate daughter of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile and Maria Padilla. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 59) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

In Sep 1372 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) surrendered the Earldom of Richmond to his father King Edward III (age 59).

In 1373 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) and [his future wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 22). He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 31 Mar 1373 [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 33) and [his wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 19) at Hertford Castle [Map]. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In Apr 1373 Gaunt's (age 33) receiver was ordered to pay the 30 archers whom Saville (age 48) and Sir Robert Rockley had commanded on one of these recent operations. Sir John (age 48) probably had the duke (age 33) to thank for the knighthood which was bestowed upon him in the late 1360s; and he also acquired the marriage of Elizabeth Thornton (age 16), one of his patron's wards, albeit for 'un grant somme'.

In 1374 [his son] John Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 33) and [his wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 20). He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1375 [his son] John Lancaster (age 1) died.

In 1375 [his daughter] Catherine of Lancster (age 1), daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 34), was given her own room at Melbourne Castle [Map], and a Castilin attendant.

In 1375 [his illegitimate son] Cardinal Henry Beaufort was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 34) and [his future wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 24). He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

Good Parliament

In 1376 John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 51) was elected MP Yorkshire in the Good Parliament. During the Good Parliament, he was sufficiently trusted to conduct Thomas Caterton from Queenborough Castle [Map] for interrogation before Parliament. Caterton had been appealed for treason by Sir John Annesley, and the court party, including Gaunt (age 35), was anxious to protect him from attack. In the event, they were able to hold off the opposition, despite some damning revelations about their conduct of the war-effort. The duke (age 35) himself was singled out for particular criticism, and during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 he fled into Scotland, leaving his Savoy Palace [Map] to be destroyed by the London mob. Gaunt (age 35) was, understandably, reluctant to cross the border again without the protection of a sizeable bodyguard. In late Jun 1376, therefore, his leading retainers in the north were instructed to provide an escort for his journey to Knaresborough [Map]. Not only did John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 51) mobilize a personal retinue of ten men-at-arms and 40 archers; he also helped to suppress the rebellion in the north by serving on two commissions for the punishment of insurgents.

Around Jan 1377 [his illegitimate son] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 36) and [his future wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 26). He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his father] King Edward III of England (age 64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace [Map]. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map]. His grandson King Richard II of England (age 10) succeeded II King England.

In 1379 [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 38) and [his future wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 28). She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Around 1380 Thomas Erpingham (age 25) was knighted by John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 39).

In 1380 Thomas Erpingham (age 25) joined John of Gaunt's (age 39) service as an Esquire.

On 24 Jun 1380 [his son-in-law] John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke (age 7) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 17) were married at Kenilworth Castle [Map]. She by marriage Countess Pembroke. She the daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 40) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. He the son of John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke and Anne Manny Countess Pembroke. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

After 24 Jun 1380 [his son-in-law] John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke (age 7) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 17) marriage annulled since she had become pregnant by [his future son-in-law] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 28) whom she subsequently married. It isn't clear whether John Holland was punished; he was half-brother to King Richard II of England (age 13) through their mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 51).

On 05 Feb 1381 [his son] Henry IV King England (age 13) and [his daughter-in-law] Mary Bohun (age 13) were married at Arundel Castle [Map]. She the daughter of Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton and Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex, Hereford and Northampton (age 34). He the son of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 40) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. 15 Jun 1381. In this rising of the commons were many great men of the land in many places beheaded. The Savoy [Map], the palace of the duke of Lancaster (age 41) and the fairest in the kingdom, standing near London on the bank of Thames, was, from the commons’ hatred of the duke, utterly destroyed by them with fire; and the duke himself, for fear of them, fled into Scotland1. To appease them and to quiet their fury, the king (age 14) granted that the state of villeinage, as well in their persons as in their labour, should be henceforth done away, freedom fully given, and all prisoners set at large. And this he commanded and made to be openly proclaimed throughout the counties of the kingdom. And then what a throe of grief passed through the desolated land! For they boasted that they would slay all those of higher birth, would raise up king and lords from among themselves, would stablish new laws, and, in a word, would make new, or rather - disfigure, the face and estate of the whole island. Then every man struck off the head of his enemy, and despoiled his richer neighbour. But, by the mercy of God, when their leader, being in Smithfield near London, doffed not his hood before the king nor in anything did reverence to the king’s majesty, his head was deftly struck off, in the very midst of his flock of kites, by sir William Walworth, knight and citizen of London; and straightway, being raised on the point of a sword, it was shown before them. Then the commons in sore dread sought flight by stealth, and there and then casting away their rebellious weapons, as though unguilty of such riot and wickedness, like foxes into their holes, they pitifully crept home. But the king and the lords pursued them, and some they made to be dragged behind horses, some they slew with the sword, some they hanged on the gallows, some they quartered; and they destroyed thousands2.

