Biography of King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

Paternal Family Tree: Norman

Descendants Family Tree: King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

1047 Battle of Val ès Dunes

1051 William the Conqueror visits King Edward the Confessor

1051 Banishment of the Godwins

1057 Battle of Varaville

1066 Battle of Hastings

1066 Council of Lillebonne

1066 Coronation of William The Conqueror

1068 Coronation of Queen Matilda

1069 Sveyn II's Raid on England

1069 Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria

1069 Harrying of the North

1070 Council of Windsor

1071 Revolt of Hereward the Wake

1072 Accord of Winchester

1075 Revolt of the Earls

1079 William The Conqueror Battle with his son Robert Curthose

1085 Domesday Book

1087 Burning of St Paul's

1087 King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

1101 Treaty of Alton

1135 Death of King Henry I

On 06 Aug 1027 [his uncle] Richard Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 25) died. His brother [his father] Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy (age 27) succeeded I Duke Normandy.

Around 1028 King William "Conqueror" I of England was born illegitimately to Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy (age 27) and Herleva Falaise at Falaise Castle, Falaise, Calvados, Basse Normandie.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1031. This year returned King Knute (age 36); and as soon as he came to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury [Map] the haven of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand, whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church should enjoy their rights. This year went King Knute (age 36) to Rome; and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots (age 77), submitted to him, and became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he held his allegiance a little while only. [his father] Robert, Earl of Normandy (age 30), went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and William (age 3), who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the earldom, though he was a child.

John of Worcester. 1035. [his father] Robert, duke of Normandy (age 34), died, and was succeeded by his son William the Bastard (age 7), then a minor.

On 03 Jul 1035 [his father] Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy (age 35) died at Nicaea. His son King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 7) succeeded II Duke Normandy.

Battle of Val ès Dunes

In 1047 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 19), supported by King Henry I of France (age 38), defeated a rebel army led by William's (age 19) cousin Guy Ivrea (age 22) who opposed William's (age 19) succession as Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Val ès Dunes in Caen, Calvados, Basse Normandie.

Hamon Dentatus was killed.

Before 1051 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 23) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38) and Adela Capet Duchess Normandy (age 41). He the son of Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Herleva Falaise. They were third cousin once removed.

Around 1051 [his son] Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 23) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 20).

Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (age 36), who had the sister of King Edward (age 48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover, Kent [Map]. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, Kent [Map], he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (age 36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (age 36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (age 48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (age 48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (age 50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover, Kent [Map]. For Eustace (age 36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (age 50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (age 50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (age 30), his son, over his; and Harold (age 29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, Gloucestershire, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (age 36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (age 48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (age 41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (age 48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (age 48), that they would seek Godwin's (age 50) army if the king (age 48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (age 41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (age 50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, Surrey [Map], and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (age 48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (age 29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (age 30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (age 48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (age 48) held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (age 50) and his wife, and all his three sons - Sweyne (age 30) and Tosty (age 25) and Grith (age 19). And he went south to Thorney67, with his wife, and Sweyne (age 30) his son, and Tosty (age 25) and his wife (age 18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (age 38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38)], and his son Grith (age 19). Earl Harold (age 29) with Leofwine (age 16) went to Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] in the ship that Earl Sweyne (age 30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (age 48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (age 30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (age 48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (age 50), and Earl Sweyne (age 30), and Earl Harold (age 29), together at Beverstone [Map], and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (age 48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (age 48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (age 48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (age 48). There was now assembled before the king (age 48)68 Earl Siward (age 41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (age 50) and his sons, that the king (age 48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (age 48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (age 48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (age 48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (age 30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Harold (age 29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (age 48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (age 48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (age 48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Sweyne (age 30) to Bosham [Map], and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (age 38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (age 29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (age 48) security.

It was from Thorney69 that Godwin (age 50) and those that were with him went to Bruges [Map], to Baldwin's (age 38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (age 48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (age 48) darlings; and his daughter (age 25) wedded and united to the king (age 48). Soon after this took place, the king (age 48) dismissed the lady (age 25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell [Map]. Soon after came Earl William (age 23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (age 48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (age 23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (age 29) before possessed.

Note 67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.

Note 68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

Note 69. Now Westminster.

William the Conqueror visits King Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1051. After these occurrences, William (age 23), earl [duke] of Normandy, came over to England with a vast retinue of Normans. King Edward (age 48) honourably entertained him and his companions, and on their return made them many valuable presents. The same year, William, the king's chaplain, was appointed to the bishopric of London, which was before given to Spearheafoc.

Around 1054 [his son] Richard Normandy was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 26) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 23).

Around 1056 [his son] William "Rufus" II King England was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 28) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 25).

Around 1056 [his daughter] Cecilia Normandy Abbess Caen was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 28) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 25).

In 1057 [his daughter] Constance Normandy Duchess Brittany was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 29) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 26).

Battle of Varaville

In 1057 at Varaville King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 29) defeated the army of King Henry I of France (age 48) and Geoffrey "Martel aka Hammer" Ingelger II Count Anjou during the Battle of Varaville. Henry and Geoffrey's army were fording the Dives River when the tide came in; only half of the army had crossed. William seized the opportunity and attacked.

Around 1061 [his daughter] Matilda Normandy was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 33) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 30).

Battle of Hastings

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. Meantime Earl William (age 38) came up from Normandy into Pevensey [Map] on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of Hastings. This was then told to King Harold (age 44); and he gathered a large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore. William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered him with the men that would support him: and there was a great slaughter made on either side. There was slain King Harold (age 44), and Leofwin (age 31) his brother, and Earl Girth (age 34) his brother, with many good men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted them for the sins of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and the corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar (age 15) to king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar promised them that they would fight with them. But the more prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the later and worse; as in the end it all fared. This battle was fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would submit to him. But when he found that they would not come to him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls (age 15) Edwin and Morkar, and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need, when the most harm was done. It was very ill-advised that they did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for our sins. And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in the midst of this they plundered wherever they went.

John of Worcester. Sep 1066. While these events were passing, and when the king (age 44) might have supposed that all his enemies were quelled, he received intelligence of the arrival of William (age 38), earl of Normandy, with an innumerable host of horsemen, slingers, archers, and foot soldiers, having taken into his pay auxiliary forces of great bravery from all parts of France; and that he had moored his fleet at a place called Pevensey [Map]. Thereupon the king (age 44) led his army towards London by forced marches; and, although he was very sensible that some of the bravest men in England had fallen in the two [recent] battles, and that one half of his troops was not yet assembled, he did not hesitate to meet the enemy in Sussex, without loss of time; and on Saturday, the eleventh of the calends of November [22nd October], before a third of his army was in fighting order, he gave them battle at a place nine miles from Hastings, where they had built a fort. The English being crowded in a confused position, many of them left their ranks, and few stood by him with resolute hearts: nevertheless he made a stout resistance from the third hour of the day until nightfall, and defended himself with such courage and obstinacy, that the enemy almost despaired of taking his life. When, however, numbers had fallen on both sides, he, alas! fell at twilight. There fell, also, his brothers, the earls Gurth (age 34) and Leofric (age 31), and almost all the English nobles. Earl William (age 38) led his army back to Hastings.