Note 1. John of Gaunt was at this time in the north, negotiating a truce with Scotland. Knighton (ij. 143-7) tells us that so unpopular was his name that his duchess was refused admission into his own castle at Pontefract [Map], and that he himself was denied hospitality by the earl of Northumberland; and that it was reported that a large force of the insurgents was sent north in pursuit of him. He retired to Edinburgh on a safe-conduct from the Scots, by whom he was well entertained.

Note 2. The severity of the punishments inflicted after the suppression of the outbreak is fully set forth in the pages of Walsingham’s History. Richard, however, interfered to prevent indiscriminate slaughter of the insurgents when first beaten in the field.— Wals. Hist. Angl. (Rolls series), i. 466.

Peasants' Revolt

Calendars. 15 Jun 1381. Commission of oyer and terminer to William Walleworth, mayor of London, Robert Bealknapp, Robert Knolles, Nicholas Brembre, John Philipot, Robert Launde, and William Cheyne, on information that great crowds of labourers and others have collected together, especially in the counties of Essex, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Middlesex, compelled their betters to go with them, killed many of the king's lieges, and burned many houses, entered the city of London, and burned the house of the king's uncle John, duke of Lancaster (age 41), called the 'Sauveye [Map],' and the priory in Clerkenwelle of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and killed Simon, archbishop of Canterbury (deceased) and chancellor, and Robert de Hales (deceased), prior of the said Hospital. By К. June 15. London.

In Dec 1384 Thomas Wendesley (age 40) was retained for life by John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 44) in peace and war at an annual fee of 20 marks, charged upon the township of Bensall in Derbyshire [Note. Possibly Bonsall [Map]]. The benefits were certainly not all one-sided, for Wensley was expected to use his own influence as a member of the local bench and crown commissioner on the duke's behalf when the occasion demanded.

On 24 Jun 1386 [his son-in-law] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 34) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 23) were married at Plymouth, Devon [Map]. She the daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 46) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. He the son of Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales. They were half second cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 02 Feb 1387 [his son-in-law] King John I of Portugal (age 35) and [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal (age 26) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal. She the daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 46) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. He the son of Peter I King Portugal and Inês Castro. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In Feb 1388 Thomas Wendesley (age 44) was commissioned to arrest persons charged with damaging John of Gaunt's (age 47) property.

Before 17 Sep 1388 [his son-in-law] Henry III King Castile (age 8) and [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile (age 15) were married at Palencia Cathedral. She by marriage Queen Consort Castile. She the daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 48) and Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 34). He the son of John I King Castile (age 30) and Eleanor Barcelona Queen Consort Castile. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

In Sep 1389 the Scrope vs Grosvenor Case was brought to the Court of Chivalry. Up to that time two families, Scrope and Grosvenor, had been using the armorial Scrope Arms: Azure, a bend or.

Several hundred witnesses were called including John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49), Geoffrey Chaucer (age 46) and John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 64).

On 03 Sep 1386 Owain ap Gruffudd "Glyndŵr" Mathrafal Prince Powys (age 27) gave evidence at the Church of John the Baptist, Chester [Map].

The Court decided in favour of Scrope.

Neither party was happy with the decision so King Richard II (age 22) was called upon to give his personal verdict.

On 27 May 1390 he confirmed that Grosvenor could not bear the undifferenced arms.

As a consequence of the case the Grosvenor has for many years used the name Bendor for horses and nicknames.

In 1391 [his son-in-law] Robert Ferrers (age 18) and [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée [Map]. She the illegitmate daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 50) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 40). She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Death of Isabella of Castile

On 23 Dec 1392 [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 37) died. She the wife of [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister [his wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with [his son-in-law] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 40) who may have been the father of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 7) progenitor of the House of York.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 55) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. He the son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

Before 29 Nov 1396 [his son-in-law] Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 32) and [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 17) were married. She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby. She the illegitmate daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 56) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 46). He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Calendars. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (age 53), by order of the king (age 30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king (age 30) and his honourable uncle the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (age 56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort (age 24), his brothers [Note. [his illegitimate son] Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 22) and [his illegitimate son] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 20)], and his [his illegitimate daughter] sister (age 18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.

Calendars. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:

Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble [his illegitimate son] John, knight, [his illegitimate son] Henry, cleric, [his illegitimate son] Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Calendars. 32. The king (age 30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort (age 24), knight, son of our beloved uncle John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (age 56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (age 44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and [his brother] Edmund of York (age 55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (age 77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (age 53), bishops; [his son] Henry of Derby (age 29), Edward of Rutland (age 24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (age 28), earls; Reginald Grey (age 35), [his son-in-law] Ralph Neville (age 33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (age 54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

Calendars. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (age 53) announced by the king's (age 30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the king (age 30) - considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin [his illegitimate son] Sir John Beaufort (age 24), son of his uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (age 56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons - had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the Earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.

Note. On 10 Feb 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was created 1st Earl Somerset.

On 27 Nov 1397 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) and [his daughter-in-law] Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence (age 12) were married. She by marriage Countess Somerset. She the daughter of Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent and Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent (age 47). He the illegitmate son of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 57) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 47). They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Thomas Mowbray Duel

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (age 31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham [Map]. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of Lancaster (age 58) and [his brother] York (age 57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (age 56), Salisbury (age 48) and [his son-in-law] Huntingdon (age 46). The [his son] earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (age 31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,- "Well then, I order that the earl marshal (age 30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (age 31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (age 30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (age 31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's1, he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of [his daughter] Castillo (age 25) and of [his daughter] Portugal (age 38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be happily to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (age 31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (age 30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without hope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by him and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. - Ed.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The duke of Lancaster (age 58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his [his son] son (age 31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (age 31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, - "Earl of Derby (age 31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (age 31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anything can, at his leisure, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

Froissart. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the king (age 31) resided. [his son] He found there his father (age 58), the [his brother] duke of York (age 57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (age 56), sir Henry Percy (age 34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the king (age 31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The king (age 31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (age 48), and the [his son-in-law] earl of Huntingdon (age 46), who had married the duke of Lancaster's (age 58) [his daughter] daughter (age 35), were present, and kept near to the earl of Derby (age 31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the earl of Derby's (age 31) taking leave arrived, the king (age 31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, "to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the king's (age 31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the earl of Derby (age 31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the king of France (age 29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 58) died at Leicester Castle [Map]. [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 48) was by his side. He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral [Map] with his first wife [his former wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. His son [his son] Henry IV King England (age 31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster, 7th Earl of Leicester.

King Richard II of England (age 32) witheld the future Henry IV's (age 31) inheritance from him giving Henry (age 31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Calendars. 07 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace [Map]. To the keepers, occupiers, receivers or farmers of the lordship of Kyngeston in Dorsete for the time being. Order so long as the same shall remain in the king's hand to pay to John Swelle esquire 20 marks a year, which by a writing indented, confirmed by the king, John late duke of Lancastre granted him for life, to be taken of the issues of the said lordship.

On 10 May 1403 [his former wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 52) died. She was buried in Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

Southampton Plot

On 31 Jul 1415, when King Henry V of England (age 28) was in Portchester Castle, Hampshire [Map] preparing to invade France, Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) revealed the Southampton Plot to him. Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42), Thomas Grey of Werke and Heaton (age 30), and Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) were intending to replace King Henry V of England (age 28) with Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) as King of England based on Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) having a better claim to the throne being descended from Edward III's second son Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence whereas King Henry V of England (age 28) was descended from the third son John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster.

Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30), Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 29), Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27) and Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) sat in judgement.

After 20 May 1475. St Mary's Church, Ewelme [Map]. Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (deceased). Wrist Garter. The effigy was, apparently, viewed to determine how a lady should wear the garter at the re-commencement of Lady of the Garter appointments in 1901 after a gap of several hundred years. A particularly fine Cadaver Underneath the chest on which Alice's effigy lies. Full-length in a shroud. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (deceased).

1 Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's paternal grandparents.

2 De La Pole Arms impaled Stafford Arms. Her third husbands parents Michael de la Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk.

3 Montacute and Monthermer Arms impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury and Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury.

4 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms.

5 Roet Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms.

6 Chaucer Modern Arms.

7 De La Pole Arms.

8 De La Pole Arms impaled England Henry IV Arms signifying Alice's son John's (age 32) marriage to Elizabeth of York (age 31) sister of King Edward IV of England (age 33).