On 14 Oct 1066 the Norman army led by King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 38) defeated the English army of King Harold II of England (age 44) at the Battle of Hastings fought at Senlac Hill Hastings. Aimery Thouars (age 42), Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 24), Eustace Flanders II Count Boulogne (age 51), William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford (age 46), Geoffrey Chateaudun II Count Mortain III Count Perche, William Warenne 1st Earl Surrey, Raoul Tosny, Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 26), Hugh Grandesmil (age 34), Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (possibly), [his half-brother] Robert Mortain Count Mortain 1st Earl Cornwall (age 35) and [his half-brother] Bishop Odo of Bayeux fought for William.

The brothers King Harold II of England (age 44) was killed. Earl Hereford extinct.

His borthers Gyrth Godwinson Earl East Anglia (age 34) and Leofwine Godwinson 2nd Earl Kent (age 31), and Engenulphe Aigle (age 56) were killed. Earl Kent extinct.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. This year came King Harold (age 44) from York to Westminster, on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward) died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came in Earl Tosty (age 40) from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight [Map], with as large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until he came to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. When it was told King Harold (age 44), who was in London, that his brother Tosty (age 40) was come to Sandwich, Kent [Map], he gathered so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from Normandy (age 38), King Edward's (age 63) cousin, would come hither and gain this land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty (age 40) understood that King Harold (age 44) was on the way to Sandwich, Kent [Map], he departed thence, and took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered in Lindsey [Map], and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him, and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer. There met him Harold, King of Norway (age 51), with three hundred ships. And Tosty (age 40) submitted to him, and became his man.87 Then came King Harold (age 44)88 to Sandwich, Kent [Map], where he awaited his fleet; for it was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he went into the Isle of Wight [Map], and there lay all the summer and the autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea, though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London; but many perished ere they came thither.

Note 87. These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway. It is remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all these expeditions. Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.

Note 88. i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him. Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald, King of Norway.

Council of Lillebonne

After 05 Jan 1066 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 38) convened the Council of Lillebonne at Lillebonne to raise support for his claim to the English throne. The attendees are not known but likely to have included his companions at the subsequent Battle of Hastings including Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and [his half-brother] Bishop Odo of Bayeux.

John of Worcester. 24 Apr 1066. The same year a comet was seen on the eighth of the calends of May [24th April], not only in England, but, as it is reported, all over the world: it shone with excessive brilliance for seven days. Soon afterwards earl Tosti (age 40) returned from Flanders, and landed in the Isle of Wight [Map]; and, having compelled the islanders to give him pay and tribute, he departed, and plundered along the sea-coast, until he arrived at Sandwich, Kent [Map]. King Harold (age 44), who was then at London, having been informed of this, ordered a considerable fleet and a body of horse to be got ready, and prepared to go in person to the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map]. On receiving this intelligence, Tosti (age 40) took some of the boatmen of the place, willing or unwilling, into his service, and, departing thence, shaped his course for Lindsey [Map], where he burnt several vills and slew a number of men. Thereupon Edwin, earl of Mercia, and Morcar, earl of Northumbria, flew to the spot with some troops, and drove him out of that neighbourhood; and, on his departure, he repaired to Malcolm (age 35), king of the Scots, and remained with him during the whole summer. Meanwhile king Harold (age 44) arrived at the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map], and waited there for his fleet. When it was assembled, he sailed to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and as William (age 38), earl of Normandy, king Edward's cousin, was preparing an army for the invasion of England, he kept watch all the summer and autumn, to prevent his landing; besides which, he stationed a land army at suitable points along the sea-coast; but provisions failing towards the time of the feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8th September], both the fleet and army were disbanded.

Coronation of William The Conqueror

John of Worcester. Sep 1066. Meanwhile, earl William (age 38) was laying waste Sussex, Kent, Hampshire, Surrey, Middlesex, and Herefordshire, and ceased not from burning vills and slaughtering the inhabitants, until he came to a vill called Beorcham, where Aldred, the archbishop, Wulfstan (age 58), bishop of Worcester, Walter, bishop of Hereford, Edgar (age 15) the etheling, the earls Edwin and Morcar, and some Londoners of the better sort, with many others, met him, and, giving hostages, made their submission, and swore fealty to him; but, although he concluded a treaty with them, he still allowed his troops to burn and pillage the vills. The feast of our Lord's Nativity approaching, he marched the whole army to London that he might be proclaimed king there; and as Stigand, the primate of all England, lay under the censure of the apostolical pope for not having obtained the pall canonically, he was anointed by Aldred, archbishop of York, with great ceremony, at Westminster, on Christmas-day, which that year fell on a Monday; having first, as the archbishop required, sworn before the altar of St. Peter the apostle, in the presence of the clergy and people, to protect the holy churches of God and their governors, and to rule the whole nation subject to him with justice and kingly providence, to make and maintain just laws, and straitly to forbid every sort of rapine and all unrighteous judgements.

Flowers of History. Before 25 Dec 1066. William, Duke of Normandy (age 38), proceeded to the city of London, was received with great exultation by both clergy and people, and was proclaimed king by universal acclamation, and on the day of the birth of our Lord he received the crown of the kingdom of England from Aeldred, archbishop of York. For he refused to accept the office of consecration from Stigand archbishop of Canterbury, although of ancient right that solemn office is known to belong to that see, because he had no legal right to occupy that pre-eminent dignity. Then, haying received homage and the oath of fealty, and hostages likewise, from the nobles, and being confirmed in his kingdom, be became the terror of all those who had aspired to the kingdom. And having arranged his affairs in the different cities and castles, and having placed his own servants in them, he sailed back to Normandy [Map] with the English hostages, and with inestimable treasures. And, when he put the hostages in prison, and committed them to the custody of safe keepers, he returned again to England, where he distributed with a liberal hand the estates and possessions of the Epglish among his Norman comrades who had helped him to subdue the country in the battle of Hastings; expelling all the legitimate owners successively, and becoming a tyrant rather than a king, he burdened the little that remained to them with the yoke of perpetual slavery. And when he saw himself now raised to such a lofty dignity, and confirmed in his proud kingdom, he became rapidly changed into another man; and, alas ! alas ! trampled under foot the nobles of the land, whom their hereditary blood had elevated from the times of old. And the nobles of the kingdom being indignant at this, fled, some of them to Malcolm, king of Scotland (age 35), others, preferring to end their unhappy lives rather than to endure a shameful slavery, sought the desert places and woods, and there living the life of wild beasts, and repenting of having made submission to the Normans, and being weighed down as to their inmost hearts with violent grief, though it was now too late, had recourse to the only hope left them, and prepared secret plots and intrigues. But the noble counts, the brothers Edwin and Morcar, and many other nobles, and many also of the bishops and clergy and many others, whom it would take too long to enumerate by name, when they saw that theirs was the weaker side, and as they disdained to become slaves, abandoned England altogether.

On 25 Dec 1066 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 38) was crowned I King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Archbishop Ealdred.