Detail of the North Side of the monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (deceased). Arms from left to right ...

1 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms impaled Unknown.

2 De La Pole Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Her third husband William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk.

3 De La Pole Arms quarted Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 32) by her second husband William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk.

4 Chaucer Modern Arms.

5 Montacute and Monthermer Arms quartering impaled Chaucer. Alice's second husband Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury.

6 Roet Arms. Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet.

7 England Henry IV Arms impaling Roet Arms probably signifying John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster and [his former wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster, Katherine being the sister of Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet who married Geoffrey Chaucer.

8 Roet Arms impaling Chaucer Modern Arms. Her paternal grandparents Geoffrey Chaucer and Philippa Roet.

Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk: Around 1376 she was born to Hugh Stafford 2nd Earl Stafford and Philippa Beauchamp Countess Stafford. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. Before 1394 Michael de la Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk and she were married. She by marriage Countess Suffolk. She the daughter of Hugh Stafford 2nd Earl Stafford and Philippa Beauchamp Countess Stafford. He the son of Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk and Katherine Wingfield Countess Suffolk. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. On 08 Apr 1419 Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk died.

Philippa Roet: Around 1346 she was born to Giles "Payne" Roet. Before 1367 Geoffrey Chaucer and she were married at St Mary de Castro Leicester, Leicestershire. Excerpta Historica Page 152. Philippa, his eldest daughter, is stated to have been the maid of honour to Philippa Queen of Edward the Third who by the name of "Philippa Pycard" obtained a grant of one hundred shillings per annum on the 20th January 1370, and married Geoffrey Chaucer, to whom, in consequence, it is supposed, of this connexion, the Duke of Lancaster granted the Castle of Dodington. Of John of Gaunt's connexion with Chaucer, however, no proof has been found; and the circumstance of the lady assigned to him for his wife being styled "Philippa Pycard," instead of Roelt, renders the assertion, that she was the sister of the Duchess of Lancaster, extremely doubtful. Around 1387 Philippa Roet died.

Birth of Catherine of Aragon

On 16 Dec 1485 Catherine of Aragon was born to Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 33) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 34). She was possibly named after her Great Grandmother [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster and [his former wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.23%.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1552. The xxviij day of Feybruarii was bered the nobull [lady the] contes of Penbroke (deceased), and syster to the late qwyne and wyffe [to the] nobull Kyng Henry the viij. late kyng, and the good lade [the] contes of Penbroke the wyche she ded at Benard Castle [Map], and so cared unto Powlls. Ther was a C. [Note. 100] powre men and women had mantylle fryse gownes, then cam the haroldes, [then] the corse, and a-bowt her viij baners rolls of armes, and then cam the mornars boyth lordes and knyghts and gentyll men, and then cam the lades mornars and gentyll women mornars ij C. [then the] gentyll men and gentyll women, and after cam in cotts ij C. servandes and odur servandes, and she was bered by the tombe of [the duke] of Lankaster [Note. At St Paul's Cathedral [Map]], and after her banars wher sett up over her [and her] armes sett on dyvers pelers,-the vj King Edward vjth.

Note. Funeral of the countess of Pembroke. King Edward in his Diary records the death of the countess of Pembroke on the 20th Feb. 1551–2. As sister to queen Katharine Parr, she was a person of high consideration. A magnificent canopied monument to William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, and his countess Anne, with their recumbent effigies, and kneeling effigies of their three children, Henry earl of Pembroke, sir Edward Herbert knt. and Anne lady Talbot, was erected in St. Paul's cathedral, next the monument of John of Ghent, duke of Lancaster, and is represented in a plate of Dugdale's History of St. Paul's.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Oct 1641. Here I beheld the Palace [Map] wherein John of Gaunt and Charles V were born; whose statue stands in the market-place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which (as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about their necks, in token of submission and penance for an old rebellion of theirs; but now the hemp is changed into a blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meeting in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleasant and courteous priest.