Flowers of History. 25 Dec 1066. William (age 38) was consecrated king, and crowned on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, on the second day of the week, by Ealdred, archbishop of York, as I have said before, because Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, had been suspended by pope Alexander (age 56) as a schismatic. At that time there was a very powerful officer, Eadric, surnamed Silvaticus, the son of Aelfric-, the son of Edric Streona; and the chatelains of Hereford, and Richard, the son of Scrob, frequently laid waste his territories, because he disdained to submit to the king (age 38), but, as often as they attacked him they lost a great number of their soldiers and men-at-arms. Therefore Edric invited Bleothwin and Biwathe, kings of Wales, to come to his assistance; and, about the day of The Assumption of the blessed Virgin, he laid waste the province of Hereford, as far as the bridge over the river Wye, and carried off a large booty.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1067. This year came the king (age 39) back again to England on St. Nicholas's day; and the same day was burned the church of Christ at Canterbury [Map]. Bishop Wulfwy also died, and is buried at his see in Dorchester [Map].

Flowers of History. 1067. King William (age 39), exulting in his victory, gave praise to God. The same year also, the king built an abbey, which, in reference to the battle that had been fought there, he called Battle [Map], in order that glory, and praise, and thanks, might be offered up in it to God for ever for the victory which he had given him, and also that offices for the souls of the dead who were slain there might be perfonned by the monks who were established in it, with the offering of salutary victims; and he endowed and enriched the church with estates and priyileges, and committed it to the patronage and protection of the kings who should reign in England after him.

Around 1067 [his daughter] Adela Normandy Countess Blois was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 39) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 36).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1067. The child Edric and the Britons were unsettled this year, and fought with the castlemen at Hereford [Map], and did them much harm. The king (age 39) this year imposed a heavy guild on the wretched people; but, notwithstanding, let his men always plunder all the country that they went over; and then he marched to Devonshire, and beset the city of Exeter, Devon [Map] eighteen days. There were many of his army slain; out he had promised them well, and performed ill; and the citizens surrendered the city because the thanes had betrayed them.

John of Worcester. 1067. Lent drawing near [21st February], king William (age 39) returned to Normandy, taking with him Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, Athelnoth, abbot of Glastonbury, Edgar (age 16) the etheling, the earls Edwin and Morcar, Waltheof, son of earl Siward, the noble Ethelnoth, reeve of Kent, and many others of the chief men of England; leaving his brother [his half-brother] Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and William Fitz-Osborne, whom he had created earl of Hereford, governors of England, with orders to build strong castles in suitable places.

John of Worcester. Around Sep 1067. After this, winter being near at hand, king William (age 39) returned from Normandy to England, and imposed on the English an insupportable tax. He then marched troops into Devonshire, and besieged and speedily reduced the city of Exeter, Devon [Map], which the citizens and some English thanes held against him. But the countess Githa, mother of Harold, king of England, and sister [Note. Aunt] of Sweyn (age 48), king of Denmark, escaped from the city, with many others, and retired to Flanders; and the citizens submitted to the king, and paid him fealty. Siward, nineteenth bishop of Rochester, died.

Around 1068 [his son] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 40) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 37).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1068. This year King William (age 40) gave Earl Robert the earldom over Northumberland; but the landsmen attacked him in the town of Durham, County Durham [Map], and slew him, and nine hundred men with him. Soon afterwards Edgar Etheling (age 17) came with all the Northumbrians to York; and the townsmen made a treaty with him: but King William (age 40) came from the South unawares on them with a large army, and put them to flight, and slew on the spot those who could not escape; which were many hundred men; and plundered the town. St. Peter's minster [Map] he made a profanation, and all other places also he despoiled and trampled upon; and the etheling (age 17) went back again to Scotland. After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about midsummer, with sixty-four ships into the mouth of the Taft, where they unwarily landed: and Earl Breon came unawares against them with a large army, and fought with them, and slew there all the best men that were in the fleet; and the others, being small forces, escaped to the ships: and Harold's sons went back to Ireland again.

Coronation of Queen Matilda

John of Worcester. 1068. After Easter [23rd March], the countess Matilda (age 37) came to England from Normandy, and was crowned queen by Aldred, archbishop of York, on Whitsunday [1lth May]. After this, Mariesweyn and Cospatric, and some of the most noble of the Northumbrian nation, in order to escape the king's tyranny, and fearing that, like others, they might be thrown into prison, took with them Edgar (age 17) the etheling, with his mother Agatha and his two sisters, Margaret (age 23) and Christina (age 11), and, embarking for Scotland, wintered there under favour of Malcolm (age 36), king of Scots. Meanwhile, king William (age 40) marched his army to Nottingham [Map], and, having fortified the castle there, proceeded to York [Map], where he erected two strong forts, and having stationed in them five hundred men, he gave orders that strong castles should be built at Lincoln, Lincolnshire [Map] and other places.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 11 May 1068. This Easter came the king (age 40) to Winchester, Hampshire [Map]; and Easter was then on the tenth before the calends of April. Soon after this came the Lady Matilda (age 37) hither to this land; and Archbishop Eldred hallowed her to queen at Westminster on Whit Sunday.

Flowers of History. 11 May 1068. Matilda (age 37), the wife of king William (age 40), was consecrated queen on the day of Pentecost, by Aeldred, archbishop of York, on the twenty-second of March. [Note. The date a mistake. Pentecost the fiftieth day after Easter so usually in May. Pentcost known as White Sunday, or Whit-Sunday.] This year also, William (age 40) had a son born in England, who was called [his son] Henry. For his first-born, [his son] William Rufus (age 12), and also [his son] Robert (age 17), were born in Normandy, before their father had conquered England.

Sveyn II's Raid on England

Flowers of History. 1069. Between the time of the two festivals of the blessed Virgin Mary, in the autumn, the two sons of Sweyn (age 50) [King Harald III of Denmark (age 29) and King Canute "The Holy" IV of Denmark (age 27)] came with three hundred ships from Denmark into England, in order to subdue it in a hostile manner, and to take king William prisoner (age 41), or else expel him from England. But when their arrival was noised abroad, the counts, and barons, and nobles of the land went forth to meet them, being oppressed by the intolerable arrogance of the Normans; and they made a treaty with them, and so joined the army of the Danes, in order to overthrow king William (age 41). But William (age 41), that most prudent king, when he saw the danger that threatened him, humbled himself to them, and checked the insolence of the Normans; and having in this way recalled many of the English nobles to their allegiance, and having sagaciously made a treaty with them all, he took the city of York [Map] by storm, which was a great rendezvous of the Danes, and made himself master of every thing in it, and slew many thousand men there.

In 1069 King Sweyn II of Denmark (age 50) sent an army to England to attack King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) in support of Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 18). Sveyn's (age 50) army captured York [Map] and were then bought off.

Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria

On 28 Jan 1069 Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria was burned to death in Durham, County Durham [Map] when a rebel army set fire to the house in which he was staying. All his men were killed. In retaliation King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) commenced the Harrying of the North.

John of Worcester. After 08 Sep 1069. King William (age 41), receiving intelligence of this, immediately assembled an army, and hastened into Northumbria, giving way to his resentment; and spent the whole winter in laying waste the country, slaughtering the inhabitants, and inflicting every sort of evil, without cessation. Meanwhile, he despatched messengers to the Danish carl, Asbiorn, and promised to pay him secretly a large sum of money, and grant permission for his army to forage freely along the sea-coast, on condition that he would depart without fighting when the winter was over; and he, in his extreme greediness for lucre, and to his utter disgrace, consented to the proposal. In consequence of the ravages of the Normans, first, in Northumbria the preceding year, and again in the present and following year, throughout nearly the whole of England, so severe a famine prevailed in most parts of the kingdom, but chiefly in Northumbria and the adjacent provinces, that men were driven to feed on the flesh of horses, dogs, cats, and even of human beings.

Harrying of the North

Between Nov 1069 and Mar 1070 the Harrying of the North was the near destruction of Lancashire, Yorkshire, County Durham, Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland by King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) in response to a rebel army having killed his man Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria. Somewhat difficult to estimate its effect historians believe around 100,000 people were killed and sixty percent of property destroyed. King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) then replaced the nobilty with his own men to ensure future compliance.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1070. This year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king (age 42); but in the Lent of the same year the king (age 42) ordered all the monasteries in England to be plundered. In the same year came King Sweyne (age 51) from Denmark into the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty with him; thinking that he would overrun the land. Then came into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward (age 35) and his gang: because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a French abbot, whose name was Thorold;-that he was a very stern man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen. Now there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes, and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold (age 40); telling him that he sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the monks. Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood, so that they could not come in. Then they laid on fire, and burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one house. Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate; where the monks met them, and besought peace of them. But they regarded nothing. They went into the minster [Map], climbed up to the holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which was all of red gold. They climbed up to the steeple, brought down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short, they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures, in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another; and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster. Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely [Map], and deposited there all the treasure. The Danes, believing that they should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the infirmary. Then came Abbot Thorold (age 40) and eight times twenty Frenchmen with him, all full-armed. When he came thither, he found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he would come thither. This was done on the fourth day before the nones of June. The two kings, William (age 42) and Sweyne (age 51), were now reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid treasure, and carried it away with them. But when they came into the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed all the ships wherein the treasures were. Some went to Norway, some to Ireland, some to Denmark. All that reached the latter, consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes, and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's town, called --, and deposited it all there in the church. Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was consumed by fire. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned and plundered. Almighty God have mercy on it through his great goodness. Thus came the Abbot Thorold (age 40) to Peterborough; and the monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of rite. When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men who that evil deed had done. There was a great famine this year: and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards for Denmark.

In 1070 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon and Judith Flanders Countess Huntingdon (age 16) were married. She by marriage Earldorman Northumbria, Countess Huntingdon. She, Judith, a niece of King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 42). She the daughter of Lambert Flanders II Count Lens and Adelaide Normandy Countess Troyes and Meaux Champagne Aumale Ponthieu (age 40).

John of Worcester. 17 Feb 1070. By the advice of William (age 50), earl of Hereford, and some others, king William (age 42), during Lent [17th February], caused all the monasteries of England to be searched, and the money deposited in them by the richer sort of the English, for security against his violence and rapacity, to be seized and carried to his own treasury.

John of Worcester. 04 Apr 1070. In the octaves of Easter [4th April] a great synod was held at Winchester, by command of king William (age 42), who was present himself, and with the concurrence of the lord Alexander the pope; his legates, Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, and John and Peter, cardinal-priests of the apostolic see, representing his authority. In this synod, Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, was degraded on three charges: first, for having unlawfully held the bishopric of Winchester with the archbishopric; next, for having taken the archbishopric while archbishop Robert was living, and even sometimes, in saying mass, wearing the pallium which Robert left behind him at Canterbury when he was unjustly driven from England; and lastly, for having accepted the pallium from Benedict, who was excommunicated by the Holy Roman Church for having systematically usurped the apostolic see. His brother, Ethelmar;, bishop of the East-Angles, was also degraded; as were also a few abbots, the king doing his utmost to deprive the English of their dignities, that he might appoint persons of his own nation to their preferments, and thus confirm his power in his new kingdom. He also deprived several bishops and abbots, convicted of no open crimes either by the councils or the laws of the realm, and detained them in prison, to the end of their lives on mere suspicion, as we have said, of their being dangerous to his newly-acquired power. In this synod also, while the rest, aware of the king's bias, were trembling at the risk they ran of losing their appointments, Wulfstan (age 62), bishop of Worcester, boldly demanded the restoration of many of the possessions of his see which had been retained in his own power by archbishop Aldred, when he was translated from Worcester to York, and on his death had fallen into the king's hands; and demanded, not only from those who presided at the synod, but from the king himself, that justice should be done him. But as the church of York was silent, not having a pastor to plead her cause, it was decided that the suit should stand over until such time as, by the appointment of an archbishop, there should be some one who could reply to Wulfstan's (age 62) claims, and after hearing the pleadings on both sides, a clearer and more equitable judgement might be given. Thus the case was adjourned for the present.

Flowers of History. 04 Apr 1070. On the fourth day of April, king William (age 42), being now become more secure on his throne, violated his promises in many respects; and he caused the monasteries to be searched throughout the whole of England, and commanded the money found in them, and the charters, in the privileges granted by which the nobles of England placed their trust, and which the king, when in a position of difficulty, had sworn to observe himself, to be carried off by force from the churches where they had been deposited, and where they had hitherto lain in security, and to be taken to his own treasury.

Council of Windsor

John of Worcester. 23 May 1070. On Whitsunday [3rd May] the king (age 42), at Windsor [Map], gave the archbishopric of York to the venerable Thomas, canon of Bayeux, and the bishopric of Winchester to his chaplain, Walkeline. On the following day, by the king's command, Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, held a synod, [the other legates] the cardinals John and Peter having returned to Rome. At this synod, Ethelric, bishop of Sussex, was uncanonically deposed; and although he was guilty of no crime, the king soon afterwards placed him in confinement at Marlborough, Wiltshire [Map]; several abbots were also deprived. After these depositions, the king gave the bishopric of East-Anglia to Arfast, and the bishopric of Sussex to Stigand79, who were both his chaplains; which Stigand transferred his see to Chichester, the chief city in his diocese: the king also gave abbeys to some Norman monks. The archbishop of Canterbury being degraded, and the archbishop of York dead, Walkeline was, by the king's command, consecrated by the same Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, on the octave of Whitsunday [30th May].

Note 79. This first bishop of Chichester must not be confounded with the archbishop of the same name.

John of Worcester. 24 Jun 1070. The feast of St. John the Baptist being near, earl Asbiorn sailed to Denmark with the fleet which had wintered in the Humber; but his brother Sweyn (age 51) outlawed him, because he had accepted money from king William (age 42), to the great regret of the Danes. Edric, surnamed the Forester, a man of the most resolute courage, of whom we have spoken before, was reconciled with king William (age 42). After this, the king summoned from Normandy Lanfranc (age 65), abbot of Caen, a Lombard by birth, a man of unbounded learning, master of the liberal arts, and of both sacred and secular literature, and of the greatest prudence in counsel and the administration of worldly affairs; and on the day of the Assumption of St. Mary, appointed him archbishop of Canterbury, causing him to be consecrated at Canterbury on the feast of St. John the Baptist, being Sunday. He was consecrated by Giso, bishop of Wells, and Walter, bishop of Hereford, who were both ordained at Rome by pope Nicholas, when Aldred, archbishop of York, received the pallium,—for he evaded being ordained by Stigand, who then held the archbishopric of Canterbury, knowing him not to have received the pallium canonically. Bishop Heriman, who had already transferred the seat of his bishopric from Sherbourne to Salisbury, also assisted at his consecration, with some others. Afterwards, Lanfranc (age 65) consecrated Thomas, archbishop of York. The suit of the reverend Wulfstan (age 62), bishop of Worcester, was again prosecuted, there being now a bishop who could advocate the cause of the church of York; and the affair was, by the aid of God's grace, decided at a council held at a place called Pedred, before the king, archbishop Lanfranc (age 65), and the bishops, abbots, earls, and lords of all England. All the groundless assertions by which Thomas and his abettors strove to humble the church of Worcester, and reduce her to subjection and servitude to the church of York, were, by God's just judgement, entirely refuted and negatived by written documents, so that Wulfstan (age 62) not only recovered the possessions he claimed, but, by God's goodness, and the king's assent, regained for his see all the immunities and privileges freely granted to it by its first founders, the holy king Ethered, Oshere, sub-king of the Hwiccas, and the other kings of Mercia, Cenred, Ethelbald, Offa, Kenulf, Edward the Elder, Athelstan, Edmund, Edred, and Edgar.