Calendars. 27. Be it remembered that the venerable father Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, earnestly prayed to the lord king in the present parliament that whereas his church of Canterbury, by the gift and grant of his noble and holy progenitors, which the same king graciously confirmed, had such prerogative over the other churches of England that whatsoever archbishop of Canterbury for the time being had custody of all lordships, manors, tenements, and rents with appurtenances which were held of the same church in chief during the minority of the heirs of their tenants, even though the same tenants elsewhere held in chief of the lord king; and now concerning the castle and manor of Tonbridge, Kent [Map], which by virtue of this prerogative were in the custody of William de Courtenay, late archbishop of Canterbury now deceased, predecessor of the present archbishop, on the day on which he died, by reason of the minority of the heir of the earl of Stafford deceased, who held the aforesaid castle and manor from the aforesaid former archbishop in chief, dispute and controversy between the present archbishop and the executors of the will of the aforesaid late archbishop are pending at present. And whereas a certain composition was drawn up a short while ago between the archbishop of Canterbury and the prior and chapter of the church of Canterbury on the matter, it pleased the lord king, having inspected and examined that composition, to order a view and settlement of the matter for the peace and right of his said church of Canterbury, as should seem best to his royal majesty, to whose ordinance and decree on the foregoing the same archbishop proclaimed himself to be firmly obedient in all things, whereupon the same lord king immediately appointed the venerable fathers Robert archbishop of York, Robert Bishop of  London and John Bishop of  Ely, and John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and John Earl of Huntingdon, and Thomas the earl marshal, to inspect and examine that composition, and further to discuss and settle the matter at their discretion, and fully to inform the lord king of what their deed and action should be. And later on Monday, the last day of the aforesaid parliament [10 February 1397], the archbishop of York, and the bishops, and the aforesaid duke and earls thus appointed by order of the lord king in the same parliament returned their decree and ordinance on the aforesaid matter by Walter Clopton, the lord king's justice, in this form - namely, that the third part of all manors, lands, and tenements of the inheritance of the aforesaid heir, and the issues, profits, and revenues of the same from the time of the death of the aforesaid late archbishop, should, according to the form of the aforesaid composition, remain and be in the hands of the aforesaid prior and chapter, to be used for their own purposes; and that two parts of the aforesaid lands and tenements, with the issues, profits, and revenues of the same two parts, should remain likewise in the hands of that prior and chapter, safely and securely to keep until the lord king shall have ordained to whom those said two parts of the issues, profits, and revenues shall be delivered and has declared his will thereon. And the castle of Tonbridge [Map] will be delivered to the aforesaid present archbishop of Canterbury without delay, to remain in his hands and keeping until the the coming of age of the aforesaid heir. The which ordinance and decree thus rendered by the archbishop of York, bishops, duke and earls, the aforesaid lord king, approving thereof, ordered to be placed on record on the roll of parliament at the request of the aforesaid present archbishop of Canterbury.

Calendars. 11. And further, on the other hand, the king, recalling that on the second day of parliament [23 January 1397], his uncle of Lancaster made him a request regarding certain grievances inflicted on him by Sir Thomas Talbot, whereof it was his wish that justice be done as an example to such lawlessness, and saying that had he been greater or lesser, of whatever condition he had been within his realm, who committed wrong, excess, or oppression against any of his lieges contrary to the law, of which he had knowledge of the truth, that he would deliver full justice and punishment thereon according to the law, whether he be of his blood of otherwise, showing no favour to anyone.

Calendars. 15. Also, as to the fourth article, touching the expenses of the king's household and the presence of bishops and ladies in his company, the king took great offence and affront in that the commons who were his lieges should wrongly take upon themselves or presume any ordinance or governance of the kingking's person, or his household, or other persons of standing whom it should please him to have in his company. And it seemed to the king that the commons committed a great offence therein against his regality and his royal majesty, and the liberty of himself and his honourable progenitors, which he was bound and willed to maintain and sustain by the aid of God. Wherefor the king ordered the said lords spiritual and temporal that on the following Saturday morning [3 February 1397] they should explain and declare in full to the said commons the king's will in the matter. And further, the king understanding that the said commons had been influenced and informed by a bill delivered to them to present and explain the said last article, so he ordered the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster to charge Sir John Bushy, speaker for the commons, on his allegiance to recount and tell him the name of whomsoever submitted the said bill to the said commons.

Calendars. 7. Also, the following Tuesday [23 January 1397], the commons presented Sir John Bushy as their common speaker, with whom the king was well pleased. And then the said Sir John prayed of the king that he might make a protestation that if he should say anything through ignorance or otherwise which had not been agreed by his companions, etc., that he might be corrected by his said companions; to which the king agreed, as he should by right and reason. And on the same day the duke of Lancaster asked the king to do justice to Sir Thomas Talbot, etc.. And then the chancellor explained to the commons that although he had explained in general the reason for summoning the parliament, on the morrow following, at eight o'clock [24 January 1397], the officers would explain it more particularly, that the commons might be better informed; and they were ordered to make haste in the business of parliament. And later the chancellor, at the king's command, charged all the lords spiritual and temporal to be at parliament each day at nine o'clock at the latest, and that no lord should absent himself in any way without the special permission of the king himself.