Flowers of History. 1071. Moreover, king William (age 43) went to Scotland, and invaded it in a hostile manner, thinking that some of his indomitable enemies, and some of the refugees were there at the king's court, and that some of his own subjects were sheltered there. But as he found no such persons there, when he had received the homage of the king of Scotland (age 39), he returned to his own country.

Flowers of History. 1071. This year also, the English being very injuriously treated by the Normans, fled to the fens of Ely, and to the island of Thorney, where they made themselves a camp of refuge, and elected Hereward (age 36), a warrior of great energy and bravery, as their general. But king William (age 43), alluring some by promises and terrifying others by threats, and corrupting others again by bribes, at last surrounded all the fugitives with a numerous army, and compelled them to return and to submit unto his authority.

Flowers of History. 1071. In the same year, king William (age 43) invaded Scotland with a great army, and Malcolm, king of Scotland (age 39), came peaceably to Berwick [Map] to meet him, and became his subject. At this time, count Ranulph of Micenis governed the earldom of Carlisle, who had given efficacious assistance to king William in his conquest of England. He began to build the city of Carlisle [Map], and to strengthen the citizens with many privileges. But when king William was returning from Scotland through Cumberland, seeing so royal a city, he took it from count Ranulph, and gave him instead of it the earldom of Chester, which was endowed with many honours and privileges. And king William commanded Carlisle to be fortified with very strong towers and ramparts. Moreover, king William the Conqueror, on his return from Scotland, built a new castle at Durham [Map], to serve as a protection against the irruptions of the Scots.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1071. This year Earl Edwin and Earl Morkar fled out93, and roamed at random in woods and in fields. Then went Earl Morkar to Ely by ship; but Earl Edwin was treacherously slain by his own men. Then came Bishop Aylwine, and Siward Barn, and many hundred men with them, into Ely. When King William (age 43) heard that, then ordered he out a naval force and land force, and beset the land all about, and wrought a bridge, and went in; and the naval force at the same time on the sea-side. And the outlaws then all surrendered; that was, Bishop Aylwine, and Earl Morkar, and all that were with them; except Hereward (age 36)94 alone, and all those that would join him, whom he led out triumphantly. And the king (age 43) took their ships, and weapons, and many treasures;95 and all the men he disposed of as he thought proper. Bishop Aylwine he sent to Abingdon [Map], where he died in the beginning of the winter.

Note 93. i.e.-threw off their allegiance to the Norman usurper, and became voluntary outlaws. The habits of these outlaws, or, at least, of their imitators and descendants in the next century, are well described in the romance of "Ivanhoe"

Note 94. The author of the Gallo-Norman poem printed by Sparke elevates his diction to a higher tone, when describing the feasts of this same Hereward (age 36), whom he calls "le uthlage hardi."

Note 95. Or much "coin"; many "scaettae"; such being the denomination of the silver money of the Saxons.

Revolt of Hereward the Wake

John of Worcester. 1071. Earls Edwin and Morcar escaped secretly from king William's (age 43) court, finding that he intended to arrest them, and they were for some time in arms against him; but seeing that their enterprise was not successful, Edwin resolved to go to Malcolm (age 39), king of the Scots, but, during the journey, he fell into an ambuscade laid by his own people, and was killed. Morcar and Ethelwine, bishop of Durham, Siward, surnamed Barn, and Hereward (age 36), a man of great bravery, with many others, took ship and went to the Isle of Ely [Map], intending to winter there. The king, hearing of this, blocked up every outlet on the eastern side of the island by means of his boatmen, and caused a bridge, two miles long, to be constructed on the western side. When they saw that they were thus shut in, they resisted no longer, and all surrendered themselves to the king, except the brave Hereward (age 36), who escaped through the fens with a few others. The king immediately sent bishop Ethelwine to Abingdon, where he was imprisoned, and died the same winter. The earl and the rest were dispersed in various parts of England, some being placed in confinement, and others set at liberty with the loss of their hands or eyes.

Flowers of History. 1072. Moreover the same year, king William (age 44), supported by the assistance of the English, reduced Normandy, which had rebelled against him, to submit to his authority by force of arms. After that, having established peace everywhere, and arranged everything well, and having received the English with the fulness of his affection, he returned to England.

Accord of Winchester

In 1072 the Accord of Winchester established the primacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury over the Archbishop of York. It was signed by ...

King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 44) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 41).

Archbishop Stigand.

Archbishop Ealdred who signed "I concede" whereas other signatories signed "I subscribe".

Bishop Wulfstan (age 64).

Herfast Bishop Chancellor.

Flowers of History. 1072. Pope Alexander died on the last day of March, and was succeeded by Hildebrand, who took the name of Gregory. The same year, the monks of Saint Ouen [Map] came with a band of armed men, and attacked John, archbishop of Rouen, as he was celebrating mass, on the festival of the above-named saint. On which account it was decided in a council which was assembled in that city, over which William, king of England (age 44), presided, that the monks who were guilty of this crime, should be thrown into prison by the abbot.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1072. This year King William (age 44) led a naval force and a land force to Scotland, and beset that land on the sea-side with ships, whilst he led his land-force in at the Tweed;96 but he found nothing there of any icon. King Malcolm (age 40), however, came, and made peace with King William (age 44), and gave hostages, and became his man; whereupon the king returned home with all his force.

Note 96. Florence of Worcester and those who follow him say that William proceeded as far as Abernethy; where Malcolm (age 40) met him, and surrendered to him.

In 1072 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 44) stripped Gospatric of his Earldom of Northumbria and replaced him with Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1072. This year died Bishop Aylric. He had been invested Bishop of York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough minster [Map]; where he abode twelve years. After that King William (age 44) won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.

John of Worcester. After 15 Aug 1072. After the Assumption of St. Mary [15th August], William (age 44), king of England, attended by Edric the Forester, made an expedition into Scotland with a naval force and an army of cavalry, and reduced it under his own dominion; and Malcolm (age 41), king of Scots, met him at a place called Abernethy, and did him homage. Ethelric, formerly bishop of Durham, died at Westminster, where king William (age 44) had sent him into confinement, on Monday, the ides [the 15th] of October. Walchere, a native of Lorraine, succeeded Ethelwine in the see of Durham.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1073. This year led King William (age 45) an army, English and French, over sea, and won the district of Maine [Map]; which the English very much injured by destroying the vineyards, burning the towns, and spoiling the land. But they subdued it all into the hand of King William (age 45), and afterwards returned home to England.

Flowers of History. 1073. The same year, Canute (age 31), son of Sweyn (age 54), and count Haco, came from Denmark, with a powerful and hostile army, and with two hundred large ships; but their enterprise was frustrated, by the circumspection and prudence of the most invincible king William (age 45).

John of Worcester. 1073. William (age 45), king of England, reduced to subjection the city of Mans [Map], and the province belonging to it, chiefly by the aid of the English whom he had taken over with him. Edgar (age 22) the etheling came from Scotland to Normandy, passing through England; and was reconciled to the king (age 45).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1074. This year King William (age 46) went over sea to Normandy; and child Edgar (age 23) came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's mass-day; where King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister Margaret (age 29) received him with much pomp. At the same time sent Philip, the King of France (age 21), a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would give him the castle of Montreuil [Map]; that he might afterwards daily annoy his enemies. What then? King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister Margaret (age 29) gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures; in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with great pomp from his territory. But in their voyage evil befel them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they also themselves came with difficulty to the land. Their treasure was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the French; but he himself and his best men returned again to Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably mounted. Then King Malcolm (age 42) advised him to send to King William (age 46) over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king gave it him, and sent after him. Again, therefore, King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and again conducted him very magnificently from their territory. The sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king. Then King William (age 46) received him with much pomp; and he was there afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to him by law.

Before 1075 [his son] Richard Normandy (age 21) was killed whilst hunting at New Forest, Hampshire. He was buried at Winchester Cathedral [Map].

Flowers of History. 1075. The same year, on Easter day, the above-named king William (age 47) gave his daughter [his daughter] Cecilia (age 19) to be dedicated to the service of God with devout solemnity in the church at Feschamp. Also king William cursed his son [his son] Robert (age 24), because he had often provoked him to anger, and in the bitterness of his soul he drove him from his sight and presence. And Robert at the end of his life found out undeniably how great was the effect of the paternal malediction, when having become blind, he was exposed to the hatred and persecution of his brothers, and so died miserably in prison.

Revolt of the Earls

In 1075 three Earls joined in rebellion against King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 47). The three Earls were: Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford, Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33) and Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon. The ostensible cause of their rebellion was William's (age 47) the marriage of Emma Fitzosbern Countess East Anglia, daughter of William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford, with Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33). Possibly to do with she being Norman and he being British/English.

Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford forfeit Earl Hereford and was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Flowers of History. 1075. Queen Edith (age 49) died on the fifth of April. The same year, king William (age 47) gave the daughter of William, the son of Osbert, to earl Radolph (age 33), as his wife, and gave him also the government of Norfolk and Suffolk. This Radolph was of British extraction, on his mother's side, and his father was an Englishman. He was born in Norfolk, and there he celebrated his marriage, which was the cause of destruction to many persons. At that wedding there were present earl Roger and earl Waltheof; and many bishops and abbots; and they took counsel how to expel king William (age 47) from his kingdom. And this speedily became known to the king, who was in Normandy, and immediately the king returned to England, and took Waltheof, and Roger, who was his own kinsman, and threw them into prison. As to the rest who were present at the wedding, he deferred his determination.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1075. This year King William (age 47) gave Earl Ralph (age 33) the daughter of William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This same Ralph (age 33) was British on his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was English; and born in Norfolk. The king (age 47) therefore gave his son the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to Norwich [Map]. There was that bride-ale The source of man's bale. There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots; who there resolved, that they would drive the king (age 47) out of the realm of England. But it was soon told the king (age 47) in Normandy how it was determined. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph (age 33) who were the authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. Roger went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to the king's (age 47) annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great disadvantage of himself. He was however prevented. Ralph (age 33) also in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen that were in England and also the people of the land, came against him, and prevented him from doing anything. He escaped however to the ships at Norwich [Map].97 And his wife was in the castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her. The king (age 47) afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his relative, and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof went over sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and proffered gifts of ransom. The king (age 47), however, let him off lightly, until he98 came to England; when he had him seized. Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst not maintain a fight with King William (age 47). They went rather to York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much treasure, and so went away. They made for Flanders over sea; but they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him. This year died the Lady Edgitha (age 49), who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king (age 47) caused her to be brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King Edward, her lord. And the king (age 47) was then at Westminster, at midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the bride-ale at Norwich. Some were punished with blindness; some were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia. So were the traitors of King William (age 47) subdued.

Note 97. Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to Flor. S. Dunelm, etc.; but according to Henry of Huntingdon he fled directly to Denmark, returning afterwards with Cnute and Hacco, who invaded England With a fleet of 200 sail.

Note 98. i.e. Earl Waltheof.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1076. This year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, Hampshire [Map], on the mass-day of St. Petronilla;99 and his body was carried to Croyland [Map], where he lies buried. King William (age 48) now went over sea, and led his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the Bretons defended it, until the king (age 23) came from France; whereupon William (age 48) departed thence, having lost there both men and horses, and many of his treasures.

Note 99. This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv. Yet if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it must be Petronilla.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1076. This year died Sweyne, King of Denmark (age 57); and Harold (age 36) his son took to the kingdom. And the king (age 48) gave the abbacy of Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who had been Abbot of Bernay.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1077. This year were reconciled the king (age 24) of the Franks and William, King of England (age 49).

Flowers of History. 1078. A violent quarrel arose between pope Gregory and the emperor Henry. At last the emperor was excommunicated1. After that, he ravaged the province of Swabia. King William (age 50) held his court at Gloucester, Gloucestershire [Map], and conferred bishoprics on those of his chaplains, giving the diocese of London to Maurice, of Norwich to William, and of Chichester to Robert. The same year, Guiscard, tiie noble dake of Apolia, died, and was succeeded by his two sons, Roger and Beaumont. This year also, a naval war of deadly animosity broke out between the states of Venice and Baris, for the sake of the body of Saint Nicholas. The same year, count William de Warenne, who had come into England with William the Bastard (age 50), founded the abbey of Saint Pancras of Lewes [Map].

Note 1. This was the origin of the wars between the Guelfs and Ghibelins.

1079 William The Conqueror Battle with his son Robert Curthose

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1079. This year [his son] Robert (age 28), the son of King William (age 51), deserted from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders (age 46); because his father (age 51) would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he himself, and also King Philip (age 26) with his permission, had given him. The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord. This year, therefore, Robert (age 28) fought with his father (age 51), without Normandy, by a castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that brought him another was killed there right with a dart. That was Tookie Wiggodson. Many were there slain, and also taken. His son [his son] William (age 23) too was there wounded; but Robert (age 37) returned to Flanders. We will not here, however, record any more injury that he did his father (age 51).