[his illegitimate daughter] Blanche Beaufort was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster and Marie St Hilaire Hainault. She a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Matthew Redman served in France and Spain under John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster.

Calendars. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:

The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, Earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately Earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret Countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime Earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.

Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas Earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.

Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, [his brother] Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; [his son] Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

Calendars. 5. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland:

The archbishop of Canterbury.

The duke of Guyenne and duke of Lancaster.

[his brother] The duke of Gloucester.

The Bishop of  London.

The Bishop of  Winchester.

The Abbot of Westminster.

[his son] The Earl of Derby.

The Earl of Arundel.

The Earl of Warwick.

Lord Neville.

Sir Richard le Scrope.

Sir Philip Spenser.

Sir Walter Clopton.

William Thirning.

William Rickhill.

John Wadham.

- to act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the chamberlain's room near the Painted Chamber [Map].

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

King Henry III of England 1207-1272

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198-1245

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Kings Wessex: Great x 9 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 7 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 5 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal x 1

Henry IV King England x 1

Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile x 1

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 1

King Edward IV of England x 1

King Richard III of England x 1

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 1

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 1

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 1

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 1

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 123

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 44

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 356

Catherine Middleton Princess of Wales x 2

Ancestors of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King John "Lackland" of England Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Henry III of England Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso Barcelona II Count Provence

Great x 3 Grandfather: Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence

Great x 4 Grandmother: Gersenda II Sabran Countess Provence

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Savoy I Count Savoy

Great x 3 Grandmother: Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Geneva Countess Savoy

GrandFather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Ferdinand II King Leon

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alfonso IX King Leon

Great x 4 Grandmother: Urraca Burgundy Queen Consort Leon

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso VIII King Castile

Great x 3 Grandmother: Berengaria Ivrea I Queen Castile Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alberic Dammartin

Great x 3 Grandfather: Simon Dammartin

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mathilde Clermont

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Montgomery IV Count Ponthieu

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marie Montgomery Countess Ponthieu

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alys Capet Countess Ponthieu

Father: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis "Lion" VIII King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Louis IX of France Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter II King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandfather: James I King Aragon

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Montpellier Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Andrew II of Hungary

Great x 3 Grandmother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon

GrandMother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Theobald Blois III Count Champagne 2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Theobald IV King Navarre 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Ramirez

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry I King Navarre 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Archambaud "Great" Dampierre

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Bourbon Queen Consort Navarre

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alix Forez

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis "Lion" VIII King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Capet Count of Artois Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Reginar II Duke Brabant 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Matilda Reginar Countess Saint Pol 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Swabia Duchess Brabant

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Avesnes

Great x 3 Grandfather: Bouchard Avesnes

Great x 4 Grandmother: Adela Guise

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Hainault I Count Hainault 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret II Countess Flanders 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Blois Countess Flanders 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Gerulfing I Count Holland

Great x 3 Grandfather: Floris Gerulfing IV Count Holland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Adelaide Guelders Countess Holland

Great x 2 Grandmother: Adelaide Gerulfing Countess Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mathilde Reginar Countess Holland and Palatine 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Metz 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Luxemburg III Duke Limburg

Great x 3 Grandfather: Waleran Luxemburg III Duke Limburg

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sophia Saarbrücken Duchess Limburg

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry "Great" Luxemburg V Count Luxemburg III Count Namur

Great x 1 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Theobald of Bar I Count of Bar 2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry of Bar II Count of Bar 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Erminsende of Bar Sur Seine Countess Bar

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret of Bar Countess Luxemburg and Namur 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Capet II Count Dreux

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa Capet Countess of Bar

Great x 4 Grandmother: Yolande Coucy Countess Dreux

Mother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis "Lion" VIII King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Louis IX of France Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter II King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandfather: James I King Aragon

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Montpellier Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Andrew II of Hungary

Great x 3 Grandmother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon

GrandMother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis "Lion" VIII King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Charles Capet of Sicily Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Charles II King Naples 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Béla IV King of Hungary

Great x 3 Grandfather: Stephen V of Hungary

Great x 2 Grandmother: Mary of Hungary Queen Consort Naples

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cuman