Flowers of History. 1080. This year also, king William (age 52) led a powerful army into Wales, and subjugated it; and received homage and hostages for their fidelity from the petty kings of the viscounty. The same year, Antioch was taken by the pagans, together with the adjacent province, which had been a Christian land ever since the time of Saint Peter, without any disturbances. The same year, Malcolm, king of Scotland (age 48), became furious a second time after the Assumption of the blessed Virgin Mary, and ravaged the whole of Northumberland, as far as the river Tyne. But when he heard of this, the king of England (age 52) sent his son [his son] Robert (age 29) with an army into Scotland, who returned without having succeeded in his objects, and built a new castle [Map] in the river Tyne, and then returned to his father. The same year also, the king sent his brother [his half-brother] Odo, bishop of Bayeux, with a large army, to lay waste Northumberland, the people of which district had risen in insurrection against the king, and had murdered Walcher, bishop of Durham, a man of exemplary character, at Gateshead.

In 1080 [his son-in-law] Stephen Blois II Count Blois and Chartres (age 35) and [his daughter] Adela Normandy Countess Blois (age 13) were married at Chartres [Map]. She by marriage Countess Blois. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 52) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 49). He the son of Theobald Blois III Count Blois (age 68) and Gersenda Maine Countess Blois. They were third cousins.

Flowers of History. 1080. Pope Hildebraud, who is also called Gregory, predicted, as if he had been informed of it by divine revelation, that a false king would die this year. His prediction, indeed, was true; but he was deceived in his opinion and conjecture as to who the false king was, for he interpreted the phrophecy according to his own wish, as if it concerned the emperor Henry. But the emperor fought a sever battle, in which he slew the false king of Saxony, whose name was Radulf, with many princes of Saxony. That same year, the town of Newcastle upon Tyne [Map] was founded by King William (age 52).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1081. This year the king (age 53) led an army into Wales, and there freed many hundreds of men.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1082. This year the king (age 54) seized [his half-brother] Bishop Odo; and this year also was a great famine.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1083. And in the same year also, after mid-winter, the king (age 55) ordained a large and heavy contribution105 over all England; that was, upon each hide of land, two and seventy pence.

Note 105. "Gild," Sax.; which in this instance was a land-tax of one shilling to a yardland.

1085 Domesday Book

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1085. In this year men reported, and of a truth asserted, that Cnute, King of Denmark (age 43), son of King Sweyne, was coming hitherward, and was resolved to win this land, with the assistance of Robert, Earl of Flanders (age 52);106 for Cnute (age 43) had Robert's (age 52) daughter (age 21). When William, King of England (age 57), who was then resident in Normandy [Map] (for he had both England and Normandy), understood this, he went into England with so large an army of horse and foot, from France and Brittany, as never before sought this land; so that men wondered how this land could feed all that force. But the king (age 57) left the army to shift for themselves through all this land amongst his subjects, who fed them, each according to his quota of land. Men suffered much distress this year; and the king (age 57) caused the land to be laid waste about the sea coast; that, if his foes came up, they might not have anything on which they could very readily seize. But when the king (age 57) understood of a truth that his foes were impeded, and could not further their expedition107, then let he some of the army go to their own land; but some he held in this land over the winter. Then, at the midwinter, was the king (age 57) in Glocester [Map] with his council, and held there his court five days. And afterwards the archbishop and clergy had a synod three days. There was Mauritius chosen Bishop of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert of Cheshire. These were all the king's (age 57) clerks. After this had the king (age 57) a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king (age 57) himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire." Also he commissioned them to record in writing, "How much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his abbots, and his earls;" and though I may be prolix and tedious, "What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it were worth." So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard108 of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ. And all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him.109

Note 106. and of Clave Kyrre, King of Norway. Vid. "Antiq. Celto-Scand".

Note 107. Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet; which was carried to such a height, that the king, after his return to Denmark, was slain by his own subjects. Vid. "Antiq. Celto-Scand", also our "Chronicle" A.D. 1087.

Note 108. i.e. a fourth part of an acre.

Note 109. At Winchester; where the king held his court at Easter in the following year; and the survey was accordingly deposited there; whence it was called "Rotulus Wintoniae", and "Liber Wintoniae".

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1086. This year the king (age 58) bare his crown, and held his court, in Winchester, Hampshire [Map] at Easter; and he so arranged, that he was by the Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son [his son] Henry (age 18) a knight there. Afterwards he moved about so that he came by Lammas to Sarum [Map]; where he was met by his councillors; and all the landsmen that were of any account over all England became this man's vassals as they were; and they all bowed themselves before him, and became his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that they would against all other men be faithful to him. Thence he proceeded into the Isle of Wight [Map]; because he wished to go into Normandy, and so he afterwards did; though he first did according to his custom; he collected a very large sum from his people, wherever he could make any demand, whether with justice or otherwise.

In 1086 [his daughter] Matilda Normandy (age 25) died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1086. Then he went into Normandy; and Edgar Etheling (age 35), the relation of King Edward, revolted from him, for he received not much honour from him; but may the Almighty God give him honour hereafter. And Christina (age 29), the sister of the etheling (age 35), went into the monastery of Rumsey [Map], and received the holy veil.

King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, King William (age 59) went from Normandy [Map] into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king (age 34), and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus done, King William (age 59) returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster [Map], which he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king (age 59), and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called [his son] Robert (age 36), who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called [his son] William (age 31), who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called [his son] Henry (age 19), to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William (age 59) then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England. This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession-he that would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison. At length he spared not his own brother [his half-brother] Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king (age 59). He had an earldom in England; and when the king (age 59) was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.110 The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king (age 59) himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's (age 59) will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Sep 1087. In this land also, in the same year, died many rich men; Stigand, Bishop of Chichester, and the Abbot of St. Augustine, and the Abbot of Bath, and the Abbot of Pershore, and the lord of them all, William, King of England (age 59), that we spoke of before. After his death his son, called [his son] William (age 31) also as the father, took to the kingdom, and was blessed to king (age 31) by Archbishop Landfranc (age 82) at Westminster three days ere Michaelmas day. And all the men in England submitted to him, and swore oaths to him. This being thus done, the king (age 31) went to Winchester, and opened the treasure house, and the treasures that his father had gathered, in gold, and in silver, and in vases, and in palls, and in gems, and in many other valuable things that are difficult to enumerate. Then the king (age 31) did as his father bade him ere he was dead; he there distributed treasures for his father's soul to each monastery that was in England; to some ten marks of gold, to some six, to each upland111 church sixty pence. And into each shire were sent a hundred pounds of money to distribute amongst poor men for his soul. And ere he departed, he bade that they should release all the men that were in prison under his power. And the king (age 31) was on the midwinter in London.

Note 110. An evident allusion to the compilation of Doomsday book, already described in A.D. 1085.

Note 111. Uppe-land, Sax.—i.e. village-church.

On 09 Sep 1087 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 59) died at the Priory of St Gervaise, Rouen. He was buried at Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen, Calvados, Basse Normandie at a ceremony presided over by Gilbert Arques Bishop Evreux. [his son] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 19) attended. His son [his son] William "Rufus" II King England (age 31) succeeded II King England. His son [his son] Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 36) succeeded III Duke Normandy.

In 1087 [his son-in-law] Alan Canhiart IV Duke Brittany (age 24) and [his daughter] Constance Normandy Duchess Brittany (age 30) were married. She by marriage Duchess Brittany. She the daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 59) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England. They were third cousins.

1087 Burning of St Paul's

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. After the birth of our Lord and Saviour Christ, one thousand and eighty-seven winters; in the one and twentieth year after William (age 59) began to govern and direct England, as God granted him, was a very heavy and pestilent season in this land. Such a sickness came on men, that full nigh every other man was in the worst disorder, that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so dreadfully, that many men died in the disorder. Afterwards came, through the badness of the weather as we before mentioned, so great a famine over all England, that many hundreds of men died a miserable death through hunger. Alas! how wretched and how rueful a time was there! When the poor wretches lay full nigh driven to death prematurely, and afterwards came sharp hunger, and dispatched them withall! Who will not be penetrated with grief at such a season? or who is so hardhearted as not to weep at such misfortune? Yet such things happen for folks' sins, that they will not love God and righteousness. So it was in those days, that little righteousness was in this land with any men but with the monks alone, wherever they fared well. The king (age 59) and the head men loved much, and overmuch, covetousness in gold and in silver; and recked not how sinfully it was got, provided it came to them. The king (age 59) let his land at as high a rate as he possibly could; then came some other person, and bade more than the former one gave, and the king (age 59) let it to the men that bade him more. Then came the third, and bade yet more; and the king (age 59) let it to hand to the men that bade him most of all: and he recked not how very sinfully the stewards got it of wretched men, nor how many unlawful deeds they did; but the more men spake about right law, the more unlawfully they acted. They erected unjust tolls, and many other unjust things they did, that are difficult to reckon. Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St. Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of the whole city. So also, about the same time, full nigh each head-port in all England was entirely burned. Alas! rueful and woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many misfortunes.

In Jul 1087 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 59) injured at Mantes.

Treaty of Alton

After 25 Jul 1101 [his son] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 33) and [his son] Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 50), brothers, both sons of King William "Conqueror" I of England, signed the Treaty of Alton at Alton, Hampshire by which Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 50) agreed to renounce his claim to the English throne in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions.

Death of King Henry I

On 01 Dec 1135 [his son] King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 67) died. The succession fell between Henrys daughter Empress Matilda (age 33) and Henry's nephew King Stephen I England (age 41), son of [his daughter] Adela Normandy Countess Blois (age 68) daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England. The period from 1135 to 1153 during which the succession was fought over is known as The Anarchy.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Then on midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ, and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head, that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best did, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless he laid very heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy, taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar, and Waltheof, and many other good men of England. [his half-brother] Bishop Odo and Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever since has evil increased very much. May the end be good, when God will! In that same expedition92 was Leofric, Abbot of Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon after, on the night of Allhallow-mass. God honour his soul! In his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough. He was beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and that of Thorney. He did so much good to the minster of Peterborough [Map], in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land, as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him. But now was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough. The monks then chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man, and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling received him gladly. When King William heard say that, he was very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was a good man. He gave the king forty marks of gold for his reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after-only three years. Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to the minster. God have mercy on it!

Note 92. i.e. in the expedition against the usurper William.

[his daughter] Adeliza Normandy was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England.

King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Rollo Normandy Duke Normandy 846-930

Royal Ancestors of King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

Kings England: Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Kings Franks: Great x 9 Grand Son of Charles "Charlemagne aka Great" King Franks King Lombardy Holy Roman Emperor

Royal Descendants of King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

Agnes La Marck Queen Consort Navarre x 9

Isabella Burgundy Queen Consort Germany x 1

William "Rufus" II King England x 1

King Henry I "Beauclerc" England x 1

King Philip II of France x 1

Theobald IV King Navarre x 1

Matilda Dammartin Queen Consort Portugal x 1

Blanche Capet Queen Navarre x 1

Constance Hohenstaufen Queen Consort Aragon x 1

Maria Reginar Queen Consort France x 2

Henry Luxemburg VII Holy Roman Emperor x 2

Margaret of Burgundy Queen Consort France x 1

Joan of Burgundy Queen Consort France x 2

Joan "Lame" Burgundy Queen Consort France x 1

Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France x 2

Philip "Noble" III King Navarre x 1

Joan Évreux Queen Consort France x 1

Margaret Hainault Holy Roman Empress x 3

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England x 3

Blanche Valois Holy Roman Empress Luxemburg x 2

Blanche Dampierre Queen Consort Norway and Sweden x 3

Joan Auvergne Queen Consort France x 1

Joanna Bourbon Queen Consort France x 6

Blanche Bourbon Queen Consort Castile x 6

Yolande of Bar Queen Consort Aragon x 4

King Louis of Naples x 5

King Henry V of England x 1

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark x 1

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford x 6

Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England x 5

Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland x 9

Charlotte Savoy Queen Consort France x 6

King Edward IV of England x 2

King Richard III of England x 2

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 3

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 2

Christina Queen Consort Denmark Norway and Sweden x 1

Louis XII King France x 9

Jean III King Navarre x 5

Bianca Maria Sforza Holy Roman Empress x 6

Anne of Brittany Queen Consort France x 2

Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile x 18

Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon x 9

Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre x 18

King Francis I of France x 18

Queen Anne Boleyn of England x 3

Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress x 5

Queen Jane Seymour x 2

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 4

Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England x 16

Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland x 52

Antoine King Navarre x 33

Queen Catherine Howard of England x 2

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 5

Louis VI Elector Palatine x 9

Louise Lorraine Queen Consort France x 37

Maximilian "The Great" Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria I Elector Bavaria x 50

Maria Anna Wittelsbach Holy Roman Empress x 50

Electress Louise Juliana of the Palatine Rhine x 12

Ferdinand of Spain II Holy Roman Emperor x 12

Margaret of Austria Queen Consort Spain x 12

Anna of Austria Holy Roman Empress x 1

Eleonora Gonzaga Queen Consort Bohemia x 13

Maria Leopoldine Habsburg Spain Queen Consort Bohemia x 12

Marie Françoise Élisabeth of Savoy Queen Consort of Portugal x 65

Victor Amadeus King Sardinia x 76

Maria Anna Neuburg Queen Consort Spain x 16

Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor x 16

Charles Habsburg Spain VI Holy Roman Emperor x 16

Francis I Holy Roman Emperor x 38

Elisabeth Therese Lorraine Queen Consort Sardinia x 38

President George Washington x 3

King George III of Great Britain and Ireland x 18

Caroline Matilda Hanover Queen Consort Denmark and Norway x 18

Caroline of Brunswick Queen Consort England x 18

King Christian I of Norway and VIII of Denmark x 36

Caroline Amalie Oldenburg Queen Norway x 2

Frederick VII King Denmark x 54

Queen Louise Hesse-Kassel of Denmark x 36

King Christian IX of Denmark x 3

Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom x 36

Queen Sophia of Sweden and Norway x 19

Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia x 108

King Edward VII of the United Kingdom x 108

Frederick Charles I King Finland x 36

Constantine I King Greece x 1

Alexandrine Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark x 55

Victoria Eugénie Mountbatten Queen Consort Spain x 108

Louise Mountbatten Queen Consort Sweden x 108

Ingrid Bernadotte Queen Consort Denmark x 108

Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh x 109

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 466

Sophia Glücksburg Queen Consort Spain x 2

Constantine II King Hellenes x 2

Carl XVI King Sweden x 221

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 159

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1449

Catherine Middleton Princess of Wales x 4

Ancestors of King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

King William "Conqueror" I of England -2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

GrandFather: Father of Beatrix and Herleva

Mother: Herleva Falaise